Argentina

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Abipon
[axb] North of Bermejo river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abipones Dialects: None known. Related to Kadiweu [kbc]. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern

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Argentine Sign Language
[aed] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Argentina, LSA Dialects: Córdoba Sign Language. Some regional variation (e.g. between Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza), but most deaf people ignore differences and strongly identify with one national sign language (2013 R. Caceres). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf schools began in 1885. Historical relationship to Italian Sign Language [ise] (Zeshan, Delgado, Dikyuva, Panda and deVos 2013 ).

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] Jujuy and Salta provinces in the mountains. In urban areas. 30,000 in Argentina. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Aymaran, Aymara Comments: Quite a few come from Bolivia looking for work.

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Chiripá
[nhd] Salta, Jujuy, Corrientes, Misiones, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires provinces. 8,940 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 21,800. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava Guaraní, Ñandeva, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Glossonym: Ñandeva in the Paraguayan Chaco for Tapieté [tpj].

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Chorote, Iyojwa’ja
[crt] Northeast Salta Province, near the Pilcomayo river. 800 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ethnic Chorote [crt] and [crq] (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Choroti, Eklenjuy, Yofuaha Dialects: None known. Distinct from Iyo’wujwa Chorote [crq] (Drayson). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote Comments: Ethnonyms: Chorote in Argentina, Choroti in Paraguay, Eklenjuy by the Nivaclé. Traditional religion.

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Chorote, Iyo’wujwa
[crq] Northeast Salta Province, mixed with Iyojwa’ja Chorote [crt]. 1,500 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 2,150. 750 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2007). Includes all ethnic Chorote, both [crt] and [crq]. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Chorote (Iyowujwa), Manjui (Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy). Classification: Matacoan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Northeast Argentina, Misiones Province. 4,000 in Argentina (2008 CTI). Ethnic population: 8,200 ( INDEC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Argentina Guaraní, Mbua, Mbyá Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Traditional religion.

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Guaraní, Western Argentine
[gui] Jujuy and Salta provinces. 15,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chabanco” (pej.), “Chaguanco” (pej.), “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Eastern Bolivian Guaraní Dialects: Chané, Izoceño (Isocenio, Izocenyo). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní Comments: ’Guarayo’ is a collective name in Argentina; distinct from Guarayo of Bolivia. Chané is a group that formerly spoke an Arawakan language, but now speak a dialect of Western Argentine Guaraní. Traditional religion.

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Mapudungun
[arn] Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Buenos Aires, La Pampa provinces. 8,410 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 114,000 (2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Araucano, Huilliche, Manzanero, Mapuche, Mapudungu, Maputongo, Pehuenche, Ranquel Dialects: Pehuenche. Classification: Mapudungu Comments: Recent migration from Chile.

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Mocoví
[moc] Southeastern Chaco, north central Santa Fe provinces. 3,000 (2011 E. Zugasti). A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,100 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mbocobí, Mocobí Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Salta Province, Rivadavia and San Martín departments, on the outskirts of Tartagal and in Misión La Paz. 220 in Argentina (2004 INDEC). Ethnic population: 550 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupi” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Churupi” (pej.) Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Classification: Matacoan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ona
[ona] Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). The ethnic group disintegrated by early 20th century; last speakers died in the 1970s (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aona, Choon, Selknam, Shelknam Classification: Chon, Island Chon Comments: Lost their land to outside settlers, mines, and cattle. In 2000, there were reports of a group of 450 persons claiming Selknam ethnic affiliation.

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Pilagá
[plg] Central and western Formosa Province, Bermejo and Pilcomayo river valleys; Chaco and Salta provinces. 4,000 (2004 Foundation for Endangered Languages). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pilaca Dialects: Chaco Pilagá (Toba Sur), Toba-Pilagá (Sombrero Negro, Toba del Oeste). Intelligibility between dialects needs investigation. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Puelche
[pue] Pampas, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Buenos Aires. No known L1 speakers. The last L1 speaker was Trruúlmani, a woman who died in 1934. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gennaken, Northern Tehuelche, Pampa Classification: Language isolate Comments: Distinct from Pehuenche dialect of Mapudungun [arn].

