Côte d’Ivoire

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Abé
[aba] Lagunes District, Agboville subprefecture, except Krobou canton, Tiassale subprefecture, Abbe canton, 70 villages; Lacs District, Bongouanou subprefecture. 170,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abbé, Abbey, Abi. Dialects: Tioffo, Morie, Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Abidji
[abi] Lagunes District, Sikensi and; Dabou subprefectures; Agboville area. 12 villages. 50,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abiji. Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby. Comments: Christian.

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Abron
[abr] Zanzan Distict, Tanda and Bondoukou subprefectures. 133,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Abure
[abu] Comoé District, Bonoua subprefecture; Lagunes District, Grand Bassam subprefecture; Abidjan. 55,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass, Ehie, Eyive, Ossouon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] and Baoule [bci]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western. Comments: Christian.

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Adioukrou
[adj] Lagunes District, Dabou subprefecture. 49 villages. 100,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aizi, Aproumu
[ahp] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Attoutou A (new quarter), Attoutou B, Tefredji, Koko, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth) villages; Dabou subprefecture, Allaba village. 6,500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Aproin, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi. Comments: Ethnonym: Chicalé for Lélémrin (Tiagbamrin); Amaboué for Mobumrin; Akabu, Opro, Saptomrin, and Tchavamrin used in different Mobu and Lélé villages to refer to Apro; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all the Aizi groups. Christian.

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Aizi, Mobumrin
[ahm] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon north bank. 2 villages (Abraco and Abraniamiambo). 2,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Ed-eyng, Ezibo, Frukpu, Mouin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi. Comments: Christian.

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Aizi, Tiagbamrin
[ahi] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Tiagba, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiémié, and Attoutou B (old quarter) villages. 9,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Ed-eyng, Ezibo, Kropko, Lélémrin, Prokpo, Tiagba, Tiagbamrin. Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi. Comments: Christian.

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Alladian
[ald] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie lagoon. 21 villages. 23,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian. Comments: Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Langue des signes d’Afrique francophone, Langue des signes de Côte d’Ivoire, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF, LSAF Ivoirienne, LSCI. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. As of 2015, LSAF is not officially recognized as a distinct language and would be considered a dialect of ASL, with influence from spoken and written French [fra] and local signs. The relationship of signing in Côte d’Ivoire to standard ASL in the United States and to LSAF in other francophone African countries has not been assessed. Further, there is significant variation within the country, again not systematically-assessed, and a variety of names used. Some people regard these names as referring to distinct languages, others as dialects of the same language. Some Deaf know more than one variety. There is also a local variety in the village of Bouakako, Hiré in southwestern Côte d’Ivoire. (2013 A. Tano).

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Anyin
[any] Mainly Lacs District, M’bahiakro, Bongouanou and Daoukro subprefectures; Zanzan District, Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures; Comoé and Lagunes districts. 610,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). L2 users: 10,000 in Côte d’Ivoire. Total users in all countries: 686,400 (as L1: 676,400; as L2: 10,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi. Dialects: Anyin Sannvin (Sannvin, Sanvi), Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini, Barabo, Ndenye (Anyin Ndenye, Indenie), Juablin (Anyin Juablin, Djuablin). The Northern Anyin dialect area includes the Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini and Barabo dialects. The Central Anyin dialect are includes Ndenye and Juablin. Reportedly most similar to Baoulé [bci]. Also similar to Nzema [nzi] and Sehwi [sfw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Anyin Morofo
[mtb] Lagunes District, Southern, Eastern, and Central departments; Lacs District, Moronou area. 300,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morofo. Dialects: Anyin Alangua (Alangua). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: ‘Morofue’ refers to a Morofo speaker.

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Attié
[ati] Lagunes District, Anyama, Alepe, Adzope, Affery, Agou, Akoupe, and Yakasse-Attobrou subprefectures; southeast Lacs District. 381,000 (1993 SIL). 34,000 live in Abidjan. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe. Dialects: Naindin, Ketin, Bodin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie. Comments: Christian.

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Avikam
[avi] Lagunes District, Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam Canton; Gôh-Djiboua District, along coast west of Tagbo Lagoon. 21,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian. Comments: Christian.

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Bakwé
[bjw] Bas-Sassandra District, Sassandra, Soubre, and San Pedro prefectures. 10,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Defa, Deple, Dafa, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe. Comments: Christian.

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Bambara
[bam] Denguélé District, center and northeast; Savanes District, Tingréla department, Ségélon subprefecture; Malian diaspora in all major cities. 5,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Muslim.

