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Abenaki, Western
[abe] Quebec province: Odanak Reserve on Saint Francois river. 10 in Canada (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 14. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abenaki, Abenaqui, Saint Francis, Western Abnaki. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki. Comments: Used for source material for linguistic studies and language revival programs.

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Algonquin
[alq] Quebec province: northwest of Ottawa, and Maniwaki; Ontario province: Golden Lake. 1,760 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Algonkin, Anishinaabemowin. Dialects: Northern Algonquin, Southern Algonquin (Nipissing). Northern Algonquin and Southern Algonquin varieties very different. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. English-speaking areas of Canada. 3,660 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ameslan, ASL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Assiniboine
[asb] Saskatchewan province: part of Carry-the-Kettle, Mosquito-Grizzly Bear’s Head, and Whitebear. 150 L1 speakers for Canada and the United States; 3,500 ethnic population for Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,500 ethnic population for Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Assiniboin. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to the Assiniboine of Montana. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 90% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 89% with Lakota [lkt] and Stoney. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Atikamekw
[atj] Quebec province: between La Tuque and Senneterre, 200–400 km north of Montreal, along the upper reaches of Saint Maurice river, 3 isolated communities on Manuane, Obedjiwan, and Weymontachie reservations. 5,920 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atihkamekw, Atikamek, Attikamek, Attimewk, Tête de Boule. Dialects: Nonpalatalized r-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect continuum. Very different from Montagnais [moe] and Naskapi [nsk] nearby. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: 3 subgroups: Manawan, Wemotaci, Opitciwan.

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Babine
[bcr] British Columbia province: scattered. Wetsuset’en dialect in Bulkley river and Burns lake areas; Babine Proper dialect in Lake Babine and Takla Lake communities. 430 (FPCC 2014). 295 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). 100 fluent speakers and 100 passive speakers of Wetsuwet’en. 200 speakers of all degrees of fluency of Babine Proper (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,410 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babine Carrier, Lake Babine, Nadot’en, Nat’oot’en, Nedut’en, Northern Carrier. Dialects: Wetsuset’en (Babine-Witsuwit’en, Bulkley Lakes, Witsuwit’en), Babine Proper. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Beaver
[bea] British Columbia and Alberta provinces: Chateh (Assumption) on Hay river, and Prophet river south of Fort Nelson. 160 (FPCC 2014). 450 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,560 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dane-Zaa, Dane-zaa Záágé, Dunne-za. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Bella Coola
[blc] British Columbia province: Burke channel head, North Bentinck arm, Bella Coola river mouth. 17 (FPCC 2014). 510 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,660 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nuxalk. Classification: Salish.

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Blackfoot
[bla] Alberta province: Blackfoot, Blood, and Piegan reserves. 3,250 in Canada (2011 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000. Total users in all countries: 3,350. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blackfeet, Niitsipowahsin, Pied Noir, Pikanii, Siksika(ipowahsin). Dialects: Piegan (Peigan), Blood (Kainaa), Siksika. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Carrier
[crx] British Columbia province: Stuart and Trembleur lake area. 680 (FPCC 2014). 1,380 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 9,350 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Carrier, Dakelh, Dakelhne, Takelne, Takulie. Dialects: Necoslie, Pinchie, Tachie, Grand Rapids, Middle River, Portage. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Carrier.

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Carrier, Southern
[caf] British Columbia province: west of Quesnel and south of Cheslatta lake, Anahim Lake-Ulkatcho, toward the Fraser river and tributaries. 500 (1987 SIL). 2,060 identified in 2001. Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier [crx], and Southern Carrier. All Athapaskan L1 speakers in Canada 20,100 (1998 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Cheslatta, Prince George, Stoney Creek, Nautley, Stellaquo. Lexical similarity: 90% with Central Carrier [crx]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Carrier.

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Cayuga
[cay] Ontario province: Grand River, Six Nations Reserve. 240 in Canada (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Yamamoto 2007). Total users in all countries: 250. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

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Chilcotin
[clc] British Columbia province: west of Williams Lake. 7 reserve communities: Alexandria, Anahim, Nemiah, Redstone, Stone, Toosey, Ulkatcho. 860 (FPCC 2014). 760 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,350 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nenqayni Ch’ih, Tsilhqot’in, Tzilkotin. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Christian.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, a few elsewhere. 389,000 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Vancouver Cantonese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Came to Canada several decades ago from Viet Nam, Guyana, or Cuba.

