A language of Bhutan

Alternate Names
Menba, Monpa, Sangla, Sarchapkkha, Shachobiikha, Shachopkha, Sharchagpakha, Sharchhop-kha, Tsangla, Tshalingpa

140,000 in Bhutan (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 158,200.


East and southeast Bhutan, mainly Trashigang and Samdrup Jongkhar districts; into eastern Mongar district, eastern half of Pemagatshel district, and to the southern portion of Trashiyangtse district.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in eastern and southeastern Bhutan.


None known. Standard variety in Tashigang. Tshangla is nearly identical to that of eastern Bhutan, except for the loss of initial voicing and tonogenesis in Tibet. Differs from Tawan Monba [twm] in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar, and Tawan Monba and Tshangla are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40%–50% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 41%–48% with Dzongkha [dzo].


SOV; numbers and adjectives follow noun head; singular-dual-plural personal pronouns; nontonal.

Language Use

Also use Dzongkha [dzo]. Used as L2 by Khengkha [xkf].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 47% (2003 SIL). Literacy rate in L2: Below 1%. Radio programs. Grammar. Bible portions: 2000.

Tibetan script [Tibt], Uchen style, used in India.

Other Comments

Ethnonym: Schachop (sg.), Sharchhokpa (pl.) in Dzongkha. Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of Assam, India. May also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. Buddhist.

Also spoken in:

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