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Adithinngithigh
[dth] Queensland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adetingiti Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Adnyamathanha
[adt] Southern Australia, Flinders ranges area, Nepabunna. 110 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ad’n’amadana, Adynyamathanha, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Archualda, Benbakanjamata, Binbarnja, Gadjnjamada, Jandali, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda, Mardala, Nimalda, Nuralda, Umbertana, Unyamootha, Wailbi, Wailpi, Waljbi, Wipie Dialects: Related to Guyani [gvy], Barngarla [bjb], Nugunu [nnv], and Narungga [nnr], which may have no remaining speakers. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Aghu-Tharnggala
[gtu] Queensland, Dixie, Maramie, Lakefield. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aghu Tharnggala, Aghu Tharnggalai, Aghu Tharnggalu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Alawa
[alh] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kallana, Leealowa Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Alawic

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Alngith
[aid] Queensland, northeast Cape York peninsula just north of Weipa. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Alyawarr
[aly] Northern Territory and Queensland, Sandover and Tennant creek areas. 1,660 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aljawara, Alyawarra, Alyawarre, Iliaura, Yowera Dialects: Related to Western Arrarnte [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Ami
[amy] Northern Territory, Coast along Anson bay, southwest of Darwin. 30 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ame, Amijangal Dialects: May be intelligible with Wadjiginy [wdj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Amurdak
[amg] Northern Territory, Oenpelli, Goulburn island. 1 (2007 B. Birch). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amarag, Amarak, Amardak, A’moordiyu, Amurag, Amurdag, Amurrag, Amurrak, Amurtak, Amuruk, Mamurug, Monobar, Namurug, Nga:mr:rak, Nga:mu:rak, Ngamurag, Umoreo, Umoriu, Umorrdak, Wardadjbak, Woraidbug, Wureidbug Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Amaragic

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Andajin
[ajn] King Leopold ranges south to east Philips north, from Lungra Yard in the west to Tharlow Hill area east. 2 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andidja, Andidjara Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Ngarinyinic

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Andegerebinha
[adg] Northern Territory, Hay river, Pituri creek area, east of Alyawarra. 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andigibinha, Antekerrepinhe Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Angkamuthi
[avm] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, narrow coastal stretch from north of Port Musgrave to Doughboy river, inland area of Crystal creek, middle Jardine river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anggamudi, Ankamuti, Ngamiti, Nggamadi, Nggammadi, Ngkamadyi’ Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Anguthimri
[awg] Queensland, northern Cape York peninsula, Mission river mouth west to Duyfken Point, north to Pennefather river; Wenlock river south and west banks between Batavia Landing area and Gibson waterhole. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angadimi, Angutimi, Ba:tyana, Batjana, Mbatyana, Ngerikudi, Nggerikudi, Nggirikudi, Nigger-Ikudi, Ra:kudi, Wimaranga, Wimarangga, Wimarango, Wimmarango, Yopngadi, Yupangati, Yupnget, Yupungati, Yupun-Gatti, Yuupngati Dialects: Mpakwithi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: Date of last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Anindilyakwa
[aoi] Northern Territory, Groote Eylandt, Gulf of Carpenteria. 1,290 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andiljangwa, Andilyaugwa, Aninhdhilyagwa, Enindhilyagwa, Enindiljaugwa, Groote Eylandt, Ingura, Wanindilyaugwa Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa

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Anmatyerre
[amx] Northern Territory, Mount Allen, northwest Alice Springs region. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anmatjirra, Anmatyerr Dialects: Eastern Anmatyerre, Western Anmatyerre (Kalenthelkwe, Kelentheyewelrere, Kelenthwelkere). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Antakarinya
[ant] Southern Australia, northeast area. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andagarinya Dialects: Most similar to Warnman [wbt]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Arabana
[ard] Southern Australia, west side Lake Eyre to Stuart range, Maree, Port Augusta. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arabunna Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Arakwal
[rkw] New South Wales, from Ballina and northern bank of Richmond river to Cape Byron; south to Ballina, inland to Lismore, Casino, and Coraki. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coo-al, Gundurimba, Jawhumjeri, Kawhul, Kogung, Naiang, Njung, Nyung, Tugurimba, Yawkum-yere Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Aranda, Lower Southern
[axl] Northern Territory: Alice Springs; Andado; Arltunga; Blood creek; Charlotte waters; Connor well; Deep well; Finke river; Gillen creek; Hale river; Henbury; Horseshoe bend; Hugh river; Idracowra; Intea; James range; MacDonnell range; Macumba river; Maryvale; Mount Dare. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aldolanga, Aldolinga, Alitera, Aranda, Aranta, Arinta, Arranda, Arrinda, Arrundta, Arrunta, Arunda, Arunndta, Arunta, Arunta Bu, Arunta Ulpma, Eastern Aranda, Lower Aranda, Southern Aranda, Western Aranda Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Areba
[aea] Queensland, southwest Cape York peninsula, Bilbert river, northeast of Normanton. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Arrarnta, Western
[are] Northern Territory, Alice Springs area, Hermannsburg. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Aranda, Arunta Dialects: Akerre (Akara), Southern Aranda, Western Aranda. Similar to Alyawarr [aly] and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Arrernte, Eastern
[aer] Northern Territory, Alice Springs area (Mparntwe), Santa Teresa (Ltyentye Apurte), Alcoota, Harts range (Artetyerre), Bonya (Uthipe Atherre), Amoonguna (Amwengkwerne). 2,380 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Arunta, Eastern Aranda, Upper Aranda Dialects: Akarre, Antekerrepenh, Ikngerripenhe, Mparntwe Arrernte, Upper Aranda. Related to Alyawarr [aly], Western Arrarnta [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Atampaya
[amz] Queensland, extreme north Cape York peninsula, Eliot creek. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Australian Aborigines Sign Language
[asw] Southern Australia, central, and west desert regions, coastal Arnhem Land; north coast islands, Torres Strait islands, west side of Cape York peninsula. No known L1 users. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not related to Australian Sign Language [asf]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Australian Sign Language
[asf] 7,150 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in New South Wales. Alternate Names: Auslan Dialects: Related to British Sign Language [bfi], with influences also from Irish [isg] and American sign languages [ase]. Many structural similarities between British Sign Language (BSL) [bfi], Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility (Johnston 2003). Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing each as a separate language. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Earliest schools for the deaf established by British deaf immigrants in 1860. Many agencies for the deaf. Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. Committee on national sign language.

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Awabakal
[awk] New South Wales, Lake Macquarie, south from Newcastle. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Awabagal Dialects: Awabagal, Cameeragal, Wonarua. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi

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Awngthim
[gwm] Queensland, northern Cape York peninsula, east of the Anguthimri, on Mission river north side. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angutimi, Mamangidigh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: Date of the last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Ayabadhu
[ayd] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, north of Coleman river, south of Coen. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Ayerrerenge
[axe] Queensland, Urandangi, Bathurst, Headingly, north to Lake Nash and Barkly Downs, east toward Mount Isa, west to near Mount Hogarth and Argadargada. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aroinga, Bulamu, Bulanja, Bulanu, Jarionga, Jaroinga, Jurangka, Manda, Pulanja, Yaringa, Yaroinga, Yarroinga, Yarrowin, Yorrawinga, Yorrowinga, Yuruwinga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic Comments: The date of the last speaker’s death unknown.

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Badimaya
[bia] Western Australia, northeast of Moora to south of Cue; east to Paynes Find; west to Mullewa. 20 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Parti-Maya, Widimaya Dialects: Related to Wajarri [wbv]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari

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Badjiri
[jbi] New South Wales: from near Hungerford to Eulo on the Paroo river; east to near Barringun, Tinnenburra, Tuen, and Cunna-mulla; at Caiwarro and eastern side of Currawinya. Not extending very far west of Paroo river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baddjeri, Badjari, Ngura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Bandjalang
[bdy] New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong. 100 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bandjelang, Bogganger, Bundala, Gidabal, Yugumbe Dialects: Gidabal (Gidhabal), Yugumbir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Barababaraba
[rbp] New South Wales, Murrumbidgee river south side, north of Hay to Victoria, Kerang; Cohuna, Gunbower, Brassi, Conargo, and across the river from Carrathool. 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baraba Baraba, Baraba-Baraba, Baraparapa, Barappur, Bareber Bareber, Barrababarraba, Barraba-Barraba, Beraba-Beraba, Birraba-Birraba, Boorabirraba, Booraboora, Boora-Boora, Boort, Burabura, Burappa, Burapper, Bureba, Burrabura-ba, Burraburburaba, Burrappa, Burrapper, Burreba-Burreba, Karraba, Perapa-Perapa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin, Western

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Barbaram
[vmb] Queensland, Almaden, Great Dividing ridge, Irvinebank, Koorboora (Kaboura), Mareeba, Mount Garnett, Petford. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balbarum, Barbarem, Barbarum, Booburam, Mbabaram, Mbara, Mogmnanarim, Oombarrmbarum, Umbarbarem, Woombarbarram, Wumbabaram Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama

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Bardi
[bcj] Western Australia, Western Kimberley region, One Arm Point Aboriginal community, Lombadina Aboriginal community, Broome, Derby. 160 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baadi, Baardi, Badi, Bard Dialects: Bardi, Jawi. Intelligibility adequate between Bardi and Jawi dialects. Related to Nyikina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Djawi [djw], Nimanbur [nmp], Nyulnyul [nyv], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Dyugun [dyd], and Yawuru [ywr]. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan Comments: Christian.

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Barngarla
[bjb] Southern Australia, Port Lincoln to Spencer gulf head. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bahanga-La, Bangala, Banggala, Banggarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Kortabina, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Barrow Point
[bpt] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Barrow Point on Princess Charlotte bay and inland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr

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Batyala
[xby] Queensland: Cairns; Fraser island; Great Sandy island; Kabikabi mission; Noosa Head; Pialba; Tinana creek; Yarrabah; Thoorgine. 7 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Badjela, Badtala, Badtjala, Badyala, Batjala, Bidhala, Butchulla, Dulingbara, Gnoolongbara, Koolaburra, Ngulungbara, Olungbura, Patyala, Thoorgine Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic

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Bayali
[bjy] Queensland, Fitzroy river mouth inland to Boomer range, Marlborough, Yeppon, Yamba, and Rockhampton. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biyali, Charumbul, Darambal, Darawal, Darumbal, Kooinmarburra, Kuinmurbara, Ningebal, Orambul, Tarumbal, Tharumbal, Urambal, Warabal, Yetimarala Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Kingkel

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Bayungu
[bxj] Western Australia, lower Lyndon and Minilya rivers, West Pilbara. 6 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baiong, Baiung, Bajungu, Biong, Giong, Mulgarnoo, Pajungu, Payungu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara

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Bibbulman
[xbp] Western Australia: Lower Blackwood river, on the hills between the Blackwood and Warren rivers, east to Gardner river and Broke inlet, on Scott river, inland to Manjimup and Bridgetown. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bajongwongi, Bebleman, Bibbulmun, Bibilum, Bibulman, Bibulmun, Bibuulmoun, Meeraman, Murram, Peopleman, Pepelman, Pibilum, Piblemen Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Bidyara
[bym] Queensland, between Tambo and Augathella, Warrego and Langlo rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidjara, Bithara, Bitjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric Comments: No remaining speakers (Ruhlen 1987).

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Bigambal
[xbe] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bigambul, Bigumbil Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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Bindal
[xbd] Victoria: from mouth of Burdekin river north to Cape Cleveland; inland to Leichhardt range; Ayr. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nyawaygi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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Biri
[bzr] Queensland southeast of Charters Towers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wirri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Birrpayi
[xbj] Victoria: mouth of Manning river at Taree, inland to near Gloucester; principally on south side of river, also on the Forbes, upper Hastings and Wilson rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biribi, Birippi, Birrapee, Birripai, Birrpai, Bripi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin
[bpl] Broome, Lombardinie, Beagle bay, La Grange, One Arm Point, Derby. No known L1 speakers. 40 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk Classification: Pidgin, Malay based Comments: Some Japanese [jpn] and Aboriginal creole or pidgin English words.

