A language of Paraguay

Alternate Names
Enimaca, Enimaga, Maca, Macá, Maká, Mak’á, Towolhi

1,500 (2000 A. Chemhey). 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000).


Paraguai river, northeast of Asuncion; Central Department, Comunidad Maka (Corumba Kue); Presidente Hayes Department, Villa Hayes and Kenkukek; Cordillera and San Pedro departments; possibly in Itapua Department, Ita Paso; Alto Parana Department, Micro Centro.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).

Language Use

Vigorous. Older adults and preschool children monolingual. Home, village, church. All ages. Very positive attitudes. Language and identity closely linked. Strong cultural cohesion. Men are more proficient in Spanish [spa] than women.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 30%–50%. Literacy rate in L2: 40% in Spanish. Taught in primary schools. NT: 2013.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments