Bibliography of Ethnologue Data Sources

Print

Abbi, A. 2006. Endangered languages of the Andaman Islands. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 64. Munich: LINCOM Europa.

Abdallah, H. A. 2004. Bakenyi on brink of extinction. The Daily Monitor, 7–13 April 2004. Kampala: Monitor Publication.

Acebes, A. 1966. Indígenas en Argentina. In A. J. Núñez (ed.), XXXVI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, España 1964: Actas y Memorias, Tomo 3, pp. 543–546. Sevilla: ECESA.

Addleton, J. S. 1986. The importance of regional languages in Pakistan. Al-Mushir 28 (2):55–80.

Adelaar, K. A. 1995. Borneo as a cross-roads for comparative Austronesian linguistics. In P. Bellwood, J. J. Fox, and D. Tryon (eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives, pp. 75–95. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Adelaar, K. A. and N. Himmelmann. 2005. The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London and New York: Routledge.

Adelaar, W. F. H. 1991. The endangered problem: South America. In R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered languages, pp. 45–91. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Adelaar, W. F. H. 1992. Quechuan Languages. In W. Bright (ed.), Oxford international encyclopedia of linguistics, Vol. 3, pp. 303–310. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Adelaar, W. F. H. 2004. Linguistic diversity in the Andean countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru) and Paraguay. In M. J. Valdés and D. Kadir (eds.), Literary cultures of Latin America: A comparative history, Vol. 1, pp. 96–103. New York: Oxford University Press.

Adelaar, W. F. H. 2007. Meso-America. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 197–210. London: Routledge.

Adelaar, W. F. H. and P. C. Muysken. 2007. The languages of the Andes. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adelberger, J. 1995. Zum Verhältnis von Sprache, Ethnizität und Kultur in den Muri-Bergen Nordost-Nigerias. In A. Fleisch and D. Otten (eds.), Sprachkulturelle und historische Forschungen in Afrika, pp. 13–27. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Adler, M. K. 1977. Pidgins, creoles, and lingua francas, a sociolinguistic study. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Afido, P., G. Firmino, J. Heins, S. Mbuub, and M. Trinta (eds.). 1989. Seminario sobre a padronização da ortografia de línguas Moçambícanas. Maputo: Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane.

Agard, F. B. 1984. A course in Romance linguistics, Vol. 2, A diachronic view. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press.

Aikhenvald, A. Y. 1996. Multilingual and monolingual placenames in Tariana. Internatioal Journal of American Linguistics 44 (4):272–290.

Aikhenvald, A. Y. 2002. Language contact in Amazonia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Aikhenvald, A. Y. 2007. Languages of the Pacific Coast of South America. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 183–205. Oxford Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Akiner, S. 1983. Islamic peoples of the Soviet Union. London: Kegan Paul International.

Alleyne, M. C. 1985. A linguistic perspective on the Caribbean. Washington, D. C.: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Al-Tajir, M. A. 1982. Language and linguistic origins in Bahrain: The Baharnah dialect of Arabic. Library of Arabic Linguistics 5. London: Kegan Paul International.

Anceaux, J. C. 1961. The linguistic situation in the islands of Yapen, Kurudu, Nau, and Miosnum, New Guinea. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Andersson, L. G. and T. Janson. 1997. Languages in Botswana: Language ecology in southern Africa. Gaborone: Longman Botswana.

Andrews, P. A. (ed.). 1989. Ethnic groups in the Republic of Turkey. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Anonby, E. and P. Yousefian. 2011. A survey of language on Larak Islands. Studia Iranica Uppsaliensia. Uppsala: Uppsala University.

Ansaldo, U. and L. Lim. 2006. Globalisation, empowerment and the periphery: The Malays of Sri Lanka. In R. Elangaiyan, R. M. Brown, N. D. M. Ostler, and M. K. Verma (eds.), Vital voices: Endangered languages and multilingualism: Proceedings of the tenth Foundation for Endangered Languages conference, pp. 39–46. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages and Foundation for Endangered Languages.

Appell, G. N. 1965. The nature of social groupings among the Rungus Dusun of Sabah, Malaysia. Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University.

Applegate, J. R. 1970. The Berber languages. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in Southwest Asia and North Africa, Vol. 6, Linguistics in South West Asia and North Africa, pp. 586–661. Current Trends in Linguistics. The Hague: Mouton.

Arango Ochoa, R. and E. Sánchez Gutierrez. 1998. Los pueblos indígenas de Colombia. Bogotá: Tercer Mundo Editores and Departamento Nacional de Planeación.

Armstrong, R. G. 1955. The Idoma-speaking peoples. In D. Forde, P. Brown, and R. G. Armstrong (eds.), Peoples of the Niger-Benue Confluence, pp. 91–155. Ethnographic Survey of Africa, Western Africa 10. London: International African Institute.

Arveiller, R. 1967. Études sur le parler de Monaco. Monaco: Comité National des Traditions Monégasques.

Atlas linguistique de l’Afrique Centrale. 1988. Bangui, Central African Republic: Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique.

Atlas linguistique Kwa de Côte d‘Ivoire. 1983. Abidjan, Côte d‘Ivoire: Université d’Abidjan, Institut de Linguistique Appliquée.

Atlas national du Senegal. 1977. Paris: Institut Géographique International.

Baart, L. G. and M. Z. Sagar. 2004. Kalam Kohistani texts. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Bakaev, C. X. 1962. Language of the Kurds of Turkmenistan. (Govor Kurdov Turkmenii). Moscow: Nauk.

Baker, B. 2007. Ethnobiological classification and the environment in northern Australia. In A. C. Schalley and D. Khlentzos (eds.), Mental states, pp. 239–265. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Baker, P. 1972. Kreol: A description of Mauritian Creole. London: C. Hurst and Co.

Baker, P. and R. Ramnak. 1985. Mauritian Bhojpuri: An Indo-Aryan language spoken in a predominantly creolphone society. In S. A. Wurm (ed.), Papers in Pidgin and Creole linguistics, Vol. 4, pp. 215–238. Pacific Linguistics A-72. Canberra: Australian National University.

Barbour, S. and P. Stevenson. 1990. Variation in German: A critical approach to German sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barker, P. 1986. Peoples, languages and religion in northern Ghana. Accra: Ghana Evangelism Committee.

Barr, D. F., S. G. Barr, and C. Salombe. 1979. Languages of Central Sulawesi: Checklist, preliminary classification, language maps, wordlists. Jayapura: Cenderawasih University.

Barreteau, D. and P. Newman (eds.). 1978. Les langues tchadiques. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).

Barrett, D. B. (ed.). 1982. World Christian encyclopedia: A comparative study of churches and religions in the modern world A.D. 1900–2000. 1st ed. Nairobi: Oxford University Press.

Barry, A. 1987. The Joola languages: Subgrouping and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation, School of African and Oriental Studies, University of London.

Barz, R. and J. Siegel (eds.). 1988. Language transplanted: The development of overseas Hindi. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz.

Bashir, E. 2003. Dardic. In G. Cardona and D. Jain (eds.), The Indo-Aryan languages, pp. 818–894. Routledge Language Family Series. London and New York: Routledge.

Bastin, Y. 1978. Les langues Bantoues. In D. Barreteau (ed.), Inventaire des etudes linguistiques sur les pays d’Afrique Noire de’expression Française et sur Madagascar, pp. 123–185. Paris: Conseil International de La Langue Française.

Bateson, M. C. 1967. Arabic language handbook. Washington D. C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Batibo, H. M. and B. Smieja (eds.). 2000. Botswana: The future of the minority languages. Düsseldorf: Peter Lang.

Bauer, C. 1984. Mon books in the National Library of Australia. South East Asian Research Materials Group [SEARMG] Newsletter, 27 [August].

Beaumont, C. L. 1972. New Ireland languages: A review. In C. L. Beaumont, D. Tryon, and S. A. Wurm (eds.), Papers in linguistics of Melanesia, Vol. 3, pp. 1–41. Pacific Linguistics A-35. Canberra: Australian National University.

Beaumont, C. L., D. Tryon, and S. A. Wurm (eds.). 1972. Papers in linguistics of Melanesia. Pacific Linguistics A-35. Canberra: Australian National University.

Becuwe, J. 1981. Les langues Gur de Côte d’Ivoire: Nomenclature et bibliographie. Cahiers Ivoiriens de Recherche Linguistique 10:5–29.

Belloso, M. S. 2009. Sordos: Aislados a la fuerza. Diario El Pais, 30 May 2009. Montevideo, Uruguay. http://www.elpais.com.uy/Suple/QuePasa/09/05/30/quepasa_419907.asp. Accessed 09 October 2012.

Bender, B. W. 1971. Micronesian languages. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in Sub-saharan Africa, pp. 426–465. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Bender, B. W. 1981. Micronesia/la Micronésie. In H. Kloss and G. D. McConnell (eds.), Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, Vol. 4, Oceania, pp. 41–53. Québec: Les Presses de l’université Laval.

Bender, B. W. and A. Capelle. 1996. Dealing with the ABCs of Marshallese over twenty years. In F. Mugler and J. Lynch (eds.), Pacific languages in education, pp. 36–75. Suva: University of the South Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies.

Bender, B. W. and K. L. Rehg. 1991. Micronesian languages in jeopardy?Paper presented at Sixth International Conference of Austronesian Linguistics, May 1991. Honolulu.

Bender, M. L. (ed.). 1983. Nilo-Saharan language studies. East Lansing, MI: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Bender, M. L. (ed.). 1989. Topics in Nilo-Saharan languages. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Bender, M. L. 1971. The languages of Ethiopia. Anthropological Linguistics 13 (5):165–288.

Bender, M. L. 1975. Omotic: A new Afroasiatic language family. Southern Illinois University Museum Series 3. Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois.

Bender, M. L. 1976. The non-Semitic languages of Ethiopia. Occasional Papers Series, Monograph 5. East Lansing, MI: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Bender, M. L. 1983. Remnant languages. In M. L. Bender (ed.), Nilo-Saharan language studies, pp. 336–354. East Lansing, MI.: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Bender, M. L. 1989. The Eastern Jebel languages. In M. L. Bender (ed.), Topics in Nilo-Saharan linguistics, pp. 151–179. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Bender, M. L. 2000. Nilo-Saharan. In a. D. N. Bernd Heine (ed.), African languages, pp. 43–73. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bendor-Samuel, J. and R. L. Hartell (eds.). 1989. The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Bendor-Samuel, J. T., K. Hansford, and R. Stanford. 1976. An index of Nigerian languages. Studies in Nigerian Languages 5. Ghana: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Benjamin, G. and C. Chou (eds.). 2003. Tribal communities in the Malay world: Historical, cultural and social perspectives. 2nd ed. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Besnier, N. 1992. Polynesian languages. In W. Bright (ed.), Oxford international encyclopedia of linguistics, Vol. 3, pp. 245–251. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bhaskararao, P. 2006. The Dravidian languages. London: Routledge.

Bickel, B. 1996. Aspect, mood, and time in Belhare. Zurich: Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ASAS).

Bickerton, D. 1988. Creole languages and the bioprogram. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Biggs, B. 1971. The languages of Polynesia. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in Oceania, pp. 466–505. Current Trends in Linguistics 8. The Hague: Mouton.

Bista, D. B. 1967. People of Nepal. 1st. Kathmandu: His Majesty’s Government, Department of Publicity.

Bista, D. B. 1973. Nepal in perspective. Kathmandu: Center for Economic Development Agencies (CEDA).

Bista, D. B. 1996. People of Nepal. 6th. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.

Black, P. 1983. Aboriginal languages of the Northern Territory. Darwin: School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Community College.

Blau, J. 1989. Gurani et Zaza. In R. Schmitt (ed.), Compendium linguarum iranicarum, pp. 336–340. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Blench, R. M. 1987. A revision of the Index of Nigerian languages. The Nigerian Field, Journal of the Nigerian Field Society 52:77–84.

Blench, R. M. 1988. The internal structure of Basa-Kamuku languages. Paper presented at 18th Colloquium on African Languages and Linguistics. Leiden.

Blench, R. M. 1989. Nupoid. In J. Bendor-Samuel and R. L. Hartell (eds.), The Niger‑Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family, pp. 305–322. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Blench, R. M. 1992. Recent research in the prehistory of Bantu languages. In D. Barreteau and C. Von Graffenried (eds.), Datation et chronologie dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, pp. 147–160. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer (ORSTOM).

Blench, R. M. 1999. Recent fieldwork in Ghana: Report on Dompo and a note on Mpre. Ogmios (11):14–15. http://www.ogmios.org/ogmios/Ogmios_011.pdf.

Blench, R. M. 2003. Index and classification to Westermann’s Niger-Congo reconstructions. Cambridge: Mallam Dendo.

Blench, R. M. 2005. Bangi Me, a language of unknown affiliation in Northern Mali. Ogmios (26):15-16. http://www.ogmios.org/ogmios/Ogmios_26.pdf.

Blench, R. M. 2011. An atlas of Nigerian languages. 3rd. ed. Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation. http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Africa/Nigeria/Atlas%20of%20Nigerian%20Languages-%20ed%20III.pdf. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Blench, R. M. and D. Zeitlyn. 1990. A web of words. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 10/11:171–186.