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Bunaba
[bck] Western Australia, Fitzroy Crossing area. 110 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bunuba, Punapa, Punuba Classification: Australian, Bunaban

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Bunganditj
[xbg] South Australia: Balmoral; Cape Jaffa; Casterton; Dartmoor; Glenelg river; Lake Mundi; Mount Gambier; Mount Zero; Penola; Robe; Wannon river; Western Grampians. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bak-on-date, Banaditj, Bangandadj, Bangandidj, Barconedeet, Baundik, Boandic, Boandik, Booandik, Booandik-ngolo, Booandki-ngolo, Booganitch, Booganity, Boongandity, Borandikngolo, Buadik, Buandic, Buandig, Buandik, Buanditj, Bugandity, Bunganadity, Bungandaetch, Bung’andaetch, Bungandaetcha, Bungandaitj, Bungandidj, Bungandij, Bunganditjngolo, Bungandity, Bunjanditj, Burhwundeirtch, Drualatngolonung, Drualat-ngolonung, Nguro, Pungandaitj, Pungandik, Pungantitj, Pungatitj Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj

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Burarra
[bvr] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Maningrida. 1,070 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anbarra, Barera, Bawera, Burada, Bureda, Burera, Gidjingaliya Gujingalia, Gujalabiya, Gun-Guragone, Jikai, Tchikai Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran

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Burduna
[bxn] Henry and upper Lyndon rivers. 3 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boordoona, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Pinneegooroo, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 218,000 in Australia (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Dadi Dadi
[dda] Northwestern Victoria State, southwestern New South Wales, Murray river to south bank, north to Benanee. 10 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dadidadi, Dardidardi, Dardi-Dardi, Tatitati, Tharrthi-Tharrthi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic

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Dagoman
[dgn] Northern Territory. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic

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Dalabon
[ngk] Northern Territory, Katherine area, Oenpell, Arnhem Land. 11 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bouin, Boun, Buan, Buin, Buwan, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Nalabon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon, Ngalkbun Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Ngalkbun

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Darkinyung
[xda] New South Wales: Cessnock; Colo river; Hawkesbury river; Hunter river; Jerry’s plain; Macdonald river; Putty; Rylstone; Wisemans ferry; Wollombi. A few speakers reported in 2008. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Darginjang, Darginyung, Darkinjang, Darkinoong, Darkinung, Darknung Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Daungwurrung
[dgw] Northeastern Victoria State, Broken, Delatite, Goulburn, Coliban, and Campaspe watersheds. No known L1 speakers. Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Alternate Names: Daung Wurrung, Dhagung-wurrung, Taungurong, Taungurung, Thagawurung Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Dayi
[dax] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river, Yirrkala, Lake Evella, Galiwinku, Numbulwam. 170 (2006 census). No monolinguals. 53 Dhalwangu, 115 Dayi speakers (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dha’i, Dhay’yi Dialects: Dhalwangu, Djarrwark. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Dhalandji
[dhl] Western Australia, Exmouth gulf head inland to Ashburton river, West Pilbara. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dalandji, Dalendi, Djalendi, Talaindji, Talandi, Talandji, Talangee, Tallainga, Taloinga, Thalantji, Thalanyji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji Comments: Only a few speakers remain (Wurm 2007).

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Dhargari
[dhr] Western Australia, Kennedy range, upper Minilya and lower Lyons rivers, West Pilbara. 6 (2011 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dal’gari, Targari, Tarkarri, Thargari, Tharrgari, Tharrkari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Dharuk
[xdk] New South Wales: Camden; Campbelltown; Hawkesbury river; Liverpool; Mount Victoria; Penrith; Windsor; Sydney. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Darrook, Dharrook, Dhar’rook, Dharruk, Dharug Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Dhungaloo
[dhx] Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dungaloo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Dhurga
[dhu] New South Wales, Bermagui to Jervis bay. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhu’rga, Dhuurga, Durga, Duurga, Tharumba, Thoorga, Thurga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Dhuwal
[duj] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river. 600 (2006 census). 140 Dhuwal, 26 Datiwuy, 320 Dhuwaya, 59 Liyagawumirr, 12 Marrangu, 45 Djapu (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dual, Duala, Wulamba Dialects: Datiwuy (Daatiwuy), Dhuwal, Dhuwaya, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Liyagawumirr, Marrakulu, Marrangu. Similar to Djangu [dhg]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Dieri
[dif] Southern Australia, Leigh creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Diyari Dialects: Related to Ngamini [nmv], which may have no remaining speakers. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Dirari
[dit] Southern Australia, east of Lake Eyre North. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhirari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Djabwurrung
[tjw] Victoria, Ararat, Hamilton, Hopkins river, Mount Rouse, Mount William, Stawell, Wickliffe, Maroona. 7 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chaa wuurong, Chaap Wuurong, Chaap-Warrong, Chaapwurra, Chaapwurru, Chaapwuurong, Chap wurong, Chap wurrung, Chap-wurong, Djab Wurrung, Djab wurung, Djabwuru, Djabwurung, Dyabwurung, Dyapwurong, Jab Wurrong, Jab wurrung, Kolor, Kolorer, Kooloor, Pirtkopannoot, Punoinjon, Purteetchally, Tchapwurong, Thapwurong, Tjap, Tjapwuron, Tjapwurong, Tjap-wurong, Tjapwurun, Tjapwurung, Tjapwuurong, Tyapawurru, Tyapwurru, Tyapwuru Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Djadjawurrung
[dja] Victoria State, Kyneton, Boort, Lake Buloke, Wallaloo creek, Navarre hill. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djadja Wurrung, Djadjawurung, Dyadyawurung, Jaara, Jaja-Wurrung, Jajawurung, Le Wurrung, Lewurru, Lewurrung, Yaara, Yaura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin Comments: Date of the last speaker’s death unknown.

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Djambarrpuyngu
[djr] Northern Territory, Elcho island. 2,760 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djambarbwingu, Jambapuing, Jambapuingo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Djamindjung
[djd] Northern Territory, Victoria river. 120 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jaminjung Dialects: Ngaliwuru (Ngaliwerra). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan

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Djangu
[dhg] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Elcho island. 270 (2006 census). 58 Djangu, 170 Gaalpu, 44 Wangurri (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budalpudal, Burada, Buralbural, Buratha, Dangu, Dhangu, Dhangu’mi, Warameri, Waramiri, Warramiri, War-ramirri, Warumeri Dialects: Dhangu-Djangu, Gaalpu (Kalbu), Golumala, Ngaymil, Rirratjingu, Wangurri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu Comments: Glossonym: Yolngu-Matha, ‘people language’.

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Djangun
[djf] Queensland, Mount Mulligan south to Alma-den, east to Dimbula, west to Mungana. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adho-Adhom, Butju, Chungki, Chunkumberries, Chunkunburra, Jangun Djanggun, Koko-Mudju, Koko-Tyankun, Mutyu, Ngaigungo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic

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Djauan
[djn] Northern Territory, Bamyili settlement, Katherine. 43 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adowen, Jawan, Jawony, Jawoyn, Kumertuo Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Djauanic

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Djawi
[djw] Western Australia, islands from King sound to Brunswick bay. (Wurm 2003). No remaining speakers. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Djeebbana
[djj] West Arnhem Land, Maningrida north coast area. 240 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gunavidji Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran Comments: Ethnic autonym: Gunavidji.

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Djinang
[dji] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Ramingining, Goyder, and Blyth rivers. 220 (2006 census). 170 Djinang, 43 Wulaki (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jandijinung Dialects: Balurbi, Djadiwitjibi, Manyarring, Mildjingi, Murrungun, Wulaki (Wurlaki). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang Comments: Intermarry with the Djinba [djb].

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Djinba
[djb] Northern Territory in Ngangalala, Arnhem Land, southeast adjoining Djinang area. 45 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dabi, Ganalbingu, Mandjalpingu. Lexical similarity: 60% with Djinang [dji]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang Comments: Intermarry with the Djinang [dji].

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Djingili
[jig] Northern Territory, Elsey station, Newcastle waters, Ash Burton range area, Elliott. 52 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chingalee, Chunguloo, Djingila, Djingulu, Jingali, Jingulu, Lee, Tchingalee, Tjingilu Classification: Australian, West Barkly

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Djiwarli
[dze] Western Australia: Ashburton river; Elliott creek; Henry river; Lyons river; Mount Florry; Mount Hamlet; Yannarie river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djiwali, Djwarli, Jivali, Jiwali, Tivali, Tjiwali, Tjiwarli Dialects: Similar to Thiin [iin]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Dyaabugay
[dyy] Queensland, Barron river south of Mareeba to Kuranda, north to Port Douglas on a plateau. 29 (2006 census). Wurm reported only 3 speakers left in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bulum-Bulum, Check-Cull, Chewlie, Djabugai, Dyabugay, Hileman, Kikonjunkulu, Kodgotto, Kokonyungalo, Koko-Tjumbundji, Ngarlkajie, Orlow, Tjabakai-Thandji, Tjabogaijanji, Tjankir, Tjankun, Tjapukai, Tjapunkandji, Tjunbundji Dialects: Dyaabugay, Gulay, Njakali (Nyagali, Nyakali). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic

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Dyaberdyaber
[dyb] Western Australia, coast south of Beagle bay and inland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabirr-Jabirr Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Dyangadi
[dyn] New South Wales, Kempsey area, Armidale, Macleay river. 5 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boorkutti, Burgadi, Dainggati, Dangadi, Dangati, Danggadi, Danggetti, Djan-Gadi, Ghangatty, Tangetti, Thangatti, Thangatty Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi

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Dyirbal
[dbl] Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa, and Woodleigh, east to Tully falls. 29 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Djirubal Dialects: Dyiru, Girramay (Keramai), Gulnguy (Gulngay), Mamu, Ngadjan (Ngatjan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Dyugun
[dyd] Western Australia, Broome coast area and inland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jukun Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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English
[eng] 15,600,000 in Australia (2006 census). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Aboriginal English, Australian Standard English, Neo-Nyungar (Noogar, Noonga, Noongar). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Minor regional dialect differences. Neo-Nyungar is the community dialect of the Nyungar people.

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Erre
[err] Northern Territory, Red Lily area west of Oenpelli; East Alligator river area, Mount Howship. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ari, Ere Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu

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Flinders Island
[fln] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Flinders island, Princess Charlotte bay. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yalgawarra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Flinders Island

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Gabi-Gabi
[gbw] Queensland, Caboolture, Bribie island, Childers, Jimna range, Maryborough, Hervey bay, Mary river, Cooroy, Burnett, Coast ranges, Kilkivan, Gympie, Fraser island. No known L1 speakers. Speaker numbers are not known but there is a sizable community in Brisbane who identify with this group. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cabee, Carby, Carby-carbery, Dhapil, Dhipil, Dippil, Dipple, Doon-dooburra, Doondoora, Dowarburra, Dundubara, Dunduura, Gabi, Gabigabi, Kabbi, Kabi, Kabikabi, Kahby, Karabi, Karbi, Maiba Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic

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Gadjerawang
[gdh] Western Australia and Northern Territory, north coast from Wyndham to Victoria river mouth and inland. 3 (2011 SIL). A few elderly speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gadjerong, Kajirrawung Classification: Australian, Djeragan

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Gagadu
[gbu] Northern Territory, Oenpelli. 6 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abdedal, Abiddul, Gaagudju, Kakadu, Kakakta, Kakdju, Kakdjuan Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gagudjuan

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Gambera
[gma] Western Australia, Admiralty gulf, far north Kimberleys area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera Classification: Australian, Worrorran

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Gamilaraay
[kld] Central northern New South Wales along Barwon, Bundarra, Balonne rivers, Liverpool Plains and upper Hunter river. 35 (2006 census). Recently extinct in its original form, but spoken by many as a mixture of English [eng] and Gamilaraay (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric

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Ganggalida
[gcd] Queensland near Bourketown. 1 (Wurm 2007). Six semi-speakers; one full speaker (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ganggalita, Jakula, Jugula, Kangkalita, Yokula, Yugulda, Yukala, Yukulta Dialects: Kangkalita, Nguburindi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Tangic

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Gangulu
[gnl] Queensland, Isaac river area, west of Marlborough. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Garig-Ilgar
[ilg] Northern Territory, Mainland of Cobourg peninsula, Port Essington area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Garig, Ilgar. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic Comments: Last speaker died 2003.

