Manobo, Agusan


A language of Philippines

Alternate Names

60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,000 all Manobo (1990 census).


Mindanao, Agusan del Sur Province, western area, southeast of Lake Buluan; inland areas, Surigao del Sur Province; southwest of Lanuza peninsula to Lianga bay; Agusan del Norte Province, western area; Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces, continuous strip along northern borders; Surigao del Norte Province, southern tip, inland; scattered small border areas, Bukidnon and Davao Oriental provinces.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).


Adgawan, Omayamnon, Surigao, Umayam. 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon [mbd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Omayamnon dialect and other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd].


VSO; prepositions; genitives after noun heads; articles before noun heads, adjectives, numerals before and after noun heads; relatives after noun heads or without noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position, final as tag; maximum number of affixes: 4 prefixes, 1 suffix; word order distinguishes subject, object and direct objects, when noun marker is the same; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrase; verb affixes sometimes mark number; passives; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC; nontonal.

Language Use

Used as L2 by Rajah Kabunsuwan Manobo [mqk].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 54%. Literacy rate in L2: 55%–60%. Dictionary. NT: 1999–2001.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Ethnic autonym: Manobo. Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.