Finnish, Tornedalen


A language of Sweden

Alternate Names
Meänkieli, North Finnish, Torne Valley Finnish, Tornedalsfinska

30,000 in Sweden (Parkvall 2009). Population total all countries: 60,000. L2 users: Many Saami speak as L2.


Norrbotten county: Gällivare, Kiruna, Pajala, Övertorneå, and Haparanda municipalities.

Language Status

5 (Developing). Statutory provincial language in administrative area municipalities: Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala, Övertoneå (2009, NMNML Act No. 724, Art, 6).


Gällivare Finnish, Torne Valley Finnish, Vittangi Finnish. Finnish [fin] not totally intelligible to speakers, especially abstract and complex discourse.


SVO; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial.

Language Use

Mainly older adults. Positive attitudes. Also use Finnish [fin], Swedish [swe].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 20%–30%. Magazines. Grammar. Bible portions: 1993–1995.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Some speakers refer to it as Finnish. Influences from Swedish [swe]. Finnish speakers settled here 12th century. Christian.

Also spoken in:

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