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Garingbal
[xgi] Queensland: Bedourie; Brown river; Carnavon range; Comet river; Consuelo peak; Expedition range; Rolleston. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kaingbul, Kanoloo, Karingbal, Karingbool, Karranbal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Garlali
[gll] Victoria: at Bulloo Downs; north to Orient, west to Grey range; east to Clyde, south to Bulloo lake floodplain. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galali, Kalali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Garrwa
[wrk] Northern Territory, near Queensland border, Gulflands. 87 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gaarwa, Garawa, Garrawa, Grawa, Karawa, Kariwa, Karrawar, Karrwa, Korrawa, Kurrawar, Leearawa, Leearrawa, Wollongorang, Wulungwara Dialects: Similar to Wanyi [wny]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi Comments: Intermarry with Yanyuwa [jao].

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Githabul
[gih] New South Wales: Clarence river; Drake; Killarney; Logan river; Rathdowney; Richmond river; Spicer Gap; Tabulam; Tooloom; Unumgar; Urbenville; Woodenbong. 20 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gidabul, Gidjoobal, Kidabal, Kidjabal, Kitabool, Kita-bool, Kitapul, Kittabool, Kitta-bool, Kuttibul, Noowidal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Giyug
[giy] Anson Bay, Peron islands, southwest of Darwin. 2 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Golpa
[lja] Northern Territories, Wessels, Elcho, Murru’ga. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Golba, Golbu, Gorlba, Kolpa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu

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Gooniyandi
[gni] Western Australia, Gogo, Fossil Downs, Louisa, and Margaret river stations. 410 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan Classification: Australian, Bunaban

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Goreng
[xgg] Western Australia: Badgebup; Bremer bay; Broome Hill; Ceranbrook; Gairdner river; Gnowangerup; Jeramungup; Kibbleup; Kojonup; Nampup; Nyabing; Ongerup; Pallinup river; Pingrup; Qualeup; Salt river; Stirling range; Tambellup. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Corine, Coro-ran, Kaialiwongi, Kokar, Koorengi, Kuriny, Mongup, Warangu, Warranger, Warrangle, Warrangoo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Gudang
[xgd] Queensland: Albany island; Escape river; Mount Adolphus island; Cape York. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Alauikeno, Gootung, Kekoseno Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Gudanji
[nji] Northern Territory, Barkly tableland, northeast of Lake Woods, Tennant creek, Elliott, and Borroloola. 3 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kurdanji, Ngarnga Dialects: Binbinka, Ngarnga. Classification: Australian, West Barkly

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Gugadj
[ggd] Queensland, north coast, west of Karumba inland on Norman river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Flinders Pama

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Gugu Badhun
[gdc] Queensland, west of Ingham and Abergowrie almost to Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Gugu Mini
[ggm] Queensland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gogo Mini, Koko Mini, Kuku-Mini Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Gugu Warra
[wrw] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, west bank of Normanby river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guguwarra, Kuku-Wara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman

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Gugubera
[kkp] Queensland, Mission river mouth area, Mitchell river. 100 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berang, Kok Kaber, Koko Bera, Koko Pera, Kukubera, Paperyn Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Coastal Pama

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Guguyimidjir
[kky] Queensland, Hopevale. 780 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugu Yimijir, Gugu-Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Kukuyimidir Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr

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Gumatj
[gnn] Northern Territory, Yirrkala. 240 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gomadj, Gumait, Gumaj Dialects: Mangalili. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Gunditjmara
[gjm] Victoria: Cape Bridgewater; Caramut; Hamilton; Hopkins river; Lake Condah; Port Fairy; Portland; Warrnambol; Woolsthorpe. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhauhurtwurru, Gournditch-mara, Gurnditschmara, Kirurndit, Kuunditjmara, Kuurn-kopan-noot, Ngutuk, Nil-can-cone-deets, Tourahonong, Weeritch-Weeritch Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj

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Gundungurra
[xrd] New South Wales: Berrima; Camden; Goulburn; Wollondilly. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Burragorang, Cundunorah, Gandangara, Gundanora, Gundungari, Gundungorra, Gurra-gunga Dialects: Similar to Ngunawal [xul]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Gungabula
[gyf] Queensland, Injune area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Gunwinggu
[gup] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Oenpelli, Maningrida, Croker Island. 1,220 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gunawitji, Gunwinjgu, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku, Mayali Dialects: Gumadir, Gundjeipme, Gunei (Kune), Muralidban, Naiali. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic

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Gunya
[gyy] Queensland, Wyandra area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Gupapuyngu
[guf] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Milingimbi, Elcho Islands. 330 (2006 census). 500 use other Dhuwal varieties. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gobabingo, Gubabwingu Dialects: Dhuwala, Gupapuyngu, Madarrpa, Manggalili, Munyuku, Walangu, Wubulkarra. About 45 related dialects. Similar to Gumatj [gnn]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Guragone
[gge] Arnhem Land, south of Maningrida, Mann river area, northwest of Rembarunga [rmb] language area, east of Gunwinyggu [gup] language area. 60 (2011 R. Singer and C. Bowern). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorogone, Gunagoragone, Gungorogone, Gun-Guragone, Gurrgoni, Gurrogone, Gutjertabia Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran

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Gurdjar
[gdj] Western Queensland, Norman river, northeast side, Normanton. 30 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kurtjjar Dialects: Speakers say it is similar to Kunggari [kgl]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Gureng Gureng
[gnr] Queensland, southeast, Abercorn area, north Burnett river district. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gureng-Gureng, Gurreng Gurreng Dialects: Gurreng Gurreng dialect uses the trilled r. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Than

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Gurinji
[gue] Northern Territory, Victoria river and Wave Hill, Kalkaringi. 590 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gurindji, Wurlayi Dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin Comments: Gurinji children’s language is a mixed language from Gurinji and Kriol.

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Guwa
[xgw] Victoria, headwaters of Diamantina north to Kynuna, and Hamilton creek divide; west to Middleton creek; east to Winton and Sesbania; south almost to Cork. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coa, Coah, Goa, Goamulgo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Guwamu
[gwu] Queensland, between St. George, Surat, Moonie and Maranoa rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Guwinmal
[xgm] Queensland: Bombandy; Broad sound; Cape Palmerston; Coast range; Normanby range; Pine mountain; Saint Lawrence; Styx; Yaamba. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koinbal, Koinjmal, Kooinmerburra, Kuinmurbura, Kungalburra, Kungmal, Mamburra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Guyani
[gvy] South Australia, south Yorke Peninsula. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kijani, Kuyani, Kwiani Dialects: Similar to Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Ikaranggal
[ikr] Queensland: Lakeland, Dixie, Palmer, Goldfield. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ikarranggali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Iwaidja
[ibd] Northern Territory, Croker Island. 140 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eiwaja, Ibadjo, Iwaidji, Iwaydja, Jiwadja, Karadjee, Limba Dialects: Iwaydja. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Jaitmatang
[xjt] Victoria, Lake Dartmouth. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jadjmadang, Jaithmathang, Jaitmathang, Yadymadhang Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Jandai
[jan] Victoria State, southern two-thirds of Stradbroke Island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coobenpil, Djandai, Djendewal, Dsandai, Goenpul, Janday, Jendairwal, Jundai, Koenpel, Noogoon, Tchandi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic

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Jaru
[ddj] Western Australia, southeast Kimberley region, Halls Creek, Ringers Soak. 360 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru, Wawari Dialects: Djaru, Nyininy. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Kala Lagaw Ya
[mwp] Queensland, Western Torres Strait islands, Mabuiag, Badu, Moa, Kubin, Saibai, Boigu, Dauan, Yam, Sue, Yorke, Coconut, Thursday, Bamaga Islands; Townsville, Brisbane. 1,210 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Central Torres Strait, Kala Lagau Langgus, Kala Lagaw, Kala Yagaw Ya, Langus, Mabuiag, Yagar Yagar Dialects: Kalaw Kawaw. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kala Lagaw Ya

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Kalaamaya
[lkm] Victoria: at Boorabbin and Southern Cross; east to Bullabull-ing, north to Youanmi, Lake Barlee, and Pigeon Rocks; west to Burracoppin, Mukinbudin, Kalannie, and Lake Moore; south to about Mount Holland in the Parker range. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kalamaia, Karlamay, Karlamayi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West

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Kalarko
[kba] Western Australia, Fraser and Bremer ranges area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galaagu, Kalaaku, Kalako, Kalakul, Malba, Malpa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning

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Kalkutung
[ktg] Queensland, Mount Isa area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galgadungu, Galgaduun, Kalkadoon, Kalkatungu, Kalkutungu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic

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Kamu
[xmu] Northern Territory, south of Darwin, east of Daly river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamor Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper

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Kanju
[kbe] Queensland, Central Cape York. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gandanju, Gandju, Jabuda, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu, Neogulada, Yaldiye-Ho Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama

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Karadjeri
[gbd] Western Australia, Roebuck Bay and inland, Broome, La Grange mission. 26 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard’are, Guradjara, Karajarri, Karrajarri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu

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Karenggapa
[eaa] Queensland, Mount Bygrave and Woodbum lake; at Yalpunga and Connulpie Downs; on the Bulloo river about Bulloo lakes; southwest to near Milpa-rinka; east to Therloo Downs; New South Wales, Tiboo-burra. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Garanggaba, Karrengappa, Kurengappa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kariyarra
[vka] Western Australia, south of Port Hedland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gariera, Kariera, Kariyara, Karriara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda Comments: The last speaker died in 1991. Some people still know some words (Wurm 2007).

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Karnic, Eastern
[ekc] Northwest New South Wales, southwest Queensland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhiraila, Garandala, Karendala, Ngura Dialects: Bidjara, Dhiraila, Garandala, Mambangura, Mingbari, Ngurawarla, Yarumarra. Related to Garlali [gll], Punthamara [xpt], Badjiri [jbi], and Wangkurmara [xwk]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Karranga
[xrq] Northern Territory: Yarralin, Victoria River Downs homestead, Moolooloo, Killarney homestead. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karanga, Karangpurru, Karrangpurru Dialects: Similar to Mudburra [dmw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Karuwali
[rxw] Queensland: Beal range; Beetoota; Connemara; Diamantina river; Durrie; Farrars creek; Haddon Corner; Monkira; Morney plains. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gara-wali, Goore, Karawalla, Karorinje, Kuriwalu, Kurrawulla Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kayardild
[gyd] Queensland, Gulf of Carpentaria, Mornington Island. 23 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Tangic

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Kaytetye
[gbb] Northern Territory, North of Alice Springs. 140 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gaididj, Kaiditj, Kaititj Dialects: Related to Alyawarr [aly]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Kitja
[gia] Western Australia, near Hall’s and Turkey creeks. 210 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gidja, Kidja, Kija Dialects: Most similar to Miriwung [mep]. Classification: Australian, Djeragan Comments: Nomadic.

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Kok-Nar
[gko] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gundara, Kok Nar, Koknar, Kok-Narr, Kwanthar Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama Comments: Last speaker died in the early 1970s.

