Cameroon

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Afade
[aal] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, south Makari subdivision, Afade area. 5,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afadeh, Affade Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam, Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan as well). Muslim.

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Aghem
[agq] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision, Wum area. 26,700 (2000), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wum, Yum Dialects: Similar to Isu [isu] and Weh [weh]. Minimal regional differences in speech. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West Comments: Aghem Cultural and Development Association active in language development. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ajumbu
[muc] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum subdivision, northeast of Wum, Ajumbu village. 200 (Good et al. 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ajuh Mbuh, Mbu’ Dialects: Lung (Mesem). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi

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Akoose
[bss] South West Region, Kupe-Muanenguba division, Bangem and Tombel subdivisions; Littoral Region, Moungo division, Manjo subdivision. 100,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akosi, Bakossi, Bekoose, Koose, Kosi, Nkoosi, Nkosi Dialects: Elung (Along, Elong, Nlong), Mwambong, Mwamenam (Mouamenam), Ninong, Northern Bakossi, Southern Bakossi, Western Bakossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15C) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Akum
[aku] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Nigeria border area, Akum village. Also in Nigeria. 1,400 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anyar, Okum Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

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Ambele
[ael] North West Region, Momo division, west Widikum-Menka subdivision, about 11 villages. 2,600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: May be related to Busam [bxs] or Atong [ato]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo

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Arabic, Shuwa
[shu] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava, Diamare, Mayo-Danay, Logone, and Chari divisions; along Chari river between Lake Chad and Kousseri, pockets south of Kousseri. 75,000 in Cameroon. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chadian Spoken Arabic, Choa, Shoa, Shoa Arabic, Shua Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim.

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Atong
[ato] Northwest Region, Momo division, extreme northwest Widikum-Menka subdivision. 5 villages. 4,200 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Etoh Dialects: Related to Menka [mea] and Manta [myg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo

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Awing
[azo] North West Region, Mezam division, Awing-Bambaluwe village. 19,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Awi, Bambuluwe, Mbwe’wi Dialects: Related to Bafut [bfd], Bambili-Bambui [baw], Kpati [koc], Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd], Ngemba [nge], and Pinyin [pny]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Bamukumbit [bqt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba

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Baba
[bbw] North West Region, Ngo Ketunjia division, Babessi subdivision, east of Ndop on Ndop plain. 24,500 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baba 1, Bapa, Bapakum, Papia, Papiakum, Supapya’ Dialects: Related to Mungaka [mhk] and Bamun [bax]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Babanki
[bbk] North West Region, Mezam division, Tuba subdivision, Kejom-Ketingo and Kejom-Keku villages. 39,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Finge, Kedjom, Kejeng, Kejom, Kidzem, Kidzom Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bafanji
[bfj] North West Region, Ngo-Ketunjia division, Balikumbat subdivision, south of Ndop on Ndop plain. 17,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bafangi, Bafanyi, Chufie’, Nchufie Dialects: Similar to Bamali [bbq], Bamenyam [bce], and Bambalang [bmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bafaw-Balong
[bwt] South West Region, Meme division, Kumba area and north along Kumba-Mamfe road and southeast of Ekondo-Titi; Littoral Region, Moungo division. 8,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngoe Dialects: Bafaw (Afo, Bafo, Bafowu, Lefo’, Nho), Balong (Bai, Balon, Balung, Bayi, Nlong, Valongi). May be 2 languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.13) Comments: Language community is heterogeneous. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bafia
[ksf] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Kon-Yambeta and Kiki subdivisions, north of Sanaga river. 60,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bekpak, Rikpa’, Ripey Dialects: Bape, Kpa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.51) Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bekpak.