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Chinook Wawa
[chn] British Columbia. No known L1 speakers in Canada. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Chinuk Wawa, Jargon. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Comox
[coo] British Columbia, Vancouver Island, and coast north of Powell river. 36 (FPCC 2014). 710 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,900 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Comox-Sliammon, Éy7á7juuthem. Dialects: Island Comox, Mainland Comox (Homalco, Klahoose, Sliammon). All use the mainland dialect. Classification: Salish, Central Salish. Comments: Island Comox dialect has no remaining L1 speakers.

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Cree
[cre] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Moose Cree [crm], Northern East Cree [crl], Plains Cree [crk], Southern East Cree [crj], Swampy Cree [csw], Woods Cree [cwd].

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Cree, Moose
[crm] Southern tip of James Bay, Moosonee, Ontario. Moose Cree, East Cree [crl] and [crj], and Swampy Cree [csw] reside in this community and surrounding area (Moose Factory, Ontario). 3,000 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree. Dialects: Nonpalatalized l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

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Cree, Northern East
[crl] West central Quebec, east coast of lower Hudson Bay and James Bay; some speakers likely on Nunavut islands in James Bay; Whapmagoostui, Chisasibi, Wemindji, and most in Eastmain communities. 5,310 (1997 MSSS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern James Bay Cree Northern Dialect, James Bay Cree Northern. Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

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Cree, Plains
[crk] North central Manitoba, scattered west across Saskatchewan and central Alberta to the foot of the Rocky Mountains; isolated enclave in British Columbia. 34,000 in Canada (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 53,000. Total users in all countries: 34,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Nehiyaw, Nēhiyawēwin, Western Cree. Dialects: Plains Cree, Western York Cree, Northern Alberta Cree. Nonpalatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

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Cree, Southern East
[crj] Quebec, southeastward from James Bay, inland to the watershed east of Lake Mistissini. Coastal communities of Waskaganish, some in Eastmain. Inland, in Mistissini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, Ouje-Bougoumo. 7,310 (1997 MSSS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern James Bay Cree Southern Dialect, James Bay Cree Southern Dialect. Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

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Cree, Swampy
[csw] Scattered communities, Ontario, Hudson Bay coast, James Bay northwest coast; inland into Manitoba, then Saskatchewan. 2,500 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,800 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree. Dialects: Eastern Swampy Cree, Western Swampy Cree. Both nonpalatalized n-dialect and l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

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Cree, Woods
[cwd] Far north Manitoba into Saskatchewan, inland southwest from Churchill. 35,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 53,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Nonpalatalized th-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Use of Roman orthography has been gaining ground at the expense of the older syllabic system, due to university language and teacher education programs (Golla 2007).

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Dakota
[dak] Manitoba: south; Saskatchewan: Oak River and Oak Lake, Long Plain west of Winnipeg, Standing Buffalo, Birdtail, Stony Wahpeton, and Moose Woods. May be at Wood Mountain Reserve. 190 in Canada (2016 W. Meya), decreasing. 2,300 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 175,000, of which 5,000 reside in Canada (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sioux. Dialects: Dakota (Santee), Nakota (Yankton). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dene
[chp] Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southeastern Northwest Territories (Snowdrift and Fort Resolution), Fort Smith, Fort Chipewyan, Wolliston Post, Buffalo Narrows, Brochet, and some communities in Reindeer Lake. 11,900 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: “Chipewyan” (pej.), Dëne Súline, Dënesuhné. Dialects: Yellowknife. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Ditidaht
[dtd] British Columbia, Malachan Reserve, Nitinaht lake. Also previously used in Pacheedaht Territory in the vicinity of Port Renfrew, British Columbia. 7 (FPCC 2014). 6 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 940 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Diidiitidq, Diitiid’aatx, Nitinaht, Nitinat. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Makah [myh] and Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk]. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan. Comments: The name Ditidaht is commonly used for the traditional language that is shared by the present-day Ditidaht and Pacheedaht, though only the Ditidaht also use the name as an ethnonym. The Ditidaht and Pacheedaht peoples have distinct ethnic identities from each other, as well as distinct ethnolinguistic identities from their most closely related neighbors, the Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk] of Vancouver Island, and the Makah [myh] of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, United States).