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Kokata
[ktd] South Australia, Pimba, Mount Eba, Coober Peby. 19 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gugada, Kokatha, Kokitta, Koocatho, Koogurda, Kugurda, Kukata, Madutara, Maduwonga, Wanggamadu, Wongamardu Dialects: Different from Kukatja [kux]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati Comments: People may adequately understand Pintupi-Luritja [piu] or Pitjantjatjara [pjt].

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Koko Babangk
[okg] Queensland, lower Cape York peninsula, Gulf of Carpenteria coast, between Mitchell and Nassau rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kok Peponk, Kok-Babonk, Koko Kunaniy, Kok-Papangk, Kok-Paponk Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama Comments: Date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Kriol
[rop] Western Australia, Northern Territory, Kimberley region, Roper river, Katherine areas, Ngukurr; Queensland, Gulf country, Lower Cape York peninsula. 4,200 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Roper-Bamyili Creole Dialects: Bamyili Creole, Barkly Kriol, Daly River Kriol, Fitzroy Valley Kriol, Roper River Kriol (Roper River Pidgin). Both Kriol and Torres Strait Creole [tcs] are spreading and are nearly overlapping in Queensland. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific

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Kukatja
[kux] Western Australia, Balgo, Lake Gregory and east, south of Halls Creek. 440 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugadja, Kukaja Dialects: Different from Kokata [ktd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Kuku-Mangk
[xmq] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mangk Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Mu’inh
[xmp] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mu’inh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Muminh
[xmh] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. 31 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu, Kugu-Muminh, Wik Muminh, Wik-Mumin Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Ugbanh
[ugb] Queensland, Cape York peninsula west coast, south of Aurukun. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Ugbanh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Uwanh
[uwa] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu-Uwanh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Yalanji
[gvn] Queensland, Wujal-Wujal, Bloomfield River (Ayton), Daintree and Mossman, between Cooktown and Mossman. 360 (2006 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalanji, Kuku-Yalangi Dialects: Kuku-Biraji, Kuku-Nyungkul. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kumbainggar
[kgs] New South Wales, Grafton and north coast. 42 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baanbay, Gambalamam, Gumbaingari, Gumbaynggir, Kumbaingeri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric

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Kunbarlang
[wlg] Northern Territory, Oenpelli, Maningrida, and Goulburn Island. 16 (2006 census), decreasing. Ethnic group members generally speak Gunwinggu [gup]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gunbalang, Gunbarlang, Gungalang, Walang, Warlang Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic

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Kungarakany
[ggk] Northern Territory, Finniss river; south of Darwin, Darwin river and Rum Jungle area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gunerakan, Gungaragan, Gungarakanj, Kangarraga, Kungarakan Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gungaraganyan

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Kungardutyi
[gdt] Victoria. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungadidji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kunggara
[kvs] Queensland, Normanton, Delta. 10 (1971 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Goom-Gharra, Gunggara, Kunggera Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama Comments: Possibly has no remaining speakers.

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Kunggari
[kgl] Queensland, Upper Nebine and Mungallala creeks. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coongurri, Gungari, Gunggari, Ungorri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Kungkari
[lku] Queensland: Thomson and Cooper (Barcoo) rivers, Jundah; Westland, Longreach; Avington, Blackall, Terrick Terrick; Grey range, Cheviot range, Powell creek, Welford. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koongerri, Koonkerri, Kungeri, Kunggari, Mokaburra, Tarawalla, Torra-burri, Yangeeberra, Yankibura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kunjen
[kjn] Queensland, Wrotham Park, Kowanyama, Edward river. 20 (1991 B. Sommer), decreasing. 40 with some knowledge. Ethnic population: 300 (1991 B. Sommer). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guguminjen, Kukumindjen Dialects: Oykangand (Ogondyan, Olgel, Olgol). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Central Pama

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Kurnai
[unn] Victoria: almost all of Gippsland from Inverloch to Cann river. 26 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cunni, Ganai, Gooni, Gunna, Gunnai, Kunnai Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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Kurrama
[vku] Western Australia, northwest, southeast of Pannawonica. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gurama, Karama, Korama, Kurama Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Kuthant
[xut] Queensland, southwest Cape York peninsula, north of Karumba and Normanton. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Kuuk-Yak
[uky] Queensland, Cape York peninsula mid-western coast and inland, between Edward and Coleman rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koko Yak, Kuku Yak, Kuuk Yak Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama Comments: Estimated 40 speakers in 1975, but the date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Kuuku-Ya’u
[kuy] Queensland, northeastern Cape York peninsula south of Temple bay. 21 (1996 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bagadji, Gugu Yau, Koko-Ja’o, Kokoyao, Pakadji, Ya’o Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama

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Kwini
[gww] Western Australia, Kalumburu. 50 (Black 1983). In 1979, 50 speakers were reported. Number of speakers has seriously dropped (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cuini, Gunin, Gwiini, Gwini, Kunan, Wunambal Classification: Australian, Worrorran Comments: Ethnonym: Kwini. Glossonym: Goonan (Kunan). Gwini is Wunambal word for ‘east’ and was used by some people to refer to both Kwini and Wunambal (Yeidji)[wub].

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Ladji Ladji
[llj] Victoria State. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Acaxee, Laci-Laci, Ladji-Ladji, Laitchi-Laitchi, Laitu, Laitu-Laitu, Latja Latji, Latjalatji, Latje Latje, Latjilatji, Latjoo-Latjoo, Latyoo-Latyoo, Ledjiledji, Ledji-Ledji, Leitch-Leitchi, Litchoo-Litchoo, Litchy-Litchy, Lutchye-Lutchye Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin Comments: Estimated 10 speakers in 2005 (National Indigenous Languages Survey Report). Date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Lamu-Lamu
[lby] Queensland, Bamiga, and Coen. 19 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lamalama, Lama-Lama, Lamulamul, Mba Rumbathama Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic Comments: Ethnic groups include Baganambia, Gan-Ganda, Wurangung.

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Lanima
[lnw] Victoria: Julaolinja, Carlo springs on upper Mulligan river. They shifted east to Marion downs in postcontact times. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lhanima, Pitta Pitta, Ulaolinya, Yurlayurlanya Classification: Australian

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Laragia
[lrg] Northern Territory, Darwin area. 23 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gulumirrgin, Laragiya, Larakia, Larakiya Classification: Australian, Laragiyan

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Lardil
[lbz] Queensland, Mornington Island. 54 (2006 census). More semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kunana, Ladil, Laierdila, Lardill Dialects: Related to Kayardild [gyd], Nyangga [nny] and Ganggalida [gcd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Lardil

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Leningitij
[lnj] Queensland, Winduwinda area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Linngithig, Linngithigh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Limilngan
[lmc] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Mary River to west Alligator river, coast and inland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manadja, Minitji Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna

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Madhi Madhi
[dmd] New South Wales, Murray to Balranald districts, north to the Lachlan. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Madhimadhi, Madhi-Madhi, Muthimuthi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin Comments: Sound recordings made with Madhi Madhi speaker, Jack Long, in January 1969; date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Madngele
[zml] Northern Territory, south of Darwin and Daly rivers, Muldiva river west bank. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maangella, Madngela, Mandella, Matngala, Matngele, Muttangulla, Warat Dialects: Related to Kamu [xmu]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper

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Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island. 1,000 in Australia. 500 in Cocos Islands (1987), 560 on Christmas Island (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cocos, Kokos, Kukus Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Muslim.

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Malgana
[vml] Western Australia, Shark Bay, south of Wooramel river to Hamelin Pool area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maldjana, Maljanna, Malkana Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Malgana

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Malyangapa
[yga] Milparinka, New South Wales, Yancannie creek head, east beyond Mount Arrowsmith, south to about Mootwin-gee and Sturt Meadow. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bulali, Bulalli, Karikari, Malgaaljangaba, Malgangara, Malja:pa, Maljangaba, Maljangapa, Malyanapa, Malya-napa, Malyangaba, Malyapa, Malynapa, Milyauppa, Milya-uppa, Muliaarpa, Mullia-arpa, Multyerra, Mulyanapa, Mulya-napa, Mulyanappa, Mulya-nappa, Nalyanapa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli Comments: Last known speaker, Laurie Quayle, died in 1976.

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Manangkari
[znk] Northern Territory, Cobourg Peninsula. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Manda
[zma] Northern Territory, coast southwest of Anson Bay, southwest of Darwin. 25 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Mandandanyi
[zmk] Queensland, Roma Area, Maranoa river to Miles and Wandoan areas. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mandandanjnjdji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Mangala
[mem] Western Australia, southwest, Fitzroy, West Pilbara, Broome, Jurgurra creek, Edgar range. 61 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Djawali, Djuwali, Jiwali, Jiwarli, Koalgurdi, Manala, Mangalaa, Mangarla, Minala, Yalmbau Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mangala

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Mangarayi
[mpc] Northern Territory, Mataranka and Elsey stations. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mangarai, Mangarrayi, Manggarai, Mungarai, Mungerry, Ngarrabadji Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Mangarayic Comments: Different from Mangerr [zme].

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Mangerr
[zme] Arnhem Land, Oenpelli Area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Giimbiyu, Mangerei, Mangeri, Mengerrdji, Mennagi Dialects: Similar to Urningangg [urc]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu

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Mara
[mec] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river area. 57 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Leelalwarra, Leelawarra, Mala, Marra Dialects: Related to Wandarang [wnd]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara Comments: Intermarry with Yanyuwa [jao].

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Maranunggu
[zmr] Southwest of Darwin, inland from Anson Bay, east of Manda. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Emmi, Merranunggu, Warrgat Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Margany
[zmc] Queensland, between Quilpie and Wyandra, Bulloo and Paroo rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Marrganj Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Margu
[mhg] Northern Territory, Croker island. 1 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajokoot, Croker, Island, Jaako, Marrgu, Raffles Bay, Terrutong, Terutong, Yaako, Yako Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Margic

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Maridan
[zmd] Southwest of Darwin, north of Moyle river, east of Magadige. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Meradan Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Maridjabin
[zmj] Northern Territory, inland from Anson bay, south of Mariyedi and Manda, southwest of Darwin. 20 (Oates and Oates 1970). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maredyerbin, Maretyabin, Maridyerbin, Maritjabin Dialects: May be intelligible with Marithiel [mfr] or Maringarr [zmt]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Marimanindji
[zmm] Northern Territory, south of Darwin and Daly river, west of Muldiva river, near headwaters. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maramanandji, Maramarandji, Marimanindu, Marramaninjsji, Murinmanindji Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Maringarr
[zmt] Northern Territory south of Moyle river, southwest of Darwin. 30 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marenggar, Maringa Dialects: Maranunggu (Maramanunggu, Marranunga, Merranunggu, Warrgat). May be intelligible with other Bringen languages. Lexical similarity: 40% with Mullukmulluk [mpb] and Murrinh-Patha [mwf]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Marithiel
[mfr] Northern Territory, south of Daly river and central Daly river; Daly river and Roper river missions, Bagot, Delissaville. 15 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berringen, “Bringen” (pej.), “Brinken” (pej.), Maridhiel, Maridhiyel, Marithiyel, Marrithiyel Dialects: Mare-Ammu (Mari-Ammu), Marithiel, Nganygit. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Mariyedi
[zmy] Inland from Anson bay, south of Manda, southwest of Darwin. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Marriammu
[xru] Northern Territory, Wadeye, Belyuen. 5 (2006 A. Brown). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mareammu Dialects: Similar to Maridjabin [zmj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Marriammu