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Bafut
[bfd] North West Region, Mezam division, Tuba subdivision, Bafut. 105,000 (2005), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Befe, Bufe, Fu, Fut Dialects: Bafut, Bufe (Afughe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baka
[bkc] Southeast East Region, Boumba and Ngoko, Kadey, and Upper Nyong divisions; South Region, Dja and Lobo divisions. Also in Gabon. 40,000 in Cameroon (2007 Y. Léonard). 15,000 monolinguals, mainly women. Population total all countries: 43,200. Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babinga, Bebayaga, Bebayaka, Bibaya, Pygmees Baka, Pygmees de l’est Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi Comments: Semi-nomadic but encouraged by the government to settle along roadways. Different from Baka of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan and from the Aka [soh] (Baaka, Bayaka, Biyaka). Although similar in culture, they are different in language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bakaka
[bqz] Littoral Region, Moungo division, Nlonako, Manjo, west Loum, and south Nkongsamba subdivisions. 30,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Mbo Dialects: Babong (Ihobe Mbog, Ihobe Mboong), Bafun (Mbwase Nghuy, Miamilo, Pendia), Bakaka (Ehob Mkaa, Kaa, Kaka), Balondo (Ehobe Belon), Baneka (Mwaneka), Manehas (Mvae, Mwahed, Mwahet). Related to Akoose [bss], Bassossi [bsi], and Mbo [mtk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15C) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bakoko
[bkh] Littoral Region, scattered communities: Wouri division, south of Douala; Moungo division, south of Dibombari; Nkam division, Nkondjok area; Sanaga-Maritime division, southwest of Edea; South Region, northwest Ocean division. 50,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Basoo Dialects: Adie (Basoo Ba Die, Basoo D’edea, Elog Mpoo), Bisoo (Adiangok, Basoo Ba Likol, Basso), Mbang (Dimbambang), Yabyang (Yabyang-Yapeke), Yakalak (Yakalag), Yapoma, Yassuku (Yasoukou, Yasug, Yasuku). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.43) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bakole
[kme] South West Region, Ndian division, south of Meme estuary, Bamusso area. 300 (1982 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bakolle, Bamusso, Kole Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.231)

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Baldemu
[bdn] Far North Region, Diamare division, Bogo, Balda, and Guingley are east of Maroua; Lara is south of Maroua. 4 (2003 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baldamu, Baldare, Mbazla Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Shifted to Fulfulde [fub].

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Balo
[bqo] South West Region, Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision. 2,230 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Osatu [ost], 40% with Ipulo [ass] and Caka [ckx], 35% with Esimbi [ags] and Mesaka [iyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bamali
[bbq] North West Region, Ngo-Ketunjia division, southwest of Ndop town. 10,800 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chopechop, Ngoobechop Dialects: Related to Bafanji [bfj], Bamenyam [bce], Bambalang [bmo], and Bangolan [bgj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bambalang
[bmo] North West Region, Ngo-Ketunjia division, southeast of Ndop town. 29,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bambolang, Chirambo, Chrambo, Mbawyakum, Mboyakum, Tshirambo Dialects: Related to Bafanji [bfj], Bamenyam [bce], Bamun [bax], Bamali [bbq], and Bangolan [bgj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bambili-Bambui
[baw] North West Region, Mezam division, Tuba subdivision, along Ring road, northeast of Bamenda. Bambili, Bambui villages. 10,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bambili Dialects: Bambili (Mbele, Mbili, Mbogoe), Bambui (Mbui). Mutual inherent intelligibility is low with Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Comments: They interact more with Bafut than with Nkwen and Mendankwe-Nkwen. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bamenyam
[bce] West Region, Bamboutos division, northwest Galim subdivision, Bamenyam area; North West Region, southeast Mezam division. 4,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamenyan, Mamenyan, Mengambo, Pamenyan Dialects: Bati [btc] may be a dialect of Bamenyam. Similar to Bamali [bbq], Bafanji [bfj], and Bambalang [bmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Stronger commercial links with Mbouda than with Ndop. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bamukumbit
[bqt] North West Region, Ngo-Ketunjia division, Balikumbat subdivision, southwest of Ndop on Ndop plain. 12,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamenkombit, Bamenkoumbit, Bamoukoumbit, Bamunkum, Bamunkumbit, Mangkong, Mankong Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Awing [azo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bamun
[bax] West Region, most of Noun division, Foumban area; extreme north Mifi division; extreme southeast Bamboutos division. 215,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamoum, Bamoun, Bamum, Shupamem Dialects: Related to Bafanji [bfj], Bamali [bbq], Bambalang [bmo], and Bangolan [bgj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun

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Bamunka
[bvm] North West Region, Ngo Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, Ndop town, and south and east of Ndop. 31,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamunkun, Mbika, Muka, Ndop-Bamunka, Ngiemekohke Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bana
[bcw] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah subdivision, north and northeast of Bourrah, on Nigeria border. 23,000 (2007 SIL). 14,000 Gamboura and 9,000 Guili. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baza, Ka-Bana, Koma, Mizeran, Parole des Bana Dialects: Gamboura, Gili (Guili). Similar to Psikye [kvj], Hya [hya], and Kamwe [hig]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

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Bangandu
[bgf] East Region, Boumba and Ngoko divisions, Moloundou subdivision. Also in Congo. 2,700 in Cameroon (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagando, Bangando, Bangantu, Southern Bangantu Dialects: May be related to Ngombe [nmj] in Central African Republic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest

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Bangolan
[bgj] North West Region, Ngo-Ketunjia division, Babessi subdivision, east of Ndop, south of Jakiri. 14,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Most linguistically and culturally distinct of the Ndop languages. Most closely related to Bambalang [bmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Bankon
[abb] Littoral Region, Moungo division, north of Douala and west of Wouri river, and Dibombari. 12,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abaw, Abo, Bo, Bon Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Barombi [bbi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.42)

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Barombi
[bbi] South West Region, Meme division, north of Mount Cameroon, Lake Barombi-Koto area; west of Kumba town, Lake Barombi-Mbo; Ndian division, northeast of Ekondo-Titi. 3,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Balombi, Barumbi, Lambi, Lombe, Lombi, Rambi, Rombi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Bankon [abb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.41)

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Basaa
[bas] Center Region, spread throughout Nyong and Kelle divisions; Littoral Region, Nkam and Sanaga-Maritime divisions. 230,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basa, Bassa, Bicek, Bikyek, Bisaa, Mbele, Mee, Mvele, Northern Mbene, Tupen Dialects: Bakem, Basso, Bibeng, Bon, Diboum, Log, Mbang, Mpo, Ndokama, Ndokbele, Ndokpenda, Nyamtam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Basaa (A.43)

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Bassossi
[bsi] South West Region, Kupe-Muanenguba division; central Nguti subdivision, Nguti town, and east and south. 5,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asobse, Basosi, Basossi, Ngen, Nsose, Nswase, Nswose, Sosi, Swose Dialects: Mienge (Lower Mbo). Related to Mbo [mbo], Akoose [bss], and Bakaka [bqz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15B) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bata
[bta] North Region, Benoue division along Nigeria border, 30 km northeast of Garoua town; along Benoue river, west of Garoua; north Faro division, along Faro river. 2,500 in Cameroon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batta, Dii, Gbwata, Gwate Dialects: Ndeewe (Bata-Ndeewe). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

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Batanga
[bnm] South Region, Ocean division, Kribi area along Bight of Biafra coast. 6,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banoho, Banoo, Bapuku, Batanga-Banda, Noho, Noku Dialects: Bano’o (Banaka, Banoko, Banoo), Bapuku (Bapuu, Naka, Poko, Puku), Batanga-Banda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bube-Benga (A.32) Comments: Different from Batanga [bdu] of South West Region (Oroko).

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Bati
[btc] Littoral Region, Sanaga-Maritime division, Ndom subdivision, Bati canton, 4 villages. 800 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bati Ba Ngong, Bati de Brousse Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.65)

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Beba
[bfp] South West Region, Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision; North West Region, Mezam division, Benakuma subdivision. 3,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babadji, Baba’zhi, Batadji, Bazhi, Beba’, Bebadji, Biba, Bombe, Mubadji, Shishong Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bebele
[beb] Center Region, Upper Sanaga division, Minta subdivision; East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, Diang subdivision. 24,000 (Welmers 1971). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamvele Dialects: Eki, Manyok. Related to Bulu [bum], Eton [eto], Ewondo [ewo], Fang [fak], and Mengisa [mct]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.72)

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Bebil
[bxp] East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, Belabo subdivision, Belabo area. 6,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bobilis, Gbigbil Dialects: Related to Bebele [beb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.73)