Blench, R. M., M. Spriggs, and B. Connell (eds.). 1999. The languages of Africa: Macrophyla proposals and implications for archaeological interpretation. Archaeology and Language 4. London: Routledge.

Blust, R. 2003. The Austronesian languages. Pacific Linguistics 501. Canberra: Australian National University.

Blust, R. A. 1974. The Proto-North Sarawak vowel deletion hypothesis. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai’i.

Boeder, R. B. 1984. Silent majority: A history of the Lomwe in Malawi. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa.

Borg, A. 1985. Cypriot Arabic. Stuttgart: Deutsch Morgenländische Gesellschaft.

Boutin, M. E. 1986. Indigenous groups of Sabah: An annotated bibliography of linguistic and anthropological sources: Supplement 1. Sabah Museum Monographs 1, Part 2. Kota Kinabalu: Sabah Museum.

Boutin, M. E. and A. Y. Boutin. 1985. Report on the languages of Banggi and Balambangan. Sabah Society Journal 8 (1):89–92.

Bouwer, L. 2010. A bibliographic journey through Madagascar. SIL Language and Culture Documentation and Description 13. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silepubs/abstract.asp?id=52762. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Boyd, R. 1989. Adamawa-Ubangi. In J. Bendor-Samuel and R. L. Hartell (eds.), The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family, pp. 178–216. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Boyeldieu, P. 1977. Etudes phonologiques tchadiennes. Paris: Société des Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France (SELAF).

Bradley, D. 1997. Tibeto-Burman languages and classification. In D. Bradley (ed.), Tibeto-Burman languages of the Himalayas: Papers in Southeast Asian linguistics, Vol. 14, pp. 1–72. Pacific Linguistics A-86. Canberra: Australian National University.

Bradley, D. 2002. The subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman. In C. I. Beckwith (ed.), Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages, PLATS 2000: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Leiden, 2000. Leiden: Brill.

Bradley, D. 2005. Sanie and language loss in China. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 173:159–176.

Bradley, D. 2007. East and Southeast Asia. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 349–424. London: Routledge.

Bradley, D. 2007. Languages of Mainland South-East Asia. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 301–336. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brassett, P. R. and C. Brassett. 2005. Diachronic and synchronic overview of the Tujia language of Central South China. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 176:75–97.

Brauns, C. D. and L. G. Loffler. 1990. Mru: Hill people on the border of Bangladesh. Basel and Boston: Birkäauser Verlag.

Brenzinger, M. (ed.). 1992. Language death: factual and theoretical explanations with special reference to East Africa. Contributions to the sociology of language. Berlin and New York: Mouton DeGruyter.

Brenzinger, M. (ed.). 2007. Language diversity endangered. Berlin: deGruyter.

Brenzinger, M. 1998. Moving to survive: Kxoe communities in arid lands. Hunter-gatherers in transition: Language, identity, and conceptualization among the Khoisan. In M. Schladt (ed.), Language, identity, and conceptualization among the Khoisan, pp. 321–358. Research in Khoisan Studies 15. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Brenzinger, M., B. Heine, and G. Sommer. 1991. Language death in Africa. In R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered languages, pp. 19–44. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Breton, R. J. L. 1993. Is there a Furu language group? An investigation on the Cameroon-Nigeria border. Journal of West African Languages 23 (2):97–120.

Breton, R. J. L. 1997. Atlas of the languages and ethnic communities of South Asia. New Delhi: Sage Publications India.

Bright, W. (ed.). 1992. Oxford international encyclopedia of linguistics, Vol. 1–4. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brown, H. A. 1973. The Eleman languages. In K. J. Franklin (ed.), The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea, pp. 279–376. Pacific Linguistics C-26. Canberra: Australian National University.

Brown, K. (ed.). 2006. Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier.

Browne, W., E. Dornisch, N. Kondrashova, and D. Zec (eds.). 1997. Formal approaches to Slavic linguistics. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Slavic Publications.

Bryan, M. A. 1959. The Bantu languages of Africa. London: Oxford University Press.

Burenhult, N. and C. Wegener. 2009. Preliminary notes on the phonology, orthography and vocabulary of Semnam (Austroasiatic, Malay Peninsula). . Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1:283–312.

Burling, R. 2003. The Tibeto-Burman languages of Northeast India. In G. Thurgood and R. J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, pp. 167–192. London and New York: Routledge.

Busenitz, R. L. 1991. Lexicostatistic and sociolinguistic survey of Balantak and Andio. In T. Friberg (ed.), More Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys, 1987-1991, pp. 1–22. Workpapers in Indonesian Linguistics and Cultures 11. Ujung Pandang, Indonesia: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Butt, A. J. 1966. The present state of ethnology in Latin America: The Guianas. In A. J. Núñez (ed.), XXXVI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, España 1964 Actas y Memorias, Tomo 3, pp. 19–37. Sevilla: ECESA.

Cacopardo, A. M. and A. S. Cacopardo. 2001. Gates of Peristan: History, religion, and society in the Hindu Kush. Rome: Instituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.

Campbell, L. 1992. The Meso-American language area. Oxford international encyclopedia of languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, L. 1992. Mayan languages. In W. Bright (ed.), Oxford international encyclopedia of linguistics. 1st, Vol. 2, pp. 401–406. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, L. 1997. American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics 4. New York: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, L. and D. Oltrogge. 1980. Proto-Tol (Jicaque). International Journal of American Linguistics 46:205–223.

Caprile, J. P. (ed.). 1977. Etudes phonologiques tchadiennes. Paris: Société des Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France (SELAF).

Caprile, J. P. and J. Fedry. 1969. Documentation présentée par le groupe des langues Sara. Lyon: République du Tchad.

Capron, J. 1973. Communautes villageoises Mali-Haute Volta Bwa. Paris: Institut d’Ethnologie.

Cardoso, H. C. 2006. Challenges to Indo-Portuguese across India. In R. Elangaiyan, R. McKenna Brown, N. D. M. Ostler, and M. K. Verma (eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Foundation for Endangered Languages, pp. 23–30. Mysore, India Central Institute of Indian Languages and Foundation for Endangered Languages.

Carlin, E. B. 2001. Of riches and rhetoric: Languages in Suriname. In R. Hoefte and P. Meel (eds.), 20th century Suriname: Continuities and discontinuities in a new world society, pp. 220–243. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.

Carlin, E. B. and J. Arends (eds.). 2002. Atlas of the languages of Suriname. Leiden: Koninklijk Institut Voor Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde.

Carrington, L. 1996. A linguistic bibliography of the New Guinea area. Pacific Linguistics D-90. Canberra: Australian National University.

Carrington, L. D. 1984. St. Lucian Creole: A descriptive analysis of its phonology and morpho-syntax. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (ed.). 1986. African Pygmies. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Chafe, W. L. 1962. Estimates regarding the present speakers of North American Indian languages. International Journal of American Linguistics 28:162–171.

Chafe, W. L. 1965. Corrected estimates regarding speakers of Indian languages. International Journal of American Linguistics 31:345–346.

Chagnoux, H. and A. Haribou. 1980. Les Comores. Que sais-je? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Chamanga, M. A. and N. J. Gueunie. 1967. Recherches sur l’instrumentalisation du comorien. Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines 17. The Hague: Mouton.

Chauhan, A. 2002. First-hand linguistic information on Kanash. Shimla: Himachal Academy of Languages, Culture and Arts.

Chebanne, A. and M. Nthapelelang. 2000. The socio-linguistic survey of Eastern Khoe in the Boteti and Makgadikgadi Pans areas of Botswana. In H. M. Batibo and B. Smieja (eds.), Botswana: The future of the minority languages, pp. 79–94. Duisburger Arbeiten zur Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft 40. Düsseldorf: Peter Lang.

CIP-EY. 2002. National indigenous peoples population statistics. Taipei, Taiwan: Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan.

Civallero, E. 2008. Glosario de lenguas indígenas suramericanas. Córdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. http://hdl.handle.net/10760/11619. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Clouse, D., F. Ma, and M. Donohue. 2002. Survey report of the north coast of Irian Jaya. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-078. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2002-078. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Coelho, V. H. 1967. Sikkim and Bhutan. New Delhi: Indraprastha Press.

Cohen, D. 1963. Le dialecte Arabe Hassaniya de Mauritanie. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.

Cohen, D. 1985. Judeo-Arabic of North Africa. In J. A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in the sociology of Jewish languages, pp. 246–260. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Cohen, P. I. 1976. El inglés criollo de Panamá. Panamá: Editorial Universitaria.

Collins, J. T. 1980. Ambonese Malay and creolization theory. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Collins, J. T. 1983. The historical relationships of the languages of Central Maluku, Indonesia. Pacific Linguistics D-47. Canberra: Australian National University.

Collins, J. T. 2003. Malay and Malayic: The classification of the Menterap language. Paper presented at Pertemuan Linguistik Lembaga Bahasa Atma Jaya. Jakarta.

Comrie, B. (ed.). 1987. The world’s major languages. London: Routledge.

Comrie, B. 1988. Haruai verb structure and language classification in the Upper Yuat’. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 17:140–160.

Comrie, B. and G. Corbet (eds.). 1993. The Slavonic languages. London: Routledge.

Connell, B. 1994. The Lower Cross languages: A prolegomena to the classification of the Cross River languages. Journal of West African Languages 24 (1):3–46.

Connell, B. and J. Hajek. 1991. Universals of nasal attrition. In Comité d’organisation du Congrès (ed.), Actes du XIIème Congrès International des Sciences Phonétiques, pp. 106–109. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence.

Contini-Morava, E., R. S. Kirsner, and B. Rodriguez-Bachiller (eds.). 2004. Cognitive and Communicative Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Coon, C. S. 1931. Tribes of the Rif. Harvard African Studies 9. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Harvard University.

Cooper, R. L. 1989. Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crevels, M. 2007. South America. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 103–196. London: Routledge.

Crozier, D. H. and R. M. Blench (eds.). 1992. An index of Nigerian languages. 2nd ed. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Crystal, D. 2003. English as a global language. 2nd. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. 2003. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. 2nd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cunningham, D., D. E. Ingram, and K. Sumbuk (eds.). 2006. Language diversity in the Pacific: endangerment and survival. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Dai Qingxia and Duan Kuangle. 1995. Haniy Gailun. Kunming: Yunnan Minzu Chubanshe (Ethnic Affairs Commission of Simao Administrative Bureau of Yunnan Province).

Dalby, T. D. P. 1962. Language distribution in Sierra Leone: 1961–1962. Sierra Leone Language Review 1:62–67.

Davis, J. E. 2010. Hand talk: Sign language among American Indian nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dawkins, E. and C. Kirkland. 2008. A sociolinguistic survey of Tai Ya in Thailand. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2008-015. Dallas: SIL International. http://www/sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2008-015. Accessed 15 October 2012.

de Olivera Braga, A. 1992. A fonologia segmental e aspectos morfofonologicos da lingua makurap (tupi). M.A. thesis, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Decker, K. D. and S. J. Decker. 1992. Languages of Chitral. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 5. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Decker, S. J., D. G. Hallberg, and C. R. Rensch. 1992. Languages of Kohistan. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan 1. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Delafosse, M. 1904. Vocabulaires comparatifs de plus de soixante langues ou dialectes parlés à la Côte d’Ivoire et dans les régions limitrophes. Paris: Leroux.

Derbyshire, D. C. and G. K. Pullum (eds.). 1991. Handbook of Amazonian languages, Vol. 3. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Derbyshire, D. C. and G. K. Pullum (eds.). 1998. Handbook of Amazonian languages, Vol. 4. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Deuchar, M. 1977. Sign language diglossia in a British deaf community. Sign Language Studies 17:347–356.

Deuchar, M. 1984. British Sign Language. London: Routledge.

Dieu, M. and P. Renaud (eds.). 1983. Situation linguistique en Afrique Centrale. Inventaire Preliminaire: Le Cameroun. Atlas Linguistique de l’Afrique Centrale (ALAC); Atlas linguistique du Cameroun (ALCAM). Paris and Yaoundé: Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique; Centre de Recherche et de Documentation sur les Traditions Orales et pour le Développement des Langues Africaines; Direction Générale de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique.

Diffloth, G. and N. Zide. 1992. Austro-Asiatic languages. In W. Bright (ed.), Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Vol. 1, pp. 137–158. New York: Oxford University Press.

Diller, A. 2008. The Tai-Kadai languages. London: Routledge Curzon.

Diller, A. and P. Juntanamalaga. 1990. “Full hearts” and empty pronominals in Thai. Australian Journal of Linguistics 10 (2):231–255.

Dimmendaal, G. J. 1989. On language death of Eastern Africa. In N. Dorian (ed.), Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death, pp. 13–31. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dimmendaal, G. J. and F. K. E. Voeltz. 2007. Africa. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 579–634. London: Routledge.

Dimmendaal, G. J. and M. Last (eds.). 1998. Surmic languages and cultures. Cologne: Rüdige Köppe Verlag.

Dimmendaal, G. J. and M. Yigezu. 1998. Notes on Baale. In G. J. Dimmendaal and M. Last (eds.), Surmic languages and cultures, pp. 273–317. Cologne: Rüdige Köppe Verlag.

Dixon, R. M. W. and A. Y. Aikhenvald (eds.). 1999. The Amazonian languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

DNPI. 2001. Pueblos indígenas y originarios de Bolivia: diagnóstico nacional. La Paz, Bolivia: Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos, Pueblos Indígenas y Originarios.

