A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Brokpa, Shinaki, Sina

337,000 in Pakistan (1998 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 371,400.


Northern Areas, Gilgit, Diamer, and Baltistan districts, scattered villages in Yasin and Ishkoman valleys, Punial, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley, Chilas area, Darel and Tangir valleys, Astor Valley, Satpara, Kharmang, Kachura, and other small valleys; North-West Frontier, east Kohistan district, Sazin, Harban; Azad Kashmir, east Neelum district.

Language Status

6a (Vigorous).


Astori (Astor, Dras, Gurezi, Kharmangi, Satpara), Chilasi Kohistani (Chilas, Darel, Harban, Sazin, Tangir), Gilgiti (Bagrote, Bunji, Gilgit, Haramosh, Hunza-Nagar, Punial, Rondu). Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% within Gilgiti (Northern) dialect subgroup, 81%–96% with Astori (Eastern) subgroup, 84%–98% with Chilas (Diamer) subgroup.

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Urdu [urd]. Used as L2 by Balti [bft], Domaaki [dmk], Khowar [khw].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 0%. Bible portions: 1929.

Arabic script [Arab].

Other Comments

Ethnonym: Brokpa in Baltistan and Ladakh. Glossonym: Brokskat, name also used semiofficially in India to refer to a highly divergent variety of Shina spoken by Buddhists. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

Also spoken in:

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