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Beezen
[bnz] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Kpep (Beezen) village. 450 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

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Befang
[bby] North West Region, straddling Mezam division, Tuba Subdivision; Menchum division, Wum dubdivision, Befang area. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beba-Befang, Biba-Bifang, Bifang, Menchum Dialects: Bangui (Bangwe, Bangwi), Befang (Abefang, Beba-Befang, Bifang, Ge), Modele (Aku, Ambabiko, Beekuru, Idele, Iku, Modeli, Modelle, Usheida), Obang, Okomanjang (Okoromandjang), Ushaku (Mokuru, Mukuru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Menchum

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Bekwel
[bkw] East Region, Boumba and Ngoko divisions, along Ngoko River north side, Moloundou area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakwele, Bakwil, Bekwil, Okpele Dialects: Esel (Essel). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.85) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bikya
[byb] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Furubana village. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Furu Dialects: In Furu subgroup (2000 B. Connell). May be Eastern Beboid. Lexical similarity: 24% with Noone [nhu] (Beboid), 14% with Akum [aku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified

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Bishuo
[bwh] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Ntjieka, Furu-Turuwa, and Furu-Sambari villages. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biyam, Furu Dialects: May be Jukunoid. Lexical similarity: 16%–17% with Noone [nhu], 11% with Bikya [byb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified Comments: Formerly called ‘Biyam’.

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Bitare
[brt] Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo division, near Banyo. 6,000 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Njwande, Yukutare Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Bokyi
[bky] South West Region, Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, along Nigeria border northwest of Mamfe. 3,700 in Cameroon. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boki, Byoki, Nfua, Nki, Okii, Osikom, Osukam, Uki, Vaaneroki Dialects: Basua, Boki, Iruan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

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Bomwali
[bmw] East Region, east of Moloundou, Malapa village. 6,100 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bomali, Boumoali, Bumali, Lino, “Sangasanga” (pej.) Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.87) Comments: A distinct language from Bekwel [bkw].

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Bonkeng
[bvg] Littoral Region, Moungo division, Loum subdivision. 3,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bongken, Bonkenge, Bonkeng-Pendia Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.14)

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Bubia
[bbx] South West Region, Fako division, Limbe subdivision. 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bobe, Bobea, Bota, Ewota, Wovea Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.221)

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Buduma
[bdm] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, islands of Lake Chad. 200 in Cameroon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Yadena, Yedima, Yedina Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bulu
[bum] South Region, entire Ntem, Dja, and Lobo divisions; south Upper Sanaga division; Center Region, north Nyong and Mfoumou divisions; East Region, part of Upper Nyong division. 858,000 (2007). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Boulou Dialects: Bene, Yelinda, Yembana, Yengono, Zaman. Intelligible with Eton [eto], Ewondo [ewo], and Fang [fak] in Beti group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.74)

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Bum
[bmv] North West Region, Boyo division, Bum subdivision, mainly Fonfuka village. 21,400 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bom Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Kom [bkm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bung
[bqd] Near the Kwanja [knp] language area. 3 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Nearly extinct in 1998 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: It may be a form of Kwanja [knp]. Classification: Unclassified

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Busam
[bxs] North West Region, Momo division, Batibo subdivision, Bifang, Ambambo, and Dinku villages. 1,490 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Related to Ambele [ael] and Atong [ato]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Western Momo

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Busuu
[bju] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Furu-Awa and Furu-Nangwa villages. 8 (1986 R. Breton). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Awa, Furu Dialects: May be Jukunoid. Lexical similarity: 10% with Jukun languages, 7%–8% with Beboid languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified Comments: Ethnonym: formerly, Awa.