Donohue, M. 1998. Transitivity in Tukang Besi. Studies in Language 22 (1):83–111.

Doornbos, P. and M. L. Bender. 1983. Languages of Wadai-Darfur. In M. L. Bender (ed.), Nilo-Saharan language studies, Monograph 13, Committee on Northeast African studies, pp. 42–79. Lansing, MI: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Dorian, N. C. (ed.). 1989. Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death. Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dorji, C. T. 1997. An introduction to Bhutanese languages. Bangalore: Vikas Publishing House.

Dreyer, J. T. 1976. China’s forty millions: Minority nationalities and national integration in the People’s Republic of China. Harvard East Asia Series 87. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Drower, E. S. 1937. The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Du Nay, A. 1977. The early history of the Rumanian language. Edward Sapir Monograph Series in Language, Culture and Cognition 3. Lake Bluff, IL: Jupiter Press.

Dunn, M., G. Reesink, and A. Terrill. 2002. The East Papuan languages: A preliminary typological appraisal. Oceanic Linguistics 41:28–62.

Dupree, L. 1980. Afghanistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Durbin, M. and H. Seijas. 1973. Proto Hianacoto: Guaque-Carijona-Hianacoto Umaua. International Journal of American Linguistics 39 (1):22–31.

Dutton, T. E. 1971. Languages of southeast Papua; A preliminary report. In T. E. Dutton, L. Voorhoeve, and S. A. Wurm (eds.), Papers in New Guinea linguistics, pp. 1–46. 14, Pacific Linguistics A-28. Canberra: Australian National University.

Early, R. 2006. The sociolinguistic decline of Bieria. Paper presented at Terry Crowley Memorial Workshop, November 2006. Wellington, New Zealand.

Ebert, K. 1994. The structure of Kiranti languages, comparative grammar and texts: Kiranti subordination in the South Asian areal context. Zürich: Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ASAS).

Edmondson, J. A. 1992. Eastern Cham as a tone language. Mon Khmer Studies 20:31–43.

Edmondson, J. A. and D. Solnit (eds.). 1997. Comparative Kadai: The Tai branch. Publications in Linguistics 124. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Edwards, V. and S. Alladina (eds.). 1990. Multilingualism in the British Isles. Longman Linguistic Library. London: Longman

Egland, S., D. Bartholomew, and S. C. Ramos. 1983. La inteligibilidad interdialectal en México: Resultados de algunos sondeos. Mexico, DF: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.

Elangaiyan, R., R. McKenna Brown, N. D. M. Ostler, and M. K. Verma (eds.). 2006. Vital Voices: Endangered languages and multilingualism: Proceedings of the Tenth Foundation for Endangered Languages Conference. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages and Foundation for Endangered Languages.

Ellis, J. 1991. Language intelligibility testing across Micronesia. Paper presented at Sixth International Conference of Austronesian Linguistics. Honolulu.

Eriksen, T. H. 1990. Linguistic diversity and the quest for national identity: The case of Mauritius. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13 (1):1–24.

Ewané Etamé, J. 1995. Lexique mkaa’-français et français-mkaa’. Yaoundé: Jean Ewané Etamé

Fabre, A. 2007. Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos. Edición electrónica. http://butler.cc.tut.fi/~fabre/BookInternetVersio/Alkusivu.html. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Faraclas, N. G. 1989. Cross River. In J. Bendor-Samuel and R. L. Hartell (eds.), The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family, pp. 377–400. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Farhadi, A. and G. Raven. 1967. Languages. Kabul: Kabul Times Publishing Agency.

Fattah, I. K. 2000. Les dialectes Kurdes méridionaux. Acta Iranica Étude linguistique et dialectologique. Louvain: Peters.

Fausto, C. 1995. De primos a sobrinhos: terminologia e alianca entre os Parakana (Tupi) do Para. In E. Weiros de Castor (ed.), Antropologia do parentesco: estudios amerindios, pp. 61–120. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro.

Fazzini Giovannucci, E. 1978. Die Alemannischen Dialekte in Westlichen Norditalien. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner GmbH.

Ferguson, C. A. 1968. Language development. In J. A. Fishman, C. A. Ferguson, and J. Das Gupta (eds.), Language problems of developing nations, pp. 27–36. New York: Wiley and Sons.

Ferlus, M. 1996. Langues et peuples viet-muong. Mon-Khmer Studies 16:7–28.

Fischer, W. and O. Jastrow (eds.). 1980. Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Fishman, J. A. (ed.). 1985. Readings in the sociology of Jewish languages. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Fishman, J. A. 1991. Reversing language shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Fleisch, A. and D. Otten (eds.). 1995. Sprachkulturelle und historische Forschungen in Afrika. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Fleisch, H. 1974. Études d’Arabe dialectal. Beirut: Dar el-Machreq.

Florey, M. 2005. Language shift and endangerment. In A. Adelaar and N. P. Himmelman (eds.), The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar, pp. 43–64. London: Routledge.

Foley, W. A. 2005. Linguistic prehistory in the Sepik-Ramu basin. In A. Pawley, R. Attenborough, J. Golson, and R. Hide (eds.), Papuan pasts: Cultural, linguistics and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples, pp. 109–144. Canberra: Australian National University.

Forte, J. 1990. The populations of Guyanese Amerindian settlements. Guyana: University of Guyana, Amerindian Research Unit.

Forth, G. L. 1993. Ritual and ideology in Nage mortuary culture. Asian Journal of Social Science 21 (2):37–61.

Foster, B. L. 1972. Ethnicity and economy: The case of the Mons in the Thailand. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.

Fox, J. J. 1991. The flow of life in Nusa Tenggara. In D. Pickell (ed.), East of Bali: from Lombok to Timor, pp. 30–35. Berkeley and Singapore: Periplus.

Franklin, K. J. 1968. Languages of the Gulf District: A preview. In S. A. Wurm (ed.), Papers in New Guinea linguistics, Vol. 8, pp. 19–44. Pacific Linguistics A‑16. Canberra: Australian National University.

Franklin, K. J. 1973. The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics C-26. Canberra: Australian National University.

Friberg, T. (ed.). 1987. South Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 5. Ujung Pandang: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Friberg, T. (ed.). 1991. More Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys, 1987–1991. Workpapers in Indonesian Linguistics (and Cultures) 11. Ujung Pandang: Summer Institute of Linguistics (UNHAS).

Friberg, T. and T. V. Laskowske. 1989. South Sulawesi languages. In J. N. Sneddon (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi languages, pp. 1–17. Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 31. Jakarta: Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

Fukui, K. 1984. A preliminary report on pastoralism among the Narim. In M. Tomikawa (ed.), Sudan Sahel studies, Vol. 1, pp. 75–94. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.

Gair, J. W. 1998. Sinhala and other South East Asian languages. New York: Oxford University Press.

Genevois, H. 1973. Djebel Bissa, Prospections à travers un parler encore inexploré du Nord-Chelif. Algiers: Le Fichier Périodique.

Gengxia Wengmu and Hu Shujin. 2008. Analysis of the linguistic island phenomenon in the multilingual environment of Daofu county. Journal of the Southwest University of Nationalities: Humanities and Social Sciences 29 (5):86–90.

Geraghty, P. A. 1983. The history of the Fijian languages. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication 19. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Geraghty, P. A. 1988. Proto New Caledonian and its relationships. Paper presented at Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, January 1988. Auckland, New Zealand.

Geraghty, P. A. and A. Pawley. 1981. The relative chronology of some innovations in the Fijian languages. In J. Hollyman and A. Pawley (eds.), Studies in Pacific languages and cultures: In honour of Bruce Biggs, pp. 159–178. Auckland: Linguistic Society New Zealand.

Gerteiny, A. G. 1967. Mauritania. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

Gil, D. 2001. Creoles, complexity and Riau Indonesian. Linguistic Typology 5:325–371.

Gilbert, G. (ed.). 1987. Pidgin and Creole languages: Essays in memory of John E. Reinecke. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.

Go, K. Z. 1996. A critical historical study of Bible translations among the Zo people. Churachandpur, Manipur, India: Chin Baptist Literature Board.

Gold, D. L. 1974. Jewish intralinguistics. Sociological Abstracts Supplement 47 (1):344.

Golla, V. 2007. North America. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 1–96. London: Routledge.

Gong, Q. 2007. Zhabayu yanjiu [A study of the Zhaba language]. Beijing: Minzu Chuban She.

González de Pérez, M. S. and M. L. Rodríguez de Montes (eds.). 2000. Lenguas indígenas de Colombia: Una visión descriptiva. Santa fé de Bogotá, Colombia: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Good, J., J. Lovegren, J. P. Mve, C. Nganguep Tchiemouo, R. Voll, and P. Di Carlo. 2011. The languages of the Lower Fungom region of Cameroon: Grammatical overview. Africana Linguistica 17:101–164.

Gray, R. D., A. J. Drummond, and S. J. Greenhill. 2009. Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Science 323 (5913):479–483.

Greenberg, J. H. 1963. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. Universals of language 2:73–113.

Grenand, F. 1980. La langue Wayãpi (Guyane française). Phonologie et grammaire. Langues et civilisations à tradition orale 41. Paris: Société d’études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France.

Grimes, B. D. 1994. Cloves and nutmeg, traders and wars: Language contact in the Spice Islands. In T. E. Dutton and D. T. Tryon (eds.), Language contact and change in the Austronesian world, pp. 251–274. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 77. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Grimes, C. E. (ed.). 2000. Spices from the east: Papers in languages of eastern Indonesia. Pacific Linguistics 503. Canberra: Australian National University.

Grimes, C. E. 1982. Report on a preliminary survey of the languages of North Maluku. Jakarta: SIL International.

Grimes, C. E. and B. D. Grimes. 1987. Languages of South Sulawesi. Pacific Linguistics D-78. Canberra: Australian National University.

Grimes, C. E., T. Therik, B. D. Grimes, and M. Jacob. 1997. A guide to the people and languages of Nusa Tenggara. Center for Regional Studies, Paradigma, series B, no. 1. Kupang: Artha Wacana Press.

Grimes, J. E. 1974. Word lists and languages. Technical Report 2. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics.

Grimes, J. E. 1986. Area norms of language size. In B. F. Elson (ed.), Language in global perspective: Papers in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 5–20. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Grimes, J. E. 1995. Language endangerment in the Pacific. Oceanic Linguistics 34 (1):1–12.

Grjunberg, A. L. 1968. Languages of the Eastern Hindu Kush. Moscow: Nauka Publishing House, Central Department of Oriental Literature.

Güldemann, T. 1998. San languages for education: A linguistic short survey and proposal, on behalf of the Molteno early literacy and language development project in Namibia. Okahandja: National Institute of Educational Development, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture.

Güldemann, T. 2003. Khoisan languages. In W. Frawley (ed.), International encyclopedia of linguistics. 2nd, Vol. 4, pp. 359–362. New York: Oxford University Press.

Güldemann, T. and R. Vossen. 2000. Khoisan. In B. Heine and D. Nurse (eds.), African languages: An introduction, pp. 99–122. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gunn, H. D. 1953. Peoples of the plateau region of northern Nigeria. London: International African Institute.

Gunnemark, E. and D. Kenrick. 1985. A geolinguistic handbook. Sweden: Gunnemark.

Gurung, H. 1997. Faces of Nepal. Kathmandu: Himal Books.

Gusain, L. 2002. Endangered language: A case study of Sansiboli. Language in India 2. http://www.languageinindia.com/dec2002/sansi.html. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Guthrie, M. and A. N. Tucker (eds.). 1956. Linguistic survey of the Northern Bantu Borderland. London: Oxford University Press for International Africa Institute.

GXLOUS. 2005. Guangxi language and orthography use survey. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Language Commission. Nanning, China: Guangxi Education Press.

Haacke, W. H. G. and E. E. Elderkin (eds.). 1997. Namibian languages: Reports and papers. Namibian African Studies 4. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Haboud, M. 2003. Quichua and Spanish in the Ecuadorian highlands: The effects of long term contact. Quito: Quality Print Cia. Ltda.

Hajo, Z. 1994. Die kurdische Sprache und ihre Dialekte. Ein Beitrag zur Standardisierung des Kurdischen. Kurdologie Studien zu Sprache, Geschichte, Gesellschaft und Politik Kurdistans und der Kurden und Kurdinnen 73–82. Berlin: Allgemeiner Studierendenausschuss der Frei Univesität Berlin.

Hale, A. 1982. Research on Tibeto-Burman languages. Trends in Linguistics: State-of-the-Art Report 14. Berlin: Mouton.

Halim, A., L. Carrington, and S. A. Wurm (eds.). 1982. Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Vol. 2, Tracking the travellers. Pacific Linguistics C–75. Canberra: Australian National University.

Hall, E. 1983. Ghanaian languages. Accra: Asempa.

Hall, R. A., Jr. 1966. Pidgin and creole languages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Hall, R. A., Jr. 1974. External history of the Romance languages. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Co.

Hancock, I. F. (ed.). 1979. Romani sociolinguistics. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 19. The Hague: Mouton.

Hancock, I. F. 1974. Shelta: A problem of classification. In D. De Camp and I. F. Hancock (eds.), Pidgins and creoles: Current trends and prospects, pp. 130–137. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press.