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Dogrib
[dgr] Northwest Territories, between Great Slave lake and Great Bear lake. 6 communities: Bechoko, Whati (formerly Lac la Martre), Gameti, Wekweti, Detah, and Ndilo (a subcommunity of Yellowknife). Rae is center. Detah and Ndilo host the Weledeh dialect. 2,080 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,220. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted offical use. Alternate Names: Tlicho. Dialects: Weledeh, Central Dogrib. Detah-Ndilo dialect developed from intermarriage between Yellowknife Subdivision of the Dëne [chp] and Dogrib. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Slavey [xsl], 82% with Northern Slavey [scs]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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English
[eng] 19,400,000 in Canada (2011 census). L2 users: 7,000,000 in Canada (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Dialects: Newfoundland English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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French
[fra] Québécois in Quebec; Franco-Ontarien in Ontario; Acadian in Caraquet; Shippagan on the east coast of New Brunswick, pockets in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island; Franco-terreneuvien in Newfoundland. Some Québécois in Manitoba. 7,300,000 in Canada (2011 census). 300,000 speak Acadien, 500,000 speak Franco-Ontarien. L2 users: 2,700,000 in Canada (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Alternate Names: Français. Dialects: Acadian (Acadien), Franco-Ontarien, Québécois, Shippagan, Franco-Terreneuvien. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous. Difficult intelligibility Québécois and Acadian speakers, for speakers not fluent in standard French. Québécois used more vigorously than Acadian. Christian.

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German, Pennsylvania
[pdc] Kitchener-Waterloo area, Ontario. 15,000 in Canada (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanisch. Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German, Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvanisch Deitsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] 430,000 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gitxsan
[git] West central British Columbia, Gitxsan, middle Skeena river. 350 (FPCC 2014). 490 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,600 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Giklsan, Gitksan, Gitsenimx, Gitxsen, Gityskyan, Hazelton, Nass-Gitksan. Dialects: Gitxsan (Eastern Gitxsan), Gitsken (Western Gitsken). High comprehension of Nisga’a [ncg]. Classification: Tsimshian, Nass-Gitksan. Comments: Christian.

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Gwich’in
[gwi] Northwest Territories: Aklavik, Inuvik, Tsiigehtchic, Fort McPherson; Yukon Territory, Old Crow. 370 in Canada (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,900 (Krauss 2007). Total users in all countries: 670. Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4). Alternate Names: Dinju Zhuh K’yuu, Kutchin, Loucheux, Tukudh. Dialects: Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Loucheux, Takudh, Tukudh), Arctic Red River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Haida
[hai] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Northern Haida [hdn], Southern Haida [hax].

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Haida, Northern
[hdn] British Columbia province: Haida Gwaii islands, Masset village. 2 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 7 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 4,550 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 17. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Masset, Xaad Kil. Dialects: None known. Borderline inherent intelligibility with Southern Haida [hax]. A member of macrolanguage Haida [hai]. Classification: Haida. Comments: Language courses in Haida (1991).

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Haida, Southern
[hax] British Columbia province: Haida Gwaii islands, Skidegate. 7 (FPCC 2014). 6 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Skidegate, Xaaydaa Kil. Dialects: None known. Borderline intelligibility with Northern Haida [hdn]. A member of macrolanguage Haida [hai]. Classification: Haida.

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Haisla
[has] British Columbia province: Douglas Channel head, near Kitimat. 240 (FPCC 2014). 21 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,680 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kitlope, Northern Kwakiutl, Xenaksialakala. Dialects: Kitimat (Kitamat). Related to Heiltsuk [hei] and Kwakiutl [kwk]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan.

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Halkomelem
[hur] British Columbia province: small communities along lower Fraser river, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. 260 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 990 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 19,000 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 285. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Halq’eméylem, Holkomelem, Hul’q’umi’num’. Dialects: Downriver Halkomelem, Upriver Halkomelem, Island Halkomelem. Classification: Salish, Central Salish. Comments: Language courses (1991).

