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Adithinngithigh
[dth] Queensland state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adetingiti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Adnyamathanha
[adt] South Australia state: Nepabunna in Flinders ranges area. 110 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ad’n’amadana, Adynyamathanha, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Archualda, Atynyamatana, Benbakanjamata, Binbarnja, Gadjnjamada, Jandali, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda, Mardala, Nimalda, Nuralda, Umbertana, Unyamootha, Wailbi, Wailpi, Waljbi, Wipie. Dialects: None known. Related to Guyani [gvy], Barngarla [bjb], Nugunu [nnv], and Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Aghu-Tharnggala
[gtu] Queensland state: Dixie, Lakefield, Maramie. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aghu Tharnggala, Aghu Tharnggalai, Aghu Tharnggalu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama.

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Alawa
[alh] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kallana, Leealowa. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Alawic.

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Alngith
[aid] Queensland state: northeast Cape York peninsula just north of Weipa. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Alyawarr
[aly] Northern Territory; Queensland state: Sandover and Tennant creek areas. 1,660 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aljawara, Alyawarra, Alyawarre, Iliaura, Yowera. Dialects: None known. Related to Western Arrarnte [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Ami
[amy] Northern Territory: Anson bay coast, southwest of Darwin. 30 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ame, Amijangal. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Wadjiginy [wdj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Amurdak
[amg] Northern Territory: Goulburn island, Oenpelli. 1 (2007 B. Birch). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amarag, Amarak, Amardak, A’moordiyu, Amurag, Amurdag, Amurrag, Amurrak, Amurtak, Amuruk, Mamurug, Monobar, Namurug, Nga:mr:rak, Nga:mu:rak, Ngamurag, Umoreo, Umoriu, Umorrdak, Wardadjbak, Woraidbug, Wureidbug. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Amaragic.

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Andajin
[ajn] Western Australia state: King Leopold ranges south to east Philips north, from Lungra Yard west to Tharlow Hill area east. 2 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andidja, Andidjara. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Ngarinyinic.

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Andegerebinha
[adg] Northern Territory: Hay river, Pituri creek area, east of Alyawarra; Queensland state. 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andigibinha, Antekerrepinhe. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Angkamuthi
[avm] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, narrow coastal stretch from north of Port Musgrave to Doughboy river, inland area of Crystal creek, middle Jardine river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anggamudi, Ankamuti, Ngamiti, Nggamadi, Nggammadi, Ngkamadyi’. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Anguthimri
[awg] Queensland state: north Cape York peninsula, Mission river mouth west to Duyfken Point, north to Pennefather river; Wenlock river south and west banks between Batavia Landing area and Gibson waterhole. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death is unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angadimi, Angutimi, Ba:tyana, Batjana, Mbatyana, Ngerikudi, Nggerikudi, Nggirikudi, Nigger-Ikudi, Ra:kudi, Wimaranga, Wimarangga, Wimarango, Wimmarango, Yopngadi, Yupangati, Yupnget, Yupungati, Yupun-Gatti, Yuupngati. Dialects: Mpakwithi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama. Comments: Date of last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Anindilyakwa
[aoi] Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt, Gulf of Carpenteria. 1,290 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andiljangwa, Andilyaugwa, Aninhdhilyagwa, Enindhilyagwa, Enindiljaugwa, Groote Eylandt, Ingura, Wanindilyaugwa. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa.

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Anmatyerre
[amx] Northern Territory: Mount Allen, northwest Alice Springs region. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anmatjirra, Anmatyerr. Dialects: Eastern Anmatyerre, Western Anmatyerre (Kalenthelkwe, Kelentheyewelrere, Kelenthwelkere). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Antakarinya
[ant] South Australia state: north central area. 6 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andagarinya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Warnman [wbt]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Arabana
[ard] South Australia state: Lake Eyre west side to Maree, Port Augusta, and Stuart range. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arabunna. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Arakwal
[rkw] New South Wales state: Ballina and Richmond river north bank to Cape Byron; south to Ballina, inland to Casino, Coraki, and Lismore. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coo-al, Gundurimba, Jawhumjeri, Kawhul, Kogung, Naiang, Njung, Nyung, Tugurimba, Yawkum-yere. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Aranda, Lower Southern
[axl] Northern Territory: Alice Springs, Andado, Arltunga, Blood creek, Charlotte waters, Connor well, Deep well, Finke river, Gillen creek, Hale river, Henbury, Horseshoe bend, Hugh river, Idracowra, Intea, James range, MacDonnell range, Macumba rive, Maryvale, Mount Dare. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aldolanga, Aldolinga, Alitera, Aranda, Aranta, Arinta, Arranda, Arrinda, Arrundta, Arrunta, Arunda, Arunndta, Arunta, Arunta Bu, Arunta Ulpma, Eastern Aranda, Lower Aranda, Pertame, Southern Aranda, Western Aranda. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Areba
[aea] Queensland state: southwest Cape York peninsula, Gilbert river, northeast of Normanton. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama.

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Arrarnta, Western
[are] Northern Territory: Alice Springs area, Hermannsburg. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aranda, Arunta. Dialects: Western Aranda, Akerre (Akara), Southern Aranda. Reportedly similar to Alyawarr [aly] and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Arrernte, Eastern
[aer] Northern Territory: Alice Springs area (Mparntwe), Alcoota, Amoonguna (Amwengkwerne), Bonya (Uthipe Atherre), Harts range (Artetyerre), Santa Teresa (Ltyentye Apurte). 2,380 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Arunta, Eastern Aranda, Upper Aranda. Dialects: Mparntwe Arrernte, Ikngerripenhe, Akarre, Antekerrepenh, Upper Aranda. Related to Alyawarr [aly], Western Arrarnta [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Atampaya
[amz] Queensland state: Eliot creek, extreme north Cape York peninsula. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Australian Aborigines Sign Language
[asw] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. A collection of separate languages used by different aboriginal groups (e.g. Aranda, Warlpiri, Warumungu), rather than just one language; only a few of these have been recognized separately in ISO 639-3. Not related to Australian Sign Language [asf]. Classification: Sign language.

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Australian Irish Sign Language
[isg] Scattered. 50 in Australia (2016 R. Adam), decreasing. Estimated 50–100 users left, no monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: AISL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Introduced in 1875, used in at least three deaf schools until the 1950s, with separate schools (and dialects) for boys and girls. After leaving schooling in AISL, Deaf people learned Auslan [asf]. Those who still use AISL tend to mix it with Auslan [asf] and may have difficulty remembering AISL signs (2016 R. Adam).

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Australian Sign Language
[asf] Scattered. 7,150 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in New South Wales. Alternate Names: Auslan. Dialects: None known. Related to British Sign Language [bfi], with influences also from Irish Sign Language [isg] and American Sign Language [ase]. Many structural and lexical similarities between British Sign Language (BSL) [bfi], Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility (2003 T. Johnston, McKee and Kennedy 2000). Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing them as separate related languages. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Earliest schools for the deaf established by British deaf immigrants in 1860. Many agencies for the deaf. Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. Committee on national sign language.

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Awabakal
[awk] New South Wales state: Lake Macquarie, south from Newcastle. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Awabagal. Dialects: Awabagal, Cameeragal, Wonarua. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi.

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Awngthim
[gwm] Queensland state: north Cape York peninsula, Mission river north side, east of the Anguthimri. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angutimi, Mamangidigh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama. Comments: Date of the last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Ayabadhu
[ayd] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, north of Coleman river, south of Coen. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Ayerrerenge
[axe] Queensland state: Bathurst, Headingly, Urandangi, north to Lake Nash and Barkly Downs, east toward Mount Isa, west to Argadargada and Mount Hogarth area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aroinga, Bulamu, Bulanja, Bulanu, Jarionga, Jaroinga, Jurangka, Manda, Pulanja, Yaringa, Yaroinga, Yarroinga, Yarrowin, Yorrawinga, Yorrowinga, Yuruwinga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic. Comments: The date of the last speaker’s death unknown.

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Badimaya
[bia] Western Australia state: south of Cue to northeast of Moora; east to Paynes Find; west to Mullewa. 20 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Parti-Maya, Widimaya. Dialects: None known. Related to Wajarri [wbv]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari.

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Badjiri
[jbi] New South Wales state: Hungerford area to Eulo on Paroo river; east to Barringun, Cunna-mulla, Tinnenburra, and Tuen area; Caiwarro and eastern side of Currawinya. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baddjeri, Badjari, Ngura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Bandjalang
[bdy] New South Wales state: Woodenbong northeast; Queensland state: southeast. 100 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bandjelang, Bogganger, Bundala, Gidabal, Yugumbe. Dialects: Gidabal (Gidhabal), Yugumbir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Barababaraba
[rbp] New South Wales state: Murrumbidgee river south side, north of Hay to Victoria, Kerang; Brassi, cross river from Carrathool, Cohuna, Conargo, and Gunbower. 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baraba Baraba, Baraba-Baraba, Baraparapa, Barappur, Bareber Bareber, Barrababarraba, Barraba-Barraba, Beraba-Beraba, Birraba-Birraba, Boorabirraba, Booraboora, Boora-Boora, Boort, Burabura, Burappa, Burapper, Bureba, Burrabura-ba, Burraburburaba, Burrappa, Burrapper, Burreba-Burreba, Karraba, Perapa-Perapa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin, Western.

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Barbaram
[vmb] Queensland state: Almaden, Great Dividing ridge, Irvinebank, Koorboora (Kaboura), Mareeba, Mount Garnett, Petford. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balbarum, Barbarem, Barbarum, Booburam, Mbabaram, Mbara, Mogmnanarim, Oombarrmbarum, Umbarbarem, Woombarbarram, Wumbabaram. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama.

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Bardi
[bcj] Western Australia state: Western Kimberley region, Broome, Derby, Lombadina Aboriginal community, One Arm Point Aboriginal community. 160 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baadi, Baardi, Badi, Bard. Dialects: Bardi, Jawi. Intelligibility adequate between Bardi and Jawi dialects. Related to Nyikina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Djawi [djw], Nimanbur [nmp], Nyulnyul [nyv], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Dyugun [dyd], and Yawuru [ywr]. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan. Comments: Christian.

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Barngarla
[bjb] South Australia state: Port Lincoln to Spencer gulf head. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bahanga-La, Bangala, Banggala, Banggarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Kortabina, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Barrow Point
[bpt] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Barrow Point on Princess Charlotte bay and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr.

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Batyala
[xby] Queensland state: Cairns; Fraser island; Great Sandy island; Kabikabi mission; Noosa Head; Pialba; Tinana creek; Yarrabah; Thoorgine. 7 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Badjela, Badtala, Badtjala, Badyala, Batjala, Bidhala, Butchulla, Dulingbara, Gnoolongbara, Koolaburra, Ngulungbara, Olungbura, Patyala, Thoorgine. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic.

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Bayali
[bjy] Queensland state: Marlborough, Yeppon, Yamba, and Rockhampton; Fitzroy river mouth inland to Boomer range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biyali, Ningebal, Orambul, Warabal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Kingkel.

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Bayungu
[bxj] Western Australia state: West Pilbara; lower Lyndon and Minilya rivers. 6 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baiong, Baiung, Bajungu, Biong, Giong, Mulgarnoo, Pajungu, Payungu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara.

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Bibbulman
[xbp] Western Australia state: Lower Blackwood river, on hills between Blackwood and Warren rivers, east to Broke inlet and Gardner river; Scott river, inland to Bridgetown and Manjimup. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bajongwongi, Bebleman, Bibbulmun, Bibilum, Bibulman, Bibulmun, Bibuulmoun, Meeraman, Murram, Peopleman, Pepelman, Pibilum, Piblemen. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Bidyara
[bym] Queensland state: between Augathella and Tambo, Warrego and Langlo rivers. No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers (Ruhlen 1987). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidjara, Bithara, Bitjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Bigambal
[xbe] New South Wales state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bigambul, Bigumbil. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Bindal
[xbd] Victoria state: Ayr; Burdekin river mouth north to Cape Cleveland, inland to Leichhardt range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nyawaygi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Biri
[bzr] Queensland state: southeast of Charters Towers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wirri. Dialects: Yetimarala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Birrpayi
[xbj] Victoria state: Taree at Manning river mouth, inland to Gloucester area; river south side; Forbes, upper Hastings and Wilson rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biribi, Birippi, Birrapee, Birripai, Birrpai, Bripi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin
[bpl] Western Australia state: Beagle Bay, Broome, Derby, La Grange, Lombardinie, One Arm Point. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 40. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Lingua franca on pearling boats between Malays, Japanese, Chinese, and Aborigines. Alternate Names: Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk. Classification: Pidgin, Malay based. Comments: Some Japanese [jpn] and Aboriginal creole or pidgin English words.

