Cook Islands

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Cook Islands Maori
[rar] Widespread. 13,100 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 2,035 Aitutaki, 481 Atiu, 573 Mangaia, 307 Mauke, 189 Mitiaro (2011 census). Speaker numbers rapidly decreasing, especially in the diaspora (Wurm 2007). Total users in all countries: 26,830. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of national identity (1965, Constitution, Article 35), limited use in higher government domains. Alternate Names: Cook Island, Kuki Airani, Maori, Māori Kūki ’Āirani, Rarotongan, Te Reo Maori. Dialects: Mitiaro, Mauke, Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga, Aitutaki. Lexical similarity: 83% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 79% with Hawaiian [haw], 75% with Mangareva [mrv], 73% with Marquesan [mrq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic. Comments: Christian.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 680 in Cook Islands (2011 SIL). L2 users: 17,000 in Cook Islands (2012 M. Salisbury). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1965, Constitution, Article 35). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous. All the residents of Palmerston Island speak a distinctive dialect of English and have close family connections to Penrhyn. The Palmerston residents are descendants of an Englishman with several Cook Islands wives who settled on Palmerston in the 19th century (2012 M. Salisbury).

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Penrhyn
[pnh] Penrhyn. 200 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mangarongaro, Penrhynese, Tongareva. Dialects: None known. Almost intelligible with Rarotongan [rar]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic. Comments: Christian.

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Pukapuka
[pkp] Nassau, Pukapuka, and Rarotonga. 700 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 451 Pukapuka, 73 Nassau Island (Census), plus approximately 200 L1 speakers on Rarotonga (Pue village), less a few non-Pukapukan spouses most of whom speak Pukapuka as L2 (2015 M. Salisbury). Ethnic population: 700 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 3,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Te Reo Maori Act, Articles 2(b) and 4), Te Reo Maori is deemed to include Pukapukan as spoken or written in Pukapuka. Alternate Names: Bukabukan, Pukapukan, Te Leo Wale. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Rarotongan [rar] or other Cook Islands languages. Related to Samoan [smo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Pukapuka. Comments: Christian.

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Rakahanga-Manihiki
[rkh] Manihiki islands, Northern Cook islands, and Rakahanga. 320 in Cook Islands (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 2,820. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Manihiki-Rakahanga. Dialects: None known. Limited intelligibility of Rarotongan [rar]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic.

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