Hancock, I. F. 1984. Romani and Angloromani. In P. Trudgill (ed.), Language in the British Isles, pp. 367–383. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hancock, I. F. 1984. Shelta and Polari. In P. Trudgill (ed.), Language in the British Isles, pp. 384–403. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hancock, I. F. 1985. A preliminary structural sketch of Trinidad Creole French. Amsterdam Creole Studies 8:27–40.

Hancock, I. F. 1987. Componentiality and the origins of Gullah. In M. W. Helms (ed.), Sea and land Proceedings of the Southern Anthropological Society, Vol. 21. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Hancock, I. F. 1988. Romani: The language of the Gypsies. Gamut 23:8–12.

Hancock, I. F. 1990. A grammar of the Hungarian-Slovak (Carpathian, Bashaldo, Romungro) Romani language. Manchaca, TX: International Romani Union.

Hancock, I. F. 1990. The Romani speech community. In V. Edwards and S. Alladina (eds.), Multilingualism in the British Isles, pp. 96–97. Longman Linguistic Library. London: Longman.

Hancock, I. F. 1992. The social and linguistic development of Scandoromani. In E. H. Jahr (ed.), Language contact: Theoretical and empirical studies, pp. 37–52. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hansson, G. 1991. The Rai of eastern Nepal: Ethnic and linguistic grouping. Findings of the Linguistic Survey of Nepal. Kirtipur, Nepal: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University.

Harris, M. 1987. French. In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, pp. 210–235. London: Croom Helm.

Harrison, B. and L. Marmen. 1996. Focus on Canada: Languages in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Statistics Canada and Prentice Hall Canada.

Hattaway, P. 2000. Operation China. Pasadena: William Carey Library.

Haugen, E. 1992. Scandinavian languages. In W. Bright (ed.), Oxford international encyclopedia of linguistics, Vol. 3, pp. 375–379. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hawkins, J. A. 1987. German. In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, pp. 110–138. London: Croom Helm.

Headland, T. H. 1989. Population decline in a Philippine Negrito hunter-gatherer society. American Journal of Human Biology 1:59–72.

Healey, A. 1964. The Ok language family in New Guinea. Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University.

Heegård Petersen, J. 2006. Local case-marking in Kalasha. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics, University of Copenhagen.

Heine, B. 1968. Die Verbreitung und Gliederung der Togorestsprachen. Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik, Band 1. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

Heine, B. and W. J. G. Möhlig. 1980. Language and dialect atlas of Kenya, 1: Geographical and historical introduction, language and society, selected bibliography. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

Helm, J. (ed.). 1981. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6: Subarctic. Washington, D. C.: The Smithsonian Institution.

Hetzron, R. (ed.). 1997. The Semitic languages. New York: Routledge.

Himmelmann, N. P. 2001. Sourcebook on Tomini-Tolitoli languages: General information and word lists. Pacific Linguistics 511. Canberra: Australian National University.

Himmelmann, N. P. and J. U. Wolff. 1999. Toratán (Ratahan). Languages of the World/Materials 130. Munich: LINCOM Europa.

Hinton, B. 2000. The languages of Wetar: Recent survey results and word lists with notes on Tugun grammar. In C. E. Grimes (ed.), Spices from the east: Papers in languages of eastern Indonesia, pp. 105–139. Pacific Linguistics 503. Canberra: Australian National University.

Hinton, L. 1994. Flutes of fire: Essays on California Indian languages. Berkeley: Heyday Books.

Hinton, L. 2007. Languages of California. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 442–459. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hiremath, R. C. and J. S. Kulli (eds.). 1976. Proceedings of the 3rd All India conference of Dravidian linguistics. Dharwar: Karnatak University.

Hoefte, R. and P. Meel (eds.). 2001. 20th century Suriname: Continuities and discontinuities in a new world society. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.

Hoffman, M. S. (ed.). 1991. World almanac and book of facts. Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books.

Holes, C. 1988. The typology of Omani Arabic dialects, Proceedings of the BRISMES International Conference on Middle Eastern Studies, pp. 12–21. Leeds: University of Leeds.

Holes, C. 1990. Gulf Arabic. New York: Routledge.

Hollyman, J. and A. Pawley (eds.). 1981. Studies in Pacific languages and cultures (in honour of Bruce Biggs). Auckland: Linguistics Society of New Zealand.

Holm, J. A. 1989. Pidgins and Creoles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Holzknecht, S. 1988. Word taboo and its implications for language change in the Markham family of languages, Papua New Guinea. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 18:43–69.

Holzknecht, S. 1989. The Markham languages of Papua New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics C-115. Canberra: Australian National University.

Hooley, B. A. 1971. Austronesian languages of the Morobe District, Papua New Guinea. Oceanic Linguistics 10:79–151.

Hooley, B. A. and K. McElhanon. 1970. Languages of the Morobe District—New Guinea. In S. A. Wurm and D. C. Laycock (eds.), Pacific Linguistic studies in honour of Arthur Capell, pp. 1065–1094. Pacific Linguistics C-13. Canberra: Australian National University.

Hopkins, B. L. 1995. Contribution à une étude de la syntaxe Diola-Fogny. Ph.D. dissertation, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar.

Hopper, J. H. (ed.). 1967. Indians of Brazil in the twentieth century. ICR Studies 2. Washington, D. C.: Institute for Cross-Cultural Research.

Hoyer, K. 2007. Albanian Sign Language: Language contact, international sign, and gesture. In D. Quinto-Pozos (ed.), Sign languages in contact, pp. 195–234. Washington, D. C.: Gallaudet University Press.

Huang, L. M. 2000. Focus system of Mayrinax Atayal: a syntactic, semantic and pragmatic perspective. Oceanic Linguistics 39:364–390.

Hudson, A. B. 1978. Linguistic relations among Bornean peoples with special reference to Sarawak, an interim report. Studies in Third World Societies 3:1–44.

Hudson, J. 1987. Languages of the Kimberley region. Broome, Western Australia: Catholic Education Kimberley Regional Office.

Hugoniot, R. D. (ed.). 1970. A bibliographical index of the lesser known languages and dialects of India and Nepal. Kathmandu: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Ibriszimow, D. and D. Segerer (eds.). 2004. Systèmes de marques personnelles en Afrique. Paris: Peeters.

Ichihashi-Nakayama, K., Y. Yumitani, and A. Y. Yamamoto. 2007. Languages of the Southwest United States. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 460–474. Oxford linguistics Oxford Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ikeda, T. (ed.). 2001. Preliminary reports on minority languages in East and Southeast Asia, Vol. A3-001. Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim. Osaka: Osaka Gakuin University.

IMA. 1997. Peoples of India. Chennai, India: India Missions Association.

Ingham, B. 1982. Northeast Arabian dialects. London: Kegan Paul International.

Ingham, B. 1994. Najdi Arabic: Central Arabian. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

ISO. 2007. ISO 639-3:2007: Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

Izadi, M. 1992. The Kurds: A concise handbook. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jacquot, A. 1971. Les langues du Congo-Brazzaville. Inventaire et classification. Cahiers de l’Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), serie sciences humaines 8 (4):349–357.

Jacquot, A. 1978. Le Gabon. In D. Barreteau (ed.), Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d’afrique noire d’expression française et sur Madagascar, pp. 493–503. Paris: Conseil International de la Langue Française.

Janhunen, J. (ed.). 2003. The Mongolic languages. London: Routledge.

Janhunen, J. 1989. A Sino-Finnish joint expedition to the minority nationalities of northern China. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskiria 82:277–279.

Janse, M. and S. Tol (eds.). 2003. Language death and language maintenance: Theoretical, practical and descriptive approaches. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jastrow, O. 1978. Die Mesopotamisch-Arabischen qeltu-Dialekte. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner GmbH.

Jenewari, C. E. W. 1989. Ijoid. In J. Bendor-Samuel and R. L. Hartell (eds.), The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family, pp. 105–118. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Jettmas, K. (ed.). 1974. Cultures of the Hindu Kush: Selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held in Moesgard, 1970. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner GmbH.

Jiafa Ji. 1994. Yi language dialect study: Project of the National Social Sciences. Beijing: Minzu Press.

Johnston, R. L. 1980. Nakanai of New Britain: The grammar of an Oceanic language. Pacific Linguistics B-70. Canberra: Australian National University.

Johnstone, P. 1993. Operation world. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.

Johnstone, P. and J. Mandryk. 2001. Operation world. Waynesboro: Paternoster Lifestyle.

Johnstone, T. M. 1967. Eastern Arabian dialect studies. London: Oxford University Press.

Jones, R. B. 1988. Proto-Burmese as a test of reconstruction. In C. Duncan-Rose and T. Vennemann (eds.), On Language+ Rhetorica, phonologica, syntactica: A festschrift for Robert P Stockwell, pp. 203–211. London and New York: Routledge.

Jordan-Diller, K. and J. Diller. 2004. The Prai of Northern Thailand: A sociolinguistic survey of a Mon-Khmer language. Mon-Khmer Studies 34:19–45.

Jungraithmayr, H. 1981. Inventaire des langues tchadiques. In G. Manessy (ed.), Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne 1: Les langues de l’Afrique Subsaharienne, pp. 407–413. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

Kamarah, S. U. 2001. The educational system of Sierra Leone. In Gale Group (ed.), World education encyclopedia. Vol. 3. Detroit: Schirmer Books.

Kara, G. 1990. Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher. Internationale Zeitschrift für Nord-Eurasien 62:167–168.

Katzner, K. 1975. The languages of the world. New York: Funk and Wagnalls.

Kawi, D., M. R. M. T. Lauder, B. Aritonang, N. Martis, Ayatrohaedi, F. A. Datang, H. Astar, and W. Kurniawati. 2002. Penelitian Kekerabatan dan Pemetaan Bahasa-bahasa daerah di Indonesia: Provinsi Kalimantan Timur. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa.

Kaye, A. S. 1987. Arabic. In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, pp. 664–685. London: Croom Helm.

Kedrebeogo, G., Z. Yago, and T. Hien. 1988. Burkina Faso: Carte linguistique. Burkina Faso: Institut Géographique du Burkina and Institut de Recherche des Sciences Sociales et Humaines.

Kibrik, A. E. 1991. The problem of endangered languages in the USSR. In R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered languages, pp. 257–273. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Kiefer, C. M. 2009. Parachi. In G. Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian languages, pp. 693–720. London: Routledge.

Kiessling, R. and M. Mous. 2003. The lexical reconstruction of West-Rift Southern Cushitic. Cologne and New York: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

King, J. K. and J. W. King (eds.). 1984. Languages of Sabah: A survey report. Pacific Linguistics C-78. Canberra: Australian National University.

King, J. T. 1994. Picking up where Hodgson left off: Further notes on Dhimal. Journal of the Tibeto-Burman Area 17 (2):121–132.

Kinkade, M. D. 1991. The decline of native languages in Canada. In R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered languages, pp. 157–176. Oxford and New York: Berg Publishers.

Klamer, M. and M. A. F. Klamer. 2010. A grammar of Tewa. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Klar, K. 1977. Topics in historical Chumash grammar. Berkeley: University of California.

Kloss, H. and G. D. McConnell (eds.). 1974–1998. Linguistic composition of the nations of the world. Central and Western South Asia, Vol. 1. Sainte-Foy: Les Presses de l’Université Laval.

Kooij, J. G. 1987. Dutch. In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, pp. 139–156. London: Croom Helm.

Koryakov, Y. B. 2006. Atlas kavkazskih âzykov. Moscow: Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Koul, O. and R. Schmidt. 1983. Kashmiri: A sociolinguistic survey. Delhi: Madaan Publishers.

Krauss, M. E. 1992. The world’s languages in crisis. Language 68:4–10.

Krauss, M. E. 1997. The indigenous languages of the North: A report on their present state. In H. Shoji and J. Janhunen (eds.), Northern minority languages: Problems of survival, pp. 1–34. Osaka and Fairbanks: National Museum of Ethnology and Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Krauss, M. E. 2007. Native languages of Alaska. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 406–417. Oxford linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kroeger, P. R. 1985. Linguistic relations among the Dusunic groups in the Kota Marudu District. Borneo Research Bulletin 17 (1):31–46.

Kroeger, P. R. 1986. Intelligibility patterns in Sabah and the problem of prediction. In P. A. Geraghty, L. Carrington, and S. A. Wurm (eds.), FOCAL I: Papers from the Fourth International Congress on Austronesian Linguistics, pp. 309–339. Pacific Linguistics C-93. Canberra: Australian National University.

Kruspe, N. 2009. Loanwords in Ceq Wong, an Austroasiatic language of Peninsular Malaysia. In M. Haspelmath and U. Tadmor (eds.), Loanwords in the world’s languages, pp. 659–685. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Ladefoged, P., R. Glick, and C. Criper. 1972. Language in Uganda. London: Oxford University Press.

Laidig, W. D. (ed.). 2001. Studies in Sulawesi Linguistics. NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 49. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

Lamberti, M. 1986. Map of Somali dialects in the Somali Democratic Republic. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Landaburu, J. 1979. El tratamiento gramatical de la verdad en la lengua andoque. Revista Colombiana de Antropología 20:81–100.