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Han
[haa] Yukon territory: Dawson City. 7 in Canada (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Heiltsuk
[hei] British Columbia province: Bella Bella and Kitasoo villages, Rivers Inlet area. 66 (FPCC 2014). 50 semi-speakers; 6 remaining speakers of Oowekyala (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,530 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hailhzaqvla. Dialects: Bella Bella (Northern Heiltsuk), Oowekyala (Heiltsuk-Oweek’ala, Oowekeno, Oweek’ala, ’Uikala). Related to Haisla [has] and Kwakiutl [kwk]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan, Kwakiutlan.

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Hutterisch
[geh] Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan provinces; isolated settlement in British Columbia. 333 colonies, about 95 people per colony. 29,200 in Canada (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carinthian German, Hutterian German, Hutterite German. Dialects: About 50% intelligible to Pennsylvania German [pdc], Plautdietsch [pdt], or Standard German [deu] speakers. Although called Tirolean, it is not a pure Tirolean dialect but contains Carinthian and Russian [rus] words. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian. Comments: Christian.

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Inuinnaqtun
[ikt] Northwest Territories: Beaufort sea, Mackensie river mouth east into Nunavut; Victoria Island area, Kugluktuk, Umingmatok, Bathurst Inlet, and Iquluktuuttraq communities, east to King William Island, and Boothian and Melville peninsula settlements; Hudson Bay northwest coast. 410 (2011 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Western Canada Inuktun, Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut. Dialects: Natsilingmiutut (Natsilik, Netsilik, Netsilik Inuit), Siglitun (Inuvialuktun, Siglit). A member of macrolanguage Inuktitut [iku]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq.

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Inuit Sign Language
[iks] Nunavut territory: Baker Lake areas, Rankin Inlet, and Taloyoak. 20 (Schuit 2012). Possibly as many as 50 in 2000 (MacDougall 2000). At least 20 in 2012, with an unknown number of hearing people who also use the language, estimated to be at least twice the number of deaf (Schuit 2012). In some communities, as many 75% of the hearing population may have known the sign language (MacDougall 2000). Ethnic population: 150 (MacDougall 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Inuit Uukturausingit, ISL, IUR. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Possibly developed out of an indigenous sign language reported among the Inuit in the 18th century. Use in other parts of the Arctic has not been determined. (Schuit 2012).

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Inuktitut
[iku] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Eastern Canadian Inuktitut [ike], Inuinnaqtun [ikt].

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Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian
[ike] Newfoundland and Labrador, Nunavut, and Quebec provinces: Hudson Strait, east through Nunavut, southern Baffin Island; northern coastal settlements in Quebec, and along North Atlantic coast. 34,100 (2011 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Nunavut Territory (1988, Inuit Language Protection Act, Chapter 17). Statutory provincial working language in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Canadian Inuit, “Eastern Arctic Eskimo” (pej.), “Eastern Canadian Eskimo” (pej.), Inuit, Inuit of Quebec. Dialects: Quebec-Labrador Inuktitut (“Labrador Eskimo” (pej.), Labrador Inuktitut, Labrador Inuttitut, “Quebec Eskimo” (pej.), Rigolet Inuktitut, Tarramiut), Rigolet Inuktitut, Kivalliq, Baffin Inuktitut (Mittimatalik). A member of macrolanguage Inuktitut [iku]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq. Comments: In Northern Quebec and the Northwest Territories to the Central Arctic, it is spoken by over 90% of the population. Inuit is the name of the people, Inuktitut of the language.

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Inuktitut, North Alaskan
[esi] Northwest territories: Mackenzie delta region, Aklavik and Inuvik areas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Eskimo” (pej.), Inupiaq, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inupiat. Dialects: West Arctic Inupiatun (Bulkley Valley, Mackenzie Delta Inupiatun, Mackenzie Inupiatun, Western Iñupiaq), North Slope Inupiaq. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Irish
[gle] Newfoundland and Labrador province. 10 in Canada (2001 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gaeilge. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kaska
[kkz] British Columbia province: Dease Lake, Fireside, Good Hope Lake, Lower Post, Muncho Lake; Yukon territory: Lower Post, Ross River, Watson Lake. 16 (FPCC 2014). 62 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 540 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Caska, Danezāgé’, Eastern Nahane, Kaska Dena, Nahane, Nahani. Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Tahltan [tht] and Sekani [sek]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan.