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Bunaba
[bck] Western Australia state: Fitzroy Crossing area. 110 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bunuba, Punapa, Punuba. Classification: Australian, Bunaban.

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Bunganditj
[xbg] South Australia state: Balmoral, Cape Jaffa, Casterton, Dartmoor, Glenelg river, Lake Mundi, Mount Gambier, Mount Zero, Penola, Robe, Wannon river, Western Grampians. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bak-on-date, Banaditj, Bangandadj, Bangandidj, Barconedeet, Baundik, Boandic, Boandik, Booandik, Booandik-ngolo, Booandki-ngolo, Booganitch, Booganity, Boongandity, Borandikngolo, Buadik, Buandic, Buandig, Buandik, Buanditj, Bugandity, Bunganadity, Bungandaetch, Bung’andaetch, Bungandaetcha, Bungandaitj, Bungandidj, Bungandij, Bunganditjngolo, Bungandity, Bunjanditj, Burhwundeirtch, Drualatngolonung, Drualat-ngolonung, Nguro, Pungandaitj, Pungandik, Pungantitj, Pungatitj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj.

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Burarra
[bvr] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Maningrida. 1,070 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anbarra, Barera, Bawera, Burada, Bureda, Burera, Gidjingaliya Gujingalia, Gujalabiya, Gun-Guragone, Jikai, Tchikai. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Burduna
[bxn] Western Australia state: Henry and upper Lyndon rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boordoona, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Pinneegooroo, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 336,000 in Australia (2012 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Many Chinese people migrated to Australia during the 1850s gold rushes.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Sydney, Melbourne, elsewhere. 264,000 in Australia (2012 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Many Chinese people migrated to Australia during the 1850s gold rushes.

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Dadi Dadi
[dda] Victoria state: northwest; New South Wales state: southwest, Murray river area, north to Benanee. 10 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dadidadi, Dardidardi, Dardi-Dardi, Tatitati, Tharrthi-Tharrthi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic.

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Dagoman
[dgn] Northern Territory. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic.

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Dalabon
[ngk] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Katherine area, Oenpell. 11 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bouin, Boun, Buan, Buin, Buwan, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Nalabon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon, Ngalkbun. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Ngalkbun.

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Darkinyung
[xda] New South Wales state: Cessnock, Colo river, Hawkesbury river, Hunter river, Jerry’s plain, Macdonald river, Putty, Rylstone, Wisemans ferry, Wollombi. A few speakers reported in 2008. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Darginjang, Darginyung, Darkinjang, Darkinoong, Darkinung, Darknung. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Daungwurrung
[dgw] Northeastern Victoria state: Broken, Delatite, Coliban, Campaspe , adn Goulburn watersheds. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Daung Wurrung, Dhagung-wurrung, Taungurong, Taungurung, Thagawurung. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Dayi
[dax] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Galiwinku, Lake Evella, Numbulwam, Roper river, Yirrkala. 170 (2006 census). 53 Dhalwangu, 115 Dayi speakers (2006 census). No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dha’i, Dhay’yi. Dialects: Dhalwangu, Djarrwark. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Dhalandji
[dhl] Western Australia state: Exmouth gulf head inland to Ashburton river, West Pilbara. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Only a few speakers remain (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dalandji, Dalendi, Djalendi, Talaindji, Talandi, Talandji, Talangee, Tallainga, Taloinga, Thalantji, Thalanyji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji.

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Dhangu-Djangu
[dhg] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Elcho island. 270 (2006 census). 58 Djangu, 170 Gaalpu, 44 Wangurri (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budalpudal, Burada, Buralbural, Buratha, Dangu, Dhaangu, Dhangu, Dhangu’mi, Djangu, Warameri, Waramiri, Warramiri, War-ramirri, Warumeri, Yolngu-Matha, Yuulngu. Dialects: Gaalpu (Kalbu), Wangurri, Ngaymil, Rirratjingu, Golumala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu.

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Dhargari
[dhr] Western Australia state: Kennedy range, lower Lyons and upper Minilya rivers, West Pilbara. 1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dal’gari, Targari, Tarkarri, Thargari, Tharrgari, Tharrkari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda. Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Dharuk
[xdk] New South Wales state: Camden, Campbelltown, Hawkesbury river, Liverpool, Mount Victoria, Penrith, Sydney, Windsor. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Darrook, Dharrook, Dhar’rook, Dharruk, Dharug. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Dharumbal
[xgm] Queensland state: Bombandy, Broad sound, Cape Palmerston, Coast range, Normanby range, Pine mountain, Saint Lawrence, Styx, Yaamba. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Charumbul, Darambal, Darawal, Darumbal, Koinbal, Koinjmal, Kungalburra, Kungmal, Mamburra, Tarumbal, Tharumbal, Urambal. Dialects: Kuinmabara (Guwinmal, Kooinmarburra, Kooinmerburra, Kuinmurbara, Kuinmurbura). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Dhungaloo
[dhx] Queensland state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dungaloo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Dhurga
[dhu] New South Wales state: Bermagui to Jervis bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhu’rga, Dhuurga, Durga, Duurga, Tharumba, Thaua, Thoorga, Thurga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Dhuwal
[dwu] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river. 300 (2015 C. Bow). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dual, Duala, Wulamba, Yolngu. Dialects: Datiwuy (Daatiwuy), Dhuwal, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Liyagawumirr, Marrakulu, Marrangu. Most closely related to Djambarrpuyngu [djr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Dhuwaya
[dwy] Northern Territory, North-east Arnhem Land, Yirrkala and surrounding outstations. 500 (2015 C. Bow). L2 users: 1,000 (2015 C. Bow). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baby Gumatj. Dialects: Most closely related to Gumatj [gnn]. Dhuwaya is Yolngu variety that has resulted from language contact between different Yolngu dialects (Amery 1993). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Dieri
[dif] South Australia state: Leigh creek. 10 (2013 P. Austin). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Diyari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Dirari
[dit] South Australia state: east of Lake Eyre North. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhirari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Djabwurrung
[tjw] Victoria state: Ararat, Hamilton, Hopkins river, Maroona, Mount Rouse, Mount William, Stawell, Wickliffe,. 7 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chaa wuurong, Chaap Wuurong, Chaap-Warrong, Chaapwurra, Chaapwurru, Chaapwuurong, Chap wurong, Chap wurrung, Chap-wurong, Djab Wurrung, Djab wurung, Djabwuru, Djabwurung, Dyabwurung, Dyapwurong, Jab Wurrong, Jab wurrung, Kolor, Kolorer, Kooloor, Pirtkopannoot, Punoinjon, Purteetchally, Tchapwurong, Thapwurong, Tjap, Tjapwuron, Tjapwurong, Tjap-wurong, Tjapwurun, Tjapwurung, Tjapwuurong, Tyapawurru, Tyapwurru, Tyapwuru. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Djadjawurrung
[dja] Victoria state: Boort, Kyneton, Lake Buloke, Navarre hill, Wallaloo creek. No known L1 speakers. Date of the last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djadja Wurrung, Djadjawurung, Dyadyawurung, Jaara, Jaja-Wurrung, Jajawurung, Le Wurrung, Lewurru, Lewurrung, Yaara, Yaura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Djambarrpuyngu
[djr] Northern Territory: Elcho island. 2,760 (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca. Alternate Names: Djambarbwingu, Jambapuing, Jambapuingo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Djamindjung
[djd] Northern Territory: Victoria river. 120 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jaminjung. Dialects: Ngaliwuru (Ngaliwerra). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan.

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Djangun
[djf] Queensland state: Alma-den north to Mount Mulligan, east to Dimbula, west to Mungana. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adho-Adhom, Butju, Chungki, Chunkumberries, Chunkunburra, Jangun Djanggun, Koko-Mudju, Koko-Tyankun, Mutyu, Ngaigungo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic.

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Djauan
[djn] Northern Territory: Bamyili settlement, Katherine. 43 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adowen, Jawan, Jawony, Jawoyn, Kumertuo. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Djauanic.

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Djawi
[djw] Western Australia state: islands from Brunswick bay to King sound. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Djeebbana
[djj] Northern Territory: Maningrida north coast area, West Arnhem Land. 240 (2006 census). L2 users: 100 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gunavidji, Ndjébbana. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Djinang
[dji] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Blyth, Goyder, and Ramingining rivers. 210 (2006 census). 170 Djinang, 43 Wulaki (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jandijinung. Dialects: Djadiwitjibi, Mildjingi, Wulaki (Wurlaki), Balurbi, Murrungun, Manyarring. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang. Comments: Intermarry with the Djinba [djb].

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Djinba
[djb] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, southeast adjoining Djinang area, Ngangalala. 45 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Ganalbingu, Dabi, Mandjalpingu. Lexical similarity: 60% with Djinang [dji]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang. Comments: Intermarry with the Djinang [dji].

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Djingili
[jig] Northern Territory: Ash Burton range area, Elliott, Elsey station, Newcastle waters. 52 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chingalee, Chunguloo, Djingila, Djingulu, Jingali, Jingulu, Lee, Tchingalee, Tjingilu. Classification: Australian, West Barkly.

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Djiwarli
[dze] Western Australia state: Ashburton river, Elliott creek, Henry river, Lyons river, Mount Florry, Mount Hamlet, Yannarie river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djiwali, Djwarli, Jivali, Jiwali, Tivali, Tjiwali, Tjiwarli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Thiin [iin]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda. Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Dyaabugay
[dyy] Queensland state: Barron river south of Mareeba to Kuranda, north to Port Douglas on a plateau. 29 (2006 census). Only 3 speakers in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bulum-Bulum, Check-Cull, Chewlie, Djabugai, Dyabugay, Hileman, Kikonjunkulu, Kodgotto, Kokonyungalo, Koko-Tjumbundji, Ngarlkajie, Orlow, Tjabakai-Thandji, Tjabogaijanji, Tjankir, Tjankun, Tjapukai, Tjapunkandji, Tjunbundji. Dialects: Njakali (Nyagali, Nyakali), Dyaabugay, Gulay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic.

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Dyaberdyaber
[dyb] Western Australia state: Beagle Bay south coast and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabirr-Jabirr. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Dyangadi
[dyn] New South Wales state: Armidale, Kempsey area, Macleay river. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Extinct for 2 decades (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boorkutti, Burgadi, Dainggati, Dangadi, Dangati, Danggadi, Danggetti, Djan-Gadi, Ghangatty, Tangetti, Thangatti, Thangatty. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi.

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Dyirbal
[dbl] Queensland state: Millaa Millaa, Ravenshoe, and Woodleigh; east to Tully falls; Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters to Cashmere. 29 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Djirubal. Dialects: Dyiru, Girramay (Keramai), Gulnguy (Gulngay), Mamu, Ngadjan (Ngatjan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Dyugun
[dyd] Western Australia state: Broome coast area and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jukun. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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English
[eng] 16,500,000 in Australia (2012 UNSD). L2 users: 3,500,000 in Australia (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Australian Standard English, Aboriginal English, Neo-Nyungar (Noogar, Noonga, Noongar). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous. Minor regional dialect differences. Neo-Nyungar is the community dialect of the Nyungar people.

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Erre
[err] Northern Territory: East Alligator river area, Mount Howship; Red Lily area west of Oenpelli. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ari, Ere. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu.

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Flinders Island
[fln] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Flinders island, Princess Charlotte bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yalgawarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Flinders Island.

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Gabi-Gabi
[gbw] Queensland state: Bribie island, Burnett, Caboolture, Childers, Cooroy, Fraser island, Gympie, Hervey bay, Jimna range, Kilkivan, Mary river, Maryborough; coast ranges. No known L1 speakers. Speaker numbers are not known but there is a sizable community in Brisbane who identify with this group. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cabee, Carby, Carby-carbery, Dhapil, Dhipil, Dippil, Dipple, Doon-dooburra, Doondoora, Dowarburra, Dundubara, Dunduura, Gabi, Gabigabi, Kabbi, Kabi, Kabikabi, Kahby, Karabi, Karbi, Maiba. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic.

