Hindko, Northern


A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Hazara Hindko, Hindki, Kagani, Kaghani

1,880,000 (1981 census), increasing. Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,000,000 (1993).


North-West Frontier Province, Hazara division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts; Azad Kashmir Province, Muzaffarabad district, and Islamabad; Indus and Kaghan valleys and Indus valley tributaries.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Abbottabad Hindko, Galiyat Hindko, Haripur Hindko, Mansehra Hindko (Muko-Tuko), Tanoli Hindko. Also related to Punjabi [pnb], Saraiki [skr], and Pahari-Potwari [phr]; which have all been called Greater Punjabi, forming part of Lahnda [lah]. Lexical similaritiy: 82%–92% with Northern Hindko dialects, 67%–82% with Northern and Southern Hindko [hnd] varieties. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah].

Language Use

All domains, except education. All ages. Very positive attitudes. The educated also use Urdu [urd] with varied proficiency. Also use Pashto, Western Punjabi [pnb] with low proficiency. Used as L2 by Kundal Shahi [shd].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: Below 20%. Pilot multilingual education program in development. Poetry. Newspapers. New media. Radio programs. Films. TV. Videos.

Arabic script [Arab].

Other Comments

Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).