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Kutenai
[kut] British Columbia province: Columbia Lake, Lower Kootenay, Saint Mary’s, Tobacco Plains. 25 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 20 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,150 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 31. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kootenai, Kootenay, Ktunaxa. Classification: Language isolate.

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Kwakiutl
[kwk] British Columbia province: north Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland. 170 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 500 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,310 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 255. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kwagiutl, Kwakwaka’wakw, Kwak’wala. Dialects: None known. Related to Haisla [has] and Heiltsuk [hei]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan, Kwakiutlan.

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Lakota
[lkt] Saskatchewan province: Wood Mountain Reserve. 100 in Canada (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lakhota, Teton. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Lillooet
[lil] British Columbia province: Lillooet and middle Fraser river area. 140 (FPCC 2014). 690 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,670 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Slatlemuk, Statimc, St’at’imcets, Stl’atl’imc, Stl’atl’imx, Stlatliumh. Dialects: Upper Lillooet, Lower Lillooet. The bands associated with the 2 dialects are culturally and politically distinct. Classification: Salish, Interior.

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Malecite-Passamaquoddy
[pqm] New Brunswick province: Saint John river villages. 490 in Canada (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (1998 SIL). Total users in all countries: 590. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy. Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Maritime Sign Language
[nsr] New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island provinces. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nova Scotian Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Based on British Sign Language [bfi]. Distinct from American [ase] and Quebec [fcs] sign languages.

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Michif
[crg] Manitoba province: scattered, a short distance from the United States border. 650 in Canada (2011 census). 2001 Canada census includes Michif among 1,000 Algonquin speakers not counted elsewhere. L2 users: 0 in Canada. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: French Cree, Métis. Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree. Comments: Non-indigenous. Spoken by some descendants of the children of Indian women and French fur traders.

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Micmac
[mic] New Brunswick province: Big Cove, Burnt Church, Eel Ground, Eel River Bar, Fort Folly, Indian Island, Pabino Falls, and Red Bank; Newfoundland and Labrador province: Newfoundland Island, 1 settlement south of Millertown; Nova Scotia: Afton, Bear River, Shubenagadie, Pictou, Truro, and Yarmouth, on Cape Breton Island: Chapel Island, Eskasoni, Memberto, Waikoqomaq, and Wakmatkuq; Prince Edward Island province; Quebec province: Gesgapeqiaq, Gespe’q, and Listuguj on east Gaspé peninsula. 8,040 in Canada (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,200 (1998 SIL). 1,500 are in mainland Nova Scotia, 4,000 on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 800 on Prince Edward Island and Lennox Island, 4,550 on the east coast of New Brunswick, 3,150 on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, 200 in Newfoundland. Total users in all countries: 8,270. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mi’gmaq, Mi’gmaw, Miigmao, Mi’kmaq, Restigouche. Dialects: Northern Micmac, Southern Micmac. Generally dialects are intelligible, but there are lexical, inflectional, word order, and spelling differences. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mohawk
[moh] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve, Tyendinaga Reserve on Bay of Quinte near Kingston, and a small settlement at Gibson east of Georgian Bay; Quebec province: Caughnawaga and Oka near Montreal. 540 in Canada (2011 census). Ethnic population: 24,000 (1999 SIL). Total users in all countries: 3,640 (as L1: 3,540; as L2: 100). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanien’kéha. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida. Comments: Kanien’kehaka is name for Mohawk people.

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Montagnais
[moe] Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec provinces; Lake Saint John east along Saguenay Valley to north shore Saint Lawrence River, Gulf of Saint Lawrence east to St. Augustin, north to height of land at Schefferville and inland Labrador, Goose Bay and Lake Melville, 11 communities. 11,000 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Innu, Innu Aimun. Dialects: Western Montagnais, Eastern Montagnais. Palatalized l-dialect and palatalized n-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. There are possibly 3 dialects based on the shifting of Proto-Algonquian *l within Western Montagnais to ‘n’. 2 Western Montagnais communities (Mashteuiatsh, Betsiamites) use ‘l’, as the reflex of Proto-Algonquian *l, and the other Western Montagnais (Uashat-Maliotenam, Matimekosh) use ‘n’. Uashat-Maliotenam and Matimekosh could be classified as Central Montagnais. All Eastern Montagnais speakers use ‘n’. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Culture mainly based on family hunting grounds visited seasonally.

