Canada

Print
Population
34,490,000
Principal Languages
English, French
Literacy Rate
99% (2011 USDS)
Immigrant Languages
Afrikaans (9,810), Akan (14,600), Amharic (19,200), Arabic (374,000), Armenian (31,700), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (5,000), Belarusan (580), Bengali (64,500), Bosnian (12,200), Bulgarian (19,600), Central Khmer (21,100), Croatian (52,300), Czech (24,500), Danish (14,900), Dutch (121,000), Eastern Panjabi (460,000), Eastern Yiddish (16,300), Finnish (18,500), Frisian (2,200), Greek (118,000), Gujarati (101,000), Haitian (102,000), Hakka Chinese (5,460), Hebrew (20,200), Hindi (106,000), Hungarian (71,100), Icelandic (1,670), Ilocano (19,500), Iranian Persian (177,000), Italian (438,000), Japanese (43,000), Kannada (3,140), Konkani (3,540), Korean (143,000), Lao (14,200), Lithuanian (7,600), Macedonian (18,300), Malay (11,900), Malayalam (17,700), Maltese (7,000), Mandarin Chinese (255,000), Marathi (6,660), Min Nan Chinese (18,800), Najdi Spoken Arabic (20,000), Northern Kurdish (10,300), Northern Pashto (13,100), Norwegian (6,280), Plains Indian Sign Language, Polish (201,000), Portuguese (226,000), Romanian (93,100), Russian (170,000), Scottish Gaelic (2,320), Serbian (58,500), Sindhi (12,900), Sinhala (15,700), Slovak (18,500), Slovene (11,300), Somali (33,700), Southeastern Dinka (15,900), Spanish (439,000), Standard Estonian (6,610), Standard German (430,000), Standard Latvian (6,460), Swahili (12,100), Swedish (8,100), Sylheti, Tamil (143,000), Telugu (10,700), Thai (8,420), Tigrigna (10,800), Turkish (31,200), Ukrainian (120,000), Urdu (194,000), Vietnamese (153,000), Vlax Romani, Welsh (1,440), Yue Chinese (389,000)
Deaf Population
1,704,500
Deaf Institutions
Many
General References
Campbell 1997; Chafe 1962, 1965; Golla 2007; Harrison and Marmen 1996
Language Counts
The number of individual languages listed for Canada is 88. All are living languages. Of these, 4 are institutional, 10 are developing, 2 are vigorous, 42 are in trouble, and 30 are dying.