The compilation of a body of information as large as the Ethnologue requires the cooperation and participation of hundreds of contributors. The data in this edition are the contributions of researchers, language fieldworkers, and native speakers of the languages who have freely given their time and expertise to improve the accuracy and quality of the Ethnologue. Lamentably, space does not permit a listing of every correspondent who has communicated with us since the sixteenth edition was released in 2009. Moreover, the list of contributors over the nearly six decades of Ethnologue publication defies documentation.
Gary Simons, as Executive Editor, has provided vision, guidance, and most importantly, coordination and technical assistance for the task of bringing this edition into existence. Paul Lewis, as General Editor, provides overall direction for the research and data gathering activities of the Ethnologue. Charles Fennig, Managing Editor, has supervised the data entry process, tracked changes, dealt with thousands of electronic and hard copy communications, and has been a thoughtful and patient collaborator in the production of this edition. The Research Editors, Colleen Ahland, Michael Ahland, Stan Anonby, Ted Bergman, Albert Bickford, Ken Decker, William Hall, Mark Karan, Lorna Priest, Stuart Showalter, and Jürg Stalder, have provided valuable advice and assistance. Denise Hovland has patiently and diligently entered volumes of data. We have also benefited from the research and editorial assistance provided by Robert Johnson. Louise Hunt served as a summer intern and made an invaluable contribution in a number of ways. Linda Simons has assisted us as the Ethnologue Bibliographer. The Editor Emerita, Barbara F. Grimes, provided assistance whenever asked. She will be missed.
Significant reviews of portions of the language family classifications have taken place since the last edition under the general supervision of Colleen and Michael Ahland. Research on the classifications of the languages of the Americas was carried out by Chris Fiorello. John Duerksen provided advice and guidance in updating the Bantu classifications. The entire genetic classification for Tibeto-Burman languages (representing roughly 450 languages) was also thoroughly reviewed and updated. The current classification is a modification of Bradley (1997; 2002). The work on the classification was done by Ken Manson, Christopher P. Wilde, and Erik Andvik. Feedback on various aspects of the reclassification was provided by the Senior Management Committee of the Linguistic Survey of Nepal (LINSUN), made up of Chura Mani Bhandu, Madhav Pokharel, Dan Raj Regmi, Yogendra P. Yadava, with additional contributions and comments from David Bradley, Andrea Csépe, George van Driem, John W. Eppele, Jana Fortier, Warren Glover, Austin Hale, Ken Hugoniot, Karen Grunow-Hårsta, Tej R. Kansakar, Mari-Sisko Khadgi, Brian Migliazza, Novel Kishore Rai, Lal-Shyãkarelu Rapacha, Anju Saxena, Sueyoshi Toba, and Claus Peter Zoller. Karl Anderbeck, David Mead, and Charles E. Grimes have assisted us in reviewing and updating the Austronesian language classifications. We regret that additional revisions and updates were not processed in time for inclusion in this edition.
Intensive data reviews were carried out in a few countries in an effort to improve the quality and timeliness of the data. We are grateful for the enthusiastic participation of both local and expatriate scholars and representatives of many of the speech communities in these events.
For the Brazil review: Sandra Anonby, Stan Anonby, Ronaldo Lindorio, Cassiano Luz, and Márcio Schmidel.
For the Latin America review: Sandra Anonby, Stan Anonby, Luís Alberto Calderón, Víctor A. Gómez, Wilson Largo Morales, Mariela Del Pozzi, Carolina Súarez, John Williams.