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Marti Ke
[zmg] Northern Territory, Wadeye, coast south from Moyle river estuary to Port Keats, southwest of Darwin. 3 (2001 I. Alexander). 50 L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 100. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Magadige, Magati Gair, Magati-Ge, Mati Ke Dialects: Similar to Maringarr [zmt] and Marithiel [mfr]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Martu Wangka
[mpj] Western Australia, Jigalong area, Lake Disappointment west side, Great Sandy Desert. 880 (2006 census). 650 Martu Wangka, 25 Kartujarra, 170 Manyjilyjarra, 16 Wangkajunga, 21 Yulparija (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mardo, Targudi Dialects: Kartujarra (Gagudjara, Gardudjara, Kadaddjara, Kardutjara, Kardutjarra, Kartutjara, Kiadjara), Manyjilyjara (Mantjiltjara, Manyjilyjarra), Puditara (Budidjara, Putujara), Wangkajunga (Wangkajungka), Yulparitja (Yilparitja, Yulbaridja, Yulparija). Manyjilyjara and Kartujarra are 2 ethnic groups speaking almost identical dialects. High inherent intelligibility between Yulparitja and Wangkajunga dialects. Puditara dialect is extinct. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Martuyhunira
[vma] Western Australia, northwest coast southwest of Dampier and inland. 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Martuthunira Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Maung
[mph] Northern Territory, Goulburn island, Arnhem Land. 260 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gunmarung, Gun-Marung, Mawng, Mawung Dialects: Garig-Ilgar [ilg] reportedly related. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Mayaguduna
[xmy] Queensland, near north coast, inland between Leichhardt and Flinders rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mayi-Kutuna Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mayawali
[yxa] Victoria: on the Diamantina river from Davenport downs and Diamantina lakes north to Old Cork; on Mayne river to Mount Vergemont; west to Springvale; southeast to Farrars creek; at Connemara and Brighton downs. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maiawali, Mayuli Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Mayi-Kulan
[xyk] Queensland, Middle Norman, Yappar, and Clara rivers, north to Milgarra, east to Gregory range, west to Iffley and Canobie stations. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidhagudi, Maigudina, Maigudung, Maigulung, Maikolon, Maikudun, Maikudung, Maikudunu, Maikulan, Maikulung, Majadhagudi, Makulu, Mayagoondoon, Mayagulan, Mayatagoorri, Maygulan, Mayhulan, Maykulan, Miccoolin, Micoolan, Mikadoon, Mikkoolan, Mikoodoono, Mikoolu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mayi-Thakurti
[xyt] Queensland: from Williams river and Cloncurry north to Canobie on Cloncurry river, east to the Julia creek junction with Cloncurry river and to Mount Fort Bowen, at Dalgonally. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidakadi, Maidhagari, Maidhaggaria, Maioakuri, Maitakeidi, Maitakudi, Maithagudi, Maithakari, Maithakudi, Mayadhagurdifagurdi, Mayatagoori, Maydhagurdi, Maytagoori, Mitagurdi, Mitakoodi, Mitroogoordi, Mittagurdi, Mittaka, Mythaguddi, Mythugadi, Mythuggadi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mayi-Yapi
[xyj] Queensland, Cloncurry river south to Canobie, north to Donor Hills, at Numbera (Cowan Downs), east to Flinders river and the Lower Saxby, west to upper Dismal creek and Leichhardt-Alexandra divide. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Majabi, Miappe, Miappi, Miubbi, Myabi, Myappe Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mbara
[mvl] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Mbara

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Mbariman-Gudhinma
[zmv] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay southwest coast. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Rimang-Gudinhma Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman

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Meriam
[ulk] Queensland, Eastern Torres Strait islands, Darnley island. 210 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: East Torres, Mer, Meriam Mir, Mir, Miriam, Miriam-Mir Dialects: Boigu, Buglial, Bulgai, Tagota. Limited mutual intelligibility of Gizrra [tof]. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly

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Minang
[xrg] West Australia: Boat harbor; Cowerup; King George’s sound; Lac Muir; Minang; Mount Barker; Nornalup; Pallinup river; Porongurup range; Shannon river; Stirling range; Tenterden; West Cliff Point; Wilson inlet. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mean-anger, Meenung, Meernanger, Minnal Yungar, Minung, Mirnong, Noongar, Nyungar Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Minjungbal
[xjb] New South Wales: Cape Byron; Clarence river; Murwillumbah; Nerang creek; Southport; Cudgen. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cood-jingburra, Cudgingberry, Gando Minjang, Gan-dowal, Gendo, Minjangbal, Minyowa, Minyung, Ngandowul Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Miriwung
[mep] Western Australia, Kununurra, Turkey creek. 210 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Merong, Miriwoong, Miriwun, Mirung Classification: Australian, Djeragan

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Miwa
[vmi] Western Australia, Drysdale river, far north Kimberleys area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bagu Classification: Australian, Worrorran

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Mpalitjanh
[xpj] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, middle and upper Ducie river area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbalidjan, Mpalit Yan, Mpalitjan, Mpalityanh Dialects: Similar to Uradhi [urf]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: No information regarding the last known user.

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Mudburra
[dmw] Northern Territory: Armstrong river; Camfield river; Cattle creek; Newcastle waters; Pigeon Hole station; Thjambutjambulani; Top Springs; Victoria river. 48 (2003). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madbara, Moodburra, Mootburra, Mudbara, Mudbera, Mudbra, Mudbura, Mutpura, Pinkagama, Pinkagarna Dialects: Eastern Mudburra, Western Mudburra. Similar to Karranga [xrq]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Mullukmulluk
[mpb] Northern Territory, Daly river north bank. 33 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malagmalag, Malak-Malak, Ngolak-Wonga, Nguluwongga Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper

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Muluridyi
[vmu] Queensland, Mitchell river headwaters to Mount Carbine, Rumula, Mareeba, Woodville. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Binjara, Kokomoloroij, Kokomoloroitji, Kookanoona, Molloroidyi, Mooloroiji, Mularitchee, Mullridgey, Mulurutji, Waluridji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic

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Murrinh-Patha
[mwf] Northern Territory, Port Keats area, Wadeye. 1,830 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Garama, Murinbada, Murinbata Dialects: Murrinhdiminin, Murrinhkura, Murrinhpatha. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha

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Muruwari
[zmu] Queensland and New South Wales from Bollon, Dirranbandi, Weilmoringle, Bourke, almost to Cunnamulla. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Murawari, Muruwarri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Muruwaric

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Nakara
[nck] Northern Territory, Maningrida, Arnhem Land, Goulburn island. 57 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kokori, Nagara, Nakkara Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran

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Nari Nari
[rnr] New South Wales, from Booligal to near Balranald. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Narinari, Nari-Nari, Narri-Narri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin Comments: Two speakers, Jack Wise and Mary Moore, provided language information in 1965 and 1967. The date of the last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Narrinyeri
[nay] South Australia. 160 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ngarinyeri, Ngarrindjeri, Yaralde Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic

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Narungga
[nnr] South Australia, south Yorke peninsula. 24 (2006 census), increasing. Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Alternate Names: Nanunga, Naranga, Narangga, Narranga, Narranggu, Narrangu Dialects: Adjabdurah (Adjahdurah), Turra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Nauo
[nwo] South Australia, half of Eyre peninsula; west to Cape Radstock, north past Minnipa; east near Darke peak; west of Cleve and halfway between Carrow and Franklin harbor; Port Lincoln, Mount Hope, Coffin bay, and Elliston. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Battara, Growoo, Naua, Nawo, Nawu, Nowo, Nyaawa Dialects: Similar to Wirangu [wgu]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura Comments: There were two potential speakers in the 1920s.

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Ndra’ngith
[dgt] Queensland, south of Pera Head; Norman river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: No information on the date of the last speaker’s death.

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Ngaanyatjarra
[ntj] Western Australia, Warburton ranges. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ngaanjatjarra, Ngaanyatjara, Nyanganyatjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Ngadjunmaya
[nju] Western Australia, Eyre’s Sand Patch, Goddard creek to Port Malcolm, Fraser range, Naretha and Point Culver; Mount Andres, Russell range, Balladonia, and Norseman. 10 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Badonjunga, Bardojunga, Ngadju, Ngadjumaja, Ngadjunmaia, Ngatju, Ngatjumay, Tchaakalaaga Dialects: Related to Kalarko [kba]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning

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Ngadjuri
[jui] Angaston and Freeling north to Clare, Crystal Brook, Gladstone, Carrieton; north of Waukaringa to Koonamore, east to Mannahill; Orroroo, Peterborough, Burra, and Robertstown districts. (1996 AUSTLANG). No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Boanawari, Burra, Burra Burra, Doora, Eeleeree, Eura, Hillary, Hilleri, Manu, Manuley, Manuri, Mimbara, Monnoo, Ngadhuri, Ngadluri, Ngadyuri, Ngaluri, Ngarluri, Weera, Werra, Wiramaya, Wirameju, Wirameyu, Wirra, Wirramaya, Wirra-Maya, Wirramayo, Wirrameyu, Yilrea, Youngye Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Ngalakan
[nig] Northern Territory, Roper river area. (Baker 2007). No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hongalla, Ngalakgan, Ngalangan Dialects: Related to Dalabon [ngk] and Rembarunga [rmb]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic Comments: Last fluent speaker died in 2004 (Baker 2007).

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Ngamini
[nmv] South Australia, Warburton creek area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karangura, Yarluyandji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Nganakarti
[xnk] Western Australia: Mingenew, Carnamah, Gullewa, Champion bay, Hill river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Barimaia, Jaburu, Minango, Nanakari, Nanakati, Nhanhagardi, Wiri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Ngandi
[nid] Northern Territory, Upper Wilton river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa Comments: Believed to be extinct for some time, but it seems that some speakers may still remain (Wurm 2007).

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Ngan’gityemerri
[nam] Northern Territory, Mission, Tipperary Station, Flora and Daly rivers junction, Daly river. 180 (2006 census). Ngenkiwumerri dialect is endangered, moving towards seriously endangered (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Moil, Ngangi-Tjemerri, Tyemeri Dialects: Nangikurrunggurr (Nangikurunggurr, Ngangikarangurr, Ngankikurrunkurr, Ngenkikurrunggur), Ngan’gimerri, Ngan’giwumirri (Ngangi-Wumeri, Ngenkiwumerri). Ngan’giwumirri dialect is 84% similar with other dialects. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha

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Ngantangarra
[ntg] Victoria: on upper Wilson river; north to Eromanga and beyond toward Thylungra and Ray; south to Nockatunga. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngandangara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Nganyaywana
[nyx] New South Wales, northeast, between Inverell, Ashford, and Glen Innes. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aniwan, Nganjaywana Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi

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Ngardi
[rxd] Northern Territory: Balgo hill; Chilla well; Gardiner range; Granites; Ima Ima; Lake Hazlett; Lake Lucas; Lake Mackay; Lake White; Lake Wills; Manggai; Milidjipi; Ngaima Ngaima; Pallotine Mission; Sturt creek; Tanami track; Tekkari. 14 (2012 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boonara, Bunara, Buruwatung, Kolo, Kukuruba, Manggai, Munga, Ngadi, Ngari, Nyardi, Panara, Puruwantung, Waiangadi, Waiangara, Waiangari, Wain-gara, Walmala, Wanayaga, Warangari, Waringari, Wommana, Woneiga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Ngarigu
[xni] New South Wales: Australian Alps; Bombala river; Delagate; Monaro Tableland; Nimmitabel; Queanbeyan. 5 (2004 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bemeringal, Bradjerak, Brajerak, Brajerang, Currak-da-bidgee, Garego, Guramal, Gur-mal, Murring, Ngarago, Ngarego, Ngarico, Ngarigo, Ngarigu, Ngarroogoo, Ngarrugu, Ngaryo, Nguramal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Ngarinman
[nbj] Northern Territory, Victoria river, Jasper creek area. 370 (Black 1983). 360 Ngarinman, 15 Bilinara (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Airiman, Hainman, Ngaiman, Ngarinyman, Ngrarmun Dialects: Bilinara (Pilinara). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Ngarinyin
[ung] Western Australia, Kimberley, Derby to King river. 57 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ungarinjin, Ungarinyin Dialects: Guwidj, Wilawila, Wolyamidi, Wurla (Ola, Walar, Worla, Worlaja, Wula, Wuladja, Wuladjangari). Classification: Australian, Worrorran Comments: A different Wurla dialect reportedly still spoken (1990 A. Rumsey).

