A language of Indonesia


2,590 (2000).


Maluku Utara Province, Tobelo, Kao, Wasile, and Maba districts, Miaf, Bebseli, and Marasibno villages; North Halmahera island, inland around Kusuri, inland in Tobelo district, Taboulamo area in Kao district, the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Wasilei district, Dodaga, Tutuling, Akelamo, and Mabulan rivers in Maba district. A few on Lili, Waisango, and Afu rivers.

Language Status

6a (Vigorous).


Kusuri, Teluk Lili. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo [tlb] variety.

Language Use

Positive attitudes. Also use Indonesian [ind].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 5%–15%.
Other Comments

Forest people who have contact with village people when selling copra and purchasing supplies. Traditional religion, Christian.