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Gadjerawang
[gdh] Western Australia state and Northern Territory: Wyndham to Victoria river mouth and inland on north coast. A few elderly speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gadjerong, Kajirrawung. Classification: Australian, Djeragan.

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Gagadu
[gbu] Northern Territory: Oenpelli. 1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abdedal, Abiddul, Gaagudju, Gagudju, Kakadu, Kakakta, Kakdju, Kakdjuan. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gagudjuan.

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Gambera
[gma] Western Australia state: Admiralty gulf, far north Kimberleys area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Gamilaraay
[kld] New South Wales state: Balonne, Barwon, Bundarra rivers, upper Hunter river, Liverpool Plains; Queensland state: 2 small areas southeast. 35 (2006 census), increasing. Recently extinct in its original form, but spoken by many as a mixture of English [eng] and Gamilaraay (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi. Dialects: Yuwaalaraay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric.

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Ganggalida
[gcd] Queensland state: Bourketown area. 1 (Wurm 2007). Six semi-speakers; one full speaker (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ganggalita, Jakula, Jugula, Kangkalita, Yokula, Yugulda, Yukala, Yukulta. Dialects: Kangkalita, Nguburindi. Classification: Australian, Tangic.

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Gangulu
[gnl] Queensland state: Isaac river area, west of Marlborough. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Garig-Ilgar
[ilg] Northern Territory: Cobourg peninsula mainland; Port Essington area. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2003. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Ilgar, Garig. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Garingbal
[xgi] Queensland state: Bedourie, Brown river, Carnavon range, Comet river, Consuelo peak, Expedition range, Rolleston. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kaingbul, Kanoloo, Karingbal, Karingbool, Karranbal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Garlali
[gll] Victoria state: Bulloo Downs, north to Orient, west to Grey range, east to Clyde, south to Bulloo lake floodplain. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galali, Kalali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Garrwa
[wrk] Northern Territory: Borroloola on Macarthur river east bank near Queensland state border, toward Doomadgee and Nicolson river. 59 (Mushin 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gaarwa, Garawa, Garrawa, Grawa, Karawa, Kariwa, Karrawar, Karrwa, Korrawa, Kurrawar, Leearawa, Leearrawa, Wollongorang, Wulungwara. Dialects: Gunindirri. Lexical similarity: 66% with Wanyi [wny], 28% with Yanyuwa [jao], 25% with Gudanji [nji], 17% with Wambaya [wmb], 4% with Ganggalida [gcd]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi. Comments: Intermarry with Yanyuwa [jao].

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German, Standard
[deu] 80,400 in Australia (2012 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous. German immigrants formed the second largest group of early settlers in Australia.

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Githabul
[gih] Queensland state; New South Wales state: Clarence river, Drake, Killarney, Logan river, Rathdowney, Richmond river, Spicer Gap, Tabulam, Tooloom, Unumgar, Urbenville, Woodenbong. 20 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gidabul, Gidjoobal, Kidabal, Kidjabal, Kitabool, Kita-bool, Kitapul, Kittabool, Kitta-bool, Kuttibul, Noowidal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Giyug
[giy] Northern Territory: Anson Bay, Peron islands, southwest of Darwin. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Golpa
[lja] Northern Territory: Elcho, Murru’ga, Wessels. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Golba, Golbu, Gorlba, Kolpa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu.

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Gooniyandi
[gni] Western Australia state: Fossil Downs, Gogo, Louisa, and Margaret river stations. 410 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan. Classification: Australian, Bunaban.

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Goreng
[xgg] Western Australia: Badgebup; Bremer bay; Broome Hill; Ceranbrook; Gairdner river; Gnowangerup; Jeramungup; Kibbleup; Kojonup; Nampup; Nyabing; Ongerup; Pallinup river; Pingrup; Qualeup; Salt river; Stirling range; Tambellup. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Corine, Coro-ran, Kaialiwongi, Kokar, Koorengi, Kuriny, Mongup, Warangu, Warranger, Warrangle, Warrangoo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Greek
[ell] 252,000 in Australia (2012 UNSD). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous. During the early 20th century, European immigration was encouraged. Large numbers of Greek speakers were among those admitted. Greek remains as a heritage language.

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Gudang
[xgd] Queensland state: Albany island; Cape York; Escape river; Mount Adolphus island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Alauikeno, Gootung, Kekoseno. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Gudanji
[nji] Northern Territory: Barkly tableland, Borroloola, Elliott, northeast of Lake Woods, and Tennant creek. No known L1 speakers (2015 SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kurdanji, Ngarnga. Dialects: Binbinka, Ngarnga. Classification: Australian, West Barkly.

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Gugadj
[ggd] Queensland state: north coast, west of Karumba inland on Norman river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Flinders Pama.

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Gugu Badhun
[gdc] Queensland state: west of Ingham and Abergowrie, almost to Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Gugu Warra
[wrw] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, west bank of Normanby river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guguwarra, Kuku-Wara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman.

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Gugubera
[kkp] Queensland state: Mission river mouth area, Mitchell river. 100 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berang, Kok Kaber, Koko Bera, Koko Pera, Kukubera, Paperyn. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Coastal Pama.

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Guguyimidjir
[kky] Queensland state: Hopevale. 780 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugu Yimijir, Gugu-Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Kukuyimidir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr.

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Gumatj
[gnn] Northern Territory: Yirrkala. 240 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gomadj, Gumait, Gumaj. Dialects: Mangalili. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Gunditjmara
[gjm] Victoria state: Cape Bridgewater, Caramut, Hamilton, Hopkins river, Lake Condah, Port Fairy, Portland, Warrnambol, Woolsthorpe. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhauhurtwurru, Gournditch-mara, Gurnditschmara, Kirurndit, Kuunditjmara, Kuurn-kopan-noot, Ngutuk, Nil-can-cone-deets, Tourahonong, Weeritch-Weeritch. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj.

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Gundungurra
[xrd] New South Wales state: Berrima, Camden, Goulburn, Wollondilly. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Burragorang, Cundunorah, Gandangara, Gundanora, Gundungari, Gundungorra, Gurra-gunga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngunawal [xul]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Gungabula
[gyf] Queensland state: Injune area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Gunwinggu
[gup] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Croker Island, Oenpelli, Maningrida. 1,220 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bininj Gun-Wok, Gunawitji, Gunwinjgu, Gunwinygu, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku, Mayali. Dialects: Gumadir, Muralidban, Gunei (Kune), Gundjeipme, Naiali. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic.

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Gunya
[gyy] Queensland state: Wyandra area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Gupapuyngu
[guf] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Elcho Islands, Milingimbi. 330 (2006 census). 500 use other Dhuwal varieties. L2 users: 950. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gobabingo, Gubabwingu. Dialects: Gupapuyngu, Madarrpa, Manggalili, Munyuku, Wubulkarra, Walangu, Dhuwala. About 45 related dialects. Reportedly similar to Gumatj [gnn]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Guragone
[gge] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, south of Maningrida, Mann river area, northwest of Rembarunga [rmb] language area, east of Gunwinyggu [gup] language area. 60 (2011 R. Singer and C. Bowern). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorogone, Gunagoragone, Gungorogone, Gun-Guragone, Gurrgoni, Gurrogone, Gutjertabia. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Gurdjar
[gdj] Queensland state: Delta, Normanton. 1 (Wurm 2007). Possibly has no remaining speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Goom-Gharra, Gunggara, Kunggara, Kunggera, Kurtjjar. Dialects: None known. Users report it is similar to Kunggari [kgl]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama.

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Gureng Gureng
[gnr] Queensland state: north Burnett river district, Abercorn area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gureng-Gureng, Gurreng Gurreng. Dialects: Gurreng Gurreng dialect uses the trilled r. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Than.

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Gurindji Kriol
[gjr] Northern Territory, Victoria River district, Kalkaringi and Daguragu. 1,000 (Meakins 2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gurindji, Gurindji Children’s Language, Gurinji, Gurinji Kriol, Miksimap. Classification: Mixed language, Gurindji-Kriol.

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Gurinji
[gue] Northern Territory: Kalkaringi, Victoria river and Wave Hill. 590 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gurindji, Wurlayi. Dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin. Comments: Gurindji Children’s Language (GCL), as it was called in the 1970s, is today spoken by both adults and children, the Gurindji-Kriol [gjr] language (McConvell and Meakins 2005).

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Guwa
[xgw] Queensland state: Victoria river, headwaters of Diamantina north to Kynuna, and Hamilton creek divide; west to Middleton creek; east to Winton and Sesbania; south almost to Cork. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coa, Coah, Goa, Goamulgo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Guwamu
[gwu] Queensland state: between Maranoa, Moonie, St. George, and Surat rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Guyani
[gvy] South Australia state: south Yorke Peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kijani, Kuyani, Kwiani. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Ikaranggal
[ikr] Queensland state: Dixie, Goldfield, Lakeland, Palmer. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ikarranggali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama.

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Italian
[ita] 300,000 in Australia (2012 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous. During the early 20th century, European immigration was encouraged. Large numbers of Italian speakers were among those admitted. Italian remains as a heritage language.

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Iwaidja
[ibd] Northern Territory: Croker Island. 140 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eiwaja, Ibadjo, Iwaidji, Iwaydja, Jiwadja, Karadjee, Limba, Yiwaidja. Dialects: Iwaydja. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Jaitmatang
[xjt] Victoria state: Lake Dartmouth. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jadjmadang, Jaithmathang, Jaitmathang, Yadymadhang. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Jandai
[jan] Victoria state: southern two-thirds of Stradbroke Island. No known L1 speakers (1996 AUSTLANG). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coobenpil, Djandai, Djendewal, Dsandai, Goenpul, Janday, Jendairwal, Jundai, Koenpel, Noogoon, Tchandi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic.

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Japanese
[jpn] 43,700 in Australia (2012 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Japonic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Japanese pearl divers were among some of the earliest immigrants to Australia.

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Jaru
[ddj] Western Australia state: southeast Kimberley region, Halls Creek, Ringers Soak; Northern Territory: southeast of Gurinji [gue] area. 360 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru, Wawari. Dialects: Nyininy, Djaru. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Kala Lagaw Ya
[mwp] Queensland state: Badu, Bamaga islands, Boigu, Coconut, Dauan, Kubin, Mabuiag, Moa, Saibai, Sue, Thursday, Yam, Yorke, Western Torres Strait islands; Brisbane, Townsville. 1,210 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Torres Strait, Kala Lagau Langgus, Kala Lagaw, Kala Yagaw Ya, Langus, Mabuiag, Yagar Yagar. Dialects: Kalaw Kawaw. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kala Lagaw Ya.

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Kalaamaya
[lkm] Victoria state: Boorabbin and Southern Cross; east to Bullabulling; north to Youanmi, Lake Barlee, and Pigeon Rocks; west to Burracoppin, Kalannie, Lake Moore and Mukinbudin; south to about Mount Holland in the Parker range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kalamaia, Karlamay, Karlamayi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West.

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Kalarko
[kba] Western Australia state: Bremer and Fraser ranges area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galaagu, Kalaaku, Kalako, Kalakul, Malba, Malpa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning.

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Kalkutung
[ktg] Queensland state: Mount Isa area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galgadungu, Galgaduun, Kalkadoon, Kalkatungu, Kalkutungu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic.

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Kamu
[xmu] Northern Territory: south of Darwin, east of Daly river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamor, Gamu. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper.

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Kanju
[kbe] Queensland state: Central Cape York. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gandanju, Gandju, Jabuda, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu, Neogulada, Yaldiye-Ho. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama.

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Karadjeri
[gbd] Western Australia state: Broome, La Grange mission, Roebuck Bay and inland. 26 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Garadjari, Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard’are, Guradjara, Karajarri, Karrajarri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu.