Laskowske, T. V. and K. B. Laskowske. 1987. Seko area (Kabupaten Luwu). In T. Friberg (ed.), Universitas Hasanuddin-SIL South Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys, 1983-1987, pp. 41–57. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 5. Ujung Pandang: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Lauder, M. R. M. T., F. Ayatrohaedi, H. Datang, B. Lapoliwa, F. Aritonang, S. Feirizal, N. Martis, W. Kurniawati, and H. Astar. 2000. Penelitian kekerabatan dan pemetaan bahasa-bahasa daerah di Indonesia: Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

Lebar, F. M., G. C. Hickey, and J. K. Musgrave. 1964. Ethnic groups of mainland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press (HRAF).

LeClerc, J. 2009. Guinée Bissau. L’aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Québec: Trésor de la Langue Française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/Guinee-Bissau.htm. Accessed 15 October 2012.

LeClerc, J. 2010. Mauritanie. L’aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Québec: Trésor de la Langue Française au Québec, Université Laval. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/mauritanie.htm. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Lee, M., B. Rai, B. K. Rai, and C. Boone. 2005. Bayung Rai: A sociolinguistic survey. Kirtipur, Nepal: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University.

Leeson, L. and J. I. Saeed. 2012. Irish Sign Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Leitch, M. 2004. Langue et dialecte au sud du district d’Epena. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2004-007. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2004-007. Accessed 15 October 2012.

LeRouvreur, A. 1989. Sahéliens et sahariens du Tchad. Bibliothèque Peiresc 6. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Lewis, E. D. and C. E. Grimes. 1995. Sika: An introduction and wordlist. In D. T. Tryon (ed.), Comparative Austronesian dictionary, part 1, pp. 601–609. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lewis, M. P. 1999. Language (development) as particle, wave, and field. Notes on Sociolinguistics 4 (1):3–19.

Lewis, M. P. and G. F. Simons. 2010. Assessing endangerment: Expanding Fishman’s GIDS. Revue Roumaine de Linguistique 55 (2):103–120. http://www.lingv.ro/RRL%202%202010%20art01Lewis.pdf. Accessed 11 January 2011.

Li Fang-gui. 1973. Languages and dialects of China. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1:1–13.

Li Fengxiang and L. J. Whaley. 2009. Oroqen vocabulary. In M. Haspelmath and T. Uri (eds.), Loanwords in the world’s languages, a comparative handbook, pp. 525–574. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Li Jinfang. 1997. Buyang language research. Beijing: Central Nationalities University Press.

Li Jinfang. 2006. A survey of endangered languages of the Southwest Region. Beijing: Central Nationalities University Press.

Li, P. J. K. 1990. Classification of Formosan languages: Lexical evidence. The Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 61 (4):809–844.

Liang Min and Zhang Junru. 2002. Study of the Biao language. Beijing: Central Nationalities University Press.

Liang Min. 1990. The Buyang language. In J. A. Edmondson (ed.), Kadai: Discussion in Kadai and Southeast Asian linguistics, Vol. 2, pp. 13–55. Arlington, TX: University of Texas at Arlington.

Lieberson, S. 1981. Language diversity and language contact. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Liljegren, H. 2008. Towards a grammatical description of Palula: An Indo-Aryan language of the Hindu Kush. Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University.

Lim, S. 1981. Baba Malay, the language of the “Straits-born” Chinese. M.A. thesis, Monash University, Australia.

Lin Xiangrong. 1993. Jiarongyu yanjiu. Chengdu: Sichuan Nationality Press.

Lobel, J. W. 2004. Old Bikol -um- vs- mag- and the loss of a morphological paradigm. Oceanic Linguistics 43 (2):469–497.

Lobel, J. W. 2005. The angry register of the Bikol languages of the Philippines. In Hsiu-chuan Liao and C. R. Galvez Rubino (eds.), Current issues in Philippine linguistics and anthropology: Parangal kay Lawrence A Reid, pp. 149–166. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.

Lobel, J. W. 2010. Manide: An undescribed Philippine language. Oceanic Linguistics 29 (2):478–510.

Lobel, J. W. 2012. Issues in Philippine and Philippine-type languages. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii.

Loos, E. E. 1973. Algunas implicaciones de la reconstrucción de un fragmento de la gramática del proto-pano. In E. E. Loos (ed.), Estudios Panos, pp. 263–282. Serie Lingüística Peruana 11. Yarinacocha, Peru: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.

Lopis, J. 1980. Phonologie et morphologie nominale du Noon (parler de Ngente). Thèse de 3e cycle, Institut National des Langues et Civilisation Orientales.

Lorenzino, G. A. 1999. The Angolar Creole Portuguese of São Tomé: Its grammar and sociolinguistic history. Munich: LINCOM Europa.

Loski, R. A. and G. M. Loski. 1989. The languages indigenous to Eastern Seram and adjacent islands. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 6:103–142.

Lothers, L. and M. D. Lothers. 2007. Pahari and Pothwari: A sociolinguistic survey. Frontier Language Institute Language and Culture Series 2. Peshawar, Pakistan: Frontier Language Institute.

Lynch, J. and T. Crowley. 2001. Languages of Vanuatu: A new survey and bibliography. Pacific Linguistics 517. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Macuch, M., M. Maggi, and W. Sundermann (eds.). 2007. Iranian languages and texts from Iran and Turan. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Maddieson, I. U. 1991. Utset: A Chamic tone language of Hainan. Paper presented at Sixth International Conference of Austronesian Linguistics. Honolulu.

Maho, J. F. 1998. Few people, many tongues: The languages of Namibia. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan.

Maho, J. F. and B. Sands. 2002. The languages of Tanzania: A bibliography. Orientalia et africana gothoburgensia 17. Göteborg: Göteborg University.

Makoni, S. and A. Pennycook (eds.). 2006. Disinventing and reconstituting languages. Bilingual education and bilingualism. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Manessy, G. (ed.). 1981. Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne. 1: Les langues de l’Afrique Subsaharienne. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

Manessy, G. 1961. Le bwamu et ses dialectes. Publication de la Section de Langues et Litteraires 9. Dakar: Facultie des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.

Manessy, G. 1975. Les langues Oti-Volta: Classification généalogique d’un groupe des langues voltaïques. Paris: Société des Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France (SELAF).

Manessy, G. and S. Sauvageot. 1963. Wolof et Sérer: études de phonétique et de grammaire descriptive. Dakar: Université de Dakar, Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences humaines.

Manson, K. 2010. A Grammar of Kayan, a Tibeto-Burman language. Ph.D. dissertation, LaTrobe University.

Manson, K. 2011. The subgrouping of Karen. Journal of the South East Asian Linguistics Society 21:11–13.

Marçais, P. 1977. Esquisse grammaticale de L’Arabe Maghrebin. Paris: Librairie d’Amerique et d’Orient.

Marrison, G. E. 1967. The classification of the Naga languages of north east India. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London.

Marshall, C. 2000. A phonological description of Fordata. In C. E. Grimes (ed.), Spices from the east: Papers in languages of eastern Indonesia, pp. 181–235. Pacific Linguistics 503. Canberra: Australian National University.

Martens, M. 1989. The Badaic languages of Central Sulawesi. In J. N. Sneddon (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi linguistics, part 1, pp. 19–53. NUSA: Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 31. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Atma Jaya.

Martin, P. W. 1995. Whither the indigenous languages of Brunei Darussalem? Oceanic Linguistics 34 (1):27–43.

Martin, P. W., C. Oxog, and G. Poedjosoedarmo (eds.). 1996. Language use and language change in Brunei Darussalam. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies.

Maryott, K. R. 1993. The Sangir language project: A status report (Penyelidikan bahasa dan perkembangan wawasannya), Vol. 1, pp. 320–358. Jakarta: Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia.

Masica, C. P. 1991. The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Masinambow, E. K. M. and P. Haenen. 2002. Bahasa Indonesia dan Bahasa Daerah. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor.

Matisoff, J. A. 1991. Endangered languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. In R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered languages, pp. 189–228. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Matisoff, J. A., S. P. Baron, and J. B. Lowe. 1996. Languages and dialects of Tibeto-Burman. Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Monograph Series 1 and 2. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Maurer, P. 1995. L’Angolar. Un créole afro-portugais parlé à São Tomé; Notes de grammaire, textes, vocabulaires. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Mayers, M. K. (ed.). 1966. Languages of Guatemala. Janua Linguarum, Series Practica 23. The Hague: Mouton.

Mbongue, J., E. Domche, E. Brye, and E. Brye. 2002. Première évaluation globale de la situation sociolinguistique de la langue lefa. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-049. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2002-049. Accessed 15 October 2012.

McCarus, E. N. 2009. Kurdish. In G. Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian languages, pp. 587–633. Routledge Language Family Series. London and New York: Routledge.

McConnell, G. D. (ed.). 1995. The written languages of the world: A survey of the degree and modes of use. Quebec City: Laval University Press.

McConvell, P. and N. Thieberger. 2001. State of indigenous languages in Australia—2001. Australia State of the Environment Second Technical Paper Series (Natural and Cultural Heritage). Canberra: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

McCrum, R., W. Cran, and R. MacNeil. 1986. The story of English. New York: Elisabeth Sifton Books, Viking.

McElhanon, K. A. 1970. The Selepet language within the Finisterre-Huon phylum (New Guinea). Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University.

McElhanon, K. A. 1978. A classification of the languages of the Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea with the linguistic situation of individual villages. Canberra: Australian National University.

McGregor, W. 1988. Handbook of Kimberley languages, Vol. 1, General information. Pacific Linguistics C-105. Canberra: Australian National University.

McGregor, W. and A. Rumsey. 2009. Worrorran revisited: The case for genetic relations among languages of the Northern Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Pacific Linguistics 600. Canberra: Australian National University.

McSweeney, K. 2002. A demographic profile of the Tawahka Amerindians of Honduras. Geographical Review 92 (3):398–414.

Mead, D. E. 1999. The Bungku-Tolaki languages of South-Eastern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pacific Linguistics D-91. Canberra: Australian National University.

Mead, D. E. 2001. A preliminary sketch of the Bobongko language. In W. D. Laidig (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi linguistics, pp. 61–94. NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 49. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

Mead, D. E. and M. Mead. 1991. Survey of Pamona dialects of Kecamatan Bungku Tengah. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures. Ujung Pandaar: SIL and Universitas Hasanuddin.

Mead, D. E., M.-Y. Lee, and C. Neveux. 2007. Mapping Indonesian Bajau communities in Sulawesi. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2007-019. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2007-019. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Mead, M. 1956. New lives for old; cultural transformation—Manus, 1928–1953. New York: Morrow.

Meho, L. I. 2002. The Kurds in Lebanon. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16 (January 2002):59–82. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-132797081/kurds-lebanon-social-and.html. Accessed 18 October 2012.

Menon, M. T. (ed.). 1996. Encyclopedia of Dravidian tribes, Vol. 1–2. Thiruvananthapura: The DLA Publications.

Messing, G. M. 1980. Politics and national language in Albania. In V. Coetsem and L. R. Waugh (eds.), Contributions to historical linguistics, Vol. 3, pp. 270–280. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Michaelis, S. (ed.). 2008. Roots of Creole structures: Weighing the contribution of substrates and superstrates. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Michalchenko, V. Y. (ed.). 2003. Pismennye yazyki mira: Yazyki Rossiyskoy federatsii 2. (Written languages of the world: Languages of the Russian Federation 2). Sociolinguistic Encyclopedia. Moscow: Academia.

Migliazza, E. C. 1985. Languages of the Orinoco-Amazon region: Current status. In H. E. Manelis Klein and L. R. Stark (eds.), South American Indian languages, pp. 17–139. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Mixco, M. 1978. Cochimi and Proto-Yuman: Lexical and syntactic evidence for the new language family in Lower California. Anthropological Papers 101. Salt Lake City: University of Utah.

Miyaoka, O., O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss. 2007. The vanishing languages of the Pacific rim. Oxford Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mohammed, N. 2009. Bahasa Melayu kreol Chetti Melaka: deskripsi leksiko-fonologi. Penang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Mohan, P. and P. Zador. 1986. Discontinuity in a life cycle: The death of Trinidad Bhojpuri. Language 62:291–319.

Moñino, Y. 1988. Lexique comparatif des langues oubanguiennes: collectif. Publications du Département langues et parole en Afrique centrale Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner S.A.

Moody, D. C. and J. R. Walton. 1984. The east coast Bajau languages. In J. K. King and J. W. King (eds.), Languages of Sabah: A survey report, pp. 113–123. Pacific Linguistics C-78. Canberra: Australia National University.

Moore, D. 2006. Brazil: Language situation. In K. Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. 2nd, Vol. 2, pp. 117–128. Oxford: Elsevier.

Morey, S. 2006. Small languages in a polylingual situation—the case of Turung. In R. Elangaiyan, R. McKenna Brown, N. D. M. Ostler, and M. K. Verma (eds.), Vital voices: Endangered languages and multilingualism: Proceedings of the Tenth Foundation for Endangered Languages Conference, pp. 173–177. Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages and Foundation for Endangered Languages.

Morgenstierne, G. 1974. Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions. In K. Jettmas (ed.), Cultures of the Hindu Kush: Selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held in Moesgard 1970, pp. 1–10. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner GmbH.