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Munsee
[umu] Ontario province: Moraviantown Reserve. 7 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 400 (Kinkade 1991). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Delaware, Ontario Delaware. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Unami [unm] in the United States. A member of macrolanguage Delaware [del]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware.

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Naskapi
[nsk] Newfoundland and Labrador province: Natuashish on the mainland, an isolated community in Labrador; Quebec province: Kawawachikamach about 10 km northeast of Schefferville at watershed. 620 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Innu Aimun, Iyuw Iyimuuun. Dialects: Western Naskapi (Kawawachikamach), Eastern Naskapi (Natuashish). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Naskapi culture was nomadic and completely dependent on the migratory habits of caribou. Caribou hunting and land use still seen as important. Innu Aimun refers to both Eastern Naskapi dialect and Montagnais [moe] but not Western Naskapi. Some linguists have referred to dialect spoken at Natuashish as Eastern Naskapi but currently refer to it as Innu Aimun or Mushuau Innu Aimun.

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Nisga’a
[ncg] British Columbia province: Aiyansh (Ay’ans), Canyon City (Gitwinksihlkw), Greenville (Laxtalts’ap or Gitxat’in), Kincolith (Gingolx) villages on lower Nass river valley. 860 (FPCC 2014). 1,380 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 1,500. Ethnic population: 5,430 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nass, Nisgha, Nishga, Nishka, Nisk’a, Nisqa’a. Dialects: Variation within Nisga’a not great enough to be considered dialects. High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga’a and Gitxsan [git]. Classification: Tsimshian, Nass-Gitksan. Comments: Nisga’a consider Gitxsan [git] ethnically distinct. Christian.

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Nuu-chah-nulth
[nuk] British Columbia province: Vancouver Island, Pacific Ocean coast. 130 (FPCC 2014). 200 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,680 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aht, Nootka, Nootkans, Nutka, Nuučaan’ul, Quuquu’aca, T’aat’aaqsapa, West Coast. Dialects: Cheklesaht, Kyuquot, Ehattesaht, Nuchatlaht, Mowachaht, Muchalaht, Hesquiaht, Ahousaht, Tla-o-qui-aht, Ucluelet, Toquaht, Uchucklesaht, Tseshaht, Hupacasath, Huu-ay-aht. Reportedly similar to Ditidaht [dtd] and Makah [myh]. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan. Comments: The Nuu-chah-nulth Tribe is recognized by the Canadian government, and the Nuu-chah-nulth language is recognized as an individual language by the First Peoples’ Heritage, Language and Culture Council.

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Ojibwa
[oji] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Central Ojibwa [ojc], Chippewa [ciw] (United States), Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb], Ottawa [otw], Severn Ojibwa [ojs], Western Ojibwa [ojw].

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Ojibwa, Central
[ojc] Ontario province: Lake Nipigon west to Lake Nipissing east. 8,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: An area of transitional dialects. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Ojibwa, Eastern
[ojg] Ontario province: north of Lake Ontario and east of Georgian Bay. East of north-south line through Bruce Peninsula base (Rhodes 1976). 25,900 (1998 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Ojibwa, Northwestern
[ojb] Manitoba and Ontario provinces. 20,000 (2000 UBS). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: Berens River Ojibwa (Saulteaux), Lac Seul Ojibwa, Albany River Ojibwa, Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, Rainy River Ojibwa. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Ojibwa, Severn
[ojs] Manitoba and Ontario provinces. 10,500 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cree, Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Ojicree, Oji-Cree. Dialects: Winisk River Ojibwa, Severn River Ojibwa. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Ojibwa, Western
[ojw] Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan provinces; west from Lake Winnipeg. 10,000 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 60,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anishnaubemowin, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Plains Ojibway, Saulteau, Saulteaux. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Okanagan
[oka] British Columbia province: 7 reserves: Douglas Lake, Hedley, Keremeos, Oliver, Penticton, Vernon, Westbank; east of Fraser Valley and west of Kootenai. 190 in Canada (FPCC 2014), increasing. Except for 12 fluent speakers on Westbank Reserve, the other reserves each have at least 50 speakers of varying fluency, Vernon Reserve perhaps 100 (Golla 2007). 170 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 5,180 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 590. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Colville-Okanagan, Nsyilxcen, Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan. Dialects: Sanpoil, Southern Okanogan. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Oneida
[one] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. 180 in Canada (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Golla 2007). On Thames River near London, Ontario. Total users in all countries: 192. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida.

