Switzerland

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Arpitan
[frp] Vaud, Neuchatel, and Geneve cantons; also in Valais canton: de Monthey, Saint-Maurice, d’Entremont, d’Herens and de Sierre districts; Fribourg canton: de la Broye, de la Glane, de la Veveyse,de la Sarine and la Gruyere; Bern canton: Bernese Jura. 7,000 in Switzerland (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois Dialects: Neuchâtelois, Savoyard, Valaisan, Vaudois. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

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French
[fra] Fribourg, Genève, Jura, Neuchatel, and Vaud cantons. 1,820,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). L2 users: 2,070,000 in Switzerland (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Franc-Comtois (Fribourgois, Jurassien). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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German, Standard
[deu] 727,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and French [fra] on the federal level. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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German, Swiss
[gsw] Widespread. 4,490,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). Population total all countries: 6,319,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alemanic, Alemannisch, Schwyzerdütsch Dialects: Appenzell, Basel, Bern (Bärndütsch), Graubuenden-Grisons (Valserisch), Lucerne, Obwald, St. Gallen, Wallis, Zurich. Most Swiss varieties are High Alemannisch and Highest Alemannisch (several in central Switzerland). Each canton has a separate variety. Only a few of 20–70 varieties are listed as dialects. Reportedly most similar to Schwäbian [swg] in south central Germany. Approximately 40% inherent intelligibility with Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

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Italian
[ita] Ticino, Grisons, and Graubünden cantons. 666,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with French [fra] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Lombard
[lmo] Ticino canton; Graubünden canton: Moesa, Maloggia, and Bernina districts, south of Saint Moritz. 303,000 in Switzerland (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ticinese (Tessinian, Ticinees, Ticines, Ticino). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] 21,000 in Switzerland (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Romansch
[roh] Graubünden canton: Surselva, Hinterrhein, Inn, and Maloja districts. 40,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). 1 canton. Population total all countries: 40,039. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Grisons Canton (2004, Grisons Cantonal Constitution, Article 3(1)). Alternate Names: Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, Romanche, Romansh, Rumantsch Dialects: Puter (Upper Engadine), Surmiran (Albula), Sursilvan (Surselva, Vorderrhein), Sutsilvan (Hinterrhein), Vallader (Lower Engadine). Friulian [fur], Ladin [lld], and Romansch [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hall). Lexical similarity: 78% with Italian [ita] and French [fra]; 76% with Catalan [cat]; 74% with Spanish [spa], Sardinian [sdc], and Portuguese [por]; 72% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Comments: Official written language in common use now, called Rumantsch Grischun.

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Swiss-French Sign Language
[ssr] Scattered. Geneva, and Lausanne cantons; Neuchâtel canton: La Chaux-de-Fonds; Fribourg canton: Zion, Delémont, Morges, and Oron. 1,700 (Boyes Braem 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: Langage Gestuelle, Langue des Signes Française, Langue des Signes Suisse romande, LSF, LSF-SR Dialects: Regional lexical variation tied to specific schools: Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel, Fribourg and Sion (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to French Sign Language [fsl] (Boyes Baem and Rathmann 2010). Local Swiss signs and imported French signs. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: French Sign Language [fsl] is used some in the French areas. Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 30 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant).

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Swiss-German Sign Language
[sgg] Scattered. 5,500 in Switzerland (Boyes Braem 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: Deutschschweizer Gebärdensprache, Deutschschweizerische Gebärdensprache, DGS, DSGS, Natürliche Gebärde Dialects: Regional variation tied to specific schools: Basel, Bern, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Zurich (Boyes Baem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to sign language used in the southern parts of Germany. Borrowing from Swiss-French Sign Language [ssr]. (Boyes Baem and Rathmann 2010). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Some regional lexical variations in German areas tied to specific schools. Status of signing is improving. Strong oralist tradition in schools in German area. Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant).

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Swiss-Italian Sign Language
[slf] Scattered. Ticino and Graubünden cantons. 300 (Boyes Braem 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: Lingua dei segni della Svizzera italiana, Lingua dei Segni Italiana, LIS, LIS-SI Dialects: None known. Two main varieties: Lugano, Bellinzona (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to Italian Sign Language [ise]. Variety used around Bellinzona influenced by sign languages of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Lithuania and Poland. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010) Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 7 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Walser
[wae] Ticino canton: Bosco-Gurin; Valais canton: Simplon; Graubünden canton, Surselva, Hinterrhein, Prattigau-Davos, Plessur, and Albula districts; 26 communities. 10,000 in Switzerland (2004). Population total all countries: 22,780. Ethnic population: 21,900 (1980 C. Buchli). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to but different from Schwyzerdütsch [gsw] spoken in Wallis Canton in Switzerland. Different from Cimbrian [cim], Mocheno [mhn], or Bavarian [bar]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

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