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Ngarla
[nlr] Western Australia, Port Hedland area: Angelo, Ashburton, and Hardey rivers, Kunderong Range, Mount Vernon Station, Rocklea, Turee creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). 10 semispeakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inawangga, Inawonga, Inawongga, Nalawonga, Ngalawonga, Ngalawongga, Ngarla-warngga, Ngaunmardi, Ninanu, Yinhawangka Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Ngarluma
[nrl] Western Australia, northwest coast Roebourne area and inland. 26 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnalluma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngaluma Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Ngawun
[nxn] Queensland, southwest of Croydon, between Flinders and Norman rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Ngayawung
[nwg] South Australia, along Murray river from Herman Landing to Penn Reach, west to Mount Lofty ranges, south to Ngautngaut. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngaiawang, Ngaiawung, Ngayawang Dialects: Related to Narrinyeri [nay]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic Comments: Date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Ngunawal
[xul] New South Wales: Booroowa; Canberra; Goulburn; Queanbeyan; Shoalhaven river; Tumut; Yass. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gurungada, Ngoonawal, Ngunuwal, Nungawal, Wonnawal, Yarr Dialects: Similar to Gundungurra [xrd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin Comments: Not related to Ngurawarla, a dialect of Eastern Karnic [ekc].

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Ngurmbur
[nrx] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, between West and South Alligator rivers, northeast of Umbugarla. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gnormbur, Gnumbu, Koarnbut, Ngormbur, Ngumbur, Oormbur Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur

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Nhanda
[nha] Western Australia, Shark bay coast south to Kalbarri. In 1995, a few speakers were reported. Some still survive (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanda, Nanta, Nhanta, Nubda, Nunta Dialects: Bulinya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda

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Nhirrpi
[hrp] Victoria. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Nhuwala
[nhf] Western Australia, northwest, Barrow and Monte Bello islands and nearby coast. 10 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Nijadali
[nad] Western Australia, MarbleBar. 6 (1990 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bailko, Balgu, Balygu, Jauna, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiypali, Paljgu, Palyku Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nijadali Comments: 2 groups: Bailko and Jauna.

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Nimanbur
[nmp] Western Australia, southwest of King sound, and inland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nimanburru Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Nugunu
[nnv] South Australia, south of Gugada [ktd] language area to coast west to Fowler’s bay and east to Streaky bay, east Spencer gulf. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Doora, Njuguna, Nokunna, Noocoona, Nookoona, Nuguna, Nukana, Nukuna, Nukunnu, Nukunu, Pukunna, Tjura, Tyura, Wallaroo, Warra, Wongaidya Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Nukunul
[xnu] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic

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Nungali
[nug] Northern Territory, Upper Daly river area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan

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Nunggubuyu
[nuy] Northern Territory, Numbulwar, east Arnhem Land. 110 (2006 census). 400 semispeakers or L2 only. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nunggubuju, Wubuy, Yingkwira Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa

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Nyamal
[nly] Western Australia, northwest, Bamboo creek area, Marble Bar, Nullagine, to coast east of Port Hedland. 35 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Nyangga
[nny] Queensland, Gilbert river head, south of Forsayth to Gledswood, Gregory range to Oak Park and Glenora; Northern Territory, coast east of Robinson river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Janga, Jangaa, Jangga, Jang-Kala, Njangga, Njanggala, Yangarella, Yanggal, Yangkaal, Yuckamurri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Tangic Comments: Reportedly the same as Ganggalida [gcd].

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Nyangumarta
[nna] Western Australia, Marble Bar, Port Hedland, Tjalku Wara. 310 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nyangumarda, Nyangumata Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu

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Nyawaygi
[nyt] Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters, to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nawagi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Nyigina
[nyh] Western Australia, Lower Fitzroy river. 63 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Njigina, Nyikina Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Nyiyaparli
[xny] Western Australia: Davis river; Fortescue river; Jigalong creek; Oakover river; Ophtalmia range; Roy hill; Savory creek; Talawana; Weediwolli creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iabali, Jana, Janari, Niabali, Njiabadi, Njiabali, Njijabadi, Njijabali, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiyapali, Nyiypali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Nyulnyul
[nyv] Western Australia, West Kimberley, Beagle bay coast area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Nyunga
[nys] Southwest Australia. 240 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Neo-Nyunga, Nyungar Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar Comments: Former Nyungar languages: Tjapanmay, Karlamay, Pipelman (Pipalman), Ngatjumay, Kwetjman, Mirnong, Kaniyang Pindjarup, and Whadjuk. There are about 8,000 people who are descended from the Nyunga who speak a mixture of English and Nyunga, included as a dialect of English [eng] in Australia. They are sometimes called Noonga, Noongar, or Noogar, and their speech Neo-Nyunga.

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Olkol
[olk] Queensland, Coleman river, Crosbie river. 5 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Koka-ollugul, Koko Olkol, Koko Olkolo, Koko-olkol, Olcoola, Olgolo, Ol’kol, Olkulo, Ulkulu, Wulgulu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Paakantyi
[drl] New South Wales, Darling river basin. 24 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baagandji, Darling, Kula, Paakanti, Paakintyi, Southern Baagandji Dialects: Kurnu, Marrawarra (Maruara), Milpulo, Nhaawuparlku, Paaruntyi, Pantyikali (Bandjigali), Parrintyi (Baarrundji, Barindji), Pulaali, Southern Paakantyi, Thangkaali, Wanyuparlku, Wilyaali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Baagandji

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Pakanha
[pkn] Queensland, central Cape York peninsula, south of Coleman river. 10 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bakanha Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Pallanganmiddang
[pmd] Northern Victoria State, east of Albury. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Pallangahmiddang, Wavaroo, Wave Veroo, Waveroo, Way.you.rong, Way.you.roo, Wayerroo, Waywurru, Wee.er.roo, Wee.her.roo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Pallanganmiddang Comments: Date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Panytyima
[pnw] Western Australia, northwest, east southeast of Tom Price. 98 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bandjima, Banjima, Pandjima, Panjima, Panjtjima, Panyjima Dialects: Related to Ngarla [nir], Tjurruru [tju], and Nyamal [nly]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Pini
[pii] Western Australia, Three Rivers. 10. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bini, Birni, Piniritjara, Pirniritjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati Comments: May have no remaining speakers.

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Pinigura
[pnv] Western Australia, northwest, inland on Duck creek. 5 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Binigura, Pinikura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji

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Pinjarup
[pnj] West Australia: Harvey inlet; Leschenaut inlet; Murray river; Pinjarra; Woonerup. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bangoula, Banyoula, Banyowla, Binjarup, Kuriwongi, Peejine, Penjarra, Pidjain, Pinjarra, Yaberoo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Pintiini
[pti] Western Australia, Nullarbor plain north edge north of Hughes. 320 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pindiini, Wangada, Wanggaji, Wangkatja, Wonga, Wongai-I, Wonggaii Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pintupi-Luritja
[piu] Western Australia, Northern Territory, Papunya settlement, Yuendumu and Kintore, Balgo hills. 1,690 (2006 census). 90% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binddibu, Loridja, Pintubi, Pintupi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pirlatapa
[bxi] South Australia, Lake Blanche area, Lake Callabonn. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biladaba Dialects: Similar to Dieri [dif]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Pirriya
[xpa] Queensland: Canaway range; Coopers creek; Gilpeppee; Jundah; Keeroongooloo; Thomson river; Whitula creek. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidia, Biria, Birria, Piria Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Pitcairn-Norfolk
[pih] 66 in Australia (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pitcairn English Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: Christian.

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Pitjantjatjara
[pjt] Northwest South Australia, Pitjantjatjara freehold lands, Yalata. 2,660 (2006 census). 80% monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pitjantjara Dialects: Pitjantjatjara (Pithantjatjarra), Yankunytjatjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pitta Pitta
[pit] Queensland, Boulia. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bida-Bida, Bidhabidha, Pita Pita, Pitha-Pitha Dialects: Related to Wanggamala [wnm]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Punthamara
[xpt] Victoria: on creeks running east of Grey range from Orient and Thargomindah north to near Quilpie; at Tobermory; on the west side of Grey range only to Mount Margaret and Congie. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bundhamara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Rembarunga
[rmb] Northern Territory, Roper river area, Maningrida and outstations, Katherine area. 36 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaltuy, Rainbargo, Rembarranga, Rembarrnga, Rembarrunga Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic

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Ritarungo
[rit] Northern Territory, Eastern Arnhem Land (Rose and Roper rivers). 32 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ridarngo, Ridharrngu, Ritarnugu, Ritharngu, Ritharrngu, Wagelak, Wawilag Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Tagalaka
[tgz] Queensland, Croydon, Einasleigh River, Forest Home, Forsyth, Georgetown, Gilbert river, Gregory river. 1 (2005 NILS). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Da:galag, Dagalang, Takalak, Targa-lag, Tarkalag Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Thawa
[xtv] New South Wales: Cooma; Green cape; Merimbula. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baianga, Guyanagal, Guyangal-yuin, Katungal, Murring, Paienbera, Paiendra, Tadera-manji, Tharawal, Thauaira Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Thayore
[thd] Queensland, west Cape York, between Edward and Coleman rivers. 29 (2006 census), decreasing. Kuuk-Yak dialect recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1982 A. Hall). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Behran, Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Thaayorre, Taior, Thaayore, Thayorre Dialects: Kuuk-Yak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Western Pama

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Thaypan
[typ] Queensland, central Cape York peninsula, Coleman river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kuku-Thaypan Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Thiin
[iin] Western Australia. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Deen, Deenma, Denma, Dhiyin, Dhiyinma, Teen, Teenma, Tenma, Thenma, Thiinma Dialects: Similar to Djiwarli [dze]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Thurawal
[tbh] New South Wales, Port Hacking to Shoalhaven river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dharawaal, Dharawal, Turrubul Dialects: Dharrabal, Wadiwadi (Wodiwodi). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Tiwi
[tiw] Northern Territory, Bathurst and Melville islands, Nguiu. 1,740 (2006 census). Nonfluent speakers. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Australian, Tiwian

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Tjurruru
[tju] Western Australia, northwest, Hardey river, southwest of Tom Price. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tjururu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Torres Strait Creole
[tcs] Torres Strait Islands, towns on upper Cape York, some towns on north Queensland east coast. 6,040 (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ap-Ne-Ap, Blaik, Creole, Torres Strait Broken, West Torres, Yumplatok Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with English. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: A creolization of Tok Pisin [tpi] or Bislama [bis] and Kala Lagaw [mwp].

