Subanen, Northern


A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Tuboy Subanon

85,400 (2010 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 85,400.


Mindanao, Zamboanga del Norte Province, Sergio Osmeña and Mutia municipalities; inland from Dipolog and Dapitan cities; Misamis Occidental Province, Northern Subanen: Jose Dalman (Linasan), Katipunan, La Libertad, Manukan (Linay and Pangandaw), Pinan, Polanco, President Manuel Roxas, Rizal (Disoy) Siayan (Dumugok), and Sibutad.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).


Dapitan, Dikayu, Miatan, Piyau, Salog (Salug). 63% intelligibility of Central Subanen [syb], 40% of Southern Subanen [laa]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Central Subanen [syb].

Language Use

Home, church, community, group discussion. All ages. Positive attitudes. 86% also use Cebuano [ceb]. Acquired through community, school, travel, and some homes and churches. Used by Cebuanos who are married to Subanens.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 86%. Literacy rate in L2: 86%. Few local grade schools. Poetry. Grammar. NT: 2011.

Latin script [Latn], used since 1991.

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.