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Karenggapa
[eaa] Queensland state: Bulloo river about Bulloo lakes; Connulpie Downs and Yalpunga; Mount Bygrave and Woodbum lake; southwest to Milpa-rinka area; east to Therloo Downs; New South Wales state: Tiboo-burra. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Garanggaba, Karrengappa, Kurengappa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kariyarra
[vka] Western Australia state: south of Port Hedland. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1991. Some people still know some words (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gariera, Kariera, Kariyara, Karriara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Karnic, Eastern
[ekc] New South Wales state: northwest; Queensland state: southwest. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhiraila, Garandala, Karendala, Ngura. Dialects: Bidjara, Dhiraila, Garandala, Mambangura, Mingbari, Ngurawarla, Yarumarra. Related to Garlali [gll], Punthamara [xpt], Badjiri [jbi], and Wangkurmara [xwk]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Karranga
[xrq] Northern Territory: Killarney homestead, Moolooloo, Victoria River Downs homestead, Yarralin. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karanga, Karangpurru, Karrangpurru. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mudburra [dmw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Karuwali
[rxw] Queensland state: Beal range, Beetoota, Connemara, Diamantina river, Durrie, Farrars creek, Haddon Corner, Monkira, Morney plains. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gara-wali, Goore, Karawalla, Karorinje, Kuriwalu, Kurrawulla. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kaurna
[zku] South Australia state: Fleurieu peninsula; Cape Jervis south to Clare and Crystal Brook north, bounded by Gulf Saint Vincent west and Mount Lofty ranges east. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last speaker died in 1929 (2015 R. Amery). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Coorna, Gaurna, Jaitjawarra, Karnuwarra, Kaura, Koornawarra, Kurumidlanta, Medaindi, Medaindie, Meljurna, Merelde, Merildekald, Meyu, Midlanta, Milipitingara, Nantuwara, Nantuwaru, Nganawara, Padnaindi, Padnayndie, Wakanuwan, Warra, Warrah, Widninga, Winaini, Winnaynie, Winnay-nie. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Kayardild
[gyd] Queensland state: Gulf of Carpentaria, Mornington Island. 23 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda. Classification: Australian, Tangic.

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Kaytetye
[gbb] Northern Territory: North of Alice Springs. 140 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gaididj, Kaiditj, Kaititj, Kaytej. Dialects: None known. Related to Alyawarr [aly]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Kitja
[gia] Western Australia state: near Hall’s and Turkey creeks. 210 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gidja, Kidja, Kija. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Miriwung [mep]. Classification: Australian, Djeragan. Comments: Nomadic.

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Kok-Nar
[gko] Queensland state. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the early 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gundara, Kok Nar, Koknar, Kok-Narr, Kwanthar. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama.

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Kokata
[ktd] South Australia state: Coober Peby, Mount Eba, Pimba. 19 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gugada, Kokatha, Kokitta, Koocatho, Koogurda, Kugurda, Kukata, Madutara, Maduwonga, Wanggamadu, Wongamardu. Dialects: None known. Different from Kukatja [kux]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati. Comments: People may adequately understand Pintupi-Luritja [piu] or Pitjantjatjara [pjt].

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Koko Babangk
[okg] Queensland state: lower Cape York peninsula, Gulf of Carpenteria coast, between Mitchell and Nassau rivers. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kok Peponk, Kok-Babonk, Koko Kunaniy, Kok-Papangk, Kok-Paponk. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama.

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Kriol
[rop] Western Australia state; Northern Territory: Kimberley region, Roper river, Katherine areas, Ngukurr; Queensland state: Gulf country, Lower Cape York peninsula. 4,200 (2006 census). L2 users: 10,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Roper-Bamyili Creole. Dialects: Roper River Kriol (Roper River Pidgin), Bamyili Creole, Barkly Kriol, Fitzroy Valley Kriol, Daly River Kriol. Both Kriol and Torres Strait Creole [tcs] are spreading and are nearly overlapping in Queensland. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific.

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Kukatja
[kux] Western Australia state: Balgo, Lake Gregory and east, south of Halls Creek. 440 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugadja, Kukaja. Dialects: None known. Different from Kokata [ktd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Kuku-Mangk
[xmq] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mangk. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Mu’inh
[xmp] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mu’inh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Muminh
[xmh] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. 31 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu, Kugu-Muminh, Wik Muminh, Wik-Mumin. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Ugbanh
[ugb] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, west coast south of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Ugbanh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Uwanh
[uwa] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu Nganhcara, Kugu-Uwanh, Kuku Nganhcara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Yalanji
[gvn] Queensland state: Bloomfield River (Ayton), Daintree, Mossman, Wujal-Wujal, and between Cooktown and Mossman. 360 (2006 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugu Yalandyi, Gugu Yalanji, Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalanji, Kuku-Yalangi. Dialects: Kuku-Nyungkul, Kuku-Biraji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kumbainggar
[kgs] New South Wales state: Grafton and north coast. 42 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baanbay, Gambalamam, Gumbaingari, Gumbainggar, Gumbaynggir, Gumbayunggir, Kumbaingeri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric.

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Kunbarlang
[wlg] Northern Territory: Goulburn Island, Oenpelli, Maningrida. 16 (2006 census), decreasing. Ethnic group members generally speak Gunwinggu [gup]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gunbalang, Gunbarlang, Gungalang, Walang, Warlang. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic.

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Kungarakany
[ggk] Northern Territory: Finniss river; south of Darwin, Darwin river and Rum Jungle area. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1989. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gunerakan, Gungaragan, Gungarakanj, Kangarraga, Kungarakan. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gungaraganyan.

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Kungardutyi
[gdt] Victoria state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungadidji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kunggari
[kgl] Queensland state: Upper Nebine and Mungallala creeks. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coongurri, Gungari, Gunggari, Ungorri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Kungkari
[lku] Queensland state: Avington, Blackall, Cheviot range, Grey range, Jundah, Longreach, Powell creek, Terrick Terrick, Welford, Westland; Cooper (Barcoo) and Thomson rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koongerri, Koonkerri, Kungeri, Kunggari, Mokaburra, Tarawalla, Torra-burri, Yangeeberra, Yankibura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kunjen
[kjn] Queensland state: Edward river, Kowanyama, Wrotham Park. 20 (1991 B. Sommer), decreasing. 40 with some knowledge. Ethnic population: 300 (1991 B. Sommer). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guguminjen, Kukumindjen. Dialects: Oykangand (Ogondyan, Olgel, Olgol). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Central Pama.

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Kurnai
[unn] Victoria state: Gippsland from Inverloch to Cann river. 26 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cunni, Ganai, Gooni, Gunna, Gunnai, Kunnai. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Kurrama
[vku] Western Australia state: northwest, southeast of Pannawonica. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gurama, Karama, Korama, Kurama. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Kuthant
[xut] Queensland state: southwest Cape York peninsula, north of Karumba and Normanton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama.

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Kuuk-Yak
[uky] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula mid-west coast and inland, between Edward and Coleman rivers. No known L1 speakers. Estimated 40 speakers in 1975, but the date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koko Yak, Kuku Yak, Kuuk Yak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama.

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Kuuku-Ya’u
[kuy] Queensland state: northeast Cape York peninsula south of Temple bay. 21 (1996 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bagadji, Gugu Yau, Koko-Ja’o, Kokoyao, Pakadji, Ya’o. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama.

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Kwini
[gww] Western Australia state: Kalumburu. 50 (Black 1983). Number of speakers has seriously dropped since 1979 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cuini, Goonan, Gunin, Gwiini, Gwini, Kunan, Wunambal. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Ladji Ladji
[llj] Victoria state. No known L1 speakers. Estimated 10 speakers in 2005 (National Indigenous Languages Survey Report). Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Acaxee, Laci-Laci, Ladji-Ladji, Laitchi-Laitchi, Laitu, Laitu-Laitu, Latja Latji, Latjalatji, Latje Latje, Latjilatji, Latjoo-Latjoo, Latyoo-Latyoo, Ledjiledji, Ledji-Ledji, Leitch-Leitchi, Litchoo-Litchoo, Litchy-Litchy, Lutchye-Lutchye. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Lamu-Lamu
[lby] Queensland state: Bamiga, and Coen. 19 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lamalama, Lama-Lama, Lamulamul, Mba Rumbathama. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic. Comments: Ethnic groups include Baganambia, Gan-Ganda, Wurangung.

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Lanima
[lnw] Victoria state: Carlo springs on upper Mulligan river; Julaolinja; east to Marion downs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lhanima, Pitta Pitta, Ulaolinya, Yurlayurlanya. Classification: Australian.

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Laragia
[lrg] Northern Territory: Darwin area. 23 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gulumirrgin, Laragiya, Larakia, Larakiya. Classification: Australian, Laragiyan.

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Lardil
[lbz] Queensland state: Mornington Island. 54 (2006 census). More semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kunana, Ladil, Laierdila, Lardill. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Lardil.

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Leningitij
[lnj] Queensland state: Winduwinda area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Linngithig, Linngithigh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Limilngan
[lmc] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Mary River to west Alligator river, coast and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manadja, Minitji. Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna.

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Madhi Madhi
[dmd] New South Wales state: Balranald to Murray districts, north to the Lachlan. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Madhimadhi, Madhi-Madhi, Muthimuthi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin. Comments: Sound recordings made with Madhi Madhi speaker, Jack Long, in January 1969.

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Madngele
[zml] Northern Territory: south of Daly and Darwin rivers, Muldiva river west bank. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maangella, Madngela, Mandella, Matngala, Matngele, Muttangulla, Warat. Dialects: None known. Related to Kamu [xmu]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper.

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Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] Cocos (Keeling) Islands Territory; Christmas Island Territory. 1,000 in Australia (1987). 500 in Cocos Islands, 560 on Christmas Island (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cocos, Kokos, Kukus. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim.

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Malgana
[vml] Western Australia state: Shark Bay, Hamelin Pool area north to Wooramel river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maldjana, Maljanna, Malkana. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Malgana.

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Malyangapa
[yga] New South Wales state: Milparinka; Yancannie creek head, east beyond Mount Arrowsmith, south to about Mootwin-gee and Sturt Meadow. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker, Laurie Quayle, died in 1976. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bulali, Bulalli, Karikari, Malgaaljangaba, Malgangara, Malja:pa, Maljangaba, Maljangapa, Malyanapa, Malya-napa, Malyangaba, Malyapa, Malynapa, Milyauppa, Milya-uppa, Muliaarpa, Mullia-arpa, Multyerra, Mulyanapa, Mulya-napa, Mulyanappa, Mulya-nappa, Nalyanapa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli.

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Manangkari
[znk] Northern Territory: Cobourg Peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Manda
[zma] Northern Territory: coast southwest of Anson Bay, southwest of Darwin. 25 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Mandandanyi
[zmk] Queensland state: Roma Area; Maranoa river to Miles and Wandoan areas. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mandandanji, Mandandanjnjdji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Mangala
[mem] Western Australia state: Broome, Edgar range, Fitzroy, Jurgurra creek, West Pilbara. 61 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Djawali, Djuwali, Jiwali, Jiwarli, Koalgurdi, Manala, Mangalaa, Mangarla, Minala, Yalmbau. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mangala.

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Mangarayi
[mpc] Northern Territory: Elsey and Mataranka stations. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mangarai, Mangarrayi, Manggarai, Mungarai, Mungerry, Ngarrabadji. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Mangarayic. Comments: Different from Mangerr [zme].

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Mangerr
[zme] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Oenpelli area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Giimbiyu, Mangerei, Mangeri, Mengerrdji, Mennagi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Urningangg [urc]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu. Comments: May be same language as Urningangg [urc].

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Mara
[mec] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river area. 57 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Leelalwarra, Leelawarra, Mala, Marra. Dialects: None known. Related to Wandarang [wnd]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara. Comments: Intermarry with Yanyuwa [jao].

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Maranunggu
[zmr] Northern Territory: southwest of Darwin, inland from Anson Bay, east of Manda. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Emmi, Maranungku, Merranunggu, Warrgat. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Margany
[zmc] Queensland state: between Quilpie and Wyandra; Bulloo and Paroo rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Marrganj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Margu
[mhg] Northern Territory: Croker island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ajokoot, Croker, Island Margu, Jaako, Marrgu, Raffles Bay, Terrutong, Terutong, Yaako, Yako. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Margic.