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Buwal
[bhs] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Gadala area, south of Mokolo. 7,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bual, Gadala, Ma Buwal Dialects: High levels of mutual intelligibility with Gavar [gou]. Distinct phonological, grammatical and sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gavar [gou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Comments: Outsiders’ name for Buwal is often Gadala, which is not offensive to Buwal speakers. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Byep
[mkk] East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, east Diang subdivision, west of Bertoua town. 9,500 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maka, Makya, Meka, Mekae, Mekay, Mekey, Mekye, Mika, Moka, North Makaa Dialects: Besep (Besha, Bindafum), Byep. Not intelligible with South Makaa [mcp]. Related to South Makaa and Kol [biw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.831)

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Caka
[ckx] South West Region, northeast Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, Asaka, Basaka, and Batanga villages. 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Assaka (Adzu Balaka), Batanga (Adzu Batanga). Lexical similarity: 50% with Ipulo [ass], 40% with Balo [bqo], Osatu [ost], Iceve-Maci [bec], and Otank [uta], 35% with Esimbi [ags], 30% with Mesaka [iyo], 80% between the Assaka and Batanga dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Different from Batanga [bnm] in the Bube-Benga group and the Batanga dialect of Oroko [bdu]. Traditional religion.

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Cung
[cug] North West Region, Menchum division, Bum subdivision, Chung and Mbuk villages, west of Nkambe, northeast of Wum. 2,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Ncane [ncr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

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Cuvok
[cuv] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Tchouvok area, Matakam South canton, near Zamay. 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tchouvok Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Daba
[dbq] North Region, Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo and Guider subdivisions northwest of Guider; Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Hina and Bourrah subdivisions. Also in Nigeria. 24,000 in Cameroon (2007). Population total all countries: 25,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabba Dialects: Nive, Pologozom. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7

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Dama
[dmm] North Region, Benoue division, Rey-Bouba subdivision, a small enclave. 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: May be a dialect of Mono [mru]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke

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Dek
[dek] North Region. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: It may be intelligible of Kari [kbn] or Mbum [mdd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified

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Denya
[anv] South West Region, Manyu division, central and south Akwaya subdivisions; north Mamfe Central subdivision, Takamanda Forest Reserve. 11,200 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agnang, Anyah, Anyan, Anyang, Eyan, Nyang, Obonya, Takamanda Dialects: Bajwo, Basho, Bitieku, Takamanda. Dialect subgroup. Kendem [kvm] is linguistically between Denya [anv] and Kenyang [ken]. Lexical similarity: 70%–80% between dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dii
[dur] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Tchollire subdivision; Adamawa Region, Vina division, Ngaoundere subdivision, north and east of Ngaoundere. 47,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dourou, Durru, Duru, Nyag Dii, Yag Dii, Zaa Dialects: Boow, Goom, Home, Mambe’, Mamna’a, Ngbang, Nyok, Sagzee (Saadje, Saakye), Vaazin. Goom may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii Comments: Ethnic autonym: Yag Dii. Traditional religion.

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Dimbong
[dii] Center Region, Mbam division, northwest of Bafia. 2 villages. 140 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bape, Bumbong, Kaalong, Kalong, Lakaalong, Lambong, Mbong, Palong Dialects: Related to Bafia [ksf], Hijuk [hij], and Tibea [ngy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.52)

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Doyayo
[dow] North Region, Benoue division, north Poli subdivision and Poli area. 18,000 (1985 EELC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doayo, Donyanyo, Donyayo, Doohyaayo, Doowaayo, Dooyaayo, Dooyayo, Dowayayo, Dowayo, Doyaayo, Doyau, “Namchi” (pej.), “Namci” (pej.), “Namshi” (pej.), Nomai, Tunga, Tungbo, Tuuno Dialects: Marke, Sewe, Teere (Poli). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Dowayo Comments: Whistle speech reported. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Duala
[dua] Littoral Region, Nkam division, toward Yabassi town along Wouri river; Moungo division, Dibombari area; Wouri division, Cameroon estuary area; South West Region, Fako division, both sides of Mungo river. 87,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Diwala, Douala, Dualla, Dwala, Dwela, Sawa Dialects: Bodiman, Mungo (Mungu, Muungo), Oli (Ewodi, Koli, Ouri, Uli, Wouri, Wuri), Pongo. Related to Malimba [mzd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.24) Comments: Christian.