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Baoulé
[bci] Lacs, Vallée du Bandama, Lagunes, Sassandra-Marahoué, Gôh-Djiboua and Woroba regions, widespread in the south. 3,010,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2013). Total users in all countries: 3,014,060. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baule, Baule-Ando, Bawule. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Largest ethnic group in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Beng
[nhb] Lacs District, M’bahiakro subprefecture, northeast corner, and Prikro subprefecture. 22 villages. 17,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Gan, Ngain, Ngan, Ngen, Ngin, Nguin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bété, Daloa
[bev] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Daloa subprefecture. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Gagnoa
[btg] Gôh-Djiboua District, Gagnoa subprefecture; Sassandra-Marahoué District, Sinfra subprefecture; some in northern Bas-Sassandra District. 150,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen. Dialects: Nekedi, Zadie, Niabre, Kpakolo, Zebie, Guebie, Gbadi (Badie, Gbadie). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Guiberoua
[bet] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Daloua, Issia, and Guiberoua subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra District, Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures; also in Gôh-Djiboua District. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Bété, Western Bété. Dialects: Soubré, Guiberoua. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western. Comments: Different from Bete [byf] of Nigeria. Christian, traditional religion.

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Beti
[eot] Comoé District, Grand Bassam subprefecture, Vitre I and Vitre II villages. 200 (Blench 1999b). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Eotile. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western. Comments: Christian.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Zanzan District, northeast corner. 4,310 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cerma
[cme] Savanes District, Ouangolodougou area, north of Ferkessedougou. 5 villages along main road to Banfora. 1,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daho-Doo
[das] Montagnes District, Tai area and south; northwestern Bas-Sassandra region. Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo. 4,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. Greatest lexical similarity: at least 30%–80% with any Wè variety, 92% with Daho and Doo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn.

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Dan
[dnj] Montagnes District, Man, Danané, and Biankouma prefectures; Liberian border area west of Touba.19 villages. 1,300,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Total users in all countries: 1,451,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Ya, Yacouba, Yakuba. Dialects: Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan), Blowo (Western Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect recordings as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (Bolli and Frick 1971). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Deg
[mzw] Probably in Zanzan District. 1,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dida, Lakota
[dic] Gôh-Djiboua District, Lakota town area and several small areas; Lagunes District, south of Lake Taabo. 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Guébie, Satro, Ziki. Dialects: Vata. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida. Comments: Distinct from Yocoboué Dida [gud]. Traditional religion.

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Dida, Yocoboué
[gud] Gôh-Djiboua District, Guitry subprefecture, Guitry town area; Lagunes Didtrict, Tagbo Lagoon. 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lozoua (Gakpa, Goudou, Guitry, Kagoué, Yocoboue, Yokouboué), Divo. Lakota Dida [dic] marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida. Guitry is prestigious. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida. Comments: More survey needed in Dida area. Christian, Muslim.

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Ebrié
[ebr] Lagunes and urban Abidjan districts, Dabou subprefecture, Bingerville subprefecture. 57 villages, including 27 in Abidjan. 75,900 (1988 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama. Dialects: None known. Not related to surrounding languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou. Comments: Christian.

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Ega
[ega] Gôh-Djiboua District, Diés canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diés, Egwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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French
[fra] 17,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1988 census). L2 users: 6,890,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 29). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] 1,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gban
[ggu] Gôh-Djiboua District, Oume subprefecture, also region south of Laouda. 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gagou, Gagu, Kago, Sodua. Dialects: Boka, N’da, Bokabo, Touka. N’da dialect is central. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] Southwest corner; Bas-Sassandra District, north of Tabou, east bank of Cavally. 2,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Godié
[god] Bas-Sassandra District, Sassandra and Fresco subprefectures, Kotrohou canton; some in Gôh-Djiboua region. 26,400 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dadjriwalé, Godye. Dialects: Tiglu, Glibe, Kagbo, Dagli, Nugbo, Dlogo, Jluko, Nyago (Cinyaugogo), Koyo. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to a Dida language than to Godié [god]. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Possibly in Bas-Sassandra District near Liberia border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Seaside Grebo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Mainly refugees in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion.

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Guro
[goa] Mainly Sassandra-Marahoué and Gôh-Djiboua districts, Zuénoula, Vavoua, Gouitafla, Bouaflé, Sinfra, and Oumé subprefectures; smaller areas in Vallée du Bandama, Woroba and Lacs districts. 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baba, Dalo, Dipa, Golo, Gouro, Ku, Kwéndré, Kweni, Lo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hausa
[hau] Abidjan. 121,000 in Côte d’Ivoire. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jeri Kuo
[jek] Savanes District, Korhogo area, 3 enclaves. 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Celle, Jeli Kuo. Dialects: None known. Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri.