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Maridan
[zmd] Northern Territory: southwest of Darwin, north of Moyle river, east of Magadige. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Meradan. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Maridjabin
[zmj] Northern Territory: inland from Anson bay, south of Mariyedi and Manda, southwest of Darwin. 20 (Oates and Oates 1970). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maredyerbin, Maretyabin, Maridyerbin, Maritjabin. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Marithiel [mfr] or Maringarr [zmt]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Marimanindji
[zmm] Northern Territory: south of Daly and Darwin rivers, west of Muldiva river, near headwaters. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maramanandji, Maramarandji, Marimanindu, Marramaninjsji, Murinmanindji. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Maringarr
[zmt] Northern Territory: south of Moyle river, southwest of Darwin. 30 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marenggar, Maringa. Dialects: Maranunggu (Maramanunggu, Marranunga, Merranunggu, Warrgat). May be intelligible with other Bringen languages. Lexical similarity: 40% with Mullukmulluk [mpb] and Murrinh-Patha [mwf]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Marithiel
[mfr] Northern Territory: Bagot, Delissaville, Daly river and Roper river missions; south of Daly river and central Daly river. 15 (2006 census). L2 users: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berringen, “Bringen” (pej.), “Brinken” (pej.), Maridhiel, Maridhiyel, Marithiyel, Marrithiyel. Dialects: Marithiel, Nganygit, Mare-Ammu (Mari-Ammu). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Mariyedi
[zmy] Northern Territory: inland from Anson bay, south of Manda, southwest of Darwin. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Marriammu
[xru] Northern Territory: Belyuen, Wadeye; possibly also Western Australia state. 5 (2006 A. Brown). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mareammu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maridjabin [zmj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Marriammu.

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Marti Ke
[zmg] Northern Territory: Wadeye, coast south from Moyle river estuary to Port Keats, southwest of Darwin. 3 (2001 I. Alexander). L2 users: 50. Ethnic population: 100. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Magadige, Magati Gair, Magati-Ge, Mati Ke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maringarr [zmt] and Marithiel [mfr]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Martu Wangka
[mpj] Western Australia state: Jigalong area, Lake Disappointment west side, Great Sandy Desert. 880 (2006 census). 650 Martu Wangka, 25 Kartujarra, 170 Manyjilyjarra, 16 Wangkajunga, 21 Yulparija (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mardo, Targudi. Dialects: Manyjilyjara (Mantjiltjara, Manyjilyjarra), Kartujarra (Gagudjara, Gardudjara, Kadaddjara, Kardutjara, Kardutjarra, Kartutjara, Kiadjara), Puditara (Budidjara, Putujara), Yulparitja (Yilparitja, Yulbaridja, Yulparija), Wangkajunga (Wangkajungka, Wangkajunka). Manyjilyjara and Kartujarra are 2 ethnic groups speaking almost identical dialects. High inherent intelligibility between Yulparitja and Wangkajunga dialects. Puditara dialect is extinct. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Martuyhunira
[vma] Western Australia: northwest coast southwest of Dampier and inland. 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Martuthunira. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Maung
[mph] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Goulburn island. 260 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gunmarung, Gun-Marung, Mawng, Mawung. Dialects: None known. Garig-Ilgar [ilg] reportedly related. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Mayaguduna
[xmy] Queensland state: north coast area, inland between Flinders and Leichhardt rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mayi-Kutuna. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mayawali
[yxa] Victoria state: Diamantina river from Davenport downs and Diamantina lakes north to Old Cork; Mayne river to Mount Vergemont, west to Springvale, southeast to Farrars creek; Brighton and Connemara downs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maiawali, Mayuli. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Mayi-Kulan
[xyk] Queensland state: Clara, Middle Norman, and Yappar, rivers, north to Milgarra, east to Gregory range, west to Canobie and Iffley stations. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidhagudi, Maigudina, Maigudung, Maigulung, Maikolon, Maikudun, Maikudung, Maikudunu, Maikulan, Maikulung, Majadhagudi, Makulu, Mayagoondoon, Mayagulan, Mayatagoorri, Maygulan, Mayhulan, Maykulan, Miccoolin, Micoolan, Mikadoon, Mikkoolan, Mikoodoono, Mikoolu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mayi-Thakurti
[xyt] Queensland state: Cloncurry and Williams river north to Canobie on Cloncurry river, east to the Julia creek junction with Cloncurry river and to Mount Fort Bowen; Dalgonally. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidakadi, Maidhagari, Maidhaggaria, Maioakuri, Maitakeidi, Maitakudi, Maithagudi, Maithakari, Maithakudi, Mayadhagurdifagurdi, Mayatagoori, Maydhagurdi, Maytagoori, Mitagurdi, Mitakoodi, Mitroogoordi, Mittagurdi, Mittaka, Mythaguddi, Mythugadi, Mythuggadi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mayi-Yapi
[xyj] Queensland state: Cloncurry river south to Canobie, north to Donor Hills, at Numbera (Cowan Downs); east to Flinders river and the Lower Saxby, west to upper Dismal creek and Leichhardt-Alexandra divide. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Majabi, Miappe, Miappi, Miubbi, Myabi, Myappe. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mbara
[mvl] Queensland state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Mbara.

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Mbariman-Gudhinma
[zmv] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay southwest coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Rimang-Gudinhma. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman.

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Meriam
[ulk] Queensland state: Darnley island, Eastern Torres Strait islands. 210 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: East Torres, Mer, Meriam Mir, Meryam Mir, Mir, Miriam, Miriam-Mir. Dialects: Boigu, Bulgai, Buglial, Tagota. Limited mutual intelligibility of Gizrra [tof]. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly.

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Minang
[xrg] Western Australia state: Boat harbor, Cowerup, King George’s sound, Lac Muir, Minang, Mount Barker, Nornalup, Pallinup river, Porongurup range, Shannon river, Stirling range, Tenterden, West Cliff Point, Wilson inlet. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mean-anger, Meenung, Meernanger, Minnal Yungar, Minung, Mirnong, Noongar, Nyungar. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Minjungbal
[xjb] New South Wales state: Cape Byron, Clarence river, Cudgen, Murwillumbah, Nerang creek, Southport. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cood-jingburra, Cudgingberry, Gando Minjang, Gan-dowal, Gendo, Minjangbal, Minyowa, Minyung, Ngandowul. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Miriwoong Sign Language
[rsm] Western Australia, Kununurra. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Fingertalk, MwSL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: It is an alternate sign language that the Miriwoong people use in various contexts. It is mainly used by the hearing population. There are three deaf people identified by the Aboriginal language workers of the Mirima Dawang Woorlab-gerring Language and Culture Centre.

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Miriwung
[mep] Western Australia state: Kununurra, Turkey creek; Northern Territory: toward the mouth of the Victoria river. 210 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Merong, Miriwoong, Miriwun, Mirung. Classification: Australian, Djeragan.

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Miwa
[vmi] Western Australia state: Drysdale river, far north Kimberleys area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bagu. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Mpalitjanh
[xpj] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, middle and upper Ducie river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbalidjan, Mpalit Yan, Mpalitjan, Mpalityanh. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Uradhi [urf]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama. Comments: No information regarding the last known user.

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Mudburra
[dmw] Northern Territory: Armstrong river, Camfield river, Cattle creek, Newcastle waters, Pigeon Hole station, Thjambutjambulani, Top Springs, Victoria river. 48 (2003). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madbara, Moodburra, Mootburra, Mudbara, Mudbarra, Mudbera, Mudbra, Mudbura, Mutpura, Pinkagama, Pinkagarna. Dialects: Eastern Mudburra, Western Mudburra. Reportedly similar to Karranga [xrq]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Mullukmulluk
[mpb] Northern Territory: Daly river north bank. 33 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malagmalag, Malakmalak, Malak-Malak, Ngolak-Wonga, Nguluwongga. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper.

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Muluridyi
[vmu] Queensland state: Mitchell river headwaters to Mareeba, Mount Carbine, Rumula, Woodville. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Binjara, Kokomoloroij, Kokomoloroitji, Kookanoona, Molloroidyi, Mooloroiji, Mularitchee, Mullridgey, Mulurutji, Waluridji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic.

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Murrinh-Patha
[mwf] Northern Territory: Port Keats area, Wadeye. 1,830 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Garama, Murinbada, Murinbata, Murinhpatha, Murinpatha, Murinypata. Dialects: Murrinhpatha, Murrinhkura, Murrinhdiminin. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha.

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Muruwari
[zmu] Queensland and New South Wales states: Bollon, Bourke, Dirranbandi, and Weilmoringle, almost to Cunnamulla. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Murawari, Muruwarri, Muruwurri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Muruwaric.

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Nakara
[nck] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Goulburn island, Maningrida. 57 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kokori, Nagara, Nakarra, Nakkara. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Nari Nari
[rnr] New South Wales state: Balranald to near Booligal. No known L1 speakers. Date of the last speaker’s death is unknown. Two speakers, Jack Wise and Mary Moore, provided language information in 1965 and 1967. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Narinari, Nari-Nari, Narri-Narri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Narrinyeri
[nay] South Australia state. 160 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Narinjari, Ngarinyeri, Ngarrindjeri, Yaralde. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic.

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Narungga
[nnr] South Australia state: south Yorke peninsula. 24 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanunga, Naranga, Narangga, Narranga, Narranggu, Narrangu. Dialects: Adjabdurah (Adjahdurah), Turra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Nauo
[nwo] South Australia state: Coffin bay, Elliston, Mount Hope, and Port Lincoln; half of Eyre peninsula; west to Cape Radstock, north past Minnipa; east near Darke peak; west of Cleve and halfway between Carrow and Franklin harbor. No known L1 speakers. There were two potential speakers in the 1920s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Growoo, Naua, Nawo, Nawu, Nowo, Nyaawa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wirangu [wgu]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Ndra’ngith
[dgt] Queensland state: south of Pera Head; Norman river. No known L1 speakers. No information on the date of the last speaker’s death. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Ngaanyatjarra
[ntj] Western Australia state: Warburton ranges; Northern Territory: southwest corner. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngaanjatjarra, Ngaanyatjara, Western Desert Language. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Ngadjunmaya
[nju] Western Australia state: Eyre’s Sand Patch, Goddard creek to Fraser range, Naretha, Point Culver, and Port Malcolm; Balladonia, Mount Andres, Norseman, and Russell range. No known L1 speakers. Probably recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Badonjunga, Bardojunga, Ngadju, Ngadjumaja, Ngadjunmaia, Ngatju, Ngatjumay, Tchaakalaaga. Dialects: None known. Related to Kalarko [kba]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning.

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Ngadjuri
[jui] South Australia and Victoria states: Burra, Orroroo, Peterborough, and Robertstown districts; Angaston and Freeling north to Carrieton, Clare, Crystal Brook, Gladstone; north of Waukaringa to Koonamore, east to Mannahill. No known L1 speakers. No speakers in 1996 (AUSTLANG census). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Boanawari, Burra, Burra Burra, Doora, Eeleeree, Eura, Hillary, Hilleri, Manu, Manuley, Manuri, Mimbara, Monnoo, Ngadhuri, Ngadluri, Ngadyuri, Ngaluri, Ngarluri, Weera, Werra, Wiramaya, Wirameju, Wirameyu, Wirra, Wirramaya, Wirra-Maya, Wirramayo, Wirrameyu, Yilrea, Youngye. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Ngalakan
[nig] Northern Territory state: Roper river area. No known L1 speakers (Baker 2007). Last fluent speaker died in 2004 (Baker 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hongalla, Ngalakgan, Ngalangan. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic.

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Ngamini
[nmv] South Australia state: Warburton creek area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karangura, Yarluyandji. Dialects: None known. May have no remaining speakers. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Nganakarti
[xnk] Western Australia state: Carnamah, Champion bay, Gullewa, Hill river, and Mingenew. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Barimaia, Jaburu, Minango, Nanakari, Nanakati, Nhanhagardi, Wiri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Ngandi
[nid] Northern Territory: Upper Wilton river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa. Comments: Believed to be extinct for some time, but it seems that some speakers may still remain (Wurm 2007).

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Ngan’gityemerri
[nam] Northern Territory: Mission, Tipperary Station; Daly and Flora rivers junction, Daly river. 180 (2006 census). Ngenkiwumerri dialect is endangered, moving towards seriously endangered (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Moil, Ngangi-Tjemerri, Tyemeri. Dialects: Ngan’giwumirri (Ngangi-Wumeri, Ngenkiwumerri), Nangikurrunggurr (Nangikurunggurr, Ngangikarangurr, Ngankikurrunkurr, Ngenkikurrunggur), Ngan’gimerri. Ngan’giwumirri dialect is 84% similar with other dialects. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha.

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Ngantangarra
[ntg] Victoria state: upper Wilson river, north to Eromanga area, toward Thylungra and Ray, south to Nockatunga. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngandangara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Nganyaywana
[nyx] New South Wales state: between Ashford, Glen Innes, and Inverell. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aniwan, Nganjaywana. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi.

