A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar

42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 42,610. 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census).


Khakasiya Republic: north of Altai mountains; Krasnoyarskiy Kray, north; Kemerovskaya Oblast’; scattered throughout Russia.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Khakassia Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)).


Beltir, Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Kamass (Kamassian), Koibal (Xoibal), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Shor. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007).

Language Use

Struggle to maintain culture and language. In some rural areas children learn it, but in cities Russian [rus] is typically the only language (Salminen 2007). Home, community. All ages. Positive attitudes. In urban areas marked interest in Khakas language revival. Rural speakers want their children to learn the national language for economic advancement. Also use Russian [rus] at work, school, public transport, government, and most written communication.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 50% (2007 SIL). Literacy rate in L2: 95% in Russian. Khakas books often self-published and difficult to obtain. Taught in primary schools as medium in a few schools, as subject in about 100 schools. Taught in secondary schools as a subject in selected schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2009.

Cyrillic script [Cyrl].

Other Comments

Fewer young people speak Khakas than previous generations, but more children study it in school than 20 years ago. Traditional religion, Christian (Orthodox).

Also spoken in:

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