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Onondaga
[ono] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. 40 in Canada (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 52. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Onandaga. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

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Ottawa
[otw] Ontario province: Lake Huron area islands, Manitoulin Island; Walople Island Reserve. West of a north south line through Bruce Peninsula (Rhodes 1976). 7,100 in Canada (1996 First Nations Language of Origin Map). Nishnaabemwin is an emergent language, fusion of Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], having a couple thousand speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 60,000. Total users in all countries: 12,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Odawa, Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: Called Eastern Ojibwa in Bloomfield’s (1957) grammar. In southern Ontario also called Chippewa.

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Plains Indian Sign Language
[psd] Great Plains. Small rapidly diminishing population. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Far Northern Plains Indian Sign Language. Classification: Sign language.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan provinces. 80,000 in Canada (Salminen 2007). Total users in all countries: 447,360. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German, Mennoniten Platt. Dialects: 50% intelligible of other Low German languages, Standard German [deu], Pennsylvania German [pdc], and Hutterite German [geh]. Plautdietsch has major differences from European Low German dialects still spoken along the North Sea and Baltic Ocean due to the various places where Mennonites lived during the past 150 years (Epp 1993). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Christian.

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Potawatomi
[pot] Ontario province: Walpole Island Reserve. 50 L1 speakers in the United States and Canada, most in the United States. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pottawottomi. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Quebec Sign Language
[fcs] Alberta province: Edmonton; British Columbia province: Vancouver; New Brunswick province: Bathurst; Ontario province: Ottawa; Quebec province. 50,000 (2010 E. Parks). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des signes, Langue des signes du Québec, Langue des signes québécoise, Langue Signe Quebecars, LSQ, Québécoise. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Some Deaf use Signed French. In northern Quebec, Deaf people use American Sign Language [ase], with English as L2. Christian.

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Salish, Straits
[str] British Columbia province: Vancouver Island. 7 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 100 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 100 in Canada. Ethnic population: 3,060 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 112 (as L1: 12; as L2: 100). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lkwungen, Malchosen, Northern Straits Salish, Senčoten, Straits, T’Sou-ke. Dialects: Saanich (Senčoten), Semiahmoo, Songish (Lekwungen), . Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Sarsi
[srs] Alberta province: Calgary area. 170 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sarcee, Tsuu T’ina. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Scottish Gaelic
[gla] Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island. 2,320 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Albannach Gàidhlig, Gàidhlig, Gàidhlig na h-Alba. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sechelt
[sec] British Columbia province: coast north of Vancouver. 4 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 1,200 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: She Shashishalhem. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Sekani
[sek] British Columbia province: Beaver community of Prophet River, Fort McLeod, Iskut Tahltan community, Ware. 30 (FPCC 2014). 240 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,410 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tsek’ehne, Tse’khene, Tsek’hene. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Shuswap
[shs] British Columbia province. 200 (FPCC 2014), increasing. 1,190 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 9,860 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Secwepemc, Secwepemctsín. Dialects: Eastern Shuswap, Western Shuswap. Classification: Salish, Interior. Comments: Language courses (1991).

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Slave
[den] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Alternate Names: Dene K’e. Comments: Includes: North Slavey [scs], South Slavey [xsl].

