A language of India

Alternate Names
Colh, Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari

1,110,000 in India (2001 census). 1,060,000 Mundari, 47,400 Bhumij. Population total all countries: 1,120,280.


Jharkhand, south and west Ranchi district; Odisha; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal; Himachal Pradesh; Assam; Tripura; Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Bhumij (Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar, Sadar Bhumij), Hasada’, Kera’, Latar, Naguri. 75% intelligibility of Ho [hoc]. Lexical similarity: 70%–84% with the Bhumij dialect.

Language Use

Used as L2 by Birhor [biy], Mahali [mjx].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1910–2002.

Bengali script [Beng]. Devanagari script [Deva]. Latin script [Latn]. Oriya script [Orya].

Other Comments

A Scheduled Tribe. There is Bhumij literature. Traditional religion, Hindu.

Also spoken in:

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