Using the Code TablesPrint
LanguageCodes.tab lists the 7,480 distinct language identifiers used in the current Ethnologue database. Of these, 377 represent extinct languages and the remainder are listed with "living" status. The following shows the entries for the first six languages identifiers:
LangID CountryID LangStatus Name ------ --------- ---------- ------------- aaa NG L Ghotuo aab NG L Alumu-Tesu aac PG L Ari aad PG L Amal aae IT L Albanian, Arbëreshë aaf IN L Aranadan
We see that aaa and aab denote living languages spoken in Nigeria, aac and aad denote living languages spoken in Papua New Guinea, and so on. When a language is actually spoken in more than one country, the CountryId gives the country that is considered primary; usually the country of origin or country where most of the speakers are located.
CountryCodes.tab lists the two-letter identifier and name for 234 countries of the world. The codes are from the international standard known as ISO 3166-1 (1997. Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions—Part 1: Country codes. Geneva: International Organization on Standardization. http://www.din.de/gremien/nas/nabd/iso3166ma/). The following shows the entries for the first five codes in the list:
CountryID Name Area --------- --------------------- ---------- AD Andorra Europe AE United Arab Emirates Asia AF Afghanistan Asia AG Antigua and Barbuda Americas AI Anguilla Americas
The CountryCodes.tab table can be used to narrow the search for an identifier to a particular country. The user would choose a country from the country list in order to select the appropriate country code. That code would then be used in a SQL query to restrict the language identifier list to just entries for that country. For instance, if the user were interested only in Afghanistan, the following SQL query would return just the table rows for that country:
SELECT * FROM LanguageCodes WHERE CountryID='AF'
Alternatively, the following link to the Ethnologue web site could be used to generate a report listing all the languages for Afghanistan:
LanguageIndex.tab documents 44,421 distinct names used for the 7,480 languages. The entries in this index of names indicate in which country each name is used. The table thus contains 56,650 records since many of the names are used in more than one country and some are used with more than one language or dialect. The following shows the entries in the name index for the first three language identifiers:
LangID CountryID NameType Name ------ --------- -------- ------------- aaa NG L Ghotuo aab NG D Alumu aab NG D Tesu aab NG DA Arum aab NG L Alumu-Tesu aab NG LA Alumu aab NG LA Arum-Cesu aab NG LA Arum-Chessu aab NG LA Arum-Tesu aac PG D Serea aac PG L Ari
We see that aaa has just one name, Ghotuo; aab has four alternate names, two dialect names, and an alternate dialect name in addition to its primary name; aac has a dialect name in addition to the primary name of Ari.
The LanguageIndex.tab table would be used to implement a search by name. For instance, the following query returns the three-letter codes for all the languages that use the name xyz:
SELECT DISTINCT LangID FROM LangaugeIndex
Note that DISTINCT is used since the same language could be known by the same name in multiple countries. To allow the user to verify that a proposed identifier is indeed the right one, the software would offer the following link to the Ethnologue web site to see a report giving detailed information about the selected language (where abc is the proposed three-letter identifier):
Another application of the LanguageIndex.tab table is to find all the countries in which a given language is spoken. For instance, the following query returns the names of all the countries in which language abc is spoken:
SELECT DISTINCT C.Name FROM CountryCodes AS C
JOIN LanguageIndex AS L ON C.CountryID=L.CountryID
In this case DISTINCT must be used since a language could have multiple names in a given country.
Finally, the LanguageIndex.tab table can be used to find all the languages spoken in a particular country. Whereas the query illustrated previously retrieves all languages whose primary country is Afghanistan, the following query retrieves all languages spoken in Afghanistan:
SELECT DISTINCT LangID FROM LanguageIndex