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Slavey, North
[scs] Northwest Territories: Mackenzie district, middle Mackenzie River from Fort Norman north, around Great Bear Lake; Colville Lake, Deline, Fort Good Hope, Norman Wells, and Tulita in Mackenzie Mountains; Yellowknife. 230 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,950 (Golla 2007). Bearlake dialect: 1,070. Hare dialect: 710. Mountain dialect: 170 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4). Alternate Names: Dene, Dené, Mackenzian, Satúotine Yatí, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.). Dialects: Hare, Bearlake, Mountain Slavey. North and South Slavey [xsl] form a chain of related varieties. A member of macrolanguage Slave [den]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare.

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Slavey, South
[xsl] Alberta province: Hay River area and Steen River-May Creek watershed; British Columbia province: Fort Nelson- Snake river area; Northwest Territories: Mackenzie district, Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River. 530 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,600 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Acha’otinne, Deh Gáh Ghotie Zhatie, Dene, Dené, Dene Tha’, Denetha, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.). Dialects: In North [scs] and South Slavey dialect continuum which includes Hare, Bear Lake, Mountain, South Slavey, northern Alberta Slavey and Fort Nelson Slavey. A member of macrolanguage Slave [den]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare.

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Squamish
[squ] British Columbia province: north of Vancouver. 7 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (2000). Ethnic population: 4,080 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sḵwx̱wú7mesh sníchim, Skwxwu’mesh snichim. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Stoney
[sto] Alberta province: Alexis, Bighorn, Eden Valley, Morley, and Paul reserves west and northwest of Calgary and west of Edmonton. 3,160 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,200 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nakoda, Stony. Dialects: Southern Stoney, Northern Stoney. Dialects nearly 100% mutually intelligible. Northern dialect is spoken at Duffield (Paul Band) and Lac St. Anne (Alexis Band). Lexical similarity: 89% with Assiniboine [asb], 86% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 85% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 83% with Lakota [lkt]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Tagalog
[tgl] 384,000 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tagish
[tgx] Yukon territory: some at Carcross. 2 (Krauss 1997). One semi-fluent speaker and one elderly deaf speaker in 2001 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 1997). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dene K’e. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan. Comments: Tagish label also applied to inland Tlingit.

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Tahltan
[tht] British Columbia province: Telegraph Creek. 45 (FPCC 2014). 60 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,460 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nahanni, Tāltān. Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Kaska [kkz]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan.

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Tanana, Upper
[tau] Yukon territory: Beaver Creek. 10 in Canada (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 40 (Krauss 1997). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nabesna. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Thompson
[thp] British Columbia province: Fraser River north of Yale, lower Thompson River and tributaries. 130 (FPCC 2014). 340 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,140 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nklapmx, Nle’kepmxcín, Ntlakapamux, Ntlakapmuk. Classification: Salish, Interior, Northern. Comments: Language courses (1991). Nicola and Coldwater are tribal bands.

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Tlingit
[tli] British Columbia province: Atlin; Yukon territory: Carcross, Teslin. 2 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 7 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 400 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inland Tlingit, Kolosch, Kolosh, Łingít, Thlinget, Tlinkit. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Tlingit. Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

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Tsimshian
[tsi] British Columbia province: north coast, on coast at Klemtu. 110 in Canada (FPCC 2014). 1 speaker of Southern Tsimshian; the rest speak Coast Tsimshian (Golla 2007). L2 users: 50 in Canada (2000). Ethnic population: 6,880 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 230 (as L1: 180; as L2: 50). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Maritime Tsimshianic, Sm’algyax, Tsimpshean, Zimshian. Dialects: Southern Tsimshian (Old Klemtu, Sguxs, Skiixs), Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algyax). Classification: Tsimshian. Comments: Southern dialect very divergent.

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Tuscarora
[tus] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. 7 in Canada (Kinkade 1991). Total users in all countries: 9. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway.

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Tutchone, Northern
[ttm] Yukon territory: Carmacks, Mayo-Stewart, Selkirk-Pelly, White River, and Whitehorse areas. 210 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Selkirk. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone.

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Tutchone, Southern
[tce] Yukon territory: Aishihik, Burwash Landing, Champagne, Haines Junction, Kloo Lake, Klukshu, Lake Laberge, and Whitehorse settlements. 140 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone.

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Wyandot
[wya] Quebec province: Wendake community. No known L1 speakers in Canada. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wendat. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] 16,300 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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