Afghanistan

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Afghan Sign Language
[afg] Kabul Province, Kabul city; Parwan Province; Nangarhar Province, Jalalabad city and many surrounding districts; Laghman Province; Kandahar Province, Kandahar city; Herat Province, Herat city; Balkh Province, Mazar-e Sharif; Takhar Province, Faizabad; Bamiyan Province, Bamiyan city. The vast majority live in Kabul and Jalalabad. 1,000 (2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afghan Sign, AFSL Dialects: None known. Influenced by American Sign Language [ase] used by foreign workers in some of the deaf schools in Afghanistan. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Muslim.

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Aimaq
[aiq] Central northwest Afghanistan, west of Hazara, eastern Iran, and Tajikistan (Jamshidi and Khazara). Centers in Ghor, Badghis, and Herat provinces. 480,000 in Afghanistan (1993). Population total all countries: 650,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barbari, Berberi, Chahar-Aimaq, Char Aimaq Dialects: Chinghizi, Firozkohi, Jamshidi (Djamchidi, Dzhemshid, Jamshedi, Yemchidi), Maliki, Mizmast, Taimani, Taimuri (Taimouri, Teimuri, Timuri), Zainal, Zohri (Zuri). Dialect names could well be ethnic names, probably dialect of Dari [prs], at least Jamshidi is not much different from the Herati dialect of Dari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Muslim (Hanafi Sunni).

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Arabic, Tajiki Spoken
[abh] Balkh Province, Dawlatabad district, Yakhdan, Khushalabad; Jawzjan Province, Mingajik district, Sultan Arigh; Sheberghan district, Hasanabad. 5,000 in Afghanistan (Farhadi and Raven 1967), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Balkh Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: While no others speak this dialect of Arabic, it is highly possible that some other people use a mixture of Arabic and Dari [prs] when communicating with mother tongue speakers of Tajiki Spoken Arabic. Muslim (Sunni).

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Ashkun
[ask] Nuristan Province, Pech Valley in Wama District, eastern side of the Lower Alingar Valley in Nurgaram and Duab districts, Malil wa Mushfa, Titin, Kolatan and Bajagal valleys. 40,000 (2011), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ashkund, Ashkuni, Wamais, Wamayi Dialects: Ashuruviri (Kolata, Titin Bajaygul), Gramsukraviri, Suruviri (Wamai). Not intelligible with the other Nuristani languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: Spoken in the central and western Nuristan valleys, which also divide divergent dialects. Muslim (Sunni).

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Southwest Desert region, along Helmand river and Zaranj area. 200,000 in Afghanistan (1979). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Southwest Desert Region (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Largely nomadic. Muslim (Sunni).

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Brahui
[brh] South, from Shorawak to Chakhansoor among the Baluchi [bgn]. 200,000 in Afghanistan (Dupree 1980), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Birahui, Biravi, Brahuiki, Kur Galli, Kurd Gali Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Dari
[prs] Western, Central, Northern, and Northeastern Afghanistan; Kabul Province. 7,600,000 in Afghanistan (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 9,600,000. Ethnic population: 7,600,000. L2 users: All other language groups have Dari speakers, especially those who live in the city of Kabul. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 16 (1)). Alternate Names: Afghan Persian, East Farsi, Farsi, Parsi, Persian, Tajik, Tajiki Dialects: Darwazi, Tangshew (Tangshuri). Radio Afghanistan broadcasts promote a standardized pronunciation of the literary language based on the old dictional tradition of the country, with archaic phonetic characteristics. Phonological and lexical differences between Iran and Afghanistan cause little difficulty in comprehension. Most Afghan dialects are reportedly more similar to literary Persian than Iranian dialects are. Lexical similarity: 86%–90% among Dari dialects. A member of macrolanguage Persian [fas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered. L2 users: 0 in Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ghorbati Dialects: Churi-Wali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Muslim.

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Gawar-Bati
[gwt] Kunar valley. 8 or 9 villages. 8,000 in Afghanistan. Population total all countries: 9,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arandui, Gowari, Narisati, Narsati, Satre Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47% with Shumashti [sts], 44% with Dameli [dml], 42% with Savi [sdg] and Grangali [nli]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Grangali
[nli] Grangali and Zemiaki, on the Pech river south side at Kandai, in 2 small valleys; Nangalami in Ningalam village is where the Waigal and Pech rivers meet. 5,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gelangali, Jumiaki Dialects: Nangalami (Ningalami), Zemiaki (Zamyaki). Zemiaki may be related to Waigali [wbk]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Shumashti [sts], 42% with Gawar-Bati [gwt]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar Comments: Muslim.