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Tyaraity
[woa] Northern Territory, Delissaville. 10 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Daktjerat, Djeradj, Djerag, Dyeraidy, Kuwema, Tjerait Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper

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Umbindhamu
[umd] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, north of Coen. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Umbindhamuic

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Umbugarla
[umr] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, southeast of Limilngan, between Mary and South Alligator rivers. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbakarla Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur

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Umbuygamu
[umg] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay east coast. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Moroba-Lama Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic

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Umiida
[xud] Western Australia, Bathurst, Bayliss, Koolan, and Macleay islands, Beagle, Cone, Shoal, and Strickland bays, Oobagooma, Yampi Sound. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aobidai of Ongkarango, O:ka:ta, O:kada, Okat, Oken, Okwata, Oomida, Umeda, Umede, Umida, Umidi, Wumide Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Umpila
[ump] Queensland, Cape Sidmouth north nearly to Night island. 100 (2011 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama

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Unggaranggu
[xun] Western Australia, northeast King sound from east Stokes bay north to Crawford bay, eastern islands of the sound from Helpman island to Caffarelli. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ongkarango, Oonggarrangoo, Ungarangi, Ungaranji, Unggarangi Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Unggumi
[xgu] Western Australia: Chestnut creek; Isdell and Lennard rivers; Leopold Range; Richenda river; Robinson river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ngarangari, Ong Komi, Ongaranjan, Ungami, Ungumi, Wongkomi Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Uradhi
[urf] Queensland, northeast Cape York peninsula, North Alice creek. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Urningangg
[urc] Arnhem Land, northwest; upper reaches of Alligator river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Uningangk, Wuningak Dialects: Similar to Mangerr [zme]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu

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Wadi Wadi
[xwd] Victoria: Moolpa NSW; Murray river; Murrumbidgee Junction; Piangil; Swan Hill; Tyntynder. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Biangil, Dacournditch, Wathiwathi, Wattewatte, Watthiwatthi, Watty-watty, Withaija, Woani, Wohdi Wohdi, Woonyi, Wotti-wotti Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wadikali
[wdk] New South Wales, Callabonna creek, Evelyn creek, Lake Pinaroo, Milparinka, Naryilco, Tilcha, Yandama, Yandama creek. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wadigali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli

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Wadjabangayi
[wdy] Queensland: Blackall; Glenbower; Lancevale; Maryvale. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Inningai, Kariimari, KunGait, Kun-Gait, Wadjabangai, Wadjabangay Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wadjiginy
[wdj] Southwest of Darwin along coast and inland along Finniss river. 12 (1988 SIL). Ethnic group members understand the language when old people speak it, but use Kriol [rop] as L1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wagaydy, Wogaity Dialects: Pungupungu (Kandjerramal, Kuwama, Patjtjamalh). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Wadjigu
[wdu] Queensland, southwest of Fairbairn reservoir. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wagaya
[wga] Northern Territory, Avon Downs, Camooweal, Austral Downs, area north of Lake Nash. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Leewakya, Ukkia, Waagai, Waagi, Wagai, Wagaja, Waggaia, Wakaja, Wakaya, Wakkaja, Warkya, Worgai, Worgaia, Workia Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa

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Wageman
[waq] Northern Territory, South of Pine creek, Tipperary station, and Bagot. 10 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wagiman, Wogeman Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Wagiman

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Wajarri
[wbv] Western Australia, Mount Magnet to Geraldton. 89 (2006 census). Ethnic population: 200 or fewer (1981 W. Douglas). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wadjari, Wadjeri, Watjari, Watjarri Dialects: Related to Badimaya [bia]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari

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Wajuk
[xwj] Western Australia. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Beelia, Beeloo, Derbal, Ilakuri wongi, Juadjag, Juadjuk, Karakata, Karrakatta, Minalnjunga, Minnal Yungar, Wadjug, Wadjuk, Wadjup, Wadyuk, Whadjuk, Whajook, Witjaari, Yooadda, Yooard, Yoongar, Yuard, Yuatjek, Yungar, Yungur Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Wakabunga
[wwb] Northwestern Queensland, Gregory and Gunpowder creeks, Leichhardt river, Morstone. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Waggaboonyah, Waggabundi, Wakobungo, Waukaboonia, Worgabunga, Workabunga, Workoboongo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic Comments: There were no remaining speakers in 1996 (AUSTLANG).

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Wakawaka
[wkw] Nanango north to Mount Perry, west to Boyne river; Queensland, Kingaroy, Murgon, and Gayndah. No known L1 speakers. Last native speaker of Duunidjawu dialect died in 1965. Two L2 speakers are still alive (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Enibura, Nukunukubara, Waga, Wagawaga, Waga-Waga, Wakka Dialects: Duungidjawu, Wagawaga. Related to Wuliwuli [wlu]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan

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Walangama
[nlw] Queensland: Croydon, Gregory range. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boogoolmurra, Bugulmara, Karan, Wahlongman, Wallan-kammer, Wallenkammer, Wollangama, Wollongurmee Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West

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Walmajarri
[wmt] Western Australia, Fitzroy river valley area, Lake Gregory and La Grange. 510 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pililuna, Walmajiri, Walmatjari, Walmatjiri, Wolmeri Dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj). The western group speaks the Juwaliny dialect. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Wambaya
[wmb] Northern Territory, Barkly tableland, Limmen bight and McArthur rivers headwaters; east of Lake Woods. 89 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Umbaia, Wambaia, Wambaja, Wombya, Wom-By-A, Yumpia Dialects: Binbinga (Binbinka), Gudandji, Wambaya. Dialects inherently intelligible. (Black 1983). Classification: Australian, West Barkly

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Wamin
[wmi] Queensland, south central Cape York peninsula, Einasleigh river, northwest of Einasleigh. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agwamin Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama

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Wandarang
[wnd] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wandaran, Warndarang, Wuyarrawala Dialects: Related to Mara [mec]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara

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Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa
[wyb] New South Wales, Darling, Barwon and Bogan rivers, Yanda creek. 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Ngiyambaa (Giamba, Narran, Ngeumba, Ngiamba, Ngiumba, Ngjamba, Ngumbarr, Noongaburrah), Wangaaybuwan (Wombungee, Wongagibun, Wongaibon, Wonghi, Wonghibon, Wonjhibon), Wayilwan (Waljwan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric

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Wanggamala
[wnm] Northern Territory, Hay river, south of Andegerebinha. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Wangganguru
[wgg] Northern Territory, southeast corner. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Wangkayutyuru
[wky] Victoria: At Glenormiston and Herbert downs; on Malvina creek; north toward Roxborough. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wanggadjara, Wanggayudyuru, Wangkayutjuru Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Wangkumara
[xwk] Victoria: northwest of Annandale, at Kalidawarry, lower portion of Field and Cooper creek east of Nappa Merrie and Orientos to the Wilson river at Nockatunga. 100 (2004 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wangumarra, Wongkumara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Wanman
[wbt] Western Australia, Marble Bar area, Nullagine station, Strelley. 20 (1973 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanidjara, Nyaani, Warnman Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Wanyi
[wny] Northwestern Territories, near Queensland border, southwest of Calvert. 10 (2007 D. Tryon). May be 2 Wanji semi-speakers and 1 full speaker (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Waangyee, Waanyi, Wainyi, Wanee, Wanji, Wanyee, Wonyee Dialects: Similar to Garrwa [wrk]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi

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Waray
[wrz] Northern Territory, Adelaide river area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur, Awarai, Awarra, Warrai, Warray Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Warayan

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Wardaman
[wrr] Northern Territory, upper Daly river. 84 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wadaman, Waderman, Waduman, Warda’man, Wardman, Warduman, Wartaman, Wordaman Dialects: Similar to Yangman [jng] and Dagoman [dgn]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic

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Wardandi
[wxw] Western Australia: from Bunbury to Cape Leuwin, chiefly along the coast, at Geographe bay, Nannup and Busselton. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Belliman, Dardanup, Doonin, Dordenup, Dornderupwongy, Dunanwongi, Jabaru, Kardagur, Nghungar, Waadandi, Waddarndi, Wadjandi, Yabaroo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Wariyangga
[wri] Western Australia, southeast of Mount Augustus, West Pilbara. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warriyangka Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Warlmanpa
[wrl] Northern Territory, Mount Leichhardt area. 47 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Walmala Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga

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Warlpiri
[wbp] Northern Territory, Yuendumu, Ali Curung Willowra, Alice Springs, Katherine, Darwin, and Lajamanu. 2,510 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Elpira, Ilpara, Ngaliya, Ngardilpa, Wailbri, Walbiri, Walmama, Walpiri Dialects: Related to Warlmanpa [wrl]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga

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Warluwara
[wrb] Queensland, Roxborough Downs. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kapula, Maula, Mauula, Mawula, Parnkarra, Walookera, Walugera, Waluwara, Wollegara, Yunnalinka Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa

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Warrgamay
[wgy] Queensland, coast south of Hinchinbrook island, and inland along Herbert river. 3 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Biyay Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Warrwa
[wwr] Western Australia, West Kimberley, Derby region. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warrawai, Warwa Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Warumungu
[wrm] Northern Territory, Tennant creek area. 310 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Warramunga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Warumungic

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Warungu
[wrg] Queensland, northeast of Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gudjala, Gugu-Badhun, Warrungu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wathawurrung
[wth] Victoria, Ballarat, Barwon river, Cape Otway, Geelong, Lake Burrambeet, Princetown, Queenscliff, Pitfield. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wada wurrung, Wadawio, Waddorow, Wadhaurung, Wadjawuru, Wadourer, Wadthaurung, Waitowrung, Warra, Wathaurong, Wathaurung, Wathawurung, Wathurung, Watorrong, Wiityahuurong, Wioura, Witaoro, Witawurong, Witoura, Witouro, Witowro, Witowurong, Witowurrong, Witowurrung, Witowurung, Wittyawhuurong, Woddowro, Woddowrong, Wod-dowrong, Wollowurong, Wooeewoorong, Wothowurong, Wuddyawurra, Wuddyawurru, Wudjawuru, Wudjawurung, Wudja-wurung, Wudthaurung Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wemba Wemba
[xww] Victoria, on Loddon river, north to Swan Hill, on Avoca river, south to near Quambatook, northeastward to Boorooban and Moulamein (N.S.W.); near Barham, at Lake Boga and Boort. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gorrmjanyuk, Gourrmjanyuk, Jambajamba, Jupa-galk-wournditch, Mallenjerrick, Waamba, Waimbiwaimbi, Wamba, Wamba Wamba, Wambawamba, Wembawemba, Weumba, Womba, Yamba, Yambayamba, Yowewnillurn, Yuppila Dialects: Related to Barababaraba [rbp] and Nari Nari [rnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wergaia
[weg] Northwest Victoria, from Dimboola to Lake Hindmarsh and Lake Albacutya along the Wimmera river, and from Yanac to Warracknabeal. 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wergaya, Werkaya, Wimmera, Worgaia Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wik-Epa
[wie] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wik-Ep Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Iiyanh
[wij] Queensland, central Cape York peninsula, southwest of Coen. 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Keyangan
[wif] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Me’anha
[wih] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wik-Em’an Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Mungkan
[wim] Queensland, Edward river to Aurukun. 1,060 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Munkan, Wik-Mungkhn, Wik-Munkan Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Ngathana
[wig] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, west coast below Aurukun. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wikalkan
[wik] Queensland, Aurukun. 86 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wikngatara, Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr Dialects: Ngadanja, Wik-Ngandjara (Ngandjara). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wikngenchera
[wua] Queensland, Aurukun. 50 (Oates and Oates 1970). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nantjara, Ngandjara, Ngantjeri, Njinturawik-Nganhcara, Wik, Wik-Nantjara Dialects: Related to Wikalkan [wik]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wilawila
[wil] Western Australia, central Kimberleys. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wila-Wila Classification: Australian, Worrorran

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Wiradhuri
[wrh] New South Wales, Murray river to Macquarie river, Lachlan river area from Murrumbidgee river to Parkes. 100 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berrembeel, Warandgeri, Werogery, Wiiratheri, Wira-Athoree, Wiradhurri, Wiradjuri, Wiraduri, Wiraidyuri, Wirajeree, Wirashuri, Wiratheri, Wirracharee, Wirrai’yarrai, Wooragurie, Wordjerg Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric

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Wirangu
[wgu] South Australia, coast between head of Bight and Streaky bay head, and inland to Ooldea region. 2 (2011 AUSTLANG). 2 semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jilbara, Naljara, Ngoleiadjara, Nhawu, Njangga, Nonga, Nyangga, Tidni, Tidnie, Titnie, Wanbiri, Wangon, Warrangoo, Willeuroo, Windakan, Wirangga, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrongu, Wirrung, Wirrunga, Yilrea Dialects: Similar to Nauo [nwo]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Woiwurrung
[wyi] Victoria, Healesville, Lancefield, Macedon, Melbourne, Moe, Mordialloc, Mount Bawbaw, Mount Disappointment, Saltwater river, Warragul, Woodend, Yarra river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungung-willam, Mort Noular, Ngarukwillam, Oorongie, Urunjeri, Waarengbadawa, Wainworra, Wairwaioo, Warerong, Warorong, Warwaroo, Waverong, Wavoo-rong, Wawoorong, Wawoo-rong, Wawurong, Wawurrong, Woewo-rung, Woiworung, Woiwurong, Woi-wurrong, Woiwurru, Woiwurung, Wooeewoorong, Wowerong, Wurrundyirra-baluk, Wurrunjeri, Wurundjeri, Wurunjeri, Wurunjerri-baluk, Yarra Yarra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Worimi
[kda] New South Wales, between Hunter and Hastings rivers, from Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birbay, Gadang, Gadhang, Gadjang, Kattang, Warimi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi

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Worrorra
[wro] Secure bay and Walcott inlet; Collier bay to Prince Regent river; northern boundary passes up Rothsay Water, inland about 40–50 km along Princess May ranges to Mount Hann and Mount French and cliff base of the tablelands. 20 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maialnga, Ong Komi, Worora, Wororra, Worrara, Worrora, Wurara, Wurora, Yangibaia Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran Comments: Former lingua franca.