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Dugun
[ndu] North Region, Faro division, Poli subdivision, southeast of Poli. 7,000 (1997 L. Lode). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani, Panon, Pa’non, Pape, Saa Dialects: Naan, Saan. Similar to Duupa [dae]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Dii [dur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii

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Dugwor
[dme] Far North Region, Diamare division, Meri subdivision, west of Tchere canton between Maroua and Meri, 6 villages. 5,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dougour, Memekere, Mofu-Dugwor, Tchakidjebe Dialects: Mikere. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

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Duli
[duz] North Region, Benoue division, near Pitoa town. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dui Dialects: Might be the same as Gey [guv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Duli

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Duupa
[dae] North Region, Faro and Benoue divisions, east of Poli. 5,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doupa, Dupa, Nduupa, Saa Dialects: Related to Dugun [ndu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dzodinka
[add] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, extreme north Nwa subdivision, Adere village. Also in Nigeria. 2,600 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adere, Adiri, Arderi, Dzodzinka, Lidzonka Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: Consider themselves ethnically Mfumte. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ejagham
[etu] South West Region, Manyu division, Eyumodjok subdivision; south Mamfe subdivision west of Mamfe. 49,400 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Edjagam, Ejagam, Ejaham, Ejwe, Ekoi, Etung, Keaka, Kwa, Obang Dialects: Eastern Ejagham, Southern Ejagham (Abakpa, Aqua, Ekin, Kwa, Qua), Western Ejagham. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid Comments: Western Ejagham includes Bendeghe Etung (Bindege, Dindiga, Mbuma), Northern Etung, Southern Etung, Ekwe, Akamkpa-Ejagham. Eastern Ejagham includes Keaka (Keaqa, Kejaka, Edjagam), Obang (Eeafeng). Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Elip
[ekm] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, southeast of Bokito town, in watershed of Mbam and Sanaga rivers. Yambasa village. 6,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belibi, Belip, Central Yambassa, Libie, Nulibie, Nulibié Dialects: Nukanya, Nulamba, Nuyambassa. Related to Mmaala [mmu] and Yangben [yav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60)

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Eman
[emn] South West Region, northeast Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, Amayo, Amanavil, Akalabo, and Akalam Gomo towns. 800 (1990 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Emane Dialects: Amanavil (Aman, Amana, Amani, Elaka), Amayo. Lexical similarity: 70% with Caka [ckx], 60% with Ipulo [ass], 40% with Iceve-Maci [bec] and Otank [uta], 35% with Esimbi [ags], 30% with Mesaka [iyo], and 80% with Amayo and Amanavil dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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English
[eng] Mainly South West and North West regions. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Esimbi
[ags] North West Region, Menchum division, Menchum Valley subdivision, from Benakuma into Nigeria. Also in Nigeria. 20,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aage, Age, Bogen, Bogue, Eshimbi, Essimbi, Isimbi, Mburugam, Simpi Dialects: Lower Esimbi, Upper Esimbi. 100% mutual intelligibility between Upper and Lower Esimbi. Lexical similarity: 35% with Balo [bqo], Ipulo [ass], Iceve-Maci [bec], Caka [ckx], Eman [emn], and Osatu [ost]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Eton
[eto] Center Region, most of Lekie division. 52,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iton Dialects: Beyidzolo, Essele, Mvog-Namve, Mvo-Nangkok. Intelligible of Bulu [bum], Ewondo [ewo], and Fang [fak]. Most similar to Mengisa [met]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.71)

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Evant
[bzz] South West Region, Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, Atolo and Matene I villages. 1,000 in Cameroon (1996 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Avand, Avande, Balegete, Belegete, Evand, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ewondo
[ewo] Center Region, all except east Mefou division; Mfoundi, Nyong and So divisions; south Nyong and Mfoumou divisions; South Region, north Ocean division. 578,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ewundu, Jaunde, Yaounde, Yaunde Dialects: Badjia (Bakjo), Bafeuk, Bamvele (Mvele, Yesoum, Yezum), Bane, Beti, Enoah, Evouzok, Fong, Mbida-Bani, Mvete, Mvog-Niengue, Omvang, Yabeka, Yabekanga, Yabekolo (Yebekolo). It is intelligible of Bulu [bum], Eton [eto], and Fang [fak] as part of the Beti group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.72)