For the Nepal review: a large number of linguists from the Central Department of Linguistics at Tribhuvan University and from the Linguistic Society of Nepal, with technical and logistical assistance from the staff of the Nepali National Languages Preservation Institute (NNLPI), along with many others met multiple times to engage in the largest and most comprehensive data review carried out by the Ethnologue to date. Coordinated by John Eppele, Prof. Dan Raj Regmi, and Prof. Yogendra Yadava, participants both on site and via correspondence included: Brataraj Acharya, Bikram Angdembe, Tej Man Angdembe, Chura Mani Bandhu, Cathy Bartram, Nirajan Rai Batas, Bhabendra Bhandari, Chura Mani Bandhu, Tapasi Bhattacharya, Toya Nath Bhattarai, Shangbu Bhote, Balthasar Bickel, Edward Boehm, Dörte Borchers, Ross Caughley, Krishna Prasad Chalise, Gobinda Chantyal, Balman Chhantyal, Indrajit Chhantyal, Kwang-Ju Cho, R. D. Chataut, Prem Chaulagain, Andrea Csépe, Dankaji, Rabinddra Prasad Das, Dubi Nanda Dhakal, Marius Doornenbal, Karen Ebert, Stephanie Eichentopf, John Eppele, Jana Fortier, Martin Gaenszle, Tej P. Gauchan, Bhim Lal Gautam, Narayan Prasad Gautam, Narayan Sharma Gautam, Carol Genetti, Warren Glover, D. Gnanasekaran, Kent Gordon, David Greninger, Christy Grimes, Karen Grunow Harsta, Anna Maria Hari, Matthew Hedlin, Kristine Hildebrandt, Benamin Hilty, Holly Hilty, Hope Hurlbut, René Baptist Huysmans, Hyung-Joon Jung, Tej R. Kansakar, Mari-Sisko Khadgi, Karnakhar Khatiwala, Ramesh Khatri, Bhim Kissan, Kevin Kopp, Bhim Lal, Bipi Lawati, Maureen Lee, Ching Chippa Lhomi, Shobha K. Mahato, Anita Malbaum, Jessi Mitchell, Kedar Bilash Nagila, Til Bikram Nembang, Jean Robert Opgenort, Laxmi Raj Pandit, Krishna Paudel, Krishna Prasad Parajuli, Lekhnath S. Pathak, Vishna Nath Pathak, Krishna Prasad Paudyal, Madhav P. Pokharel, Margaret Potter, Kamal Poudel, Kedar Prasad Poudel, Krishna Poudel, Jyoti Pradhan, Balaram Prasain, Netra Mani Dumi Rai, Jeewan Khaling Rai, Yona Khaling Rai, Novel Kishore Rai, Ichchha Puma Rai, S. K. Rai, Purna Bahadur Rana, Lal-Shyakarelu Rapacha, Kavita Rastogi, Ambika Regmi, Danraj Regmi, Johan Reinhard, Roland Rutgers, Missy Ryan, Dankaji Sampang, Sulochana Sapkota, Suren Sapkota, Diana Schackow, Narayan Sharma, Sekhar Sheeba, Reema Shresta, Dwarika Shrestha, Vishwambhar Nath Shukla, Esther Strahm, K. Subba, Ajitman Tamang, Gopal Thakur, Indresh Thakur, Sueyoshi Toba, G. J. Tolsma, Vikram Mani Tripathi, Dipak Tuladhar, Nirmal Man Tuladhar, Govinda Bahadur Tumbahang, Mark Turin, Ram Kishun Uranw, Bryan Varenkamp, Olavi Vesalainen, Daniel Watters, Stephen Watters, Jeff Webster, Christopher Wilde, Curtis Wong, Kerry Woods, Dev Narayan Yadav, Yogendra Yadava, and Amrit Yonjan-Tamang.
For the Philippines review: William Hall and Sue McQuay coordinated the efforts of Erica Arcenas, Mel Awid, Emy Ballenas, Dietlinde Behrens, Keith Benn, Loren Billings, Ruth Biral-Schroeder, Scott Burton, Marie Caluza, Bel Caress, Tim Castagna, Albert Castelijn, Richard Elkins, Ross Errington, Doug Fraiser, JoAnn Gault, Ryn Jean Fe Gonzales, Jacqueline Huggins, Marc Jacobson, Daniel Kaufman, Vera Khor, Lani Leano-Mallorca, Jason Lobel, Helen Madrid, Curtis McFarland, Alfred Mijares, Raquel Mijares, Ricardo Nolasco, Kemp Pallesen, Carol Pebley, Andy Peña, Laurie Reid, Mary Rhea, Carl Rubino, Brenda Scheller, Don Scheller, Donna Schumacher, Ron Schumacher, Craig Soderberg, Glenn Stallsmith, Roger Stone, Kermit Titrud, Torine Tolentino, Ena Vander Molen, Chari S. Viloria, Chuck Walton, Sally Winter, Hazel Wrigglesworth, Ritsuko Yamami, Catherine Young, and others.