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Jula
[dyu] Savanes and Zanzan districts; widespread in all major cities. 1,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). L2 users: 7,000,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). Total users in all countries: 12,444,000 (as L1: 2,166,000; as L2: 10,278,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widespread in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan. Dialects: None known. Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam], Kita Maninkakan [mwk], and Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Majority ethnic Jula. Government designated as 1 of 5 languages to be developed for literature. Muslim.

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Khisa
[kqm] Northern Zanzan District. 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Total users in all countries: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu. Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] and Senoufo, given time. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa [gna], 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. Comments: Muslim.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Woroba District, Touba department, 25 villages; Montagnes District, Biankouma department, Zouzoupleu village. 25,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kla. Dialects: Santa, Zouzoupleu. Reportedly similar to Dan [dnj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kodia
[kwp] Bas-Sassandra District. 840 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwadia, Kwadya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koro
[kfo] Woroba District, Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Jula. Dialects: None known. High comprehension of Koyaga [kga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koyaga. Muslim.

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Kouya
[kyf] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; small area west of Bonefla. 12 villages. 10,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Gbadi Bété [btg] and Dida. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koyaga
[kga] Woroba District, Mankono department, western 4 subprefectures. 60,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara. Dialects: Koyaga, Siaka, Sagaka, Nigbi. High comprehension of Koro [kfo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koro. Muslim.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] Vallée du Bandama, Lacs, and Sassandra-Marahoué districts, Lake Kossou area; possibly in Montagnes District. 10,600 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] Montagnes District,Toulépleu subprefecture. 12,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Northern Krahn. Dialects: Pewa (Peewa), Biai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Local French influences, but in Liberia from Liberian English, from which there are Orthographic differences. Traditional religion.

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Krobu
[kxb] Lagunes District, Agboville subprefecture. 4 villages. 9,920 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krobou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu. Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Plapo
[ktj] Southwest corner, Bas-Sassandra District, between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Plapo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian.

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Krumen, Pye
[pye] Bas-Sassandra District, Tai, Bereby, and in San Pedro subprefectures. 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen. Dialects: Trepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Gbowe-Hran, Wlepo, Dugbo, Yrewe (Giriwe), Yapo, Pie (Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe, Pye). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian. Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] Bas-Sassandra District, Tabou and Grabo subprefectures. 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Total users in all countries: 31,450. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen. Dialects: Tepo, Bapo, Wlopo (Ropo), Dapo, Honpo, Yrepo (Kapo), Glawlo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian. Comments: Christian.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Zanzan District, Bondoukou subprefecture. 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Total users in all countries: 104,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Zanzan District, Nassian subprefecture. 14,400 in Côte d’Ivoire (1998). Total users in all countries: 29,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange. Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou [kzc], but not the reverse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lobi
[lob] Zanzan District, north strip. 156,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Loma
[loi] Zanzan District, Téén and Kulango areas. 8,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Téén [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Téén is to Kulango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen. Comments: Different from Loma [lom] of Liberia.

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Mahou
[mxx] Woroba District, Touba department; northeast Montagnes District; Denguélé District south of Bako. 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke, Mawu, Mawukakan. Dialects: Mahouka, Koroka, Tenenga, Finanga, Baralaka (Barala). Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Muslim.

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Mbato
[gwa] Lagunes District, Petit Alépé subprefecture; Comoé District, east bank, Comoé river. 25,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Nglwa, Ogwia, Potu. Dialects: None known. Related to Ebrii [ebr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou. Comments: Christian.

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Mbre
[mka] Woroba and Vallée du Bandama districts, Marabadiassa area, Bondosso and Niantibo villages. 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bere, Bre, Pre, Pre Pisia. Dialects: None known. Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified.