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Gujari
[gju] Nomads traveling in summer in eastern valleys. 2,000 in Afghanistan (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gojari, Gojri, Gujuri Rajasthani Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Muslim.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Central mountains between Kabul and Herat (Hazarajat); Northwest between Faryab and Saripul provinces; north from immediately south of Koh-i Baba mountain range almost to Mazar-e Sharif. 1,770,000 in Afghanistan (2000). Population total all countries: 2,210,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azargi, Hazara, Hezareh Dialects: None known. Related to Dari [prs]; possibly distinct. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Ethnic group names are Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Ishkashimi
[isk] North of the town of Ishkashim, Xermani, Bahar Bazar, Zargaran, Darwan, Zayad, Qaz Deh villages. 2,500 in Afghanistan (2009 S. Beck), decreasing. Population total all countries: 3,000. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eshkashimi, Ishkashim, Ishkashmi Dialects: None known. Ishkashimi intelligible to Sanglechi [sgy] speakers, but Sanglechi not intelligible to Ishkashimi speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Sanglechi [sgy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Most Sanglechi [sgy] have a positive attitude toward Ishkashimi and consider it closely related, whereas the Ishkashimi do not have a good attitude toward Sanglechi. Muslim (Ismaili).

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Kamviri
[xvi] Lower Bashgal valley, Kamdesh and Kishtoz villages. 18,000 in Afghanistan (2011), increasing. Population total all countries: 20,000. 3,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamdeshi, Kamik, Lamertiviri, Shekhani Dialects: Shekhani. Related to Kati [bsh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Kati
[bsh] Western Kativiri dialect: Mondul and Duab districts, Ramgal, Kulam, Ktivi (Kantiwo), and Paruk (Papruk) valleys; Mumviri dialect: Mangul, Sasku, Gabalgrom villages in the Bashgal valley; Eastern Kativiri dialect: upper Bashgal valley (Barg-e-Matal). 15,000 in Afghanistan (1994), increasing. Population total all countries: 18,700. Ethnic population: 114,000. 110,000 in Nuristan and 4,000 in diaspora. L2 users: Some Nuristani people from other language groups can also speak Kati. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Nuristan Province (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Bashgali, Kativiri, Nuristani Dialects: Eastern Kativiri, Mumviri, Western Kativiri (Jadidi, Ramgulviri). Mumviri may be a separate language. Eastern and Western Kataviri are very similar dialects and almost completely mutually intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: Kati is different from Kamviri [xvi], but the two are significantly mutually intelligible and speakers may refer to them as the same language. Muslim (Sunni).

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Extreme northeast, Great Pamir and Little Pamir valleys. 750 in Afghanistan (2000). 450 in the Great Pamir; a few in Badakhshan. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kirghiz, Kirghizi, Kirgiz Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Mogholi
[mhj] Near Herat, Kundur and Karez-i-Mulla. 2 villages. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Moghol, Mogol, Mogul, Mongul Dialects: Karez-I-Mulla, Kundur. Unintelligible to other Mongol speakers; linguistically relatively well explored. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Western Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Munji
[mnj] Northeastern Afghanistan, Badakhshan Province, Kuran wa Munjan district, in the Munjan and Mamalgha valleys. 5,300 (2008 D. Beyer and S. Beck). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Badakhshan Province (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Munjani, Munjigi, Munjiwar Dialects: Northern Munji, Southern Munji. Northern Munji and Southern Munji are mutually intelligible. The differences are found mostly in regular sound changes and some lexical items. Lexical similarity: 68% among dialects, 56%–80% with Yidgha [ydg] in Pakistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Little contact with Yidgha [ydg]. Muslim (Ismaili).

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Ormuri
[oru] Logar, Baraki-Barak. 50 in Afghanistan (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000. L2 users: 0 in Afghanistan. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baraks, Bargista, Oormuri, Ormui Dialects: Kanigurami, Logar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi Comments: Muslim.

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Pahlavani
[phv] Nimroz Province, Chakhansur district. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dari [prs]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Muslim.