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Ngardi
[rxd] Northern Territory: Balgo hill, Chilla well, Gardiner range, Granites, Ima Ima, Lake Hazlett, Lake Lucas, Lake Mackay, Lake White, Lake Wills, Manggai, Milidjipi, Ngaima Ngaima, Pallotine Mission, Sturt creek, Tanami track, Tekkari; Western Australia state. 14 (2012 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boonara, Bunara, Buruwatung, Kolo, Kukuruba, Manggai, Munga, Ngadi, Ngari, Nyardi, Panara, Puruwantung, Waiangadi, Waiangara, Waiangari, Wain-gara, Walmala, Wanayaga, Warangari, Waringari, Wommana, Woneiga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Ngarigu
[xni] New South Wales state: Australian Alps, Bombala river, Delagate, Monaro Tableland, Nimmitabel, Queanbeyan. 5 (2004 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bemeringal, Bradjerak, Brajerak, Brajerang, Currak-da-bidgee, Garego, Guramal, Gur-mal, Murring, Ngarago, Ngarego, Ngarico, Ngarigo, Ngarroogoo, Ngarrugu, Ngaryo, Nguramal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Ngarinman
[nbj] Northern Territory: Victoria river, Jasper creek area. 370 (Black 1983). 360 Ngarinman, 15 Bilinara (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Airiman, Hainman, Ngaiman, Ngarinyman, Ngrarmun. Dialects: Bilinara (Pilinara). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Ngarinyin
[ung] Western Australia: Derby to King river, Kimberley. 57 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ungarinjin, Ungarinyin. Dialects: Wilawila, Wolyamidi, Guwidj, Wurla (Ola, Walar, Worla, Worlaja, Wula, Wuladja, Wuladjangari). Classification: Australian, Worrorran. Comments: A different Wurla dialect reportedly still spoken (1990 A. Rumsey).

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Ngarla
[nrk] Western Australia: Grey river, Kudingaranga, Mulyie, Pardoo, Solitary island, Taluirina pool, Tjaljaranja, Yarrie. 18 (2012 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnalla, Kudjunguru, Ngala, Ngalana, Ngerla, Ngirla, Ngurla. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Ngarluma
[nrl] Western Australia state: Roebourne area, northwest coast and inland. 26 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnalluma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngaluma. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Ngawun
[nxn] Queensland state: southwest of Croydon, between Flinders and Norman rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Ngayawung
[nwg] South Australia state: Herman Landing to Penn Reach on Murray river, west to Mount Lofty ranges, south to Ngautngaut. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngaiawang, Ngaiawung, Ngayawang. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic.

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Ngunawal
[xul] New South Wales state: Booroowa, Canberra, Goulburn, Queanbeyan, Shoalhaven river, Tumut, Yass. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gurungada, Ngoonawal, Ngunuwal, Nungawal, Wonnawal, Yarr. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gundungurra [xrd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin. Comments: Not related to Ngurawarla, a dialect of Eastern Karnic [ekc].

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Ngurmbur
[nrx] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, between West and South Alligator rivers, northeast of Umbugarla. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gnormbur, Gnumbu, Koarnbut, Ngormbur, Ngumbur, Oormbur. Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur.

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Nhanda
[nha] Western Australia: Kalbarri north to Shark bay coast. In 1995, a few speakers were reported. Some still survive (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanda, Nanta, Nhanta, Nubda, Nunta. Dialects: Bulinya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda.

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Nhirrpi
[hrp] Victoria state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Nhuwala
[nhf] Western Australia: Barrow and Monte Bello islands and nearby coast. No known L1 speakers. May have no remaining speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Nimanbur
[nmp] Western Australia: southwest of King sound, and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nimanburru. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Nugunu
[nnv] South Australia state: south of Gugada [ktd] language area to coast west to Fowler’s bay and east to Streaky bay, east Spencer gulf. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Doora, Njuguna, Nokunna, Noocoona, Nookoona, Nuguna, Nukana, Nukuna, Nukunnu, Nukunu, Pukunna, Tjura, Tyura, Wallaroo, Warra, Wongaidya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Nukunul
[xnu] Queensland state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic.

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Nungali
[nug] Northern Territory: Upper Daly river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan.

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Nunggubuyu
[nuy] Northern Territory: east Arnhem Land, Numbulwar. 110 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nunggubuju, Wubuy, Yingkwira. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa.

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Nyamal
[nly] Western Australia state: northwest, Bamboo creek area, Marble Bar, Nullagine, to coast east of Port Hedland. 35 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Nyangga
[nny] Queensland state: Gilbert river head, south of Forsayth to Gledswood, Gregory range to Oak Park and Glenora; Northern Territory: coast east of Robinson river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Janga, Jangaa, Jangga, Jang-Kala, Njangga, Njanggala, Yangarella, Yanggal, Yangkaal, Yuckamurri. Classification: Australian, Tangic. Comments: Reportedly the same as Ganggalida [gcd].

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Nyangumarta
[nna] Western Australia state: Marble Bar, Port Hedland, Tjalku Wara. 310 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nyangumarda, Nyangumata. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu.

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Nyawaygi
[nyt] Queensland state: Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters, to Cashmere, at Millaa Millaa, Ravenshoe, and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nawagi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Nyigina
[nyh] Western Australia state: Lower Fitzroy river. 63 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Njigina, Nyikina. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Nyiyaparli
[xny] Western Australia state: Davis river, Fortescue river, Jigalong creek, Oakover river, Ophtalmia range, Roy hill, Savory creek, Talawana, Weediwolli creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bailko, Balgu, Balygu, Balyku, Iabali, Jana, Janari, Jauna, Niabali, Nijadali, Njiabadi, Njiabali, Njijabadi, Njijabali, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiyapali, Nyiypali, Paljgu, Palyku. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati. Comments: 2 groups: Bailko and Jauna.

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Nyulnyul
[nyv] Western Australia state: West Kimberley, Beagle Bay coast area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Nyunga
[nys] Western Australia state. 240 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Neo-Nyunga, Nyungar. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar. Comments: Former Nyungar languages: Tjapanmay, Karlamay, Pipelman (Pipalman), Ngatjumay, Kwetjman, Mirnong, Kaniyang Pindjarup, and Whadjuk. There are about 8,000 people who are descended from the Nyunga who speak a mixture of English and Nyunga, included as a dialect of English [eng] in Australia. They are sometimes called Noonga, Noongar, or Noogar, and their speech Neo-Nyunga.

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Olkol
[olk] Queensland state: Coleman river, Crosbie river. 5 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Koka-ollugul, Koko Olkol, Koko Olkolo, Koko-olkol, Olcoola, Olgolo, Ol’kol, Olkulo, Ulkulu, Wulgulu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Paakantyi
[drl] New South Wales state: Darling river basin. 24 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baagandji, Bagandji, Darling, Kula, Paakanti, Paakintyi, Southern Baagandji. Dialects: Paaruntyi, Kurnu, Nhaawuparlku, Milpulo, Wilyaali, Thangkaali, Pulaali, Wanyuparlku, Pantyikali (Bandjigali), Marrawarra (Maruara), Southern Paakantyi, Parrintyi (Baarrundji, Barindji). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Baagandji.

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Pakanha
[pkn] Queensland state: central Cape York peninsula, south of Coleman river. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bakanha. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Pallanganmiddang
[pmd] Victoria state: east of Albury. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Pallangahmiddang, Wavaroo, Wave Veroo, Waveroo, Wayerroo, Waywurru, Wayyourong, Wayyouroo, Weeerroo, Weeherroo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Pallanganmiddang.

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Panytyima
[pnw] Western Australia state: northwest, east southeast of Tom Price. 98 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bandjima, Banjima, Pandjima, Panjima, Panjtjima, Panyjima. Dialects: None known. Related to Ngarla [nrk], Tjurruru [tju], Nyamal [nly], and Yinhawangka [ywg]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Pini
[pii] Western Australia state: Three Rivers. 10. May have no remaining speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bini, Birni, Piniritjara, Pirniritjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pinigura
[pnv] Western Australia state: northwest, inland on Duck creek. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Binigura, Pinikura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji.

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Pinjarup
[pnj] Western Australia state: Pinjarra and Woonerup in Harvey and Leschenaut inlets, Murray river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bangoula, Banyoula, Banyowla, Binjarup, Kuriwongi, Peejine, Penjarra, Pidjain, Pinjarra, Yaberoo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Pintiini
[pti] Western Australia state: Nullarbor plain north edge, north of Hughes; South Australia state: west of Nullabor. 320 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyanganyatjara, Pindiini, Wangada, Wanggaji, Wangkatja, Wonga, Wongai-I, Wonggaii. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pintupi-Luritja
[piu] Northern Territory: Balgo hills, Kintore, Papunya settlement, and Yuendumu; Western Australia state. 1,690 (2006 census). 1,520 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binddibu, Loridja, Pintubi, Pintupi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pirlatapa
[bxi] South Australia state: Lake Blanche area, Lake Callabonn. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biladaba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dieri [dif]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Pirriya
[xpa] Queensland state: Canaway range, Coopers creek, Gilpeppee, Jundah, Keeroongooloo, Thomson river, Whitula creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidia, Biria, Birria, Piria. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Pitcairn-Norfolk
[pih] 66 in Australia (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pitcairn English. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Pitjantjatjara
[pjt] Northern Territory: southwest corner; South Australia state: Pitjantjatjara freehold lands, Yalata; Western Australia state. 2,660 (2006 census). L2 users: 500. 2,130 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pitjantjara. Dialects: Yankunytjatjara, Pitjantjatjara (Pithantjatjarra). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pitta Pitta
[pit] Queensland state: Boulia. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bida-Bida, Bidhabidha, Pita Pita, Pitha-Pitha. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Punthamara
[xpt] Victoria state: creeks east of Grey range from Orient and Thargomindah north to near Quilpie; Tobermory; Grey range west side, Congie to Mount Margaret. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bundhamara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Rembarunga
[rmb] Northern Territory: Katherine area, Maningrida and outstations, Roper river area. 36 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaltuy, Rainbargo, Rembarranga, Rembarrnga, Rembarrunga. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic.

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Ritarungo
[rit] Northern Territory: Eastern Arnhem Land, Roper and Rose rivers. 32 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ridarngo, Ridharrngu, Ritarnugu, Ritharngu, Ritharrngu, Wagelak, Wawilag. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Tagalaka
[tgz] Queensland state: Croydon, Einasleigh River, Forest Home, Forsyth, Georgetown, Gilbert river, Gregory river. 1 (2005 NILS). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Da:galag, Dagalang, Takalak, Targa-lag, Tarkalag. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Thawa
[xtv] New South Wales state: Cooma, Green cape, Merimbula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baianga, Guyanagal, Guyangal-yuin, Katungal, Murring, Paienbera, Paiendra, Tadera-manji, Tharawal, Thauaira. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Thayore
[thd] Queensland state: west Cape York, between coleman and Edward rivers. 29 (2006 census), decreasing. Kuuk-Yak dialect recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1982 A. Hall). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Behran, Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Thaayorre, Taior, Thaayore, Thaayorre, Thayorre. Dialects: Kuuk-Yak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Western Pama.

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Thaypan
[typ] Queensland state: central Cape York peninsula, Coleman river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kuku-Thaypan. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama.

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Thiin
[iin] Western Australia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Deen, Deenma, Denma, Dhiyin, Dhiyinma, Teen, Teenma, Tenma, Thenma, Thiinma. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Djiwarli [dze]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Thurawal
[tbh] New South Wales state: Port Hacking to Shoalhaven river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dharawaal, Dharawal, Turrubul. Dialects: Wadiwadi (Wodiwodi), Dharrabal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Tiwi
[tiw] Northern Territory: Bathurst and Melville islands, Nguiu. 1,740 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Australian, Tiwian.

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Tjurruru
[tju] Western Australia state: northwest, Hardey river, southwest of Tom Price. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tjururu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Torres Strait Creole
[tcs] Queensland state: Torres Strait Islands, towns on upper Cape York, some on north Queensland east coast. 6,040 (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ap-Ne-Ap, Blaik, Broken, Cape York Creole, Creole, Torres Strait Broken, Torres Strait Pidgin English, West Torres, Yumplatok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with English. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: A creolization of Tok Pisin [tpi] or Bislama [bis] and Kala Lagaw [mwp].

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Tyaraity
[woa] Northern Territory: Delissaville. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Daktjerat, Djeradj, Djerag, Dyeraidy, Kuwema, Tjerait. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper.

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Umbindhamu
[umd] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, north of Coen. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Umbindhamuic.

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Umbugarla
[umr] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, southeast of Limilngan language area [lmc], between Mary and South Alligator rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbakarla. Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur.

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Umbuygamu
[umg] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay east coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Moroba-Lama. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic.

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Umiida
[xud] Western Australia state: Bathurst, Bayliss, Koolan, and Macleay islands; Shoal, and Strickland bays; Oobagooma, Yampi Sound. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aobidai of Ongkarango, O:ka:ta, O:kada, Okat, Oken, Okwata, Oomida, Umeda, Umede, Umida, Umidi, Wumide. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Umpila
[ump] Queensland state: Cape Sidmouth north nearly to Night island. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama.

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Unggaranggu
[xun] Western Australia state: northeast King sound from east Stokes bay north to Crawford bay, eastern islands of the sound from Helpman island to Caffarelli. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ongkarango, Oonggarrangoo, Ungarangi, Ungaranji, Unggarangi. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Unggumi
[xgu] Western Australia state: Chestnut creek; Isdell and Lennard rivers; Leopold range; Richenda and Robinson rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ngarangari, Ong Komi, Ongaranjan, Ungami, Ungumi, Wongkomi. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Uradhi
[urf] Queensland state: North Alice creek, northeast Cape York peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Urningangg
[urc] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land northwest, upper reaches of Alligator river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Uningangk, Wuningak. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mangerr [zme]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu. Comments: May be same language as Mangerr [zme].

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Wadi Wadi
[xwd] New South Wales state: Murray river, Murrumbidgee Junction, Piangil, Swan Hill, Tyntynder; Victoria state: Moolpa. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Biangil, Dacournditch, Wathiwathi, Wattewatte, Watthiwatthi, Watty-watty, Withaija, Woani, Wohdi Wohdi, Woonyi, Wotti-wotti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wadikali
[wdk] New South Wales state: Callabonna creek, Evelyn creek, Lake Pinaroo, Milparinka, Naryilco, Tilcha, Yandama, Yandama creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wadigali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli.

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Wadjabangayi
[wdy] Queensland state: Blackall, Glenbower, Lancevale, Maryvale. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Inningai, Kariimari, KunGait, Kun-Gait, Wadjabangai, Wadjabangay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wadjiginy
[wdj] Northern Territory: southwest of Darwin along coast and inland along Finniss river. 12 (1988 SIL). Ethnic group members understand the language when old people speak it, but use Kriol [rop] as L1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bachamal, Wagaydy, Wogaity. Dialects: Pungupungu (Kandjerramal, Kuwama, Patjtjamalh). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Wadjigu
[wdu] Queensland state: southwest of Fairbairn reservoir. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wagaya
[wga] Northern Territory: Austral Downs, Avon Downs, Camooweal, area north of Lake Nash. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Leewakya, Ukkia, Waagai, Waagi, Wagai, Wagaja, Waggaia, Wakaja, Wakaya, Wakkaja, Warkya, Worgai, Worgaia, Workia. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa.

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Wageman
[waq] Northern Territory: Bagot and Tipperary station south of Pine creek. 10 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wagiman, Wogeman. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Wagiman.

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Wajarri
[wbv] Western Australia state: Geraldton to Mount Magnet. 89 (2006 census). Ethnic population: 200 (1981 W. Douglas). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wadjari, Wadjeri, Watjari, Watjarri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari.

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Wajuk
[xwj] Western Australia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Beelia, Beeloo, Derbal, Ilakuri wongi, Juadjag, Juadjuk, Karakata, Karrakatta, Minalnjunga, Minnal Yungar, Wadjug, Wadjuk, Wadjup, Wadyuk, Whadjuk, Whajook, Witjaari, Yooadda, Yooard, Yoongar, Yuard, Yuatjek, Yungar, Yungur. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Wakabunga
[wwb] Queensland: Gregory and Gunpowder creeks, Leichhardt river, Morstone. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Waggaboonyah, Waggabundi, Wakobungo, Waukaboonia, Worgabunga, Workabunga, Workoboongo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic.

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Wakawaka
[wkw] Queensland state: Gayndah, Kingaroy, and Murgon; Nanango north to Mount Perry, west to Boyne river. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last native speaker of Duunidjawu dialect died in 1965 (Wurm 2007). L2 users: 2 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Enibura, Nukunukubara, Waga, Wagawaga, Waga-Waga, Wakka. Dialects: Duungidjawu, Wagawaga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan.

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Walangama
[nlw] Queensland state: Croydon, Gregory range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boogoolmurra, Bugulmara, Karan, Wahlongman, Wallan-kammer, Wallenkammer, Wollangama, Wollongurmee. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West.

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Walmajarri
[wmt] Western Australia state: Fitzroy river valley area, La Grange and Lake Gregory. 510 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pililuna, Walmajiri, Walmatjari, Walmatjiri, Wolmeri. Dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj). The western group speaks the Juwaliny dialect. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Wambaya
[wmb] Northern Territory: Barkly tableland, Limmen bight and McArthur rivers’ headwaters; east of Lake Woods. 89 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Umbaia, Wambaia, Wambaja, Wombya, Wom-By-A, Yumpia. Dialects: Wambaya, Binbinga (Binbinka), Gudandji. Dialects inherently intelligible. (Black 1983). Classification: Australian, West Barkly.

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Wamin
[wmi] Queensland state: south central Cape York peninsula, Einasleigh river, northwest of Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agwamin. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama.

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Wandarang
[wnd] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wandaran, Warndarang, Wuyarrawala. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara.

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Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa
[wyb] New South Wales state: Barwon, Bogan and Darling rivers, Yanda creek. 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Wangaaybuwan (Wombungee, Wongagibun, Wongaibon, Wonghi, Wonghibon, Wonjhibon), Ngiyambaa (Giamba, Narran, Ngeumba, Ngiamba, Ngiumba, Ngjamba, Ngumbarr, Noongaburrah), Wayilwan (Waljwan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric.

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Wanggamala
[wnm] Northern Territory: Hay river, south of Andegerebinha. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Wangganguru
[wgg] Northern Territory: southeast corner. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Wangkayutyuru
[wky] Victoria state: Glenormiston and Herbert downs, on Malvina creek; north toward Roxborough. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wanggadjara, Wanggayudyuru, Wangkayutjuru. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Wangkumara
[xwk] Victoria state: Kalidawarry, lower portion of Field and Cooper creeks, east of Nappa Merrie and Orientos to Wilson river at Nockatunga. 100 (2004 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wangumarra, Wongkumara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Wanman
[wbt] Western Australia state: Marble Bar area, Nullagine station, Strelley. 20 (1973 SIL). Considerably fewer than the 20 reported in 1973 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanidjara, Nyaani, Warnman. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Wanyi
[wny] Northern Territory: Queensland state border area southwest of Calvert. 10 (Tryon 2007). May be 2 Wanji semi-speakers and 1 full speaker (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Waangyee, Waanyi, Wainyi, Wanee, Wanji, Wanyee, Wonyee. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Garrwa [wrk]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi.

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Waray
[wrz] Northern Territory: Adelaide river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur, Awarai, Awarra, Warrai, Warray. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Warayan.

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Wardaman
[wrr] Northern Territory: upper Daly river. 84 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wadaman, Waderman, Waduman, Warda’man, Wardman, Warduman, Wartaman, Wordaman. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yangman [jng] and Dagoman [dgn]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic.

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Wardandi
[wxw] Western Australia state: Bunbury to Cape Leuwin, chiefly along the coast; Geographe bay, Nannup and Busselton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Belliman, Dardanup, Doonin, Dordenup, Dornderupwongy, Dunanwongi, Jabaru, Kardagur, Nghungar, Waadandi, Waddarndi, Wadjandi, Yabaroo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Wariyangga
[wri] Western Australia state: West Pilbara southeast of Mount Augustus. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warriyangka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda. Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Warlmanpa
[wrl] Northern Territory: Mount Leichhardt area. 47 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Walmala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga.

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Warlpiri
[wbp] Northern Territory: Ali Curung Willowra, Alice Springs, Darwin, Katherine, Lajamanu, and Yuendumu; Western Australia state: into area shared with Kukatia [kux]. 2,510 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Elpira, Ilpara, Ngaliya, Ngardilpa, Wailbri, Walbiri, Walmama, Walpiri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga.

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Warluwara
[wrb] Queensland state: Roxborough Downs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kapula, Maula, Mauula, Mawula, Parnkarra, Walookera, Walugera, Waluwara, Wollegara, Yunnalinka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa.

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Warrgamay
[wgy] Queensland state: coast south of Hinchinbrook island, and inland along Herbert river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biyay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Warrwa
[wwr] Western Australia state: Derby and West Kimberley regions. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warrawai, Warwa. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Warumungu
[wrm] Northern Territory: Tennant creek area. 310 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Warramunga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Warumungic.

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Warungu
[wrg] Queensland state: northeast of Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gudjal, Gudjala, Gugu-Badhun, Warrongo, Warrungu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wathawurrung
[wth] Victoria state: Ballarat, Barwon river, Cape Otway, Geelong, Lake Burrambeet, Pitfield, Princetown, Queenscliff. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wada wurrung, Wadawio, Waddorow, Wadhaurung, Wadjawuru, Wadourer, Wadthaurung, Waitowrung, Warra, Wathaurong, Wathaurung, Wathawurung, Wathurung, Watorrong, Wiityahuurong, Wioura, Witaoro, Witawurong, Witoura, Witouro, Witowro, Witowurong, Witowurrong, Witowurrung, Witowurung, Wittyawhuurong, Woddowro, Woddowrong, Wod-dowrong, Wollowurong, Wooeewoorong, Wothowurong, Wuddyawurra, Wuddyawurru, Wudjawuru, Wudjawurung, Wudja-wurung, Wudthaurung. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wemba Wemba
[xww] Victoria state: Loddon river, north to Swan Hillp; Avoca river south to Quambatook area, northeastward to Boorooban and Moulamein (N.S.W.); Boort and Lake Boga. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gorrmjanyuk, Gourrmjanyuk, Jambajamba, Jupa-galk-wournditch, Mallenjerrick, Waamba, Waimbiwaimbi, Wamba, Wamba Wamba, Wambawamba, Wembawemba, Weumba, Womba, Yamba, Yambayamba, Yowewnillurn, Yuppila. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wergaia
[weg] Victoria state: Dimboola to Lakes Albacutya and Hindmarsh, along Wimmera river; Warracknabeal to Yanac. 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wergaya, Werkaya, Wimmera, Worgaia. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wik-Epa
[wie] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wik-Ep. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Iiyanh
[wij] Queensland state: central Cape York peninsula, southwest of Coen. 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 40 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Keyangan
[wif] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Me’anha
[wih] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 12 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wik-Em’an. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Mungkan
[wim] Queensland state: Aurukun to Edward river. 1,060 (2006 census). L2 users: 600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Munkan, Wik-Mungkhn, Wik-Munkan. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Ngathana
[wig] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, west coast below Aurukun. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 126 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wikalkan
[wik] Queensland state: Aurukun. 86 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Fewer than the 86 reported in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wikngatara, Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr. Dialects: Wik-Ngandjara (Ngandjara), Ngadanja. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wikngenchera
[wua] Queensland state: Aurukun. 50 (Oates and Oates 1970). Fewer than the 50 reported in 1970 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nantjara, Ngandjara, Ngantjeri, Njinturawik-Nganhcara, Wik, Wik-Nantjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wilawila
[wil] Western Australia state: central Kimberleys. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wila-Wila. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Wiradhuri
[wrh] New South Wales state: Macquarie river to Murray river, Lachlan river area from Murrumbidgee river to Parkes. 100 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berrembeel, Warandgeri, Werogery, Wiiratheri, Wira-Athoree, Wiradhurri, Wiradjuri, Wiraduri, Wiraidyuri, Wirajeree, Wirashuri, Wiratheri, Wirracharee, Wirrai’yarrai, Wooragurie, Wordjerg. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric.