Morse, S. A. 1989. Five Rawang dialects compared plus more. In D. Bradley, E. J. A. Henderson, and M. Mazaudon (eds.), Prosodic analysis and Asian linguistics: To honour R K Sprigg, pp. 237–250. Pacific Linguistics C-104. Canberra: Australia National University.

Moseley, C. (ed.). 2007. Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. London: Routledge.

Moseley, C. (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. 3rd ed. Paris: UNESCO Publishing

Moulton, W. G. 1988. Mutual intelligibility among speakers of early Germanic dialects. In D. G. Calder and T. C. Christy (eds.), Germania: Comparative studies in the Old Germanic languages and literatures, pp. 9–28. Wolfeboro, NH: D. S. Brewer.

Musa, M. 2011. The socioeconomic history of the Orang Kanaq of Johor. Kajian Malaysia 29 (1):47–74.

Musgrave, J. 2007. A grammar of Neve’ei, Vanuatu. Pacific Linguistics 587. Canberra: Australian National University.

Naby, E. 1975. Les Assyriens d’Union Sovietique. Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 16 (3–4):445–457. http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/cmr_0008-0160_1975_num_16_3_1249.

Nahhas, R. W. 2007. Sociolinguistic survey of Mpi in Thailand. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2007-016. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2007-016. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Najlis, E. 1966. Lengua Abipona, Tomo 1-2. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios, Universidad de Buenos Aires.

Neumann-Holzschuh, I. 1985. Le créole de Beaux Bridge, Louisiane: étude morphosyntaxique, textes, vocabulaire. Kreolische Bibliothek 7. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Newmark, L., P. Hubbard, and P. Prifti. 1982. Standard Albanian: A reference grammar for students. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Nicolaï, R. 1979. Le Songhay Central. Études Linguistiques 1 (2):33–69.

Nicolaï, R. 1981. Les dialectes du Songhay: Contributions a l’etude des changements linguistiques. Ph.D. dissertation, Société d’Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France (SELAF).

Nicolaï, R. 1983. Position, structure, and classification of Songay. In M. L. Bender (ed.), Nilo-Saharan language studies, pp. 11–41. East Lansing, MI: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Nida, E. A. (ed.). 1972. The book of a thousand tongues. 2nd ed. New York: United Bible Societies.

Nikolić, H. 2008. Relasi historis Bahasa Benuaq dalam silsilah kekerabatan Bahasa-bahasa Barito. M.A. thesis, Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Noonan, M. 1996. The fall and rise and fall of the Chantyal language. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 15 (1–2):121–136.

Noonan, M. 1997. Versatile nominalizations. In J. Bybee, J. Haiman, and S. Thompson (eds.), Essays on language function and language type: In honor of T Givón, pp. 373–393. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Noorduyn, J. 1991. A critical survey of studies on the languages of Sulawesi. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Nurse, D. and G. Philippson. 1980. The Bantu languages of East Africa: a lexicostatistical survey. In E. D. Polomé and C. P. Hill (eds.), Language in Tanzania, pp. 26–67. London: Oxford University Press for International African Institute.

Nyrop, R. F. (ed.). 1986. The Yemens: Country studies. Washington, D. C.: American University.

Nyst, V. 2007. A descriptive analysis of Adamorobe Sign Language (Ghana). Utrecht: LOT (Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics).

Oates, W. J. and L. F. Oates. 1970. A revised linguistic survey of Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.

Oberling, P. 1974. The Qashqa’i nomads of Fars. The Hague: Mouton.

Ohannessian, S. and M. E. Kashoki (eds.). 1978. Language in Zambia. London: International African Institute.

Okamura, T. 2010. Dying language of the island: The direction the Tokunoshima dialect (Shimakuchi) is heading. Kokubungaku Kaishaku-to Kansho 75 (1):164–167.

Okojie, C. G. 1994. Esan native laws and customs with ethnographic studies of the Esan people. 5th. Benin City, Nigeria: Ilupeju Press.

Olson, K. S. 1996. On the comparison and classification of Banda dialects. In L. M. Dobrin, K. Singer, and L. McNair (eds.), Papers from the main session, pp. 267–283. Chicago Linguistics Society 32. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Oltrogge, D. 1977. Proto-Jicaque Subtiaba-Tequistlateco: A comparative reconstruction. M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.

Omar, A. H. 1983. The Malay peoples of Malaysia and their languages. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

Opgenort, J. R. 2005. A grammar of Jero, with a historical comparative study of the Kiranti languages. Brill’s Tibetan Studies Library Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region 5/3. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Oranskaia, T. I., Y. V. Mazurova, A. A. Kibrik, L. I. Kulikov, and A. Y. Rusakov (eds.). 2011. Iazyki mira: novye indoariiskie iazyki [Languages of the world: New Indo-Aryan languages]. Moscow: Academia.

Ostapirat, W. 2000. Proto-Kra. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 23 (1):1–251.

O’Toole, T. 1978. Historical dictionary of Guinea (Republic of Guinea/Conakry). African historical dictionaries 16. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Ottenheimer, H. J. and M. Ottenheimer. 1976. The classification of the languages of the Comoro Islands. Africana Linguistica 18 (9):408–415.

Pakir, A. G. 1986. A linguistic investigation of Baba Malay. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai’i.

Paldan, T. 2002. Languages change: From preclassical Tibetan to modern spoken Ladakhi. Paper presented at 8th Himalayan Languages Symposium, September 19–22, 2002. Berne, Switzerland.

Paper, H. H. (ed.). 1978. Jewish languages: Theme and variation. 1st ed. Cambridge, New York: Association for Jewish Studies.

Parkin, R. 1991. A guide to Austro-Asiatic speakers and their languages. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication 23. Honolulu: University of Hawai’’i.

Parkvall, M. 2009. Sueriges språk- vemtalar vad och var? Stockholm: Stockholm University.

Patai, B. (ed.). 1972. The early history of Malawi. London: Longman.

Paul, L. 1998. Zazi [Zazaki]: Grammatik und Versuch einer dialektologie. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Paul, L. 2007. Zur Lage der Gōrānī-Dialekte im Iran und ihrer Erforschung. In M. Macuch, M. Maggi, and W. Sundermann (eds.), Iranian languages and texts from Iran and Turan, pp. 285–286. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Pawley, A. 2005. The chequered career of the Trans New Guinea hypothesis: Recent research and its implications. In A. Pawley, R. Attenborough, J. Golson, and R. Hide (eds.), Papuan pasts: Cultural, linguistics and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples, pp. 67–107. Pacific Linguistics 572. Canberra: Australian National University.

Payne, D. L. 1991. A classification of Maipuran (Arawakan) languages based on shared lexical retentions. In D. C. Derbyshire and G. K. Pullum (eds.), Handbook of Amazonian languages, Vol. 3, pp. 355–499. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Payne, D. L. 1993. Una visión panorámica de la familia lingüística arawak. In M. L. Rodríguez de Montes (ed.), Estado actual de la clasificación de las lenguas indígenas de Colombia: Ponencias presentadas en el seminario-taller realizado en el Instituto Caro y Cuervo (Febrero 10, 11, y 12 de 1988), pp. 127–164. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Payne, J. R. 1987. Iranian languages. In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, Vol. 13, pp. 514–522. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pelkey, J. R. 2008. The Phula languages in synchronic and diachronic perspective. Ph.D. dissertation, La Trobe University.

Pelkey, J. R. 2011. Dialectology as dialectic: Interpreting Phula variation. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 229. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Pike, K. L. 1959. Language as particle, wave, and field. The Texas Quarterly 2 (2):37–54.

Podolsky, B. 1985. Notes on the Urum language. Rovanik Orientalistyczny 44 (2):59–66.

Pohle, P. 1988. The adaptation of house and settlement to high altitude environment: A study of the Manang District of the Nepal-Himalaya. Journal of the Nepal Research Centre, Kathmandu 8:67–103.

Polomé, E. C. and C. P. Hill (eds.). 1980. Language in Tanzania. London: Oxford University Press for International African Institute.

Poppe, N. 1955. Introduction to Mongolian comparative studies. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.

Prachakij-karacak, P. 1995. Some languages of Siam. Mahidol: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University.

Prentice, D. J. 1971. The Murut languages of Sabah. Canberra: Linguistic Circle of Canberra.

Prentice, D. J. 1987. Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian). In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, pp. 913–935. New York: Oxford University Press.

Priestly, T. 1993. Slovene. In B. Comrie and G. Corbett (eds.), The Slavonic languages, pp. 388–451. London: Routledge.

Pstrusinska, J. 1990. Afghanistan 1989 in sociolinguistic perspective. Central Asian Survey Incidental Papers 7. London: Society for Central Asian Studies.

Pstrusinska, J. and C. Gray (eds.). 1990. Afghanistan 1989 in sociolinguistic perspective. Central Asian Survey Incidental Papers 7. London: Society for Central Asian Studies.

Purnama, K. 1991. The sociolinguistic pattern of use of Standard Malay in Brunei Darussalam. Paper presented at Sixth International Conference of Austronesian Linguistics. Honolulu.

Purnell, H. C. 1970. Toward a reconstruction of Proto-Miao-Yao. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Queixalos, F. 2000. As linguas amazónicas hoje. In F. Queixalos and O. Renault-Lecure (eds.), Langues de Guyane Français, p. 299. São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental.

Queixalos, F. and O. Renault-Lescure (eds.). 2000. Langues de Guyane Français. São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental.

Quick, P. 2007. A grammar of the Pendau language of central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pacific Linguistics 590. Canberra: Australian National University.

Quinto-Pozos, D. (ed.). 2007. Sign languages in contact. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.

Rajyashree, K. S. 2001. Kodava speech community: An ethnolinguistic study. Language in India 1. http://www.languageinindia.com/oct2001/kodavarajyashree.html. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Ramsey, R. 1987. The languages of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Redinha, J. 1970. Distribuição étnica da Província de Angol. 6th. Angola: Centro de Informação e Turismo de Angola.

Regmi, D. R. 2007. The Bhujel language. Ph.D. dissertation, Tribhuvan University.

Rehg, K. L. and B. W. Bender. 1990. Lexical transfer from Marshallese to Mokilese: A study in intra-Micronesian borrowing. Oceanic Linguistics 29:1–26.

Rehman, K. A. and J. L. G. Baart. 2005. A first look at the language of Kundal Shahi in Azad Kashmir. SIL Electronic Working Papers 2005-008. Dallas: SIL International. http://www.sil.org/silewp/abstract.asp?ref=2005-008. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Reid, L. A. 1971. Philippine minor languages: Word lists and phonologies. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication 8. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Reinecke, J., S. Tsuzaki, D. DeCamp, I. F. Hancock, and R. Wood (eds.). 1975. A bibliography of Pidgin and creole languages. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Remijsen, A. C. L. 2001. Word-prosodic systems of Raja Ampat languages. Utrecht, The Netherlands: LOT (Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics).

Rensch, C. R. 2006. Studies in the early Bidayuh language: Proto Bidayuh and its relatives. In C. R. Rensch, C. M. Rensch, J. Noeb, and R. S. Ridu (eds.), The Bidayuh language: Yesterday, today and tomorrow, pp. 135–442. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia: Dayak Bidayuh National Association.

Rensch, C. R., C. M. Rensch, J. Noeb, and R. S. Ridu (eds.). 2006. The Bidayuh language: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia: Dayak Bidayuh National Association.

Rhodes, R. A. 1976. The morphosyntax of the Central Ojibwa verb. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.

Ribeiro, D. 1957. Culturas e linguas indígenas do Brasil. Educação e Ciencias Sociais 6. Rio de Janeiro: Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Educacionais.

Ricardo, F. P. (ed.). 2008. Encyclopedia of Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental.

Rivas, R. D. 1993. Pueblos indígenas y garífuna de Honduras: Una caracterización. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Editorial Guaymuras.

Robinne, F. 2000. Fils et maîtres du lac: relations interethniques dans l’ État Shan de Birmanie. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).

Rodrigues, A. D. 1986. Línguas brasileiras: Para o conhecimento das línguas indígenas. São Paulo: Loyola.

Rodrigues, A. D. 1999. Macro-Jê. In R. M. W. Dixon and A. Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), The Amazonian languages, pp. 164–206. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roesler, C. 1972. The phonology of the Ajam dialect of Asmat. M.A. thesis, Hartford Seminary Foundation.

Ross, M. D. 1988. Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian languages of western Melanesia. Pacific Linguistics C-98. Canberra: Australian National University.

Ross, M. D. 2001. Is there an East Papuan phylum? Evidence from pronouns. In A. Pawley, M. Ross, and D. Tryon (eds.), The boy from Bundaberg: Studies in Melanesian linguistics in honour of Tom Dutton, pp. 301–322. Pacific Linguistics 514. Canberra: Australian National University.

Ross, M. D. 2005. Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages. In A. Pawley, R. Attenborough, J. Golson, and R. Hide (eds.), Papuan pasts: Cultural, linguistics and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples, pp. 17–65. Pacific linguistics 572. Canberra: Australian National University.

Rubino, C. 2008. Zamboangueño Chavacano and the potentive mode. In S. Michaelis (ed.), Roots of creole structures: Weighing the contribution of substrates and superstrates, pp. 279–299. Creole Language Library 33. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Ruhlen, M. 1987. A guide to the world’s languages, Vol. 1, Classification. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Sacks, O. 1989. Seeing voices. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sáenz-Badillos, A. 1993. A history of the Hebrew language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sakiyama, O. 2000. Endangered languages of the Pacific Region. Kyoto: Osaka Gakuin University.