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Wotjobaluk
[xwt] Victoria: Dimboola; Kaniva; Lake Albacutya; Lake Hindmarsh; Lake Korong; Outlet creek; Pine plains; Servicetown; Warracknabeal; Wimmera river; Yanac. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guli-ballaiuk, Watjo, Wattyabullak, Woitu-bullar, Wotjbaluk, Wotjo, Wotjo-ba-laiuruk, Wotjobalak, Wotjobalek, Wotjoballaiuk, Wotjoballuck, Wotjoballuk, Wotjo-balluk, Wotjobaluk, Wotjo-baluk, Wotjobolak, Wotjobuluk, Woychibirik, Wudjubalug, Wudjubaluk, Wutjubaluk, Wuttyabullak, Wuttyubullak, Wutyuballeak Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wuliwuli
[wlu] Queensland, southwest, Dawson river, Baralaba, Banana, Theodore. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan

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Wulna
[wux] Arnhem Land around Darwin, mouth of Adelaide river and inland. 1 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna

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Wunambal
[wub] Western Australia, Kalumburu, Wyndham and Mowanjum. 30 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeidji, Jeithi, Unambal, Wumnabal, Wunambullu, Yeidji, Yeithi Dialects: Gambera, Miwa, Wunambal. Classification: Australian, Worrorran Comments: Different from Kwini [gww]. Glossonym: Yeidji, ‘talk, speech’.

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Wunumara
[wnn] Queensland, Cambridge Downs, Cloncurry, Dalgonally, Flinders river, Kynuna, Richmond, Williams river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oonoomurra, Quippen-bura, Unamara, Woonamurra, Woonomurra, Wunamara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Wurrugu
[wur] Northern Territory, Cobourg peninsula. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Yabula Yabula
[yxy] Victoria and New South Wales states. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabalajabala, Jabulajabula, Maraban, Maragan, Moiraduban, Moitheriban, Ngarrimowro, Owanguttha, Pallaganmiddah, Panggarang, Waningotbun, Yabala-Yabala, Yoorta, Yurt Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic Comments: Date of last speaker’s death unknown.

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Yagara
[yxg] Queensland, Brisbane river from Cleveland district inland to Gatton area, north to near Esk, Ipswich. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biriin, Cateebil, Jagara, Jagarabal, Jagera, Jergarbal, Jinibara, Ninghi, Terabul, Tor-bul, Turibul, Turrbal, Turrubal, Turrubul, Turubul, Yackarabul, Yaggara, Yerongban, Yeronghan, Yerongpan, Yuggara, Yugg-ari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic

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Yalarnnga
[ylr] Queensland, Burke river area, Dajarra. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jalanga, Yalarrnga, Yelina, Yellanga, Yellunga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic

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Yan-nhangu
[jay] Northern Territory, 2 of westernmost Crocodile islands, adjacent to Cape Stewart, Maningrida and Milingimbi. 40 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jarnango, Nangu, Yanangu Dialects: Garmalangga, Gurjindi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu

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Yanda
[yda] Queensland: Hamilton river; Lucknow; Toolebuc; Warenda. Few speakers reported in 2012. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Janda, Yunda Dialects: Similar to Guwa [xgw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yandjibara
[xyb] Queensland, Barcaldine, Longreach. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yandruwandha
[ynd] South Australia Moomba area, and east into Queensland. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Yangman
[jng] Northern Territory, Elsey creek and Katherine. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Black 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dagoman, Jungman Dialects: Very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic

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Yankunytjatjara
[kdd] South Australia, Yalata, Musgrave, and Everard ranges, east Pitjantjatjara freehold lands and surrounding areas. 560 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jangkundjara, Kulpantja, Yankunjtjatjarra, Yankuntatjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Yanyuwa
[jao] Queensland, Borroloola, Northern Territory, Doomadgee. 120 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aniula, Anula, Anyula, Janjula, Leeanuwa, Wadiri, Yanula, Yanyula Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yanyuwan

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Yardliyawarra
[yxl] South Australia and New South Wales, Yardliyawara (Jadliaura), eastern side of northern Flinders range from Wertaloona south to Carrieton and Cradock, east to Frome Downs, at Holowilena station on Siccus river, west to Arkaba and Hawker. 2 (Hercus 2004). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Arabatura, Arkabatura, Jadliaura, Jadlijawara, Jadloori, Yadliaura, Yadlikowera, Yadliura, Yadliyawarra, Yadlouri, Yaldikowera, Yardliwarra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli Comments: There were 2 speakers of this language in 1987 (Austin and Hercus 1987).

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Yarluyandi
[yry] South Australia: Alton Downs; Annandale; Atna Hill; Birdsville; Diamantina river; Mulligan river. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeljujendi, Yarleeyandee, Yelyuyendi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Yatay
[yty] Queensland: Albany island and Mount Adolphus island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Iataj Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Yawarawarga
[yww] South Australia and Queensland, north of Cooper creek, southeast of Lake Yamma Yamma. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Yawijibaya
[jbw] Western Australia, Collier Bay, Jawutjap, Montgomery islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bergalgu, Jadjiba, Jadjibaia, Jaudjibaia, Jaudjibara, Jaudji-Bara, Jawadjag, Jawdjibaia, Jawdjibara, Jawdjobara, Jawutjubar, Winjawindjagu, Yaudjibaia, Yaudjibara, Yaujibaia, Yawjibara, Yawjibarra Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Yawuru
[ywr] Western Australia, coast south of Broome and inland. 30 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Eastern Inland Yawuru, Northern Yawuru, Southern Coastal Yawuru. Was related to Nyigina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Nimanbur [nmp], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Nyulnyul [nyv], and Bardi [bcj]. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Yaygir
[xya] New South Wales: Clarence river; Grafton. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jeigir, Jungai, Yegera, Yiegera, Youngai Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric

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Yidiny
[yii] Queensland, formerly Atherton region. A few at Palm Island Babinda, north to Gordonvale. 150 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boolboora, Deba, Eneby, Gerrah, Gijow, Gillah, Guwamal, Idin Idindji, Idinji, Idin-Wudjar, Indindji, Jidindji, Kitba, Maimbie, Mungera Ohalo, Pegullo-Bura, Warra-Warra, Warryboora, Woggil, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yitintyi, Yukkaburra Dialects: Gunggay, Madyay, Yidiny. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic

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Yindjibarndi
[yij] Western Australia, Roebourne area. 310 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jindjibandi, Yinjtjipartnti Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Yindjilandji
[yil] Northern Territory, northeast of Wonarah. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bularnu, Dhidhanu, Injdjiladji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa

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Yinggarda
[yia] Western Australia, Shark bay coast between Gascoyne and Wooramel rivers, inland to Red Hill, West Pilbara. 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inggarda, Inparra, Jinggarda, Kakarakala, Yingkarta Dialects: Related to Malgana [vml] which has no remaining speakers. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) reported no remaining speakers.

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Yinhawangka
[ywg] Western Australia: Angelo river; Ashburton river; Hardey river; Kunderong range; Mount Vernon station; Rocklea; Turee creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Yiningayi
[ygi] Queensland: West of Dividing range to Forsyth range, Maneroo creek and Longreach; south along Alice river tributaries to about Mexico; north to Muttaburra, Cornish creek, Tower Hill, Bowen Downs, and North Oakvale; at Aramac. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Iningai, Iningayi, Inningai, Mootaburra, Moothaburra, Muta-bura, Muttaburra, Tateburra, Terreburra, Yiningay Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yinwum
[yxm] Queensland: Batavia river; Moreton; Wenlock river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Yeemwoom Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Yir Yoront
[yiy] Queensland, west central Cape York peninsula, just southeast of Edward river. 15 (1991 B. Sommer). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gwandera, Jir Joront, Kokomindjen, Mandjoen, Millera, Mind’jana, Mundjun, Myunduno, Yir Yiront Dialects: Dangedl (Dhanu’un, Djudjan, Dudjym), Gorminang, Jir’jorond (Jirmel Mel-Jir, Ngamba’wandh, Yir Thangedl, Yirmel, Yirtangettle, Yirtutiym). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront

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Yirandali
[ljw] Queensland: Caledonia; Corfield; Dutton river; Flinders river; Great Dividing range; Hughenden; Lammermooor; Landsborough creek; Mount Sturgeon; Richmond; Tangorin; Torrens creek; Tower Hill creek; Winton. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dalebura, Dal-leyburra, Irendely, Pooroga, Yerrundulli, Yerrunthully Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yitha Yitha
[xth] New South Wales: Balranald, Booligal, Carrawathal, Lachlan river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eetha-eetha, Eethee Eethee, Eethie-eethie, Ita-ita, Ithi-ithi, Iti-iti, Tjuop, Yetho, Yitsa, Yit-tha Classification: Unclassified

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Yorta Yorta
[xyy] New South Wales, Cohuna, Conargo, Deniliquin, Echuca, Tullah creek, Tuppal, Yielima, Gunbower, Murray river. No known L1 speakers. Likely still spoken (AUSTLANG). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arramouro, Bangerang, Gunbowerooranditchgoole, Gunbowers, Jotijota, Kwart Kwart, Moira, Ngarrimouro, Ngarrimowro, Unungun, Wol-Lithiga, Woollathura, Yoorta, Yota Yota Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic

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Yugambal
[yub] Queensland, Logan and Albert river basins from Jimboomba to MacPherson range. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jugumbir, Jukamba, Manaldjali, Minjanbal, Ngarrbal, Ngarrubul, Yugabeh, Yugambeh, Yugumbal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yugambal

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Yugul
[ygu] Northern Territory, Ngukurr, Saint Vidgeon homestead, Nawaparr gorge, Namiliwirri lagoon. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jokul, Yikil, Yikul, Yookala, Yookil, Yookull, Yukul Dialects: Related to Mara [mec]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran

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Yuru
[ljx] Queensland: from Bowen north to the Burdekin river at Home Hill; southwest to Bogie range; at Upstart bay; south to Mount Pleasant and Mount Abbot. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur-angkana, Euronbba, Mal Mal, Malmal, South Murri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Yuyu
[yxu] New South Wales: Along Murray river covering Waikerie, Chowilla, west to Morgan, east to Lake Victoria, and south of Alawoona. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eramwir-rangu, Eraweerung, Erawiruck, Jeraruk, Jirau, Juju, Meru, Pomp-malkie, Rankbirit, Willoo, Wilu, Yerraruck, Yiran, Yirau, You-you Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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