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Wirangu
[wgu] South Australia state: coast between head of Bight and Streaky bay head, and inland to Ooldea region. 2 (2011 AUSTLANG). 2 semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jilbara, Naljara, Ngoleiadjara, Nhawu, Njangga, Nonga, Nyangga, Tidni, Tidnie, Titnie, Wanbiri, Wangon, Warrangoo, Willeuroo, Windakan, Wirangga, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrongu, Wirrung, Wirrunga, Yilrea. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Woiwurrung
[wyi] Victoria state: Healesville, Lancefield, Macedon, Melbourne, Moe, Mordialloc, Mount Bawbaw, Mount Disappointment, Saltwater river, Warragul, Woodend, Yarra river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungung-willam, Mort Noular, Ngarukwillam, Oorongie, Urunjeri, Waarengbadawa, Wainworra, Wairwaioo, Warerong, Warorong, Warwaroo, Waverong, Wavoo-rong, Wawoorong, Wawoo-rong, Wawurong, Wawurrong, Woewo-rung, Woiworung, Woiwurong, Woi-wurrong, Woiwurru, Woiwurung, Wooeewoorong, Wowerong, Wurrundyirra-baluk, Wurrunjeri, Wurundjeri, Wurunjeri, Wurunjerri-baluk, Yarra Yarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Worimi
[kda] New South Wales state: between Hunter and Hastings rivers; Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birbay, Gadang, Gadhang, Gadjang, Kattang, Warimi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi.

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Worrorra
[wro] Western Australia state: Collier bay to Prince Regent river; Secure bay and Walcott inlet; northern boundary Rothsay Water, inland about 40–50 km along Princess May ranges to Mount Hann, Mount French and cliff base of the tablelands. 20 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maialnga, Ong Komi, Worora, Wororra, Worrara, Worrora, Wurara, Wurora, Yangibaia. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran. Comments: Former lingua franca.

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Wotjobaluk
[xwt] Victoria state: Dimboola, Kaniva, Lake Albacutya, Lake Hindmarsh, Lake Korong, Outlet creek, Pine plains, Servicetown, Warracknabeal, Wimmera river, Yanac. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guli-ballaiuk, Watjo, Wattyabullak, Woitu-bullar, Wotjbaluk, Wotjo, Wotjo-ba-laiuruk, Wotjobalak, Wotjobalek, Wotjoballaiuk, Wotjoballuck, Wotjoballuk, Wotjo-balluk, Wotjo-baluk, Wotjobolak, Wotjobuluk, Woychibirik, Wudjubalug, Wudjubaluk, Wutjubaluk, Wuttyabullak, Wuttyubullak, Wutyuballeak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wuliwuli
[wlu] Queensland state: Banana, Baralaba, and Theodore on Dawson river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan.

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Wulna
[wux] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land around Darwin, mouth of Adelaide river and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna.

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Wunambal
[wub] Western Australia state: Kalumburu, Mowanjum, and Wyndham. 30 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeidji, Jeithi, Unambal, Wumnabal, Wunambullu, Yeidji, Yeithi. Dialects: Wunambal, Gambera, Miwa. Classification: Australian, Worrorran. Comments: Different from Kwini [gww].

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Wunumara
[wnn] Queensland state: Cambridge Downs, Cloncurry, Dalgonally, Flinders river, Kynuna, Richmond, Williams river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oonoomurra, Quippen-bura, Unamara, Woonamurra, Woonomurra, Wunamara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Wurrugu
[wur] Northern Territory: Cobourg peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Yabula Yabula
[yxy] New South Wales and Victoria states. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabalajabala, Jabulajabula, Maraban, Maragan, Moiraduban, Moitheriban, Ngarrimowro, Owanguttha, Pallaganmiddah, Panggarang, Waningotbun, Yabala-Yabala, Yoorta, Yurt. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic.

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Yagara
[yxg] Queensland state: Cleveland district, Brisbane river inland to Gatton area, north to Esk area, Ipswich. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biriin, Cateebil, Jagara, Jagarabal, Jagera, Jergarbal, Jinibara, Ninghi, Terabul, Tor-bul, Turibul, Turrbal, Turrubal, Turrubul, Turubul, Yackarabul, Yaggara, Yerongban, Yeronghan, Yerongpan, Yuggara, Yugg-ari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic.

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Yalarnnga
[ylr] Queensland state: Burke river area, Dajarra. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jalanga, Yalarrnga, Yelina, Yellanga, Yellunga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic.

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Yan-nhangu
[jay] Northern Territory: 2 westernmost Crocodile islands; Cape Stewart area, Maningrida and Milingimbi. 40 (Black 1983). Speaker number decreasing since 40 in 1983 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gokulu mana dhanguny’ bulthun, Jarnango, Nangu, Yanangu. Dialects: Garmalangga, Gurjindi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu.

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Yan-nhangu Sign Language
[yhs] Northern Territory: East Arnhem, Murrungga island. 10 (2014 D. Adone). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Similar to Yolngu Sign Language [ygs]. Classification: Sign language.

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Yanda
[yda] Queensland state: Hamilton river, Lucknow, Toolebuc, Warenda. Few speakers reported in 2012. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Janda, Yunda. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Guwa [xgw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yandjibara
[xyb] Queensland state: Barcaldine, Longreach. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yandruwandha
[ynd] South Australia state: Moomba area; east into Queensland state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Innamincka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Yangman
[jng] Northern Territory: Elsey creek and Katherine. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Black 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dagoman, Jungman. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic.

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Yankunytjatjara
[kdd] South Australia state: Everard, Musgrave, and Yalata ranges; east Pitjantjatjara freehold lands and surrounding areas; Northern Territory: mostly west of Kulgera-Erldunda road. 560 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jangkundjara, Kulpantja, Southern Luritja, Yankunjtjatjarra, Yankuntatjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Yanyuwa
[jao] Northern Territory: Doomadgee; Queensland state: Borroloola. 120 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aniula, Anula, Anyula, Janjula, Leeanuwa, Wadiri, Yanula, Yanyula. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yanyuwan.

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Yardliyawarra
[yxl] South Australia and New South Wales states: Yardliyawara (Jadliaura); eastern side of northern Flinders range from Wertaloona south to Carrieton and Cradock, east to Frome Downs; Holowilena station on Siccus river, west to Arkaba and Hawker. 2 (Hercus and Austin 2004). 2 speakers in 1987 (Hercus and Austin 2004). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Arabatura, Arkabatura, Jadliaura, Jadlijawara, Jadloori, Yadliaura, Yadlikowera, Yadliura, Yadliyawarra, Yadlouri, Yaldikowera, Yardliwarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli.

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Yarluyandi
[yry] South Australia state: Alton Downs, Annandale, Atna Hill, Birdsville, Diamantina river, Mulligan river. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeljujendi, Yarleeyandee, Yelyuyendi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Yatay
[yty] Queensland state: Albany and Mount Adolphus islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Iataj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Yawarawarga
[yww] South Australia and Queensland states: north of Cooper creek, southeast of Lake Yamma Yamma. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Yawijibaya
[jbw] Western Australia state: Collier Bay, Jawutjap, Montgomery islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bergalgu, Jadjiba, Jadjibaia, Jaudjibaia, Jaudjibara, Jaudji-Bara, Jawadjag, Jawdjibaia, Jawdjibara, Jawdjobara, Jawutjubar, Winjawindjagu, Yaudjibaia, Yaudjibara, Yaujibaia, Yawjibara, Yawjibarra. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Yawuru
[ywr] Western Australia state: Broome south coast and inland. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Recently extinct. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Northern Yawuru, Southern Coastal Yawuru, Eastern Inland Yawuru. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Yaygir
[xya] New South Wales state: Clarence river, Grafton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jeigir, Jungai, Yegera, Yiegera, Youngai. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric.

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Yidiny
[yii] Queensland state: formerly Atherton region. A few at Palm Island, Babinda, north to Gordonvale. 150 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boolboora, Deba, Eneby, Gerrah, Gijow, Gillah, Guwamal, Idin Idindji, Idinji, Idin-Wudjar, Indindji, Jidindji, Kitba, Maimbie, Mungera Ohalo, Pegullo-Bura, Warra-Warra, Warryboora, Woggil, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yitintyi, Yukkaburra. Dialects: Gunggay, Yidiny, Madyay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic.

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Yindjibarndi
[yij] Western Australia state: Roebourne area. 310 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jindjibandi, Yinjtjipartnti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Yindjilandji
[yil] Northern Territory: northeast of Wonarah. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bularnu, Dhidhanu, Injdjiladji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa.

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Yinggarda
[yia] Western Australia state: Shark bay coast between Gascoyne and Wooramel rivers, inland to Red Hill, West Pilbara. 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ruhlen (1987) reported no remaining speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inggarda, Inparra, Jinggarda, Kakarakala, Yingkarta. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda.

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Yinhawangka
[ywg] Western Australia state: Angelo river, Ashburton river, Hardey river, Kunderong range, Mount Vernon station, Rocklea, Turee creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Inawangga, Inawonga, Inawongga, Nalawonga, Ngalawonga, Ngalawongga, Ngarla-warngga, Ngaunmardi, Ninanu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Yiningayi
[ygi] Queensland state: west of Dividing range to Forsyth range, Longreach and Maneroo creek; south on Alice river tributaries to about Mexico; north to Bowen Downs, Cornish creek, Muttaburra, North Oakvale, and Tower Hill; Aramac. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Iningai, Iningayi, Inningai, Mootaburra, Moothaburra, Muta-bura, Muttaburra, Tateburra, Terreburra, Yiningay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yinwum
[yxm] Queensland state: Batavia river, Moreton, Wenlock river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Yeemwoom. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Yir-Yoront
[yyr] Queensland state: Cape Peninsula, eastern coast, Gulf of Carpenteria, Coleman and Mitchell rivers area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jir Joront, Jirjiront, Jir’jorond, Koka-mungin, Koko-majoen, KokoMandjoen, Kokomindjan, Kokomindjen, KokoMindjin, Kokominjan, KokoMinjen, Mandjoen, Mind’jana, Mundjun, Yir Yiront, Yir Yoront, Yir-yiront. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront.

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Yirandali
[ljw] Queensland state: Caledonia, Corfield, Dutton river, Flinders river, Great Dividing range, Hughenden, Lammermooor, Landsborough creek, Mount Sturgeon, Richmond, Tangorin, Torrens creek, Tower Hill creek, Winton. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dalebura, Dal-leyburra, Irendely, Pooroga, Yerrundulli, Yerrunthully. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yirrk-Mel
[yrm] Queensland state: South and Main Mitchell rivers’ mouths area. Few speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kok-Cel, Kok-Wap, Yir Mel, Yirmel, Yirrk-Thangalki, Yirr-Mel, Yirr-Thangell. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront.

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Yitha Yitha
[xth] New South Wales state: Balranald, Booligal, Carrawathal, Lachlan river; South Australia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eetha-eetha, Eethee Eethee, Eethie-eethie, Ita-ita, Ithi-ithi, Iti-iti, Tjuop, Yetho, Yitsa, Yit-tha. Classification: Unclassified.

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Yolngu Sign Language
[ygs] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land region, Elcho and Milingimbi islands, Ramingining, Yirrkala, and Waraga. 5,000 (2012 D. Adone). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hands in action. Classification: Sign language.

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Yorta Yorta
[xyy] New South Wales state: Cohuna, Conargo, Deniliquin, Echuca, Gunbower, Murray river, Tullah creek, Tuppal, Yielima. No known L1 speakers. Likely still spoken (AUSTLANG). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arramouro, Bangerang, Gunbowerooranditchgoole, Gunbowers, Jotijota, Kwart Kwart, Moira, Ngarrimouro, Ngarrimowro, Unungun, Wol-Lithiga, Woollathura, Yoorta, Yota Yota. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic.

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Yugambal
[yub] Queensland state: Albert river and Logan basins from Jimboomba to MacPherson range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jugumbir, Jukamba, Manaldjali, Minjanbal, Ngarrbal, Ngarrubul, Yugabeh, Yugambeh, Yugumbal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yugambal.

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Yugul
[ygu] Northern Territory: Namiliwirri lagoon, Nawaparr gorge, Ngukurr, Saint Vidgeon homestead. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jokul, Yikil, Yikul, Yookala, Yookil, Yookull, Yukul. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran.

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Yuru
[ljx] Queensland state: Bowen north to Burdekin river at Home Hill, southwest to Bogie range; Upstart bay south to Mount Abbot and Mount Pleasant. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur-angkana, Euronbba, Mal Mal, Malmal, South Murri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Yuyu
[yxu] Victoria state: Loddon river, north to Swan Hill; Avoca river south to Quambatook area, northeastward to Boorooban and Moulamein; New South Wales state: Boort and Lake Boga. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eramwir-rangu, Eraweerung, Erawiruck, Jeraruk, Jirau, Juju, Meru, Pomp-malkie, Rankbirit, Willoo, Wilu, Yerraruck, Yiran, Yirau, You-you. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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