Salleh, H. (ed.). 2006. Peoples and traditions. Encyclopedia of Malaysia 12. Kuala Lumpur: Archipelago Press.

Salminen, T. 1993. UNESCO Red book of endangered languages/Europe. http://www.helsinki.fi/~tasalmin/europe_index.html. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Salminen, T. 1997. Ecology and ethnic survival among the Nenets. In H. Shoji and J. Janhunen (eds.), Northern minority languages: Problems of survival, pp. 93–107. Senri Ethnological Studies 44. Osaka, Japan: National Museum of Ethnology.

Salminen, T. 2007. Europe and North Asia. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 211–282. London: Routledge.

Samarin, W. J. 1971. Adamawa-Eastern. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 213–244. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Sandler, W., I. Meir, C. Padden, and M. Aronoff. 2005. The emergence of grammar in a new Sign Language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (7):2661–2665.

Sankoff, G. 1968. Social aspects of multilingualism in New Guinea. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University.

Sapir, J. D. 1971. West Atlantic: An inventory of the languages, their noun class systems and consonant alternation. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 45–58. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Schadeberg, T. C. 1989. Kordofanian. In J. Bendor-Samuel and R. L. Hartell (eds.), The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family, pp. 67–80. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Schadeberg, T. C. and M. L. Bender (eds.). 1981. Nilo-Saharan: proceedings of the First Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Leiden, September 8–10, 1980. Dordrecht, Holland and Cinnaminson, NJ: Foris Publications.

Schaefer, R. P. 1987. An initial orthography and lexicon for Emai: An Edoid language of Nigeria. Studies in African Grammatical Systems 5. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Schalley, A. C. and D. Khlentzos (eds.). 2007. Mental States. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Schenker, A. M. and E. Stankiewicz (eds.). 1980. The Slavic literary languages: Formation and development. New Haven: Yale Concilium on International and Area Studies.

Schladt, M. (ed.). 1998. Language, identity, and conceptualizaton among the Khoisan. Research in Khoisan Studies 15. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Schliessinger, J. 2003. Ethnic groups of Laos. Profile of Austro‑Thai speaking peoples 3. Bangkok: White Lotus.

Schmidt, A. 1990. The loss of Australia’s Aboriginal language heritage. The Institute Report Series. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.

Schmitt, R. (ed.). 1989. Compendium linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag.

Schooling, S. 1990. Language maintenance in Melanesia: Sociolinguistics and social networks in New Caledonia. Publications in Linguistics 91. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Schütz, A. J. 1972. The languages of Fiji. Oxford: Clarendon.

Sebeok, T. A. (ed.). 1963. Soviet and East European linguistics. Current Trends in Linguistics 1. The Hague: Mouton.

Sebeok, T. A. (ed.). 1967. Linguistics in East Asia and Southeast Asia Current Trends in Linguistics 2. The Hague: Mouton.

Sebeok, T. A. (ed.). 1970. Linguistics in Southwest Asia and North Africa. Current Trends in Linguistics 6. The Hague: Mouton.

Sebeok, T. A. (ed.). 1971. Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Sebeok, T. A. (ed.). 1971. Linguistics in Oceania, Vol. 8. Current Trends in Linguistics. The Hague: Mouton.

Shackle, C. 1979. Problems of classification in Pakistan Panjab. Transactions of the Philological Society 77 (1):191–210.

Shackle, C. 1980. Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 43 (3):482–510.

Sharma, H. B. and R. P. Gautam. 1999. Record on Nepalese development: Nepal district profile. A distinctive socio-techno-economic profile along with a comprehensive national profile. 4th. Kathmandu: Samudayik Printers.

Shashi, P. and S. S. Shri. 1994. Encyclopedia of Indian tribes. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.

Shaw, R. D. 1973. A tentative classification of the languages of the Mt. Bosavi Region. In K. J. Franklin Jr. (ed.), The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea, pp. 187–215. Pacific Linguistics C-26. Canberra: Australian National University.

Shaw, R. D. 1986. The Bosavi language family. Pacific Linguistics A-70.

Shearer, W. and Sun Hong Kai. 2002. Speakers of the Non-Han languages and dialects in China. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Shibatani, M. 1990. The languages of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shimizu, K. 1978. The southern Bauchi group of Chadic languages: A survey report. Africana Marburgensia Special Edition 2. Marburg: Universitätsbibliothek.

S’hiri, S. 1994. Tunisia: Language situation. In R. E. Asher and J. M. Y. Simpson (eds.), The encyclopedia of language and linguistics. 1st. ed., Vol. 9, p. 4777. New York: Pergamon.

Shoji, H. and J. Janhunen (eds.). 1997. Northern Minority languages: Problems of survival. Osaka and Fairbanks: National Museum of Ethnology and Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Singh, K. S. (ed.). 1994. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. People of India 12. Oxford and Calcutta: Anthropolgocal Survey of India with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S. (ed.). 1994. The scheduled tribes. People of India 3. Calcutta and Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S. (ed.). 1995. Arunachal Pradesh People of India 14. Calcutta and Oxford: Anthropological Survey of Indian with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S. (ed.). 1995. The scheduled castes, rev., Vol. 2. People of India. Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S. (ed.). 1998. India’s communities People of India 4, 5, 6. Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S. (ed.). 1998. Manipur. People of India 31. Calcutta and Oxford: Anthropological Survey of India with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S. and S. Manoharan (eds.). 1993. Languages and scripts People of India 9. Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India with Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. S., B. K. Bardoloi, and R. K. Athaparia (eds.). 2003. Assam. People of India 15. Calcutta: Seagull Books.

Singh, N. 1972. Bhutan: A kingdom in the Himalayas. New Delhi: Thomson.

Sinha, R. 1962. The Akas. Shillong: Research Dept. Advisor’s Secretariat.

Smalley, W. A. 1976. Phonemes and orthography: Language planning in ten minority languages of Thailand. Pacific Linguistics C-43. Canberra: Australian National University.

Smalley, W. A. 1994. Linguistic diversity and national unity: Language ecology in Thailand. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Smith, K. D. 1968. Sedan dialects. M.A. thesis, University of North Dakota.

Smith, K. D. 1972. A phonological reconstruction of Proto-North-Bahnaric Language Data-Asia Pacific Studies 3. Santa Ana: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Smith, K. D. 1973. Eastern north Bahnaric: Cua and Kotua. Mon-Khmer Studies 4:113–118.

Sneddon, J. 2003. The Indonesian language: its history and role in modern society. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Sneddon, J. N. (ed.). 1989. Studies in Sulawesi Linguistics: Part I. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Atma Jaya.

Sneddon, J. N. and H. T. Usup. 1986. Shared sound changes in the Gorontalic language group: Implications for subgrouping. Bijdragen tot de Taal-Landen Volkenkunde 142:407–426.

Sommer, G. 1992. A survey on language death in Africa. In M. Brenzinger (ed.), Language death: Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa, pp. 301–307. Contributions to the Sociology of Language 64. Berlin and New York: Mouton De Gruyter.

Soriente, A. 2005. Linguistic classifications and local epistemology in Borneo: The case of Kenyah languages. Paper presented at International ATMA-IKON Conference: The Languages and Literatures of Western Borneo: 144 years of research, 30 January–1 February 2005. Univesiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Soriente, A. 2006. Mencaleny and Usung Bayung Marang: A collection of Kenyah stories in the Oma Longh and Lebu’ Kulit language. Jakarta: Atma Jaya University Press.

Stanley, G. E. 1968. The indigenous languages of South West Africa. Anthropological Linguistics 10:5–18.

Stanzer, W. 1988. Kordi: Leben, Knuepfen, Weben der Kurden Khorasans. Vienna: Kollektion Adil Besim.

Stephens, M. 1976. Linguistic minorities in western Europe. Llandysul, Wales: Gomer.

Stevenson, R. C. 1984. The Nuba people of Kordofan Province: An ethnographic survey. Khartoum: Graduate College, University of Khartoum.

Stewart, J. M. 1971. Niger-Congo, Kwa. In T. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 179–212. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Stewart, W. A. 1968. A sociolinguistic typology for describing national multilingualism. In J. A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in the sociology of language, pp. 530–553. The Hague: Mouton.

Storch, A. 1999. Das Hone und seine Stellung im Zentral-Jukunoid. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.

Strand, R. F. 1973. Notes on the Nuristani and Dardic languages. Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (3):297–305.

Strand, R. F. 2001. The tongues of Peristân. In A. M. Cacopardo and A. S. Cacopardo (eds.), Gates of Peristân: History, religion and society in the Hindu Kush, pp. 251–259. Rome: Instituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.

Strecker, D. 1989. Hmongic noun prefixes. Paper presented at Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, December 1989. Washington, D. C.

Strømme, K. J. 1987. Kabupaten Polewali Mamasa, west-central section. In T. Friberg (ed.), Universitas Hasanuddin-SIL South Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys, 1983–1987, pp. 17–40. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 5. Ujung Pandang: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Suárez, J. A. 1977. Premier approche du quawasqar, identification et phonologie. La Linguistique 13:145–152.

Sun Hong Kai and Liu Guangkun. 2009. A grammar of Anong: Language death under intense contact. Brill’s Tibetan Studies Library 9. Leiden: Brill.

Sun Hong Kai. 2005. The Anong language: Studies of a language in decline. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 173:143–157.

Taylor, B. K. 1962. The Western Lacustrine Bantu. London: International African Institute.

Taylor, I. 1997. Buddhas in disguise. San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press.

Tchegnon, P. and M. E. Guidibi. 2006. Monographie de la commune de Cobly. Cotonou, Benin: Mission de décentralisation, Programme d’Appui au Demarrage des Communes, Afrique Conseil.

Tempesta, G. A. 2009. Travessia de Banzeiros. Historicidade e Organizacao Sociopolitica Apiaka. Ph.D. dissertation. Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de Brasilia.

Temple, O. and C. L. Temple. 1922. Notes on the tribes, provinces, emirates and states of the northern provinces of Nigeria. Cape Town: Argus Printing and Publishing Co.

Thomas, D. D. 1969. Mon-Khmer subgroupings in Vietnam. Mon-Khmer Studies 3:74–75.

Thomas, D. D. 1976. South Bahnaric and other Mon-Khmer numeral systems. Linguistics 174:65–80.

Thomas, D. D. 1980. The place of Alak, Tampuan, and West Bahnaric. Mon-Khmer Studies 8:171–186.

Thomas, D. D. and R. K. Headley, Jr. 1970. More on Mon-Khmer subgroupings. Lingua 25:398–418.

Thongkum, T. L. 1984. Rhythmic groups and stress groups in Thai. Paper presented at International Conference on Thai Studies Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Thurgood, G. and R. LaPolla (eds.). 2003. The Sino-Tibetan languages. London: Routledge.

Thurston, E. and K. Rangachari. 1909. Castes and tribes of Southern India, Vol. 5. Madras: Madras Government Press.

Tiendrebeogo, G. 1983. Langues et groupes ethniques de Haute Volta. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquee et l’Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique.

Tiendrebeogo, G. and Z. Yago. 1983. Situation des langues parlées en Haute Volta. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquee et l’Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique.

Tjia, J. 2007. A Grammar of Mualang: An Ibanic language of Western Kalimantan, Indonesia. Leiden, Netherlands: Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.

Toba, S. 1976. National language and ethnic minority languages in Nepal. Symposium Nepal Japan Nepal Society 4:30–36.

Toba, S. 1983. A phonological reconstruction of Proto-Northern Rai. M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.

Toba, S. 1991. A bibliography of Nepalese languages and linguistics. Kathmandu: Linguistic Society of Nepal.

Toba, S., I. Toba, and N. K. Rai. 2002. UNESCO Language survey report Nepal. Kathmandu: UNESCO.

Toba, S., I. Toba, and N. K. Rai. 2005. Diversity and endangerment of languages of Nepal. UNESCO Kathmandu Series of Monographs and Working Papers 7. Kathmandu: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Todd, E. M. 1975. The Solomon language family. In S. A. Wurm (ed.), New Guinea area languages and language study, Vol. 1, Papuan languages and the New Guinea linguistic scene, pp. 805–846. Pacific Linguistics C-38. Canberra: Australian National University.

Todd, L. and P. Mühlhäusler. 1978. Idiomatic expressions in Cameroon Pidgin English and Tok Pisin Pacific Linguistics Occasional Papers. A-54:1–32.

Tomikawa, M. (ed.). 1984. Sudan Sahel Studies I. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA).

Tourneux, H. 2004. Les marques personnelles en kotoko et en mafa/wandala. In D. Ibriszimow and G. Segerer (eds.), Systèmes de marques personnelles en Afrique, pp. 199–212. Paris: Peeters.

Tourneux, H., C. Seignobos, and F. Lafarge. 1986. Les mbara et leur langue (Tchad). Langues et cultures africaines 6. Paris: Société d’Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France (SELAF).

Tovar, A. 1961. Catálogo de las lenguas de América del Sur. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamérica.

Tovar, A. 1966. Notas de campo sobre el idioma Chorote. In A. J. Núñez (ed.), XXXVI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, España 1964: Actas y Memorias, Tomo 2, pp. 221–227. Sevilla: Congreso Internacional de Americanistas.