In addition to these more focused and intensive reviews, the updated data reported in this edition reflect the cooperation and communications over the last five years from hundreds of researchers in the field in SIL and other organizations, but especially the following who participated by reviewing, correcting, and updating data: Joshua Ahn, Sang-Hyuk Ahn, Silvia Allen, Sean Allison, Daniel Anade, Karl Anderbeck, Mike Anderson, Lisa Andrews, Erik Anonby, Stan Anonby, Erika Arcenas, Hilkka Arminen, Gift Asaku, Michael Ayotte, Joan Baart, Denise Bailey, Jonathan Barnhoorn, Aireen Barrios, Keith Beavon, Simone Beck, Ted Bergman, John Berthelette, Albert Bickford, Laura Blackburn, Leonard Bolioki, Douglas Boone, Katrina Boutwell, Richard Boutwell, Leoni Bouwer, Ginger Boyd, David Bradley, Ginny Bradley, Robert Bradshaw, Sherri Brainard, Arjan Branger, Amanda Brotchie, Alan Brown, Bob Brown, John Brownie, Erika Browning, Mike Bryant, Dana Buell, Bob Bugenhagen, Philip Burgess, Larry Burke, Cate Burnett, Scott Burton, Bruce Cain, Bill Callister, Stuart Cameron, Carl Campbell, Alan Canavan, Evelyn Carress, Andy Castro, Sune Ceder, Brad Chamberlain, Nate Cheeseman, Richard Chen, Debbie Chi, Monie Chiong, Katia Chirkova, Nicky Chong, Scott Clark, Stephen Clark, Diana Cohen, Arnie Coleman, Karen Coleman, Kim Colich, Millard Collins, Jeanice Conner, Matt Connor, Bruce Cox, Tom Crabtree, Davy Crockett, Nico Daams, Henriette Daudey, Ken Decker, Marc Deneufchâtel, Lynn Dennis, Christine Derungs, Roselle Dobbs, Keith Doust, Rebekah Drew, Daniel Duke, Robert Early, Helen Eaton, Stephen M. Echerd, William Eckermann, Jim Elliot, Thomas Elvis Guenekean Stephen Emerton, Leif Engkvist, John Eppele, Urs Ernst, Jonathan Evans, Jim Farr, Tim Farrell, Craig Farrow, Ian Flaws, Sebastian Floor, Carl Follingstad, Dorothy Forsberg, Suzie Foster, Mick Foster, Joanna Frampton, Mike Frecette, Robb Fried, Cameron Fruit, Mark Gaddis, Ryan Galorport, O. J. Gamache, Jesse Gates, JoAnn Gault, Maggie Gaved, John Gibbens, Ruth Gisileng, Sep Gisileng, Víctor Gómez, Jan Gossner, Syd Gould, Steve Graham, Richard Gravina, Jeff Green, Jason Griffiths, Charles E. Grimes, Barbara D. Grimes, John Grummitt, Brad Guderian, Bob Gunn, William Hall, Calinda Hallberg, Dan Hallberg, Joshua Ham, Jongseok Han, Newton Hamlin, Cameron Hamm, Bruce Hansen, Marcus Hansley, Sue Hasselbring, David Healey, Dan Heath, David Heath, Ria Hedinger, Robert Hedinger, Gail Hendrickson, Dusty Hill, Tod Hoatson, Lee Hochstetler, Barbara Hodder, Stephen Hoff, Bruce Hooley, Joan Hooley, Jacqueline Huggins, Jock Hughes, Ken Hugoniot, Robert Hunt, Daniel Hunziker, Elisabeth Hunziker, Greg Huteson, Saleh Mahmud Idris, Kendall Isaac, Eric Jackson, Marc Jacobson, Jeremiah James, Taeho Jang, Juha Janhunen, Dorothy Jauncey, Linda Jekel, Michael Jemphrey, Lucie Jeong, Eric Johnson, Ross Jones, Linda Jordan, Andreas Joswig, André Kamphuis, Andrew Kellogg, Jason Kerr, Paulus-Jan Kieviet, Heather Jean Kilgour, Stephen Kim, Annuka Kinnaird, Arne Kirchner, Geerhard Kloppenburg, Brad Koenig, Dongwan Koo, Issifou Korogo, Tinindjotobe Samuel Kpagheri, Susanne Krüger, Emma Kuipers, Birgitta Kurzan, Daisy Lai, Edwin Lam, Peter Langeveld, Randy LaPolla, Julia Larsen, Ginny Larson, Rence Law, Yong-Seop Lee, Ritva Lehonkoski, Christine Léonard, Yves Leonard, Henrik Liljegren, Katri Linnasalo, Pauline Linton, John Livingstone, Arjen Lock, Larry Lovell, Joseph Lovestrand, Margie Lumawan, Wayne Lunsford, Pirrko Luoma, Antje Maass, James MacDonell, Julie MacKay, Bonnie MacKenzie, Loren Maggard, John Shukurani Magundo, Rundell Maree, Jeremiah Markley, Craig Marshall, Sarah Marshall, Mila Mata, Kina Isaac Matchoudo, Rich Mattocks, Steve McEvoy, Stuart McGill, Ed McGuckin, Greg McLean, David Mead, Paul Nyanduru Meja, Christine Meme, Johannes Merz, Sharon Merz, Jens Meyer, Miriam Meyerhoff, Joseph Mfonyam, David Miller, Rao Min, Bernadette Mitterhofer, Gideon M’mbetsa, Ena Vander Molen, Lee Montgomery, Fiona Morgan, Gareth Mort, Anna Mrisi, Peter Sigak Mudogo, Katja Mueller, Bea Myers, Takashi Nakamura, Prossy Nannyombi, Ken