Cook Islands

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English
[eng] Widespread. 680 in Cook Islands (2011 SIL). L2 users: 17,000 in Cook Islands (2012 M. Salisbury). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1965, Constitution, Article 35). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: All the residents of Palmerston Island speak a distinctive dialect of English and have close family connections to Penrhyn. The Palmerston residents are descendants of an Englishman with several Cook Islands wives who settled on Palmerston in the 19th century (2012 M. Salisbury).

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Penrhyn
[pnh] Northern Cook Islands, Penrhyn Island. 200 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mangarongaro, Penrhynese, Tongareva Dialects: None known. Almost intelligible with Rarotongan [rar]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic

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Pukapuka
[pkp] Pukapuka and Nassau islands, northern Cook Islands; 200 in Rarotonga. 450 in Cook Islands (2011 census). Population total all countries: 2,400. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bukabukan, Pukapukan Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Rarotongan [rar] or other Cook Islands languages. Related to Samoan [smo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Pukapuka

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Rakahanga-Manihiki
[rkh] Northern Cook Islands, Rakahanga and Manihiki islands. 320 in Cook Islands (2011 census). Population total all countries: 2,820. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Manihiki-Rakahanga Dialects: None known. Limited intelligibility of Rarotongan [rar]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic

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Rarotongan
[rar] 13 Cook Islands. 13,100 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 2,035 Aitutaki, 481 Atiu, 573 Mangaia, 307 Mauke, 189 Mitiaro (2011 census). Speaker numbers rapidly decreasing, especially in the diaspora (Wurm 2007). Population total all countries: 39,090. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of national identity (1965, Constitution, Article 35), limited use in higher government domains. Alternate Names: Cook Island, Cook Islands Maori, Kuki Airani, Maori, Rarotongan-Mangaian Dialects: Aitutaki, Atiu, Mangaia, Mauke, Mitiaro, Rarotonga. Lexical similarity: 83% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 79% with Hawaiian [haw], 75% with Mangareva [mrv], 73% with Marquesan [mrq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic Comments: Christian.

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