Tovar, A. and C. Larrucea de Tovar. 1984. Catálogo de las lenguas de América del Sur con clasificaciones, indicaciones tipológicas, bibliografía y mapas. Madrid: Gredos.

Traill, A. 1974. The compleat guide to the Koon : a research report on linguistic fieldwork undertaken in Botswana and South West Africa. Johannesburg: African Studies Institute, University of Witwatersrand.

Traill, A. 1985. Phonetic and phonological studies of !xoo Bushman. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forshung 1. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Trask, R. L. 1997. The history of Basque. London and New York: Routledge.

Trudgill, P. (ed.). 1984. Language in the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tryon, D. T. (ed.). 1995. Comparative Austronesian dictionary: An introduction to Austronesian studies. Parts 1–4. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Tryon, D. T. 1971. The contemporary language situation in the New Hebrides. Paper presented at 28th International Congress of Orientalists, January 1971. Canberra, Australia.

Tryon, D. T. 1976. New Hebrides languages: An internal classification. Pacific Linguistics C-50. Canberra: Australian National University.

Tryon, D. T. 1978. The languages of the New Hebrides: Internal and external relationships. In S. A. Wurm and L. Carrington (eds.), Second International Conference on Austronesian Languages: Proceedings fascicle 1, pp. 877–902. Pacific Linguistics C-61. Canberra: Australian National University.

Tryon, D. T. and B. D. Hackman. 1983. Solomon Islands languages: An internal classification. Pacific Linguistics C-72. Canberra: Australian National University.

Tsuchida, S. 1976. Reconstruction of Proto-Tsouic phonology. Tokyo: Institute of Asian and African Languages and Cultures, University of Foreign Language.

Tsukida, N. and S. Tsuchida. 2007. Indigenous languages of Formosa. In O. Miyaoka, Osamu Sakiyama, and Michael E. Krauss (ed.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 285-300. Oxford linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tucker, A. N. and M. A. Bryan. 1956. The non-Bantu languages of north-eastern Africa with a supplement on the non-Bantu languages by E. O. J. Westphal. Handbook of African languages 3. London and New York: Oxford University Press for International African Institute.

Turin, M. 2007. Linguistic diversity and the preservation of endangered languages: A case study from Nepal. Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

Utsumi, A. 2001. An overview of the syntactic structure of the Bantik language. Tokyo daigaku gengogaku ronshū (Tokyo University Linguistics Papers) 20:221–236.

Vail, I. W. 1991. Sociolinguistic survey report, Kabupaten Luwu: Report on the Rongkong-Luwu languages. In T. Friberg (ed.), Universitas Hasanuddin-SIL: More Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys, 1987–1991, pp. 55–105. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 11. Ujung Pandang: Summer Institute of Linguistics

Vakhtin, N. B. 2001. Languages of the peoples of the North in the 20th century. Essays on language shift. Saint Petersburg: Yevropeyskiy Universitet/Dmitriy Bulanin.

Valdés, M. J. and D. Kadir (eds.). 2004. Literary cultures of Latin America: A comparative history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Valkama, K. 1987. Universitas Hasanuddin-SIL sociolinguistic survey: Kabupaten Majuju, Kabupatens Pinrang, Enrekang, Tana Toraja, Luwu and eastern part of Polewali Mamasa. In T. Friberg (ed.), South Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys, pp. 99–136. Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 5. Ujung Pandang: SIL.

van Bik, K. 2006. Proto-Kuki-Chin. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California.

Van Cleve, J. V. (ed.). 1986. Encyclopedia of Deaf people and deafness. Washington, D. C.: Gallaudet University.

Van der Merwe, I. J. and L. O. van Niekerk. 1994. Language in South Africa: Distribution and change. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Department of Geography, University of Stellenbosch.

Van der Voort, H. 2008. Arikapú. In F. P. Ricardo (ed.), Encyclopedia of Indigenous peoples in Brazil. São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental.

Van Driem, G. (ed.). 1997. Current trends in linguistics: Himalayan linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Van Driem, G. 1993. The grammar of Dzongkha. Bhutan: Dzongkha Development Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan.

Van Driem, G. 2001. Languages of the Himalayas: An ethnolinguistic handbook of the greater Himalayan region containing an introduction to the symbiotic theory of language. Leiden: Brill.

Van Driem, G. 2007. South Asia and the Middle East. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 283–348. London: Routledge.

Vanderaa, L. 1991. A survey for Christian Reformed World Missions and churches in West Africa. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Reformed World Missions.

Verheijen, J. A. J. 1986. The Sama/Bajau language in the lesser Sunda Islands. Pacific Linguistics D-70. Canberra: Australian National University.

Vérin, P., C. P. Kottak, and P. Gorlin. 1969. The glottochronology of Malagasy speech communities. Oceanic Linguistics 8 (1):26–83.

Vincent, N. 1987. Italian. In B. Comrie (ed.), The world’s major languages, pp. 279–302. London: Routledge.

Voegelin, C. F. and F. M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and index of the world’s languages. New York: Elsevier.

Voorhoeve, C. L. and J. T. Collins. 1981. Moluccas (Maluku). In S. A. Wurm and S. Hattori (eds.), Language atlas of the Pacific Area, part II: Japan area, Taiwan (Formosa), Philippines, mainland and insular south-east Asia, pp. 45–46. Pacific Linguistics. Canberra: The Australian Academy of the Humanities in collaboration with the Japan Academy.

Voorhoeve, C. L. and L. E. Visser. 1987. Sahu-Indonesian-English dictionary and Sahu grammar sketch. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

Vossen, R. 1981. The Eastern Nilotes: Linguistic and historical reconstructions. Cologne: University of Cologne.

Vossen, R. 1983. Comparative Eastern Nilotic. In M. L. Bender (ed.), Nilo-Saharan language studies, pp. 177–207. East Lansing, MI: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Wang Fushi and Mao Zongwu. 1995. A phonological reconstruction of the ancient Miao-Yao/Hmong-Mien language. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Press.

Wang Mingfu and E. Johnson. 2008. Zhuang cultural and linguistic heritage (Yunnan sheng wenshan Zhuang zu miao zu zizhi zhou zhuang zu wenhua yichan ji Zhuang yu yanjiu). Kunming, China: Yunnan Nationalities Publishing House.

Washabaugh, W. 1986. Five fingers for survival. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.

Watanabe, H. and F. Sasama. 2007. Languages of the Northwest Coast. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 418–441. Oxford Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Watters, D. E. 2002. A grammar of Kham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wehr, H. and J. M. Cowan. 1976. A Dictionary of modern written Arabic. 3rd. Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, Inc.

Weinreich, M. 2011. Domaaki Grammar Outline. In T. I. Oranskaia, Y. V. Mazurova, A. A. Kibrik, L. I. Kulikov, and A. Y. Rusakov (eds.), Iazyki mira: novye indoariiskie iazyki [Languages of the world: New Indo-Aryan languages], pp. 165–194. Moscow: Academia.

Weinreich, U., W. Labov, and M. I. Herzog. 1968. Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In W. P. Lehmann and Y. Malkiel (eds.), Directions for historical linguistics, pp. 95–188. Austin, Texas and London: University of Texas Press.

Weiros de Castor, E. (ed.). 1995. Antropologia do parentesco: estudios amerindios. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro.

Welmers, W. E. 1971. Checklist of languages and dialect names. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 759–900. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Welmers, W. E. 1971. Niger-Congo, Mande. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 113–140. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Westphal, E. O. J. 1971. The click languages of southern and eastern Africa. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 367–420. Current Trends in Linguistics 7. The Hague: Mouton.

Whalen, D. and G. Simons. 2012. Endangered language families. Language 88 (1):155–173.

White, J. C. 1971. Sikhim and Bhutan: Twenty-one years on the north-east frontier (1887–1908). Delhi: Vivek.

Whiteley, W. H. (ed.). 1974. Language in Kenya. Nairobi and Dar es Salaam: Oxford University Press.

Whiteley, W. H. 1969. Swahili: The rise of a national language. London: Methuen and Co.

Widlok, T. 1997. Akhoe pragmatics, Haiom identity and the Khoekhoe language. In W. H. G. Haacke and E. E. Elderkin (eds.), Namibian languages: Reports and papers, pp. 117–153. Namibian African Studies 4. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Wiesenfeld, L. P. 1999. World almanac and book of facts. Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books.

Williams, G. (ed.). 1993. Enquête sociolinguistique sur les langues Cangin de la région de Thiès au Sénégal. Cahiers de Recherche Linguistique 3. Dakar: Société Internationale de Linguistique.

Williamson, K. 1989. Benue-Congo overview. In J. Bendor-Samuel (ed.), The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family, pp. 266–267. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Willis, R. G. 1966. The Fipa and related peoples of southwest Tanzania and northeast Zambia. London: International African Institute.

Windfuhr, G. 2009. The Iranian languages. London and New York: Routledge.

Winer, L. 1993. Varieties of English around the world: Trinidad and Tobago. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Winsa, B. 1998. Language attitudes and social identity—oppression and revival of a minority language in Sweden. Canberra: Applied Linguistics Association of Australia.

Winter, J. C. 1981. Die Khoisan-Famille. Much needed discussion of the conflicting classification of Khoisan languages. In B. Heine, T. C. Schadeberg, and E. Wolff (eds.), Die Sprachen Afrikas: Ein Handbuch, pp. 329–374. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Winter, W. and G. Hansson. 1991. Linguistic survey of Nepal. Kathmandu: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies.

Wise, M. R. 1983. Lenguas indígenas de la Amazonía Peruana: Historia y estado presente. América Indígena 43 (4):823–848.

Wolff, J. U. 1988. The contribution of Banjar Masin Malay to the reconstruction of Proto-Malay (Monografi Sejarah Bahasa). In M. Zain, T. Ahmad, and M. Zaini (eds.), Rekonstruksi dan cabang-cabang bahasa Melayu induk, pp. 85–98. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Wumbu, I. B., A. Kadir, N. Baso, and S. Maranua. 1986. Inventarisasi bahasa daerah di propinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Wurm, S. A. 1971. The Papuan linguistic situation. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in Oceania, pp. 541–657. Current Trends in Linguistics 8. The Hague: Mouton.

Wurm, S. A. 1972. Languages of Australia and Tasmania. Janua Linguarum, Series Critica 1. The Hague: Mouton.

Wurm, S. A. 1975. New Guinea area languages and language study, Vol. 1, Papuan languages and the New Guinea linguistic scene. Pacific Linguistics C-38. Canberra: Australian National University.

Wurm, S. A. 2000. Ways and methods for maintaining and re-invigorating endangered languages. Paper presented at Conference on Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim, Nov 24–25, 2000. Kyoto Conference Hall, Kyoto, Japan.

Wurm, S. A. 2003. The language situation and language endangerment in the greater Pacific area. In M. Janse and S. Tol (eds.), Language death and language maintenance: Theoretical, practical and descriptive approaches, Vol. 240, pp. 15–48. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Wurm, S. A. 2007. Australasia and the Pacific. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages, pp. 425–578. London: Routledge.

Wurm, S. A. and S. Hattori (eds.). 1981. Language atlas of the Pacific area. Canberra: The Australian Academy of the Humanities in collaboration with the Japan Academy.

Wurm, S. A., B. T’sou, D. Bradley, L. Rong, X. Zhenghui, Z. Zehnxing, F. Maoji, W. Jun, and Dob (eds.). 1987. Language atlas of China, Parts 1, 2. Pacific Linguistics C-102. Hong Kong: Longman Group.

Xiong, X. and X. Yang (eds.). 1991. Encyclopedic dictionary of Chinese linguistics. Nanchang, China: Jiangxi Educational Publishing House.

Xu Shixuan. 2005. Survey of the current situation of Laomian and Laopin in China. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 173:99–115.

Yadava, Y. P. and W. G. Glover (eds.). 1999. Topics in Nepalese Linguistics. Kathmandu: Royal Nepal Academy.

Yamaguchi, M. and H. Nakashima. 2001. An interim report on the investigation of the Topoiyo language and the languages around it conducted in 2000. In T. Ikeda (ed.), Preliminary reports on minority languages in East and Southeast Asia, Vol. A3-001, pp. 79–88. Osaka, Japan: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim.

Yoder, Z., K. Hannelová, and P. L. Otronyi. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Bakor languages of Cross River State, Nigeria. Jos, Nigeria: Language Development Facilitators.

Yunbin, L. 2005. Bugeng language research. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House.

Zavadovskii, Y. N. 1962. The Arabic dialects of the Maghrib. Moscow: The Publishing House of Eastern Literature.

Z’Graggen, J. A. 1971. Classificatory and typological studies in languages of the Madang District. Pacific Linguistics C-19. Canberra: Australian National University.

Z’Graggen, J. A. 1975. The languages of the Madang District, Papua New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics B-41. Canberra: Australian National University.

Zhou Yaowen and Luo Meizhen. 2001. Dai dialect research (Dai yu fangyan yanjiu). Beijing: The People’s Publishing House.

Zhou Zhizhi, Qixiang Yan, and Guoqing Chen. 2004. Wa language dialect research (Wayu fangyan yanjiu). Beijing: Min zu chu ban she.

Zorc, R. D. 1977. The Bisayan dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C-44. Canberra: Australian National University.