Burkina Faso

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Biali
[beh] Tapoa and Gourma provinces, at Benin border, south of Arli, 3 villages. 1,500 in Burkina Faso (1991). 30%–40% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri, Burba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Comments: Different from Baatonum [bba] (Berba). Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Birifor, Malba
[bfo] Southwest, Poni Province. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 108,000 in Burkina Faso (1993). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo, Malba-Birifor, Northern Birifor Dialects: Birifor, Wile. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Dagaari [dgd], Wali [wlx], and Birifor [biv] of Ghana are separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bisa
[bib] South central, Boulgou and Zoundweogo provinces, Garango, Zabré, Gomboussougou, Tenkodogo cities. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo (Bissa). 350,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population does not include the Bisa southern Barka region. Population total all countries: 582,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bisa Dialects: Barka, Lebir, Lere. Related to Samo languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa Comments: Different from Busa [bqp] of Nigeria. Ethnonym: Boussanse by the Mòoré. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Bobo Madaré, Southern
[bwq] Mainly Houet Province, Bobo Dioulasso area; Kossi Province, Kouka region. 312,000 (2000). 15,000 speakers of Zara. Ethnic population: 160,000–190,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing Dialects: Benge, Sogokiré, Syabéré (Sya), Voré, Zara (Bobo Dioula, Bobo Jula). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo Comments: The government calls them Bobo Madaré. ‘Bobo’ is the general Bambara word for Bobo Fing, Buamu, or Bomu. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Bolon
[bof] Kénédougou and Houet provinces, N’Dorola and Samorogouan areas. 12 villages. Also in Mali. 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,920. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron Dialects: Black Bolon (Northern Bolon), White Bolon (Southern Bolon). The White Bolon dialect has higher inherent intelligibility with Jula [dyu] (81%) than the Black Bolon dialect (52%). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bomu
[bmq] Kossi Province, Soumbara, west of Nouna. 56,000 in Burkina Faso (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bobo Oule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Wule Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Buamu
[box] Kossi, Mouhoun, Tuy, Banwa, and Balé provinces; area 80 km east-west and 200 km north-south. 186,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwamu, Eastern Bobo Oule, Eastern Bobo Wule, Red Bobo Dialects: Ouarkoye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bwa (sg.), Bwaba (pl.) in Dedougou dialect. Ethnonym: Bobo, Bambara name for Buamu, Bomo, or Bobo Fing, but properly applies only to Bobo Fing. Pwe is a town, not a dialect (1973 CMA). Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bwamu, Cwi
[bwy] Bougouriba and Sissili province border area, 10 km north-south, and 40 km east-west; Bougouriba Province, Founzan; Sissili Province, Kabourou. 24,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coo, Cwi, Twi Dialects: Intelligibility within Cwi area is over 90%, 50%–70% with Láá Láá Bwamu [bwj], 30% with Ouarkoye Buamu [box], and 65%–70% with Dakwi Bwamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bwamu, Láá Láá
[bwj] Tuy and Balé provinces, Bagassi, Pâ, and Boni villages area. 69,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kàdenbà, Yere Dialects: Similar to Ouarkoye dialect of Buamu [box] and Bwamu Twi [bwy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Cerma
[cme] Comoé Province, north of Ouagadougou along main road to Banfora. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 61,400 in Burkina Faso (1991). Population total all countries: 63,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma Dialects: Banfora-Sienena, Gouindougouba, Niangoloko-Diarabakoko, Soubakanedougou. The Gouindougouba dialect is spoken in 1 or 2 villages. Turka [tuz] is the most similar language, but not inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Dagaari Dioula
[dgd] Diébougou, To, Boromo, Soukoulaye, Silly, Pa, Dano, Leo, Gao, Dissin, Wessa, Fara, French Hamele. 21,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagaari Jula, Dagari Dyoula, Jari, Wala, Yari Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dagaare [dgi], Jula [dyu], or Mòoré [mos]. Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Northern Dagaare [dgi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Comments: Muslim.

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Dagara, Northern
[dgi] Southwest, Poni, Bougouriba, Sissili, and Mouhoun provinces. 388,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dagaare, Dagaari, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Northern Dagaare Dialects: Lober (Lobr), Nura (Lawra Lobi), Wule. Dagara and Birifor [bfo] are partly intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Comments: Different from Southern Dagaare [dga] in Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] North border with Mali. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu Dialects: Bama, Domno, Gono, Guru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogosé
[dos] Southwest, Comoé Province, Sidéradougou subdistrict, Ouo, Sidéradougou, Kouere, Koro, and Sirakoro. 20,000 (1991 O. Balagassina). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doghose, Doghosié, Dokhobe, Dokhosié, Dorhossié, Dorhosye, Doro Doghosié, Dorobé, Dorosie, Dorossé Dialects: Gbeyãse, Gbogorose, Klamaasise, Lutise, Mesise, Sukurase. Different from Bambadion dialects Dogoso [dgs] and Khe [kqg]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Kaansa [gna], 15% with Dogoso [dgs], 14% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: Clans are Ouattara or Coulibaly. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dogoso
[dgs] Dandougou, Torokoro, Sokoura, Bondokoro, Tolandougou, Sakédougou, near the Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Khe [kqg] language areas. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 9,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bambadion-Dogoso, Bambadion-Dokhosié, Black Dogose, Dorhosié-Finng, Dorhosié-Noirs, Dorossié-Fing Dialects: Lexical similarity: 56% with Khe [kqg], 15% with Dogosé [dos], 16% with Khisa [kqm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dyan
[dya] Bougouriba Province, Dolo, near Diébougou. 14,100 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dan, Dian, Dya, Dyane, Dyanu Dialects: Zanga. Zanga is a dialect or closely-related language. Not similar enough to Lobi [lob] to be intelligible. Distinct from Dan [dnj] (Gio, Yacouba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dyan Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Dzùùngoo
[dnn] Kénédougou Province, Samorogouan and Samogohiri departments, Orodara town area; Samogo-Iri, Saraba, Diomou, Gnalé, Sokouraba, Todié, and Samogogouan. Kpeengo dialect: Léraba Province, Sindou and Kankalaba departments. 13,400 (1998 E. Solomiac). 30% monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Duun, Kpango, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro Dialects: Dzùùngoo (Samogohiri), Kpangoo (Samorogouan), Kpeengo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Ethnic autonym: Dzùùn. Ethnonym: Samogo is the Jula name. Muslim.

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French
[fra] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 35). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulfulde, Northeastern Burkina Faso
[fuh] Northeast corner. 750,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Dialects: Barani (Barain, Baraniire), Barkoundouba, Bogandé, Fada Ngurma, Gourmantche, Jelgoore, Liptaakoore, Ouhiguyua, Seeba-Yaga (Yaaga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central Comments: Muslim.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] East, Gourma, Tapoa, Gnagna, Komondjari, Yagha, and Kompienga provinces. Also in Benin, Niger, Togo. 600,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 813,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulmacema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gulmancema, Gurma, Migulimancema Dialects: Central Gourmanchema, Northern Gourmanchema, Southern Gourmanchema. Central and eastern dialects are inherently intelligible; northern only with difficulty. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Hausa
[hau] Boulgou and Gourma provinces. 500 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haoussa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Muslim.

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Jalkunan
[bxl] Léraba Province west of Banfora, Blédougou near Sindou town. 500 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 800–1,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blé, Dyala, Dyalanu, Jalkuna Dialects: Lexical similarity: 19% with Jula [dyu], 17% with Bolon [bof]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jeri-Jalkuna Comments: Muslim.

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Jula
[dyu] Comoé, Kénédougou, Houet, and Léraba provinces. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. 1,000,000 in Burkina Faso (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Up to 3,000,000 L2 speakers (2012 V. Vydrine). Population total all countries: 2,550,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Dioula, Dioula Véhiculaire, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan, Trade Jula Dialects: Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam], Kita Maninkakan [mwk], and Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Different from Jola [dyo] (Diola) of Senegal. Majority not ethnic Jula. Muslim.

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Kaansa
[gna] Poni Province, Gaoua subdistrict, Loropéni department, bounded by Loropéni west, Derbi east, Djigoué south, and Yérifoula north. 6,000 (1990 S. Showalter). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gã, Gan, Gane, Kaan, Kaanse, Kãasa, Kan Dialects: Kaansa, Kpatogo (Bodoro, Gbadogo, Kpatogoso, Padogho, Padorho, Padoro). Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 71% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Dogosé [dos]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: 4 clans: Farma, Suwa, Khama, Thama. The Kpatogo separated politically and geographically from the Kamba. At least 7 primary schools in towns and villages serving Kaan villages. Obiré, 8 km northwest of Loropéni, is cultural center and residence of the Kaan Iya, the traditional ruler of the Kaan people. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kalamsé
[knz] Sourou Province, Tougan subdistrict, 540 square km bordering Mali. Also in Mali (Sàmòmá). 9,570 in Burkina Faso (1985 census). Population total all countries: 12,070. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalemsé, Kalenga, Sàmòmá Dialects: Kasoma (East Kalamsé), Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Glossonym: Kalemse (pl.), Kalenga (sg.) distinct from Samo. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Karaboro, Eastern
[xrb] South, Comoé Province, east of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kar, Ker, Kler Dialects: Kar dialect averages 70% comprehension by Western Karaboro [kza], but the reverse is 30%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Karaboro, Western
[kza] South, west of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. 30,200 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Syer-Tenyer Dialects: Syer, Tenyer. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kasem
[xsm] Nahouri Province, Po and Tiébélé towns. Also in Ghana. 120,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 250,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kasena, Kasim, Kassem, Kassena Dialects: East Kasem, West Kasem. West and East Kasem mutually inherently intelligible. Similar to Nuni [nuv] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kasena. East Kasem is more prestigious. Loanwords from French and Mòoré in Burkina Faso, English, Akan [aka] in Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Khe
[kqg] Noumoukiedougou, Tiébata, Moromoro, Boli, Sessagbo, and Lobo, near Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Dogoso [dgs] language areas. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 1,300 in Burkina Faso (1983 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bambadion-Kheso, Kheso Dialects: Lexical similarity: 56% with Dogoso [dgs] (Bambadion-Dogoso), 14% with Dogosé [dos], 13% with Khisa [kqm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khisa
[kqm] Southwest, near Côte d’Ivoire border, Comoé Province, Mangodara prefecture. 25 villages. 3,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khi, Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: ‘Komono’ is the Jula name. Muslim.

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Konabéré
[bbo] Banwa Province, in and around Tansilla. Also in Mali. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fign, Bobo Fing, Northern Bobo Madare Dialects: Jèrè, Kukoma (Koma), Kure, Sankuma (Sarokama), Tankri, Yaba. Northern Bobo Madaré has 20%–30% intelligibility of Southern Bobo Madaré. All dialects of Northern understand Yaba, centered in Tansilla. Separate literature may be needed for the Mali dialect. Some linguists treat Bobo as a separate major branch of Mande. Sya is the prestige dialect in Mali and used for literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo Comments: Ethnonym: Bobo Madaré. ‘Bobo’ is Bambara word for Bobo Madaré, Buamu or Bomu. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Koromfé
[kfz] Yatenga Province, Titao subdistrict; Soum and Oudalan provinces, Djibo-Aribinda subdistrict. Also in Mali. 196,000 in Burkina Faso (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 202,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fula, Fulse, Kuruma, Kurumfe Dialects: Fulse, Koromba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kpeego
[cpo] Léraba Province, Kankalaba department, Noumousoba and Tourny villages; in villages throughout southwest Burkina Faso. 2,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Noumou, Noumoukan, Numu Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern Comments: Kpeego speakers are blacksmiths.

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Kusaal
[kus] South central, Nahouri and Boulgou provinces, villages south of Zabré. 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koussassé, Kusale, Kusasi Dialects: Tonde (Toende, Western Kusaal). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Lobi
[lob] Poni Province, Gaoua southwest border area. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana. 286,000 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 442,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa Dialects: Gongon Lobi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lyélé
[lee] North and central Sanguié Province: Réo, Kyon, Tenado, Dassa, Didyr, Godyr, and Kordie subdistricts, Réo principal center. Thousands of migrants in neighboring countries, especially Côte d’Ivoire. 130,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lele Dialects: Central Lyélé, Kandéré, Northern Lyélé, Southern Lyélé (Reo). Most Central and Northern Lyélé speakers have nearly 100% comprehension of the Southern Lyélé. Kandéré have 75% comprehension of Southern Lyélé; Southern Lyélé understand all dialects except Kandéré well. Similar to Nuni [nuv], but low mutual inherent intelligibility. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Lyela or Lela; Gurunsi is also used but applies more properly to the wider grouping. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Marka
[rkm] Kossi and Mouhoun provinces, Nouna and Dedougou areas. Also in Mali. 200,000 in Burkina Faso (1992 CMA). Population total all countries: 225,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marka Dafing Dialects: Gassan, Nouna, Safané. More than 80% inherent intelligibility of southeastern dialect around Safané; however, northwestern dialect region is 70%. The central dialect around Dembo village is well understood. Reportedly similar to Bambara [bam] or a variant of Jula [dyu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin Comments: Marka is used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka dialect of Soninke. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Moba
[mfq] Boulgou Province, Ouargaye subdistrict. 1,800 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba

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Mòoré
[mos] Central Ouagadougou area; widespread. Also in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Togo. 5,000,000 in Burkina Faso. 15,700 Yana (1991). Population total all countries: 5,061,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi Dialects: Ouagadougou, Saremdé, Taolendé, Yaadré, Yaande, Yana (Jaan, Yanga), Zaore (Joore). Yana dialect has over 90% intelligibility with the Ouagadougou dialect 75%–80% with the Joore dialect. Joore with Ouagadougou varies from 88% in Tibga to 95% in Diabo. Yanga in Togo, completely intelligible with Central Mòoré. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Ethnic autonym: Moose (pl.), Moaaga (sg.); Autoglottonym: Mòoré. Other spellings are obsolete or reflect pronunciations of nonspeakers. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Natioro
[nti] Léraba Province, Sindou subdistrict, west of Banfora, Sindou town area; Dinaoro, Timba, and Kawara. 2,400 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koo’ra, Natjoro, Natyoro Dialects: Ginaourou, Kaouara-Timba-Sindou-Koroni. Similar to Wara [wbf], but not inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ninkare
[gur] Nahouri Province, Zecco and Ziou subdistricts. 25,100 in Burkina Faso (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Frafra, Gurenne, Gurne, Nankani Dialects: Booni, Frafra, Gudeni, Nankana, Nankani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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N’ko
[nqo] No known L1 speakers in Burkina Faso. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Nuni, Northern
[nuv] Sissili and Sanguié provinces, near Boromo. Dialect dividing line is Mouhoun river. 45,000 (1995 SIL). 15,000–25,000 in Northwestern Nuni, 25,000–35,000 in Northeastern Nuni. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma Dialects: Northeastern Nuni, Northwestern Nuni. Northern Nuni users have no comprehension of Southern Nuni [nnw]. Similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Nuni, Southern
[nnw] Sissili Province, Léo area; east Mouhoun Province; south Boulkiemdé and Sanguié provinces; west Nahouri and Kossi provinces. Over 100 villages. 168,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma Dialects: Basinyari (Sundoni), Bwana, Gori, Micari, Sankura, Yatini. Similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Pana
[pnq] Sourou Province, Kassoum Subdistrict, Oué town area, Sourou River valley entering from Mali. Also in Mali. 5,000 in Burkina Faso (1998). Population total all countries: 7,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Phuie
[pug] Tuy, Ioba, Bougouriba, and Poni provinces; north and west of Diébougou; northeast of Dano. Scattered villages in Dagaari [dgd] language area. 14,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buguli, Buguri, Phuien, Pougouli, Puguli, Pwa, Pwe, Pwie, Pwien, Pwo Dialects: Phuie is closely related to Winye [kst] and Sisaala [sld]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Ethnic autonym: Phuo (pl.) Phu (sg.). Puguli is an exonym. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Samo, Matya
[stj] Sourou Province, Mouna and Solenzo areas; Ouaga, Bobo, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. Also in Mali. 105,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 105,230. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northwestern Samo, San, Sane, Tougan, West Central Goe Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo Comments: The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now also speak Fulfulde [fuh]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Samo, Maya
[sym] North central, Sourou Province. 38,000 (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Samo, Sa, San Dialects: Bangassogo, Bounou, Gomboro, Kiembara (Northeastern Goe). Intelligibility of Matya Samo [stj] varies between 28% and 50%, depending on the village and text tested; of Southern Samo [sbd] less than 10%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Samo, Southern
[sbd] Nayala Province, Nouna and Solenzo areas; Ouaga, Bobo, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. Toma dialect: Toma, Yaba, Gossina, Ye, Kougny, and Gassan departments. 85,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: San, Sane Dialects: Toma (Makaa, Nyaana). Intelligibility low across Samo varieties. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo Comments: The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now speak Fulfulde [fuh] as L2, and live in Kawara, Kassan, Zoumou, and Teri in the Tougan area. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Seeku
[sos] Houet Province, Bobo-Dioulasso department, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, Karankasso, Bouendé, Torosso, Banzo, Tiara, and Bama villages. 17,000. 5,000 in the northern dialect (4 villages), 12,000 in the southern (7 villages). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sambla, Samogho, Sembla, Southern Samo Dialects: Northern Seeku (Timiku), Southern Seeku (Gbeneku). Dialects have good inherent intelligibility. 3 minor dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Nanerigé
[sen] North Kénédougou Province, Djigouéra and north. 50,000 (1985 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naani, Nandereke, Nandergé, Nanergé, Nanergué Dialects: Some intelligibility with Sicite Senoufo [sep]. No significant dialects or subgroups. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Ethnic autonym: Nanerige. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Senara
[seq] Southwest, Léraba Province. 50,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niangolo, Sénoufo Dialects: Intelligibility testing of Cebaara Senoufo [sef] varies from 51% in Konadougou to 71% in Niankorodougou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Kénédougou Province, Tagouara plateau, Koloko and Ouelaní prefectures, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, to Mali border. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 38,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba Dialects: Intelligibility low of Nanerige Senoufo [sen]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Siamou
[sif] Kénédougou Province, Orodara is center, Tin, Diossogou, Diéri, Kotoudéni, Diéridéni, Didéri, Lidara, and Bandougou small villages. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. 20,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Population total all countries: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seme, Sému, Siémou, Siemu, Syémou Dialects: Bandougou. Minor dialect differences between villages and within Orodara. The Bandougou dialect is considered different, but intelligibility among dialects seems adequate. No closely related languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Seme Comments: Previously classified as Mande. Their tradition says they came from the south. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sininkere
[skq] Sanmatenga Province, near Pensa. 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Silanke, Silinkere Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim.