Nehrbass, Elvire Ngnoulaye, Michael Nicholls, Jacques Nicole, Elizabeth Nicoleti, Kelvin Nicolle, Rick Nivens, Prosper Nongnide, Russell Norton, Tatchum Noussi, Misheck Nyirenda, Richard Nzogi, Rainer Oetzel, Clif Olson, Richard Olson, Sam Oluka, Mark Osborne, Linus Otronyi, Jim Owen, Brian Paris, Hannah Paris, Joseph Park, Wilma Parker, David Pate, Eric Pawley, Elizabeth Pearce, Jamin Pelkey, Gary Persons, Andrew Persson, Shiloh Peterson, Tom Phinnemore, Tom Pinson, Justin Power, Ken Prettol, Angela Prinz, Greg Pruett, Ruth Raharimanantsoa, Wes Reed, Neil Rees, David Riggs, Jim Roberts, Ali Robinson, Louis Rose, Patrick Rosendall, Heidi Rosendall, David Ross, Tim Roth, Ed Ruch, Mike Rueck, Mary Salisbury, Andrew Sandeen, Misha Sandeen, Mridul Sangma, Zenith Sarker, Ken Sawka, Donald Scheller, Terrill Schrock, Larry Seguin, Satoko Shirai, Stuart Showalter, Aaron Shryock, Rindu Simanjuntak, Yulanti Sisca, Bruce Skoropinski, Scott Smith, Tony Smith, Jacques Sossoukpe, Juerg Stalder, Erik Stapleton, Carey Statezni, Nathan Statezni, Oliver Stegen, Tim Stirtz, Scot Stober, Roger Stone, Bernard Talah, Gerhard Tauberschmidt, Charles Tessaro, Keno Tesoro, Nick Thieberger, David Thormoset, Jonathan Thurley, Kermit Titrud, Edward Tong, Doug Trick, Steven Ttopoqogo, Aaron Uche, Krijn van der Jagt, Melanie Viljoen, Michael Viljoen, Kathy Vanaria, Rosario Viloria, Kilu von Prince, Andy Warren-Rothlin, Karla Watt, Albinus Waynse, Ross Webb, Joan Weber, Martin Weber, Manasseh Wekunda, Rachelle Wenger, Brigitte Werner, Sandra Whang, Patricia Wilkendorf, Carl Williams, Angi Williams-Ngumbu, Paul Williamson, Jim Winters, Cathryn Yang, Zach Yoder, Juhong Yun, Stefanie Zaske, and Carsten Ziegart.
In addition, the following have made significant contributions to the data and its accuracy through personal communications to the editors: Julia Ciupek-Reed, Matt Connor, Colin M. Davis, Daniel Eberle, Jeff German, Amy Kim, Jason Lobel, John E. McLaughlin, Kirk Miller, Bill Morrison, Liahey Ngwazah, Elizabeth Parks, Lawrence Reid, P. R. Shinu, Glenna Sollenberger, Ian Tupper, Sara van Cott, Angela Williams, among many others.
The proofreading of the text of the 17th edition was organized by Cyndi Conner who coordinated the thorough and careful efforts of: Elinor Abbot, Heidi Aboutaj, Judy Benjamin, Raymond Bergthold, Bonnie Brown, Mickey Brussow, Mike Cahill, Vurnell Cobbey, Cindy Crosbie, Paul Crosbie, Dennis Felkner, Lynn Frank, Joyce Franklin, Karl Franklin, Sharon Hallisy, Randy Hasty, Denise Hovland, Ken Hubel, Louise Hunt, George Huttar, Mary Huttar, Robert Johnson, Rhonda Hartell Jones, Dirk Kievit, Eric Kindeberg, Marj Liedtke, Lucy Lindholm, Melinda Lyons, Lana Martens, Martha Martens, Julia Anne McCord, Georgetta MacDonald, Jason Naylor, Janell Nordmoe, Joyce Park, Becky Quick, Ron Radke, Paul Schmidt, Linda Simons, Glenna Sollenberger, Martie Tracy, Paul Vollrath, Barb Waugh, Bev Woodward, Tom Woodward, Diane Wroge, and Mae Zook.
Technical support for the Ethnologue database and the systems that allow us to edit the information and produce publications from it has been provided by Roger Hanggi, Lars Huttar, Joe McCarthy, Ray Uehara, and Chad White. Joan Spanne and Melinda Lyons, ISO 639-3 Registrars, along with Anthony Aristar at LinguistList, have assisted us in keeping our database aligned with the ISO 639-3 inventory of identified languages.
The language maps have been produced under the direction of SIL’s Lead Cartographer, Irene Tucker, by Matt Benjamin, Michael McMillan and Eva Horton with quality assurance and technical assistance from Stephen Tucker and additional research by Colin Davis.
Production of this edition was implemented by the staff of SIL International’s Global Publishing Services Department under the leadership of Alan Conner and with particular assistance from Gayle Sheehan. Chad White did extensive work on website development and implementation.
Though there are many names listed above, we have almost certainly omitted others who have made significant contributions. To them we offer both apologies and gratitude.