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Quechua, South Bolivian
[quh] Buenos Aires, some working on docks; Salta and Northwest Jujuy provinces. 5,120 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 70,500 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Bolivian Quechua Dialects: Northwest Jujuy (Colla). Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay Comments: Different from Santiago del Estero [qus] (R. Nardi).

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Quichua, Santiago del Estero
[qus] North central Argentina, Santiago del Estero Province, departments of Figueroa, Moreno, Robles, Sarmiento, Brigadier J. F. Ibarra, San Martín, Silipica, Loreto, Atamisqui, Avellaneda, Salavina, Quebrachos, Mitre, Aguirre; southeast Salta Province, western Taboada department along Salado river; Buenos Aires. 60,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santiagueño Quichua Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Bolivian or other Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Spanish
[spa] 39,500,000 in Argentina (2011). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Lunfardo, Porteño, Portunhol, Portuñol, Rioplatense. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tapieté
[tpj] Salta Province, Misión Tapieté near Tartagal; San Martin district, Curbita near Pilcomayo river. 180 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 520 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guarayo, Guasurangue, Ñanagua, Tirumbae, Yanaigua Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Tehuelche
[teh] Chubut Province, central zone. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s or 1970s (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 10,600 (2004 INDEC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aoniken, Gunua-Kena, Gününa Küne, Gününa Yajich, Gununa-Kena, Inaquen Classification: Chon Comments: From Chile.

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Toba
[tob] Chaco Province, Resistencia, Fontana, Saenz Peña, Castelli, Tres Isletas, Miraflores, La Leonesa, Las Palmas, San Martín, Pcia. Roca, Bermejito, Pampa del Indio; Formosa Province, San Carlos, El Colorado, Misión Laishí, and others; Santa Fe Province, Rosario; Buenos Aires Province, La Plata. 40,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 41,510. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 69,500 (2004 INDEC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaco Sur, Namqom, Qom, Toba Qom, Toba Sur Dialects: Northern Toba, Southeast Toba. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] or Toba-Pilagá [plg]. Christian.

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Vilela
[vil] East central Chaco Province near Paraguay border, Resistencia. No known L1 speakers (2011 M. Del Pozzi). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate

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Welsh
[cym] Patagonia, Chubut territory. 25,000 in Argentina (1998 A. Leaver). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Patagonian Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: Welsh speakers in Argentina since around 1891.

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Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay
[mzh] North, on the right bank of the Pilcomayo river, near Argentina-Bolivia border. 15,000 (1999). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Güisnay, “Mataco” (pej.), “Mataco Güisnay” (pej.), “Mataco Pilcomayo” (pej.) Classification: Matacoan, Mataco Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wichí. Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten
[mtp] Chaco Province, General Güemes department; Formosa Province, Bermejo, Matacos, Patiño, Ramón Lista departments; Salt Province, San Martín, Rivadavia, Orán, Metán, Anta departments. 100 in Argentina. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Mataco Nocten” (pej.), Nocten, Noctenes, Oktenai Classification: Matacoan, Mataco Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz
[wlv] Northern areas of Chaco, Formosa, Salta, Jujuy, West of Toba, upper Bermejo river valley and Pilcomayo river. 25,000 (1991 UBS). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten (2004 INDEC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Mataco Vejoz” (pej.), Vejos, Vejoz Dialects: Bermejo Vejoz. Not intelligible of other Chaco languages. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco Comments: Language family also called Mataco-Mataguayo. Traditional religion.

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Yámana
[yag] Extreme south of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. No known L1 speakers in Argentina (Crevels 2007). In the last decades of the 20th century the language became extinct in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yahgan Classification: Language isolate

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