21st Edition



A language of India

Alternate Names
Modern Standard Hindi
मानक हिन्दी‎ (Mānak Hindī), हिन्दी‎ (Hindī)

531,000,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 258,000,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 273,000,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 534,271,550 (as L1: 260,004,650; as L2: 274,266,900).


Widespread in north India: northern Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand states; Delhi.

Language Maps
Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1950, Constitution, Article 343), also statutory provincial language in Bihar State and 12 other jurisdictions.


Khari Boli (Dehlavi, Kauravi, Khadi Boli, Khari, Khariboli, Vernacular Hindustani). Formal vocabulary borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has 4 varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, standard Hindi); Urdu [urd]; Dakhini; Rekhta. Hindustani, though not listed separately in India, refers here to the unofficial lingua franca of northwest India. Has a lexical mixture in varying proportions of Hindi (vocabulary derived from Sanskrit) and Urdu (vocabulary derived from Persian or Arabic).


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; clause constituents partially indicated by case-marking (direct, oblique), postpositions, and word order; verbal affixation marks person, number, gender, and honorificity of subject; split ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; causatives; non-tonal; 30 consonants, 10 vowels, 2 diphthongs; stress linked to syllable weight.

Language Development
Fully developed. Bible: 1818–2000.

Braille script [Brai]. Devanagari script [Deva], primary usage. Newa script [Newa], no longer in use, historic usage.

Other Comments

Hindi, Hindustani, Urdu could be considered co-dialects, but have important sociolinguistic differences. Hindu.

Also spoken in:

Expand All
Collapse All
Page Views Left: