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Acroá
[acs] Bahia area. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coroá Classification: Jean, Central

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Agavotaguerra
[avo] Mato Grosso, Xingú park, between Curisevo and Culuene rivers, near the Kuikúro. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agavotokueng, Agavotoqueng Dialects: Related to Waurá [wau] and Yawalapiti [yaw]. Classification: Unclassified

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Aikanã
[tba] Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. 180 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 260 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Corumbiara, Huari, Kasupá, Kolumbiara, Mondé, Tubarão, Uari, Wari Dialects: Masaká (Massaca), Tubanao. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Corumbiara may also refer to the Kanoê [kxo] and the Mekens [skf]. Mondé also refers to the Salamãi [mnd].

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Akuntsu
[aqz] Rondonia State, Columbiara municipality. 6 (2009 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akunsu, Akuntsun Dialects: Similar to Tupari [tpr]. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí

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Amahuaca
[amc] Amazonas. 220 in Brazil (1995). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amawaca, Amawáka, Amenguaca, Sayacu Dialects: Inuvaken, Viwivakeu. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka

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Amanayé
[ama] Pará, São Domingos do Capim municipality, on Capim river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 190 (2001 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Amanage, Amanajé, Amanyé, Manajo, Manaxo, Manaze, Manazo Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé

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Amundava
[adw] Rondônia, Acre, near Jiparaná river. 83 (2003 ISA). Crevels 2007 groups the Amundava together with the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] for a total population of 170 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amondawa, Amundawa Dialects: The Amundava, Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], Júma [jua], and Karipuna [kuq] all call themselves Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] are all linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin

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Anambé
[aan] Pará, Cairari river, tributary of Moju river. 6 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 130 (2000 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé

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Apalaí
[apy] Pará, mainly on Paru Leste river with fringe groups on Jari and Citare rivers. 20 villages. 450 (1993 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Apalay, Aparai Classification: Cariban, Central

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Apiaká
[api] Northern Mato Grosso, upper Rio Tapajos, near confluence of São Manoel, near the border between Pará and Mato Grosso. 1 (Tempesta 2009). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tempesta). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Apiacá, Apiake Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib

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Apinayé
[apn] Tocantins, near Tocantinópolis. 6 villages. 1,260 (2003 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 1,525 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Apinagé, Apinajé Classification: Jean, Northern

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Apurinã
[apu] Amazonas, Acre; scattered over Purus river from Rio Branco to Manaus. 2,780 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 6,988 (2010 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ipurinãn, Kangite, Popengare Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Arapaso
[arj] São Gabriel, Iauarete, Amazonas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arapaço, Araspaso, Koneá Dialects: Reportedly a dialect of Tucano [tuo]. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Arára, Mato Grosso
[axg] Mato Grosso. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (1994 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arara do Beiradão, Arara do Rio Branco Classification: Unclassified

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Arára, Pará
[aap] Pará in 2 villages: Laranjal, Cachoeira Seca. 340 (2010 I. Souza). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arára Bravos Dialects: Most similar extant languages are Ikpeng [txi] and Bakairí [bkq]. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Arara Comments: Some groups uncontacted. Subgroups of the Arara are Apiaká or Miranya (Apingui), Arára-Pariri or Arára Mansos, Arára Bravos, Yarumá. Except for the Arára Bravos, from whom the present Arára of Pará people come, all the other subgroups are extinct.

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Araweté
[awt] Amazonas, near Xingú river, near Altamira, at least one sizeable village. 280 (Moore 2006). Nearly all are monolingual (1986). Ethnic population: 300 (2003 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bïde Dialects: Similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu], Parakanã [pak], and Tapirapé [taf]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní

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Arikapú
[ark] Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio Branco, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. 2 (2009 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 32 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aricapú, Maxubí Dialects: Similar to Jabuti [jbt]. Classification: Jabutian Comments: Located among many other groups, primarily the Tupari [tpr].

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Arikem
[ait] Rondônia State, Candeias and Jamari rivers, tributaries of the upper Madeira. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ariken Classification: Tupian, Arikem

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Aruá
[arx] Rondônia, Rio Branco post, Branco and Guaporé rivers. 12 (1990 YWAM). Ethnic population: 58 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Aruáshi (Aruachi). Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá Comments: Many reportedly in Mato Grosso.

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Arutani
[atx] Roraima. Also in Venezuela. 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 42. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aoaqui, Auake, Auaqué, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutani Classification: Language isolate

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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa
[cpb] Acre State, border area with Peru, between the Amônia, Arara, and Breu rivers, all 3 tributaries of the Juruá river, and the Envira tributary of the Tarauacá river. 870 in Brazil (2004 CPI-AC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Campa, Kampa Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga Comments: Live in 5 reserves.

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Asurini of Xingú
[asn] Rio Piçava off Xingú river near Altamira, Pará, at least one sizeable village. 120 (2006 ISA). Ethnic population: 124 (2006 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asuriní de Koatinema, Asurini do Xingú, Awaeté, Awaté Dialects: Different from Tocantins Asurini (Akwaya) [asu], and Arawete [awt]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kayabí

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Asurini, Tocantins
[asu] Pará, on Tocantins river, Trocará near Tucurui. 300 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 303 (Moore 2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akwaya, Assuriní, Asuriní, Asuriní do Tocantins, Asuriní do Trocará Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa Comments: Different from Asuriní do Xingú [asn].

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Atorada
[aox] Roraima. Few in Brazil (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Atorad, Atorai, Ator’ti, Dauri Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana Comments: Different from Waimiri-Atroarí [atr].

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Aurá
[aux] Pará, Maranhão in Maranhão. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Auré Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí

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Avá-Canoeiro
[avv] Island of Bananal, and upper Tocantins river valley; Goiás, Terra Indigena Ava-Canoeiro. 14 (Moore 2006). All speakers are monolingual. Ethnic population: 46 (2009 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abá, Avá, Awana, Canoa, Canoe, Canoeiros Dialects: The groups in Tocantins and Goias speak different dialects, and have lived apart for over 100 years. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara Comments: Seminomadic. The group in Tocantins, contacted in 1974, has 12 people. An estimated 15 remain uncontacted. The other group in Goias, contacted in 1983 has 9 people, with an estimated 10 remaining uncontacted. Traditional religion.

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Awetí
[awe] Mato Grosso, Xingú park, Rio Culiseu (upper Xingú river), 2 villages: Aweti, Sauva. 170 (2011 S. Drude). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arauine, Arauite, Aueti, Aueto, Auiti, Awetö Classification: Tupian Comments: Language use is stronger in Aweti.

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Bakairí
[bkq] Mato Grosso. 9 or 10 villages. 950 (1999 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bacairí, Kurâ Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas, Middle Içana river. Also in Venezuela. 5,460 in Brazil (1983 SIL). Population total all countries: 6,070. Ethnic population: 5,150 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baniba, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Dakenei, Issana, Kohoroxitari, Maniba Dialects: Carutana. The Carutana dialect is extinct. Related to Curripaco [kpc]. Groups on middle Içana and Ayarí rivers speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu Comments: Go to Colombia or Venezuela to work or trade. Some isolated and uncontacted groups of Baniwa may exist in Brazil.

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Baré
[bae] Northwestern Amazonas State, Xié river area. Spoken by a few elders (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,220 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré

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Borôro
[bor] Central Mato Grosso. 3 main villages: Meruri, Sangradouro, Perigera. Also in Bolivia. 1,390 in Brazil (2007 ISA). Population total all countries: 1,392. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boe Classification: Bororoan

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Brazilian Sign Language
[bzs] All states and regions of Brazil. 3,000,000 use Brazilian Sign Language as their first language of communication. Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of national identity (2005, Parliamentary decree No. 5626). Alternate Names: LIBRAS, LSB, São Paulo Sign Language Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Legally recognized by Brazilian Government in 2002. Proper names fingerspelling similar to European systems. São Paulo deaf generally receive oralist education.

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Cafundo Creole
[ccd] Cafundo, 240 km from São Paulo. 40 (1978 M. Gnerre). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Creole, Portuguese based Comments: Bantu lexicon in Portuguese [por] morphological and syntactic framework. The creole is considered a secret language.

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Caló
[rmq] Primarily in northeast and north central Brazil. 10,000 in Brazil. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gitano, Iberian Romani Dialects: Brazilian Calão. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani Comments: Christian.

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Canela
[ram] Maranhão, southeastern Pará. 2,500 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kanela Dialects: Apanjekra (Apanhecra, Apaniekra), Ramkokamekra. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira Comments: Traditional religion.

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Cashinahua
[cbs] Acre. 400 in Brazil (2003). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cashinahuá, Caxinawá, Huni Kui , Juni Kuin, Kaxinauá, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State

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Chiquitano
[cax] Mato Grosso, border area with Bolivia, municipalities of Vila Bela, Cáceres and Porto Espiridião. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Language isolate

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Chiripá
[nhd] Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo. 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 8,000–10,000 (2003 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apytare, Guaraní, Nandeva, Ñandeva, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Influenced by Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], Mbyá Guaraní [gun], and Kaiwá [kgk]. Most are from Apapocuva group. Ñandeva is used in Paraguayan Chaco for Tapiete [tpj], a different but related language.

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Cinta Larga
[cin] Eastern Rondônia, Terra Indigena Roosevelt, Parque Indigena Aripuanã; Western Mato Grosso, Terra Indigena Aripuanã. 1,300 (Moore 2006). Nearly all are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,440 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Amazonas State, Rio Solimões region, Terra Indígena Acapuri de Cima, Terra Indígena Espírito Santo, Terra Indígena Evaré I, Terra Indígena Kokama. Ethnic population: 620 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cocama, Kokama Dialects: Cocama, Cocamilla (Kokamilla, Pambadeque), Xibitaona. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama

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Cubeo
[cub] Northwest Amazonas, near São Gabriel. 150 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 290 (2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cubeu, Cuveo, Hehenawa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kobéwa, Kubeo, Kubewa, Kubwa, Pamié, Pamiwa Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan

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Curripaco
[kpc] Northwest Amazonas, Içana. 1,250 in Brazil (2001 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cumata, Curipaco, Ipeca, Ipeka-Tapuia, Koripako, Korispaso, Kuripako, Pacu, Paku-Tapuya, Palioariene, Pato Tapuia, Pato-Tapuya, Payualiene, Payuliene Dialects: Ipeka-Tapuia, Korripako (Karupaka), Unhun (Cadauapuritana, Enhen), Waliperi (Veliperi). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu

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Dâw
[kwa] Amazonas, across the river from São Gabriel de Cochoeira, just below the confluence of the Vaupés and Negro rivers. 85 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 85 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dow, “Kamã” (pej.), “Kamã Makú” (pej.), “Kamu Maku” (pej.) Classification: Puinavean

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Dení
[dny] Amazonas, between Purus and Juruá rivers, to the north-east of the Cunhua, Upper Cunhua and Xiruã rivers, Terra Indigena Camadeni and Terra Indigena Deni. 740 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 880 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dani Dialects: Inauini. Similar to Kulina [cul]. Classification: Arauan

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Desano
[des] Northwestern Amazonas, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro, region along the border with Colombia, sixty communities and sites along the margins of the Tiquié river and its tributaries. Also in Colombia. 960 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,420. Ethnic population: 1,530 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Desâna, Dessano, Kusibi, Oregu, Uina, Wina, Wirã Dialects: Lexical similarity: 90% with Siriano [sri]. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano

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Enawené-Nawé
[unk] Northwestern Mato Grosso. 320 (Moore 2006). Most are still monolingual (2007). Ethnic population: 540 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eneuene-Mare, Salumã Dialects: Related to Parecís [pab]. Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified Comments: Distinct from Salumá [slj] in Pará.

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Galibi
[car] State of Amapá, on right bank of Oiapoque river, south of Saint Georges, between the Morcego and Taparabu streams, Terra Indigena Galibi, São José dos Galibi village. 28 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Carib, Caribe, Cariña, Kalihna, Kalinya, Maraworno, Marworno Dialects: Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib). Classification: Cariban Comments: Portuguese-Carib creole people (Galibí do Uaça) also speak Karipuna Creole French [kmv].

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Gavião do Jiparaná
[gvo] Eastern Rondônia, Terra Indígena Igarapé Lourdes; Zoro dialect: Mato Grosso, Aripuanã area, Terra Indígena Zoró. 340 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 520 (2004 Kaninde). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Digüt, Gavião do Rondônia, Ikolen, Ikõro Dialects: Gavião, Zoró (Cabeça Seca, Panginey). Partially intelligible with Suruí [sru]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá Comments: Different from Gavião of Pará [gvp]; Zoro had a population of 414 in 2000 (ISA).

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Gavião, Pará
[gvp] Pará, new village called ‘Kaikoturé’, near Marabá; scattered in or near original locations in Maranhão. Two distinct ethnic groups speak Para Gaviao: Parakatêjê and Pukobjê. Ethnic population: 340 Parakatêjê, 470 Pukobjê (2005 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gavião do Mãe Maria, Parakatêjê, Perkatêjê, Pukobjê Dialects: Related to Krinkati-Timbira [xri], Canela [ram], and Krahô [xra]. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira Comments: Ethnic autonym: Parakatêjê Indian Community. Not to be confused with the Gavião of Jiparana [gvo].

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Guajá
[gvj] Maranhão, Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu and Terra Indígena Caru, four settlements. Some isolated groups. 280 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 370 (1995 AMTB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Awá, Awá Guajá, Ayaya, Guaxare, Wazaizara Dialects: Related to Guajajára [gub]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé

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Guajajára
[gub] Maranhão, Pindaré, Grajaú, Mearim, and Zutiua rivers. 81 villages. 13,100 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 19,500 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Guazazzara, Tenetehar, Tenetehára Dialects: Mearim, Pindare, Zutiua. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Tenetehara

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Guana
[gqn] Mato Grosso do Sul, near the Terêna. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 250 (2005 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chana, Chuala, East Paraná, Equinao, Kinihinao, Kinikinao Dialects: Related to Terêna [ter] and Irantxe [irn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Terena

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Guanano
[gvc] Northwest Amazonas, on border with Colombia, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro. Also in Colombia. 450 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kótedia, Kótirya, Uanana, Wanâna, Wanano Dialects: Similar to Piratapuyo [pir], but the two groups do not intermarry. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan Comments: The Guanano move back and forth across the border with Colombia.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Southwestern Paraná, southeastern São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais. 35 villages in 7 states. Also in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay. 6,000 in Brazil (2008 CTI). Most children, women and elders are monolingual (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 15,050. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bugre, Mbiá, Mbua, Mbyá Dialects: Baticola, Tambéopé. Lexical similarity: 75% with Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas, Rio Chié (Xié) and Içana near Venezuelan border. 490 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arequena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekéna, Werekena, Werikena Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena

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Guató
[gta] Mato Grosso do Sul and Bolivian border, banks of the Paraguai and up São Lourenço river. 4 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 370 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Language isolate

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Himarimã
[hir] Amazonas, Tapauá valley, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara. 40. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Unclassified Comments: Essentially uncontacted.

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Hixkaryána
[hix] Amazonas, upper Nhamunda river to Mapuera and Jatapú rivers. 600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 680 (Moore 2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chawiyana, Faruaru, Hichkaryana, Hishkaryana, Hixkariana, Hyxkaryana, Kumiyana, Parucutu, Parukoto-Charuma, Sherewyana, Sokaka, Wabui, Xereu, Xerewyana Dialects: Similar to Waiwai [waw]. No dialectal variation. Some Hixkaryana who live among the Waiwai are called Sherewyana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai Comments: In 1959 the population was about 100, with few children, high infant mortality, low will to live. By 1977 it was 237. Through modern medicine, intermarrying with the Waiwai [waw], self-confidence through literature in Hixkaryana, Hixkaryana teachers running a school for children ages 5 to 14, and government help in setting up a Brazil nut industry, they continue to grow.

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Hunsrik
[hrx] Widespread with high concentrations in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. Also in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay (Hunsriker). 3,000,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 5,000,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hunsriker, Rio Grand Hunsriker Dialects: Originally derived from Hunsrücker (Westpfälzisch) German speech variety; influenced by Portuguese [por]. Several dialects, probably due to being language of intercommunication for many other Germanic language speakers such as Swabian [swg], Bavarian [bar] and others as well as immigrants from Switzerland and Austria. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic Comments: Emigrated from Germany from 1824 more or less continuously until World War II.

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Hupdë
[jup] Northwest Amazonas, Rio Auari. Also in Colombia. 1,000 in Brazil (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 1,240. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hup, Hupda, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), Jupde, “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.), Ubdé Dialects: Hupdë, Nëhup, Tuhup. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave, Macro-Tucanoan. Intelligible with Yahup [yab]. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda Comments: Subservient to the Tucano and other Tucanoan Indians. Some nomadic between Brazil and Colombia.

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Iapama
[iap] Pará and Amapá border region. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified

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Iatê
[fun] Pernambuco, Sertão, Águas Belas municipality, 2 villages. 2,930 (1999 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Carnijó, Fornió, Fulniô, Furniô, Yatê Dialects: Fulniô, Yatê. Lexical similarity: 98% between Fulniô and Yatê dialects. Classification: Language isolate

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Ikpeng
[txi] Mato Grosso, Xingú park. 310 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 340 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chicao, Tonore, Tunuli, Txikân, Txikão Dialects: Similar to Pará Arara [aap]. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Arara Comments: First contact in 1964.

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Ingarikó
[ake] Northern Roraima State, Terra Indígena Raposa or Serra do Sol, near the Cotingo river. 670 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Akawaio, Akwaio, Kapóng, Patamona Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong

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Irántxe
[irn] Mato Grosso, headwaters of the Rio Cravari, tributary of the Rio Sangue, which is a tributary of the Rio Juruena. 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 360 (2006 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iranche, Iranxe Dialects: Irántxe, Münkü (Kenkü, Menku, Mynky, Myy). Classification: Language isolate

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Itene
[ite] Western Rondônia, Guajará-Mirim, Poro Velho. 12 in Brazil (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 30 (2002). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: More Classification: Chapacuran, Itene

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Jabutí
[jbt] Rondônia, Rio Branco Post. 1 (Van der Voort 2008). Ethnic population: 190 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Djeoromitxi, Jabotí, Jeoromitxi, Yabutí Classification: Jabutian

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Jamamadí
[jaa] Amazonas in Jaruara, 7 villages in Lábrea municipality; Banawá river area; the rest scattered over a large area. 800 (Moore 2006). 220 Banawa Yafi (Kitiya) mostly monolingual; 160 ethnic Jarawara, also mostly monolingual (Crevels 2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Canamanti, Kanamanti, Madi, Yamamadí Dialects: Bom Futuro, Cuchudua (Maima), Jaruára (Jarawara, Yarawara), Jurua, Kitiya (Banauá, Banavá, Banawá, Banawa Yafi, Jafí), Mamoria (Mamori), Pauini, Tukurina. Other groups called, Jamamadí, are more similar to Kulina [cul] or Dení [dny]. Tukurina dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Arauan, Jamamadi Comments: People want a school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Júma
[jua] Amazonas, Mucuim river, Rio Açuã tributary, Upper Jamary village. 7 (Moore 2006). 5 speakers belong to one family, all married to Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arara, Kagwahibm, Kagwahiph, Kagwahiv, Kavahiva, Kawahip, Kawaib, Yumá Dialects: The Júma, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], and Karipuna [kuq] all call themselves Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin

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Jurúna
[jur] North Mato Grosso, Xingú park, near mouth of the Maritsauá-Mitau river, 2 villages. Pará, Altamira, Terra Indígena Paquiçamba. 280 (Moore 2006). 1 speaker left in the Terra Indígena Paquiçamba in 1989; 35 ethnic group members in the TI Paquiçamba (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 360 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iuruna, Jaruna, Yudya, Yurúna Classification: Tupian, Juruna

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Kaapor
[urb] Maranhão, Gurupi river. 8–10 villages scattered over 7,250 square km. 800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 990 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caapor, Ka’apor, Kaaporté, “Urubú” (pej.), Urubú-Kaapor Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé

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Kaapor Sign Language
[uks] Maranhão. 7 (1986 J. Kakumasu). Deaf users are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Urubú Sign Language” (pej.) Classification: Deaf sign language

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Kabixí
[xbx] Mato Grosso, Planalto dos Parecís slopes, right bank of upper Guaporé, near Vila Bela. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cabichí, Cabishi Dialects: Related to Maxakali [mbl]. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene Comments: The name is also used for Parecís [pab] and has become widely used to describe any hostile group.

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Kadiwéu
[kbc] Mato Grosso do Sul, around Serra da Bodoquena, 3 villages. 1,590 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,630 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caduvéo, Ediu-Adig, Mbaya-Guaikuru Classification: Guaykuruan, Guaykurú Comments: “Payagua”, enemy, may be an exonym applied to this group.

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Kaimbé
[xai] Bahía. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,100–1,400 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified

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Kaingang
[kgp] São Paulo: north of Paranapena river on 3 reservations; Paraná: between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers, 9 reservations; Santa Catarina: between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers, 8 reservations; Rio Grande do Sul: south of the Uruguay river with the southeast dialect on 5 reservations east of Passo Fundo river, and the southwest dialect on 7 reservations; also east of Passo Fundo river and on the outskirts of important cities in Rio Grande do Sul. Scattered locations. 18,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bugre, Caingang, Coroado, Coroados Dialects: Central Kaingang, Paraná Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang. Classification: Jean, Southern, Kaingang Comments: Alternate names now only used in old documents. Glossonym: Bugre, also used for Xokleng [xok] and Mbyá Guaraní [gun].

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Kaingáng, São Paulo
[zkp] São Paulo. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Jean, Southern, Kaingang

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Kaiwá
[kgk] Mato Grosso do Sul, from the Apa, Dourados, and Ivinhema rivers in the north to the Mbarakaju mountains and tributaries of Jejui river in the south. 18,000 (2003 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caingua, Caiua, Caiwa, Cayua, Kaiova, Kaiowá, Kayova Dialects: Kaiwá, Tembekuá, Teüi. Some comprehension of Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Pai Tavytera [pta] of Paraguay. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Kamakan
[vkm] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ezeshio Classification: Kamakanan, Kamakán

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Kamayurá
[kay] Mato Grosso, Xingú park. 400 (2011 S. Drude). Ethnic population: 520 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camaiura, Kamaiurá, Kamayirá Classification: Tupian Comments: One of the larger groups in the Xingú park.

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Kamba
[xba] Mato Grosso do Sul, near Corumbá. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Camba Dialects: May have been a Tupí language. Classification: Unclassified

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Kambiwá
[xbw] Pernambuco. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,580 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified

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Kanamarí
[knm] Amazonas, upper regions of Jurua, Jutai, Itaquai rivers. 1,330 (Moore 2006). 100 Tsohom-Djapa speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,750 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Canamarí, Kanamaré Dialects: Tshom-Djapa (Txunhuã Dyapá, Txunhuã-Djapá), Tsohon-Djapa. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro

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Kanoé
[kxo] Rondônia, Guaporé river. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amniapé, Canoé, Canoê, Guarategaja, Guaratégaya, Guaratira, Kapishanã, Kapixana, Kapixaná, Koaratira Classification: Language isolate Comments: Distinct from Ava (Canoeiros) [avv].

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Kapinawá
[xpn] Pernambuco. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 420 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified

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Karahawyana
[xkh] Amazonas, near the Waiwai [waw]. 40 (1995 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Probably Cariban. Classification: Unclassified

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Karajá
[kpj] Goiás, Pará, Mato Grosso, Araguaia river, Bananal Island, and Tocantins. 2,670 (Moore 2006). Karajá 1,860, Javaé 800, Xambioá 10 (D. Moore). Ethnic population: 3,190 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caraiauna, Chambioa, Iraru Mahadu, Ixbyowa, Karaja do Norte, Ynã Dialects: Javaé (Javahe), Karajá, Xambioá. Men and women speak different dialects. Classification: Karajá

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Karapanã
[cbc] Amazonas, São Gabriel and Pari-Cachoeira. 42 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Carapana, Carapanã, Mextã Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano

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Karipuna
[kgm] Amapá, on French Guiana border. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karipúna do Amapá, Karipúna do Uaçá Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib

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Karipuna
[kuq] Rondônia, Acre, banks of Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers. 10 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21 (2001). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ah’e, Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Kagwahiva, Karipuná de Rondônia, Karipuná do Guaporé Dialects: Jacaria, Pama (Pamana). The Karipuna, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Tenharim [pah] all call themselves, Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin Comments: Loukotka identified this as Panoan [knt].

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Karipuna Creole French
[kmv] Amapá, on French Guiana border. 2,400 (2008 SIL). 4,500 all speakers in Brazil. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Crioulo Dialects: Conflicting reports about difference from Guianese Creole French [gcr]. Different from Haitian [hat]. Classification: Creole, French based Comments: Formerly spoke Karipuna [kgm], possibly from Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazon. Also spoken by Galibi do Wasa ethnic group (2006 FUNASA), where language use is much stronger. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Karirí-Xocó
[kzw] Alagoas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,570 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Karirí, Kariri Xucó, Kipeá, Xocó, Xokó, Xokó-Karirí, Xukurú, Xukuru Kariri Dialects: Kamurú (Camuru), Kipeá (Quipea), Sabujá (Pedra Branca). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested. Classified as Equatorial (Greenberg 1959), Macro-Carib (Swadesh 1959), Macro-Ge (Rodrigues 1975), Isolate (Rivet and Loukotka 1952, Larsen 1984). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Xokó, Karirí-Xokó, Xukuru-Kariri are all descendants of indigenous groups that used to inhabit northeast Brazil. It is not clear whether they spoke 3 different languages or just one (2007).

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Karitiâna
[ktn] Rondônia, Candeias river, tributary of the upper Madeira river. 210 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (2005 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caritiana Classification: Tupian, Arikem

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Karo
[arr] Rondônia, southern part of Terra Indígena Igarapé de Lourdes, Iterap and Paygap villages. 210 (2006 KANINDE). Spoken by almost everyone in the two villages (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Arára, Arára de Rondonia, Arára do Jiparaná, Arara-Karo, Itanga, Itogapuc, Itogapúk, Ntogapid, Ntogapig, Ramarama, Uruku, Urukú Dialects: Arara, Uruku. Classification: Tupian, Ramarama Comments: Different from Arára do Pará [aap] in Carib family.

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Katawixi
[xat] Amazonas, Jacareúba river, Canutama municipality. 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 250 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Catauichi, Catauixi, Catawishi, Catawixi, Jacareúba Classification: Katukinan Comments: Isolated group. Last report of contact was in 1997. Continuing existence in doubt.

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Katukína
[kav] Acre. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 590 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Catuquina, Katukina do Jutaí, Katukina do Rio Biá, Pidá-Djapá Dialects: Cutiadapa (Kutia-Dyapa). Classification: Katukinan Comments: Different from Panoan Katukína [knt] in Amazonas and Acre.

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Katukína, Panoan
[knt] Amazonas, Acre. 700 (2010 S. Kennell). Ethnic population: 700 (S. Kennell). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Catuquina, Kamanawa, Kamannaua, Katukina do Juruá, Waninnawa Dialects: Ararapina, Arara-Shawanawa (Shawanawa-Arara), Ararawa, Sanainawa (Saninawacana). Possibly intelligible with Marúbo [mzr]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo Comments: Different from other Katukína [kav] (Katukinan family) in Acre.

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Kaxararí
[ktx] Alto Rio Marmelo, tributary of Rio Abuna, Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas. 270 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 320 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kaxariri Classification: Panoan

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Kaxuiâna
[kbb] Northwest Para, Imabu River near perimetral norte, on Trombetes River near junction with Mapuwera. Most with the Trió [tri]; a few among Hixkaryána [hix]. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 69 (1998 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kachuana, Kashujana, Kashuyana, Kaxúyana, Warikiana, Warikyana Dialects: Pawiyana (Pawixi). Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana

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Kayabí
[kyz] North Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, and south Para; Teles Pires River and Tatui. 1,000 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,620 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiabi, Kajabí, Maquiri, Parua Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kayabí

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Kayapó
[txu] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, south Pará, both sides of the Xingú River, west up to the Iriri and tributaries, and west bank to the Fresco and Zinho rivers. 14 villages. 7,100 (Moore 2006). 3,950 monolinguals. 19 communities in regular contact with outsiders; also 3–4 isolated Kayapó groups of 30–100 people (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kokraimoro Dialects: Kararaó, Kayapó-Kradaú, Xikrin (Diore, Xukru). Dialects only slightly different from village names. Classification: Jean, Northern Comments: Village names sometimes listed as dialects are: Txukuhamai (Txucarramãe), Gorotire, Kube-Kran-Kenh (Cabeca Pelada), Kokraimoro, Menkragnotire (Mentuktire, Kuben-Kragnotire, Gente Preta, Kubenkrangnoti, Kubenkrankegn, Menkrangnoti), Pacajá, and others. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kepkiriwát
[kpn] Rondônia, formerly on Pimenta Bueno River. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Tupian, Tuparí

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Koropó
[xxr] Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais and nearby. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Closely related to Puri [prr]. Classification: Purian

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Korubo
[xor] Amazonas, Javari River Basin, Terra Indígena Vale do Javari, near the Ituí, Itaquai and Quixiti rivers. 26 (2007 FPEVJ). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caceteiros Classification: Unclassified Comments: FUNAI expedition first contacted part of the Korubo group in 1996. This group of 22 split off from the original group, which resists any further contact and continues to hide itself (2007).

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Krahô
[xra] Maranhão, southeastern Pará, Tocantins. 5 villages. 1,900 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 2,180 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Craô, Kraô Dialects: Different from Canela [ram], but may be able to use literature adapted from Canela. Lexical similarity: high with Apinaye [apn]. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira Comments: Do not accept the name Canela.

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Krenak
[kqq] Northeastern Minas Gerais, east bank of Doce River, between Resplendor and Conselheiro Pena towns; some in Mato Grosso and Paraná and reservations in east São Paulo state. 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 150 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Botocudoan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kreye
[xre] Maranhão and Pará. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Crange, Crenge, Crenye, Creye, Krem-Ye, Tage, Taze Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira

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Krikati-Timbira
[xri] Southeast Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins; Municipality of Amarante, Governador village. 680 (2005 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 680 (2005 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krikati-Gaviao, Krikati-Timbira, Krinkati-Gaviao, Krinkati-Timbira Dialects: Krinkati (Karakati), Timbira. Krikati and Timbira are separate ethnic groups speaking related dialects. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira

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Kuikúro-Kalapálo
[kui] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, 3 villages along Culuene River. 1,010 (2006 FUNASA). 510 Kuikúro and 500 Kalapálo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apalakiri, Apalaquiri, Cuicutl, Guicurú, Kalapalo, Kuikuru, Kurkuro Dialects: Matipú, Nahukwá. Kuikúro and Kalapálo speak the same language, but are separate ethnically. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí, Amonap

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Kulina
[cul] Acre, on Juruá and Purus rivers. Also in Peru (Culina). 3,500 in Brazil (2006 ISA). Population total all countries: 3,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Corina, Culina, Kulína, Kulyna, Madihá, Madija Dialects: Minor changes from Peruvian dialect. Classification: Arauan Comments: May still be some uncontacted groups in the Brazil-Peru border area.

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Kulina Pano
[xpk] West Brazil, Vale do Javari Indigenous Territory, Curuça River, Aldeia Pedro Lopes village. Migrating to Tabatinga town near where Javari river meets the Amazon. 32 (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Culina Pano, Kulina do Acre Dialects: Different from Kulina [cul] in the Arauan family. Similar to Matis [mpq] and Matses [mcf]. Classification: Panoan

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Kuruáya
[kyr] Pará State, Altamira Municipality, on right bank of Curuá River, Terra Indígena Curuá, Cajueiro village; Terra Indígena Xipaia, Altamira town. 3 (Moore 2006). 115 (2002) in Cajueiro village (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 130 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caravare, Curuaia, Kuruaia Classification: Tupian, Mundurukú Comments: In Altamira, Kuruaya and Xipaya [xiy] are sometimes considered a single ethnic group due to intermarriage. This complicates a precise demographic (2007 census).

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Kwaza
[xwa] Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway, same reserve as Aikanãs [tba] and Latundês [ltn]. 25 (2005 SIL). 7–25 speakers remaining (2010 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 40. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Coaia, Koaiá, Koaya, Quaiá Classification: Language isolate

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Lakondê
[lkd] Rondônia, Vilhena Village. 1 (2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Latundê [ltn] and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambiquaran, Kithãulhú

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Latundê
[ltn] Rondonia, Aikaná-Latundê Indigenous Reserve. 10 (2010 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 20 (2010 S. Anonby). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Leitodu Dialects: Similar to Lakondé [lkd] and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambiquaran, Kithãulhú

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Machinere
[mpd] Acre, Sena Madureira and Assis municipalities, Terra Indígena Mamoadate. Also in Bolivia. 940 in Brazil (2004 CPI-AC). Population total all countries: 1,080. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Machineri, Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenére, Manitenerí, Maxinéri Dialects: Distinct from Yine [pib] (Piro) in Peru. The Manitenére dialect may be different from Machinere. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro

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Macuna
[myy] Amazonas, Rio Chié. 170 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baigana, Buhagana, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Wuhána, Yebamasã, Yehpá Majsá, Yepá Maxsã, Yepá-Mahsá Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Macushi
[mbc] Contingo, Quino, Pium, and Mau rivers, northeast Roraima and Rio Branco. Also in Guyana, Venezuela. 16,500 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 18,030. Ethnic population: 23,400 (2001 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Macusi, Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teueia, Teweya Dialects: Not intelligible with Pemon [aoc] or Patamona [pbc]. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper

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Makuráp
[mpu] Pororoca Post, Guaporé, and Mequéns rivers, Branco, Rondônia. 45 (de Olivera Braga 1992). Ethnic population: 130 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Macuráp, Macurapi, Makurápi, Massaka Classification: Tupian, Tuparí Comments: Intermarriage on same post with speakers of other languages.

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Mamaindé
[wmd] Mato Grosso, between Cabixi and Pardo rivers. 330 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Negaroté, Tawende. Similar to Lakondê [lkd], Latundê [ltn], and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambiquaran, Kithãulhú

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Mapidian
[mpw] Roraima, with the Waiwai [waw]. Also in Guyana. 10 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mahuayana, Maiopitian, Maopityan, Mawayana Dialects: Lexical similarity: 10% with Wapishana [wap] and 20% with Atorada [aox]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana

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Maquiritari
[mch] Northwestern Roraima, near Venezuela border, Terra Indígena Yanomami. 430 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Makiritare, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Mayongong, Pawana, Soto, Yekuána Dialects: Cunuana, De’cuana (Wainungomo), Ihuruana, Maitsi, Mayongong (Ye’cuana, Yekuana). Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare

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Maritsauá
[msp] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, Manitsaua-Missu, a tributary of the Upper Xingú. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manitsawá, Mantizula Dialects: Arupai (Urupaya). Classification: Tupian, Juruna

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Marúbo
[mzr] Amazonas, along headwaters of Curuçá, Ipixuna, and Javarí tributaries, near the Peru border. Large groups in Atalaia do Norte city; smaller groups in Cruzeiro do Sul city. 1,250 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaniuá, Marova, Maruba Dialects: No comprehension of Matsés (Mayoruna) [mcf] reported. Possibly intelligible of Panoan Katukína [knt]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo

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Matipuhy
[mzo] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 220 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Mariape-Nahuqua, Matipu Dialects: Matipuhy, Nahukuá (Nafukwá, Nahukwa, Nahuqua, Nakukwa). Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí, Amonap Comments: Shifted to Kuikúro-Kalapálo [kui].

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Matís
[mpq] Amazonas, Javari Valley, Municipality of Atalaia do Norte, on the border with Peru. 320 (2008 ISA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different from Matsés [mcf]. Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés Comments: Almost died out from disease in the 1980s.

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Matsés
[mcf] Amazonas, Javari River Basin, Terra Indígena Vale do Javari, Terra Indígena Lameiãro; Solimões River Area, Terra Indígena Mayoruna. 830 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,590 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Matse, Mayoruna Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés

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Maxakalí
[mbl] Minas Gerais, 160 km inland from coast. 14 villages. 1,270 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caposho, Cumanasho, Macuni, Monaxo, Monocho Classification: Maxakalian

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Mehináku
[mmh] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. 230 (2006 FUNASA). All Mehinaku still speak their mother tongue (Crevels 2007). Combined Waura [wau] and Mehinaku speakers: 600 (2011). Ethnic population: 230 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahinaku, Mehinaco, Mehinako, Minaco Dialects: Waurá-kumá. Somewhat intelligible of Waurá [wau]. There is a dialect of Mehinaku called Waurá-kumá which is influenced by Waurá [wau]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá

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Miranha
[boa] Amazonas near the Solimões, between Tefé and Caiçara rivers, and along Brazilian Rio Iça. No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 610 (1997 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bora, Boro, Miraña, Mirãnia Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane

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Miriti
[mmv] Pari-Cachoeira, Taracua, Amazonas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (1998). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Miriti Tapuyo, Miriti-Tapuia, Mirity-Tapuya, Neenoá Classification: Tucanoan Comments: “Tapuya” comes from the Tupí word for enemy.

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Mondé
[mnd] Apidia river, tributary of Igarape Tanaru, near Pimenta Bueno, Rondônia. 2 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 10. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Salamãi, Salamaikã, Sanamaica, Sanamaiká, Sanamaykã Dialects: Related to Arua [arx] and Gavião do Jiparaná [gvo]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé

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Morerebi
[xmo] Amazonas, Rio Preto and Marmelos. 2 villages. 100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Very similar linguistically to Amundava [adw], Tenharim [pah], and Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz]. A family group that has not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and does not want contact with outside culture. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin Comments: Existence not confirmed in 1993.

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Mundurukú
[myu] Pará, Amazonas, middle and upper Tapajós and middle Madeira rivers. 22 villages. 7500 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 10,100 (2002 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caras-Pretas, Monjoroku, Mundurucu, Paiquize, Pari, Weidyenye Classification: Tupian, Mundurukú Comments: Population formerly decimated by outsiders’ diseases and malaria, is presently growing. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nadëb
[mbj] Amazonas, 3 locations on Uneiuxi river: a tributary of Negro River, on Japurá and Negro rivers. 400 (Moore 2006). Deb, a separate ethnic group from the Nadëb, now reclaiming their identity by using Nadëb. 280 Deb (2008 M. Rodriquez), 580 Nadëb (2009 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 850 (2010 S. Anonby). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anodöub, Kabari, Kabori, Makú Nadëb, Makunadöbö, Nadeb Macu, Nadöbö, Xiriwai, Xuriwai Classification: Puinavean, Kaburi Comments: Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Puinave in Macro-Tucanoan. Seminomadic.

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Nambikuára, Southern
[nab] Northwest Mato Grosso, along Porto Velho-Cuiabá highway about 300 km. 10 villages. 720 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 720 (Moore 2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alaketesu, Anunsu, Nambikwara, Nambiquara Dialects: Alaketesu, Alatesu, Anunsu, Galera, Hahaintesu, Halotesu, Khithaulhu, Manduka, Sarare, Saxwentesu, Serra Azul, Waikisu, Wakalitesu, Wasusu. Classification: Nambiquaran, Mamaindê Comments: Manduca are semi-integrated. Population reduced from 10,000 to 600 in 1920s, 1930s, and 1950s by measles and other epidemics. Settlers from outside bring in agriculture, lumber, and mining which threaten the Nambikuára way of life. Manairisu is a subgroup. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nhengatu
[yrl] Amazonas, Lower Vaupés, Içana, and Negro river areas. Also in Colombia, Venezuela (Nengatu). 10,300 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Population total all countries: 19,060. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coastal Tupian, Geral, Língua Geral, Modern Tupí, Ñeegatú, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Nyengatú, Waengatu, Yeral Dialects: Based on Tupinambá, developed by Portuguese during 17th and 18th centuries as lingua franca. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí

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Ninam
[shb] Roraima, Mucajaí, upper Uraricaá and Paragua rivers. Also in Venezuela. 800 in Brazil (2010 C. Luz). Most are monolingual. About evenly divided between northern and southern dialects. 15,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2006 FUNASA). Population total all countries: 900. Ethnic population: 1,200 (C. Luz). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Xirixana, Yanam Dialects: Northern Ninam (Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua), Southern Ninam (Mukajai, Shirishana). Classification: Yanomaman Comments: Distinct from the Arawakan Xiriâna [xir].

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Nukuini
[nuc] Acre, northwest, Juruá, from the upper Mõa to the Rio Sungarú. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 460 (2001). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nukini, Nuquini Dialects: Cuyanawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Unclassified

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Ofayé
[opy] Mato Grosso do Sul, along Verde, Vacaris, and Ivinhema rivers, around Brasilândia. 2 (2005 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 60 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ofaié-Xavante, Ofayé-Xavante, Opaié-Shavante, Opayé Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian.

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Omagua
[omg] Amazonas, Solimões River Area, Tefé municipality, Santa Cruz on right bank of Solimões river, and Terra Indígena Kokama; Maraã municipality, Terra Indígena Jaquiri; Alvaráes municipality, Terra Indígena Igarapé Grande. No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 160 (2000 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Janbeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata Dialects: Aizuare (Aissuari), Curacirari (Curazicari), Curucicuri (Curuzicari), Paguana (Paguara). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama

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Oro Win
[orw] Pacaás-Novos river headwaters, a tributary of Mamoré River, along the Brazil-Bolivia border. 2 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 55 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Related to Tora [trz], Itene [ite] (More), and Pakaasnovos [pav] (Wari), but not intelligible. Classification: Chapacuran, Wari Comments: Live among the Pakaasnovos [pav].

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Oti
[oti] São Paulo. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chavante, Euchavante Classification: Language isolate

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Otuke
[otu] Mato Grosso lowlands into eastern Bolivia. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Louxiru, Otuque, Otuqui Dialects: Related dialects or languages: Covareca, Curuminaca, Coraveca (Curave), Curucaneca, and Tapii; all extinct. Classification: Bororoan

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Pakaásnovos
[pav] Rondônia. 7 villages. 1930 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,720 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jaru, Oro Wari, Pacaas-Novos, Pacahanovo, Pakaanova, Pakaanovas, Uomo, Wari Classification: Chapacuran, Wari

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Palikúr
[plu] Amapá, banks of Urucauá river, right-bank tributary of the Uaçá between the Uaçá and Curipi rivers, Oiapoque municipality, Terra Indígena Uaçá I and II, in 10 villages. Also in French Guiana. 1,290 in Brazil (2010 IEPE). Population total all countries: 1,540. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Paikwene, Palicur, Palijur, Palikour, Palincur, Paricores, Paricuria, Parikurene, Parinkur-lene Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Eastern, Palikur

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Panará
[kre] Mato Grosso, Parque Indígena do Xingú; southwestern Pará, on the Iriri river, Terra Indígena Panará. 375 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kreen Akarore, Kren Akarore Dialects: Not a dialect of Kayapó [txu]; possibly more similar to Canela [ram]. Classification: Jean, Northern Comments: Ethnonym: Indios Gigantes.

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Pankararé
[pax] Bahía. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pankaré Classification: Unclassified

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Pankararú
[paz] Pernambuco, Alagoas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,880. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pancaré, Pancaru, Pankarará, Pankaravu, Pankaroru, Pankarú Dialects: Possibly related to Xukuru [xoo]. Classification: Language isolate

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Parakanã
[pak] Pará, lower Xingú river, near São Felix and Altamira towns. 900 (Fausto 1995). Ethnic population: 900 (2004 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Awaeté, Parakanân, Parocana Dialects: Part of Akwáwa subgroup. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa

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Paranawát
[paf] Rondônia, tributaries of the Jiparaná (Machado) and Sono rivers. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50–100 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Majubim, Paranauat, Pawaté Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin

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Parecís
[pab] Western Mato Grosso, on the Jubá, Guaporé, Verde, Papagaio, Burití, and Juruena rivers, 15–20 villages. 2000 (2008 AER Tangara da Serra). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arití, Haliti, Pareás, Paresí, Paressí Dialects: Very similar to Saraveca [sar] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Paresí Comments: 7 villages have public schools.

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Patamona
[pbc] Northern Roraima, Terra Indígena Raposa or Serra do Sol. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong

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Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe
[pth] Minas Gerais, Bahía, Pôsto Paraguassu in Itabuna municipality. No known L1 speakers. 2,790 Pataxó and 1,870 Pataxó Hã Hã Hãe (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 4,660 (1998). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Patashó, Pataxi, Pataxó, Pataxó-Hãhaãi, Patoxó Classification: Maxakalian

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Paumarí
[pad] Amazonas, Purus River, 3 villages. 290 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 870 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Purupurú Dialects: Kurukuru (Curucuru), Paumarm (Pammari), Uaiai. 3 inherently intelligible dialects. Classification: Arauan Comments: In 1964 there were 96 Paumarí in 1 village. By 1994 they had increased to 700 in several villages.

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Pemon
[aoc] Rio Branco, Roraima, near Guyana border. 530 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pemong, Taulipáng Dialects: Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Jaricuna), Camaracota (Ipuricoto), Ingarikó (Ingaricó), Taulipang (Taurepan, Taurepang). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper

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Pirahã
[myp] Amazonas, along Maici and Autaces rivers. 360 (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 SIL). Pirahã small group, Múra larger. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Múra-Pirahã Dialects: Múra. Classification: Muran Comments: In 1960s the population dwindled to 80 due to high infant mortality, death of mothers giving birth, and disease. Modern medicine helped population growth.

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Piratapuyo
[pir] Northwestern Amazonas, Terra Indígena Rio Negro, Terra Indígena Médio Rio Negro I, Terra Indígena Médio Rio Negro II, Terra Indígena Rio Téa. Also in Colombia. 1,430 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Population total all countries: 1,880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pira-Tapuya, Uaiana, Uaicana, Uaikena, Uainana, Waikhara, Waikino, Waina Dialects: Similar to Guanano [gvc] but ethnically distinct. The two groups do not intermarry. 75% intelligibility of Guanano (1992 N. Waltz). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Southern Brazil, Curitiaba. 8,000 in Brazil (Salminen 2007). 110,735 or more in Latin America are fairly monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Pokangá
[pok] Amazonas, Upper Tiquie, tributary of Vaupés. 100 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1988 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bará, Bara Sona, Barasano, Bará-Tukano, Pakang, Pokangá-Tapuya, Waipínõmakã Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka Comments: May be the same as Barasana [bsn] or Waimaha [bao] (Northern Barasano, Bará). Might be a Maku language.

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Portuguese
[por] Widespread. 187,000,000 in Brazil (1998). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Constitution, Article 13). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Potiguára
[pog] Paraíba, Pôsto Nísia Brasileira on the Baía da Traição, Mamanguape municipality. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 8,450 (2002). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pitonara Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí Comments: Descended from the Tupinambá.

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Poyanáwa
[pyn] Acre, upper Rio Môa, Jumá tributary. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1999 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Poianáua, Puinahua Classification: Panoan, Mainline

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Puri
[prr] Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais and nearby. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coroado Classification: Purian

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Puruborá
[pur] Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio São Miguel, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. 2 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aurã, Burubora, Cujubi, Kuyubi, Miguelenho, Migueleno, Pumbora, Puroborá, Puruba Classification: Tupian Comments: Live among other groups.

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Rikbaktsa
[rkb] Mato Grosso, confluence of Sangue and Juruena rivers, Japuira on the east bank of the Juruena between the Arinos and Sangue rivers, and Posto Escondido on the west bank of the Juruena 700 km north. 9 villages, 14 settlements. 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,140 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aripaktsa, Canoeiro, Erikbatsa, Erikpatsa Classification: Language isolate Comments: Distinct from Avá-Canoeiro [avv] and Kanoé [kxo].

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Sabanê
[sae] Mato Grosso. 7 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 40 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sabanês Sabones, Sowainte Classification: Nambiquaran Comments: Integrated into Brazilian culture.

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Sakirabiá
[skf] Rondônia, Cerejeira and Colorado do Oeste municipalities, Mequens river. 25 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 66 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mekém, Mekens, Sakirabiák, Sakirabiáp, Sakirabiát, Sakirap, Sakiriabar, Sakurabiat Classification: Tupian, Tuparí

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Salumá
[slj] Northwest Pará, upper Anamu, source of the Trombetas, along the Suriname border. 240 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó Comments: Different from Enawené-Nawé [unk] in Mato Grosso. Live among the Trio [tri], losing their ethnic identity.

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Sanumá
[xsu] Roraima, Auaris river. 460 in Brazil (Moore 2006). ISA (2000) gives 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sanema, Tsanuma Dialects: Auaris, Caura, Ervato-Ventuari, Yanoma (Samatali, Samatari). Classification: Yanomaman

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Sateré-Mawé
[mav] Pará, Amazonas, Andirá, and Maués rivers, between lower Tapajós and lower Madeira rivers. More than 14 villages. 9160 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Andira, Arapium, Mabue, Maragua, Maué, Mawé, Sataré Dialects: Recent data show that Aweti [awe] and Sateré-Mawé probably form a separate sub-branch within the Tupian linguistic family (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tupian

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Shanenawa
[swo] Acre, near the city of Feijó. 9 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 360 (2002 FUNAI). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Yawanawa [ywn] and Sharanawa [mcd]. Classification: Unclassified

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Sharanahua
[mcd] Acre, Marináwa, along the upper Envira, tributary of the Tarauacá, Cruzeiro do Sul municipality, on Rio Humaitá off Juará river. 3 in Brazil (2007 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Acre Arara, Arara do Acre, Shawanauá Dialects: Chandinahua, Marinahua (Marináwa). Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State

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Sikiana
[sik] Northwest Pará, between Rio Cafuini and headwaters of the Turuna and Itapi, near the Suriname border. Also in Suriname. 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 48. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chikena, Chiquena, Chiquiana, Shikiana, Sikiâna, Sikïiyana, Xikiyana, Xikujana Dialects: Similar to Salumá [slj]. Classification: Cariban, Kashuyana

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Siriano
[sri] Amazonas, São Gabriel. 17 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 52 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sarirá, Siriana, Siriane, Surianá, Surirá, Suryana Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano Comments: People are increasingly self-identifying as Tucano [tuo].

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Suruahá
[swx] Amazonas, Juruá, Jutaí and Purus rivers area. 140 (Moore 2006). All monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Indios do Coxodoá, Suruwahá, Zuruahá Classification: Arauan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Suruí
[sru] Rondônia-Mato Grosso border. 10 villages and scattered locations. 1,010 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paiter, Suruí de Rondônia, Suruí do Jiparaná Dialects: Related to Cinta Larga [cin] and Gavião do Jiparaná [gvo]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé

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Suruí do Pará
[mdz] Pará, Araguaia, São João municipality, 110 km from Marabá. 260 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aikewara, Akewara, Akewere, “Mudjétira” (pej.), “Mudjetíre” (pej.), “Mudjetíre-Suruí” (pej.), Sororos, Suruí Dialects: Different from Suruí do Jiparaná [sru]. Member of Akwáwa subgroup. Probably similar linguistic relationship to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu] and Parakanã [pak]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa Comments: May be same language as Asurini [asu].

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Suyá
[suy] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, headwaters of Rio Culuene. Tapayúnas in Pará, Terra Indígena Capoto or Jarina reservation, Kayapó villages (2002 ISA). 350 (2006 FUNASA). 330 Suya (main dialect); 58 Tapayúna (1995 ISA). All Tapayuna speak their native language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisêdjê Dialects: Beiço de Pau (Tapayúna), Yaruma (Jarumá, Waiku). Classification: Jean, Northern Comments: Yaruma dialect became extinct around 2007. Ethnic autonym for Beiço de Pau: Tapayúna, who no longer live with Suyás; they moved out of Xingú Park to live in Kayapó villages in Terra Indígena Capoto or Jarina reservation in Pará state (2002 ISA).

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Talian
[vec] Rio Grande do Sul; Santa Catarina. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Taliano, Venetian, Veneto, Vèneto Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Tapeba
[tbb] Ceará, Caucaia municipality, Ceará river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,490. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tabeba Classification: Unclassified

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Tapirapé
[taf] Northeast Mato Grosso, mouth of Tapirapé and Araguaia rivers. 560 (2006 Projeto Aranowayao). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara

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Tariana
[tae] Amazonas, Middle Vaupés river, Santa Rosa (Juquira), Iauarete, Periquitos, and Ji-Ponta. Also in Colombia. 100 in Brazil (Aikhenvald 1996). Ethnic population: 1,910 (2002 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Taliáseri, Tariano, Tariáno, Tarîna Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki

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Tawandê
[xtw] Rondonia, Pyrineus de Souza village, near Vilhena town. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Da’wan’du, Tawaindê Dialects: Similar to Lakondê [lkd] and Latundê [ltn]. Classification: Nambiquaran, Kithãulhú Comments: Tawande live with the Sabane [sae], but have a closer affinity to Latunde [ltn] and Lakonde [lkd].

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Tembé
[tqb] Maranhão, Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu, banks of the Gurupi river. 150 (2000 SIL). Tembé: 820 (1999), Turiwara: 60 (1998). Ethnic population: 880 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tenetehara Dialects: Intelligible with Guajajára [gub]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Tenetehara Comments: Assimilated the closely related Turiwara [twt] (2007).

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Tenharim
[pah] Amazonas. Diahói are on Rio Marmelos; Karipuna in Rondônia on Jaci Paraná River Post; Morerebi on Rio Preto and Marmelos. 2 villages. 580 (Moore 2006). 590 Tenharim, 160 Parintintin, 50 Diahhoi (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 790 (2000 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kagwahiv, Kawaib, Tenharem, Tenharin Dialects: Diahói (Giahoi, Jahui, Jiahui), Kagwahiv (Kawaib), Karipuna Jaci Paraná, Mialát, Parintintín, Tenharim (Tenharem, Tenharin). Tenharim, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Karipuna [kuq], Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz], and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin Comments: The Tenharim, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Karipuná [kuq] all use the ethnic autonym Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph).

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Terêna
[ter] Mato Grosso do Sul, east of the Paraguay River, Miranda and Aguidauana rivers area, 20 villages and 2 cities. 15,800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 16,000 (2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Etelena, Tereno Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Terena

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Ticuna
[tca] Amazonas, Upper Solimões river area, on more than 20 Indigenous lands, in more than 90 villages. Also in Colombia, Peru. 32,600 in Brazil (1998 ISA). Population total all countries: 47,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Magüta, Tikuna, Tukuna Classification: Language isolate

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Tingui-Boto
[tgv] Alagoas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 350 (2002). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Carapató, Dzboku’a, Dzubukuá, Karapató, Tingui Classification: Unclassified Comments: Tingui Boto is ethnonym; the language they spoke is Dzubukuá or Dzboku’a.

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Torá
[trz] Amazonas, lower Rio Marmelos, tributary of Rio Madeira. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 51 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Toraz Classification: Chapacuran, Itene

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Tremembé
[tme] Ceará, Itarema municipality, 150 km northwest of Fortaleza, in Almofala on the Atlantic coast. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,510 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified

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Trió
[tri] Northern Pará, mostly on West Paru river, also on Marapi and East Paru rivers, Terra Indígena Parque Tumucumaque. 730 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 900 (2003 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tirió, Tiriyó Dialects: Pianocotó. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó Comments: Pianokotó dialect probably extinct; no reports since 1957.

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Truká
[tka] Pernambuco, Bahía. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,330 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified

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Trumai
[tpy] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, source of Xingú river, villages along banks. 51 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 120 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Equatorial. Classification: Language isolate

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Tucano
[tuo] Amazonas. Wasonas primarily in Yacayacá village. Also in Colombia. 4,600 in Brazil (Moore 2006). 46 Wasona speakers, 16 of them intermarried with other groups (González de Pérez 2000). Population total all countries: 6,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daxsea, Takuna, Tukána, Tukano Dialects: Papihua, Papiwa, Pisamira, Pisatapuyo, Pisa-tapuyo, Wasona (Uasona), Yohoraa (Curaua). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano

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Tukumanféd
[tkf] Rondônia, mouth of Cacoal tributary of the Jiparaná. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin

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Tuparí
[tpr] Rondônia, Branco river, tributary of the Guaporé, Pororoca Post. 340 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Tupian, Tuparí Comments: May be others upstream on the Rio Branco.

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Tupinikin
[tpk] Espíritu Santo, Bahia. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,390. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tupinaki, Tupinikim, Tupiniquim Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí

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Turiwára
[twt] Pará, with the Tembé on Acará-miri river. No known L1 speakers. The Tembé [tqb] seem to have assimilated the closely related Turiwara group. Ethnic population: 30 (1995 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Turiuara Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé

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Tuxá
[tud] Bahía, Pernambuco. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,630 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Todela, Tusha Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Equatorial.

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Tuxináwa
[tux] Acre. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tuchinaua Classification: Panoan, Mainline

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Tuyuca
[tue] Northwestern Amazonas, Vaupés region, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro and Terra Indígena Apaporis. 590 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dochkafuara, Doka-Poara, Doxká-Poárá, Tuiuca, Tuyuka Dialects: Tsola. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka

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Uamué
[uam] Pernambuco, vicinity of Floresta. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,740 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aticum, Atikum, Huamuê Classification: Language isolate

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Umotína
[umo] Mato Grosso, along the Paraguay River. 1 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 120 (1999). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Barbados, Umutina Classification: Bororoan

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Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau
[urz] Rondônia, on upper Jaciparaná, Cautário, and Jamari rivers. 87 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 87 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Jupaú, Kagwahiva, Uru-Eu-Uau-Uau, Uruewawau Dialects: Mutually intelligible dialect of Amundava [adw]. Similar to Tenharim [pah]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib

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Uru-Pa-In
[urp] Rondônia, Ariquemes municipality. 200 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib Comments: No permanent contact.