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Mwan
[moa] Woroba District, Kongasso subprefecture and south Mankono subprefecture. 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mona, Mouan, Muan, Muana, Mwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] Few in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Neyo
[ney] Bas-Sassandra District, Sassandra subprefecture, Neyo, and Kébé cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. 9,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwibwen, Towi. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to a Dida language than to a Bété language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Nyabwa
[nwb] Lake Buyo area, Sassandra-Marahoué District, Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; small area west of Bonefla. 12 villages, southwest corner, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), Issia, Buyo, Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa), and Daloua subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra District, northwest. 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Bété” (pej.), Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa. Dialects: Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua), Kouzii (Kouzié). Lexical similarity: 90% with Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and Wè Southern [gxx] and Wè Northern [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Comoé District, Aboisso department, Tiapoum subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. 66,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Sénoufo, Cebaara
[sef] Savanes District, around Korhogo city and west; many in Denguélé and Woroba districts; some in Vallée du Bandama District, west of Bandama Blanc river. 862,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Tiebaara, Tyebala. Dialects: Kafire, Kasara, Kufuru, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Patara, Pogara, Tyebara, Tagara, Tenere, Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Southwest Senari, Kandere (Tengrela), Papara, Fodara, Kulere, Nafara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Djimini
[dyi] Vallée du Bandama District, Dabakala department, northeast corner; Lacs District, northwest of Kouandkro; Savanes District, Ferkessedougou department. 95,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini. Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Dabakala prestige dialect is Singala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Nyarafolo
[sev] Savanes District, northeast Ferkessédougou area; some border areas in northern Vallée du Bandama District. 60,000 (2009 L. Boese). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niarafolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Palaka
[plr] Savanes District, east of Bandama Blanc river; Vallée du Bandama District, Sikolo area, north of Djimini. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Savanes District, north of Tingréla. 100,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1996). Total users in all countries: 114,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shenpire, Syempire. Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara.

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Sénoufo, Tagwana
[tgw] Vallée du Bandama District, north central area, west of Djimini area; Savanes District, east of Korhogo city; Woroba District north of Lake Kossou. 138,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana. Dialects: Gbo (Zoro), Tafire, Niediekaha, Niangbo, Niakaramadougou, Fondebougou, Djidanan, Fourgoula, Katiara, Katiola. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini [dyi] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Téén
[lor] Zanzan District. 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Total users in all countries: 8,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé. Dialects: None known. Different from Kulango. Reportedly most similar to Loma [loi] and Bouna Kulango [nku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonjon
[tjn] Vallée du Bandama District. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo. Comments: Formerly spoken by blacksmiths.

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Toura
[neb] Montagnes District, east Biankouma department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Séguéla main road, north of Bafing river; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. 50,000 (2005 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tura, Ween. Dialects: Naò, Boo, Yiligele, Gwéò, Wáádú, Guse. Probably most similar to Dan [dnj]. Reportedly also similar to Guro [goa], Gban [ggu], and Mano [mev] (in Liberia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wan
[wan] Southeast Woroba District, Kounahiri and west Beoumi subprefectures; Vallée du Bandama and Sassandra-Marahoué districts, north shore, Lake Bossou. 22,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nwa. Dialects: Miamu, Kemu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wané
[hwa] Southwest coast, Bas-Sassandra District, Kounoukou area. 2,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hwane, Ngwané. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe. Comments: Intermarry frequently with the Bakwe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Northern
[wob] Montagnes District, Kouibly and Fakobly subprefectures. 156,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouobe, Wèè, Wobé. Dialects: Tao, Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan). Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Southern
[gxx] Central, Montagnes District, Guiglo, Duékoué, Bangolo, and Tai subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra District, Lake Buyo area. 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré, Wèè. Dialects: Zibiao, Zagne, Zagna, Beu (Zarabaon), Zaa (Zaha), Niao (Neabo, Neao, Niabo), Gboo (Gbobo), Fleo, Nyeo. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Consider Wè one language with many dialects. They are one ethnic group, together with Krahn in Liberia. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Western
[wec] Montagnes District, Toulépleu subprefecture. 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo, Wèè. Dialects: Nidrou (Nidru), Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Neyo [wec] is distinct from Neyo [ney], another Kru language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wojenaka
[jod] Denguélé District, Odienné department; Woroba District; Boundiali department possiblly; Juraba and Samofo dialects. 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malinké, Odienné Jula, Odiennekakan. Dialects: Odienneka, Sienkoka, Nafana, Bodougouka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassoulounka, Wassulunka, Wassulunke), Samogo, Juraba. Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Wasulu are ethnic Fulani who adopted a Manding language. Muslim.

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Worodougou
[jud] Mainly, Woroba District, Séguéla and Mankono departments, Tiéningboué subprefecture; Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoué, and Denguélé districts. 80,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu. Dialects: Worodougouka, Karanjan, Kanika. Karanjan dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yaouré
[yre] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Bouaflé department, Bouaflé subprefecture, Yaouré canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama river, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré. Dialects: Klan, Yaan, Taan, Yoo, Bhoo. Reportedly most similar to Guro [goa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure. Comments: Traditional religion.

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