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Sissala
[sld] Sissili Province, between Léo and Hamale. 30 villages. 13,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sisaali Dialects: All one dialect in Burkina Faso. Distinct from Sisaala languages in Ghana, although most similar to Western Sisaala [ssl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Songhay
[hmb] Central northeast, Ouanobian, Falagountou, and other towns. 10,000 in Burkina Faso (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Humburi Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai Dialects: Marensé (Koroboré, Maransé). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Tamasheq, Kidal
[taq] Oudalan Province. 31,200 in Burkina Faso (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, Tuareg Dialects: Tadghaq (Kidal), Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Téén
[lor] Poni Province, Kampti subdistrict, 2 pockets just west of Kampti. 2,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tiéfo
[tiq] Comoé Province, east of Toussiana, Dramandougou Tiéfo, 1 village. Ethnic Tiéfo in about 20 villages, into Houet Province. 1,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000–15,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kiefo, Tyefo, Tyeforo Dialects: Dramandougou-Nyarafo, Noumoudara-Koumoudara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tiefo Comments: Endogamous within the village. Traditional religion.

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Toussian, Northern
[tsp] Comoé Province, north, east, and south of Oradara. 19,500 (1995 SIL). 1,000 in Wenteene dialect, 18,500 in the other dialects. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tusia, Tusian Dialects: Kebeenton, Ter, Tru, Wenteene. Northern region dialects inherently intelligible to speakers but have 45% inherent intelligibility of Southern Toussian [wib]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Toussian, Southern
[wib] Comoé and Houet provinces, halfway between Banfora and Bobo-Dioulasso; Toussiana is center area. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 19,500 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tusia, Tusian, Win Dialects: 40% inherent intelligibility of Northern Toussian [tsp]. Nianha dialect is central. Each village has a separate dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Turka
[tuz] Comoé Province, north and west of Banfora. Principal villages are dialect names. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. 37,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Curama, Cuuramã, Tchourama, Tourka, Turuka, Tyurama Dialects: Beregadougou-Toumousseni, Douna. Most similar to Cerma [cme]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Viemo
[vig] Houet Province, Karankasso Vigué department, 40 km southeast of Bobo Dioulasso. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vige, Vigué, Vigye Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Viemo Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wara
[wbf] Comoé Province, west of Banfora, Sindou town area. Main village is Néguéni. 4,500 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ouala, Ouara, Samoe Dialects: Faniagara, Negueni-Klani, Ouatourou-Niasogoni, Soulani. The Negueni dialect has over 95% intelligibility of the Niansogoni dialect, but Niansogoni below 80% of Negueni. No intelligibility of Natioro [nti]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Winyé
[kst] Bali Province, Boromo subdistrict, Boromo area, halfway between Bobo-Dioulosso and Ouagadougou. 17 to 18 villages. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Most are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kõ, Kols, Kolsi Dialects: Similar to Sissala [sld]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Zarma
[dje] 600 in Burkina Faso (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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