A language of Indonesia


27,700 (2000).


Maluku Utara Province, Tubelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts, North Halmahera; Maba and Wasile districts, Central Halmahera. Halmahera island, west coast, contiguous area surrounding Kao bay, inland. Morotai island, east coast central. Communities on Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, and Raja Ampat islands. Papua Province, Sorong area.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Boëng, Dodinga, Tobelo (Heleworuru).

Language Use

Positive attitudes. Also use Indonesian [ind], North Moluccan Malay [max]. Used as L2 by Sawai [szw].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 2002.
Other Comments

Taught in middle school in Tobelo town. Traditional religion, Christian.