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Parachi
[prc] Hindu Kush valley near Kabul, Nijrau and Tagau villages, Pachaghan, Shutul, Ghujulan. 3,500 (Kiefer 2009). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Ghujulan, Pachaghan, Shutul. Dialect diversity seems slight. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi Comments: Muslim.

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Parya
[paq] Kunduz Province. No known L1 speakers in Afghanistan. Ethnic population: 240. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Afghana-Yi Nasfurush, Afghana-Yi Siyarui, Laghmani Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified

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Pashayi, Northeast
[aee] Kunar Province west of Asadabad, side valleys between Kunar and Pech rivers. 54,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of national identity (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Pashai Dialects: Aret, Chalas (Chilas), Kandak, Kurangal, Kurdar. Unintelligible of other Pashayi speakers. Lexical similarity: approximately 30% with Southeast Pashayi [psi] and Southwest Pashayi [psh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Pashayi Comments: Kandak, Shemul, Aret, Shumasht, and Kordar villages belong to the Chugani people; Chalas and Kurangal are separate. Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashayi, Northwest
[glh] Kapisa and Laghman provinces, Gulbahar to Nuristan on Alingar river, Alisheng valley, valleys north of Sarobi. 70,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pashai Dialects: Alasai, Bolaghain, Gulbahar, Kohnadeh, Laurowan, Najil, Nangarach, Pachagan, Pandau, Parazhghan, Pashagar, Sanjan, Shamakot, Shutul, Uzbin, Wadau. Unintelligible of other Pashayi speakers. Lexical similarity: approximately 30% with Southeast Pashayi [psi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Pashayi Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashayi, Southeast
[psi] Upper and Lower Darrai Nur valley, Damench, Shale (Shari); Nangarhar Province, north of Shewa; south Laghman Province, Alingar valley area. 180,000 (2011 Pashai Language Development Project), increasing. 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Nangahar, Laghman provinces (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Pashai Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible of Southwest Pashayi [psh]; hardly intelligible of Northeast Pashayi [aee] and Northwest Pashayi [glh]. Lexical similarity: about 30% with Southwest Pashayi [psh], Northeast Pashayi [aee], and Northwest Pashayi [psh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Pashayi Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashayi, Southwest
[psh] Northeast of Kabul, north of Sarobi, Tagau (Tagab) valley. 100,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pashai Dialects: Ishpi, Isken, Tagau. Not intelligible of other Pashayi languages. Lexical similarity: Less than 30% with other Pashayi languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Pashayi Comments: Pashayi peoples have rich folklore and songs preserved by oral tradition. Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashto, Northern
[pbu] Nangarhar Province and surrounding regions. 1,700,000 in Afghanistan (2008), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Afghan, Eastern Afghan Pashto, Northwestern Pakhto, Pakhtoo, Pakhtu, Paktu, Sharqi Dialects: Ghilzai, Khogyani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Called Pakhtoon in the north, Pashtoon in the south, and Pakhtun in the central regions. Pashto clans include: Mohmandi, Ghilzai, Durani, Yusufzai, Afridi, Kandahari (Qandahari), Waziri, Chinwari (Shinwari), Mangal, and Wenetsi. Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Kandahar area; Zabul, Kandahar, Uruzgan, Helmand, Nimroz, Farah, Herat, and Badghis provinces. 6,000,000 in Afghanistan (2008). Population total all countries: 10,810,100. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 16(1)). Alternate Names: Kandahar Pashto, Qandahar Pashto, Southwestern Pashto Dialects: Durani. Lexical similarity: 80% between northern and southern varieties of Pashto. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Prasuni
[prn] Nuristan Province, Prasun (Parun) valley on upper reaches of Pech river, Shupu (Ishtivi, Shtevgrom), Sech, Ucu, Ushut, Zumu villages. 8,000 (2011), increasing. 1,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parun, Paruni, Prasun, Veron, Verou, Veruni, Wasi-Veri Dialects: Central Prasun, Lower Prasun (Pashki, Ushut), Upper Wasi-Weri (Ishtivi). Related to Kati [bsh] but more archaic. The most aberrant Nuristani language. No mutual intelligibility of other Nuristani languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Sanglechi
[sgy] Badakhshan Province, Zebok district, Sanglechi valley, Sar-Sanglech, Esketul, Takya, Faruq, Flaxmadek, Dashte Rubat villages. 2,200 (2009 S. Beck). Ethnic population: 2,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dargi Dialects: None known. Ishkashimi [isk] is moderately intelligible to Sanglechi speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Ishkashimi [isk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Savi
[sdg] Kunar river, Sau village. 3,000 in Afghanistan (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sau, Sauji, Sawi Dialects: None known. Savi, Palula [phl], and Kalkoti [xka] form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group. Lexical similarity: 56%–58% with Palula [phl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Shughni
[sgh] Both sides of the Afghanistan-Tajikistan border, 50 km north of Ishkashim, Pamir mountains. 40,000 in Afghanistan (2009). Most are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khughnani, Khughni, Khughnoni, Khugnone, Shighnani, Shighni, Shughnani, Shughnoni, Shugni Dialects: Rushani (Oroshani, Roshan, Roshani, Rushan). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Shumashti
[sts] West side of Kunar valley between Pech valley and Jalalabad city. 1,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shumasht Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Grangali [nli], 47% with Gawar-Bati [gwt]. Heavily influenced by Northeast Pashayi [aee]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar Comments: Muslim.