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Urumi
[uru] Rondônia, Marmelos river, tributary of the middle Madeira. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Tupian, Ramarama

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Waimaha
[bao] Northwestern Amazonas, Upper Tiquié river, Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira, Bittencourt and Iauareté municipalities, Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira II, Iauareté Municipality, Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira III, Bittencourt municipality. 39 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Bará” (pej.), Barazana, Northern Barasano, Waimaja Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka

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Waimiri-Atroarí
[atr] Amazonas border with Roraima Alalau and Camanau, Jatapu, and Jauaperi rivers. 24 villages. 930 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 930 (Moore 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atroahy, Atroaí, Atroarí, Atrowari, Atruahí, Ki’nya Dialects: Atruahi, Jawaperi (Yauaperi), Waimirí (Uaimirí, Wahmirí). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Yawaperí Comments: Contacted by Waiwai [waw] people in 1968. Different from Atorai, dialect of Wapishana [wap]. Traditional religion.

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Waiwai
[waw] Amazonas, Pará, Roraima. Also in Guyana, Suriname. 2,020 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 2,230. Ethnic population: 2,900 (2005 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouayeone, Uaieue, Uaiuai Dialects: Katawian (Cachuena, Catauian, Catawian, Katawina, Katuena, Katwena, Parucutu, Parukutu, Tonayana, Tunayana). Related to Salumá [slj]. Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat Katawian as a separate language. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai

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Wajiara
[yui] Amazonas, Iauarete. 50 in Brazil (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Juruti, Juruti-Tapuia, Luruty-Tapuya, Yuriti-Tapuia Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano

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Wakoná
[waf] Alagoas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 500 to 1,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified Comments: May not live together as a group.

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Wapishana
[wap] Roraima, on 23 indigenous lands. 6,500 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aruma, Uapixana, Vapidiana, Wapishiana, Wapisiana, Wapixána, Wapixiana, Wapixiána Dialects: Amariba, Atorai. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana Comments: Atorai dialect is not the same as the language Waimiri-Atroarí [atr].

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Wasu
[wsu] Alagoas. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,450. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Waçu Classification: Unclassified

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Waurá
[wau] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. 320 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aura, Uaura, Wauja Dialects: Partially intelligible of Mehináku [mmh]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá, Waurá-Meinaku

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Wayampi
[oym] West central Amapá and northern Pará, tributaries of the upper Amapari river. 8 villages. Also in French Guiana. 530 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Includes 520 speakers of Amapari, 10 of Oiapoque. Population total all countries: 1,180. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guaiapi, Guayapi, Oiampí, “Oiampipucu” (pej.), Oyampí, Oyampík, “Oyampipuku” (pej.), Oyanpík, Waiampi, Waiãpi, Wajapae, Wajapuku, Wayapae, Wayãpi Dialects: Amapari Wayampi, Jari, Oiyapoque Wayampi. Monolinguals include children under 6, more than half the women, most men over 45, and all of those recently from Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Wayampí

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Wayana
[way] Northern Pará, mainly on Paru de Leste river, Parque Indígena do Tumucumaque, and Terra Indígena Rio Paru D’Este. 150 in Brazil. Wayana and Aparai are registered as a single group of 420 members (1998). Ethnic population: 450 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Uaiana, Upurui, Wayâna Dialects: Rucuyen (Roucouyenne), Urucuiana (Urucena). Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana

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Wayoró
[wyr] Rondônia, Pororoca post, Guapore river. 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 77 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ajurú, Ayurú, Uaiora, Wajaru, Wayurú Classification: Tupian, Tuparí

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Wiraféd
[wir] Rondônia, on Riosinho and Muquí tributaries of the Jiparaná. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Uirafed, Wiroféd Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin Comments: Permanent contact reported late 1950s.

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Xakriabá
[xkr] Minas Gerais. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chakriaba, Chikriaba, Shacriaba Classification: Jean, Central

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Xavánte
[xav] Mato Grosso. 6 noncontiguous reservations, 80 villages. 9,600 (Moore 2006). 7,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Akuên, Akwen, A’uwe Uptabi, A’we, Chavante, Crisca, Pusciti, Shavante, Tapacua Classification: Jean, Central Comments: In 1950s contact with outsiders began and diseases killed hundreds. Forced to abandon seminomadic means of survival when placed on reservations. Learned swidden agriculture. During the transition many died. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Xerénte
[xer] Tocantins, between Rio do Sono and Rio Tocantins. 1,810 (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 1,810 (Moore 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sherenté Classification: Jean, Central

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Xetá
[xet] Paraná, among Kaingang [kgp]. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 8 (1998). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aré, Cheta, Seta, Sheta Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní

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Xipaya
[xiy] Pará, lower Xingú river. 1 (2011 SIL). The ethnic population probably includes Kuruaya [kyr] as they are sometimes considered a single ethnic group. There were 8 elders of Kuruaya and Xipaya descendance in Altamira reported to speak the native language in 2007 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 600 (2002 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Shipaja, Xipaia Classification: Tupian, Juruna

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Xipináwa
[xip] Southern Amazonas and Acre. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Shipinahua Classification: Panoan, Mainline

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Xiriâna
[xir] Amazonas, Demeni and Rio Negro tributaries, near Venezuela border. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 900 (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Unclassified Comments: Distinct from Ninam (Xirianá) [shb].

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Xokleng
[xok] Santa Catarina, along tributary of Itajaí river. 760 (1998 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aweikoma, Botocudos, Bugre Classification: Jean, Southern Comments: Glossonym: Bugre, used for Kaingang [kgp] and Brazilian Guaraní [gun]; Kaingang is sometimes used for Xokleng.

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Xukurú
[xoo] Pernambuco, Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near Cimbres city, Bahía. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,360 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó Classification: Language isolate

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Yabaâna
[ybn] Amazonas, headwaters of the Marauia and Cauaboris, tributaries of the left bank of Rio Negro. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 90 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jabaana, Yabarana Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Unclassified Comments: Distinct from Yabarana [yar] of Venezuela.

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Acre. 620 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yamináwa Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State

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Yanomámi
[wca] Roraima, Waicá post, Uraricuera river; Amazonas, Toototobi post; Roraima, Catrimani River. 6,000 (Moore 2006). Most are monolingual. 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 9,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Parahuri, Surara, Waicá, Waiká, Xurima, Yanoam, Yanomam, Yanomamé Dialects: Jauari (Aica, Joari, Yoari), Kohoroxitari, Nanomam (Karime), Xamatari, Yanamam (Patimitheri, Waika), Yanomam (Guadema, Naomam, Wadema, Warema), Yanomay (Toototobi). Related to Yanomamö [guu] of Brazil and Venezuela. Classification: Yanomaman Comments: Seminomadic.

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Yanomamö
[guu] Amazonas, upper tributaries of Rio Negro. 4,000 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Most are monolingual. ISA (2000) gives 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guaharibo, Guaica, Shaathari, Shamatri, Yanomae, Yanomami Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Classification: Yanomaman

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Yawalapití
[yaw] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 220 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jaulapiti, Yaulapiti Dialects: Related to Waurá [wau] and Mehináku [mmh]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá, Waurá-Meinaku

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Yawanawa
[ywn] Acre, Gregório river. 520 (2006 FUNASA). Includes 360 Shanenawa (2002 FUNAI). Scattered; only 1 village of 100 people. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iauanauá, Jawanaua, Yahuanahua Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State Comments: Some consider Yawanawá, Arara do Acre, Shanenawá [swo], and Yaminawa [yaa] to be dialects of one language (Arara).

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Yuhup
[yab] Amazonas, living in 11 villages on the Ira, Cunuri, Castanha, Apapóris, Tiquié, and Igarapé Samaúma rivers. Also in Colombia. 400 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Population total all countries: 500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Maku” (pej.), Makú-Yahup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, Yëhup Dialects: Limited intelligibility of Hupdë [jup]. Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Puinave [pui]. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda Comments: South of the Hupdë [jup]. Preferred autoethnonym: Yuhupdeh.

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Zo’é
[pto] Pará, Obidos municipality, Cuminapanema river. 150 (1998 ISA). Ethnic population: 150 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buré, Poturu, Poturujara, Puturú, Tupí of Cuminapanema Classification: Tupian Comments: Similar to Wayampi [oym].

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