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Tirahi
[tra] Southeast of Jalalabad, west of Khyber Pass, Nangarhar village. 100. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Kohistani languages of Pakistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani Comments: It is very likely that this language is extinct. The Tirahi are “a group of unclear origin, almost completely assimilated by Pashtun” (Pstrusinska and Gray 1990). Muslim.

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Tregami
[trm] Nuristan Province, Want (Waygal) district, Tregam valley, Katar and Gambir villages. 3,500 (2011), increasing. 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katar Gambir, Trigami Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76%–80% with Waigali [wbk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: It is not clear whether Tregami is a separate language or a dialect of Waigali [wbk]. Muslim (Sunni).

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Turkmen
[tuk] Herat, Faryab, Jawzjan, Balkh, Baghlan, Samangan, Badghis, Helmand, Kunduz, and Kabul. A majority live outside cities. 1,500,000 in Afghanistan (2009). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in Turkmenistan border areas (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Turkman, Turkmencha, Turkmeni Dialects: Ärsare (Arsariy), Bayat, Shirik, Teke (Taka), Xatap, Yomut. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian Comments: Most Turkmen in Afghanistan use Ärsare. Muslim (Sunni).

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Uzbek, Southern
[uzs] Faryab, Saripul, Jawzjan, Balkh, Samangan, Baghlan, Kunduz, Takhar, and Badakhshan provinces, in Maimana, Sheberghan, Aqcha, and Saripul towns. 2,910,000 in Afghanistan (2011 UNSD), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,961,980. 1,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,910,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Fariab, Jawzjan, Saripul, other northern provinces (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Usbeki, Uzbak, Uzbeki Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible of, but differences in grammar from, Northern Uzbek [uzn]. Many loan words from Dari [prs]. A member of macrolanguage Uzbek [uzb]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Waigali
[wbk] Southeast Nuristan Province, Central Kunar Province north of Pech. Varjan in north Waigal valley, Waigal, Zonchigal, Jamach, Ameshdesh villages, and east in Veligal valley villages; Chima-Nishey in lower valley villages. 11,500 (2011), increasing. 2,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Suki, Wai, Wai-Ala, Waigala, Waigalii, Waigeli, Zhonjigali Dialects: Chima-Nishey, Varjan. Lexical similarity: 76%–80% with Tregami [trm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Wakhi
[wbl] Badakhshan Province, Wakhan district, along the Panj river as far as Sarhad village. 42 villages. The center of the Wakhi-speaking area is Khandud village. 17,000 in Afghanistan (2011 S. Beck), increasing. Population total all countries: 58,000. Ethnic population: 17,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khik, Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi Dialects: Dialect intelligibility reportedly not a serious problem even with those in other countries, although intelligibility may not be complete on initial contact between speakers from different countries. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ishkoman and Gojal dialects, 89% with Yasin and Gojal, 91% with Ishkoman and Yasin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Warduji
[wrd] Northeast, Werdoge river area west of Ishkashim. 5,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Probably a Dari [prs] dialect. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Muslim.

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Wotapuri-Katarqalai
[wsv] Nuristan, south of Waigali area, Wotapuri and Katarqalai towns. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani

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