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Fali, North
[fll] North Region, Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo subdivision, Dourbeye and Mayo-Oulo area. 16,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bossoum (Bonum, Fali-Bossoum), Bveri (Bori, Fali du Peske-Bori, Peske), Dourbeye (Fali-Dourbeye). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Fali Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Fali, South
[fal] Hossere Bapara area, Tsolaram, Hossere Toro, and Ndoudja; North Region, Benoue division, northeast of Garoua, Pitoa subdivision, south of Dembo. 20,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bele (Fali du Bele-Fere, Fali-Bele, Ngoutchoumi), Fali-Tinguelin (Mango, Ndoudja, Ram, Toro), Kangou (Fali Kangou, Kaang, Kangu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Fali Comments: Different from North Fali [fll], Fali of Baissa [fah], or Fali [fli] of Nigeria and Cameroon, which is Chadic.

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Fang
[fan] South Region, half of Dja and Lobo divisions, south of Djoum; southeast Ntem division, south of Mvangan; Ocean division, between Lolodorf and Kribi towns. 121,000 in Cameroon (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pahouin, Pamue Dialects: Fang (Okak), Mvae (Mvan, Mvay), Ntoumou (Ntumu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.75) Comments: Different from Fang [fak].

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Fang
[fak] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum subdivision, northeast of Wum, Fang village. 2,400 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi Comments: Different from Fang [fan].

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Fe’fe’
[fmp] West Region, Upper Nkam division, except Kekem area and small section in southeast corner; some in Mifi division, Bangam. 124,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bafang, Bamileke-Fe’fe’, Feefee, Fe’efe’e, Fefe, Fotouni, Nufi Dialects: Ca’, Fa’ (Bafang), La’fi (Balafi), Mkwet (Fondjomekwet), Nee (Bana), Ngam (Bangan), Njee-Poantu (Bandja-Babountou), Nka’ (Banka), Ntii (Fondanti), Tungi’ (Fotouni). First 4 dialects listed belong to the Central Fe’fe’ dialect area, next 5 belong to the North Fe’fe’ dialect area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke

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French
[fra] Mainly in the Littoral, West, Center, South, East, Adamawa, North, and Far North regions. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Widespead in Far North, North and Adamawa regions. Also in Chad, Nigeria, South Sudan, Sudan, United States. 669,000 in Cameroon (1986). Possibly 13,000,000 speakers of all Fulfulde varieties. Population total all countries: 929,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Adamawa Fulani, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula, Fulata, Fulbe, Fulfulde, Mbororo, Palata, Peul, Peulh Dialects: Akuure, Bilkire (Bilkiri), Garoua, Maroua, Ngaondéré, Nomadic Fulfulde - Mbororoore. Lexical similarity: high with Maroua, Garoua, and Ngaoundere dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Glossonym: Fulfulde. Ethnonym: Fulbe. Muslim, Christian.

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Fulfulde, Kano-Katsina-Bororro
[fuv] Widespread by clans in North West, Adamawa, and Northern regions. Fulfulde-Jaafun and Fulfulde-Aku varieties are in the North West Region. Fulfulde-Jaafun and Fulfulde-Aku used by 85,300 Fulbe (Mboscuda 2004–2005), 85,000–100,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Peul Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Mbororo (Ako, Bororo, Jaafun, Nomadic Fulfulde). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central Comments: Muslim.

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Gavar
[gou] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Mogode canton, Gawar area, south of Mokolo. Some Gavar Hossere live among Gavar-Fulfulde, and some isolated in Kortchi village mountain area. 7,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gauar, Gawar, Gouwar, Kortchi, Ma-Gavar, Rtchi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 90% with Buwal [bhs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbaya, Northwest
[gya] Widespread. North Region, Mayo-Rey division, south of Touboro; Adamawa Region, Mbere division, Meiganga subdivision; Djerem division, Ngaoundal and Tibati subdivisions; Faro and Deo divisions, Tignere subdivision; East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, Garoua Boulay, Betare-Oya, and Bertoua subdivisions; Kadey division, Kette subdivision; Boumba and Ngoko divisions, Gari-Gombo subdivision. 65,000 in Cameroon (1980). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baya Dialects: Banginda, Gaymona, Lai (Lay), Lombu, Mbai, Mbere, Mombe, Yaáyuwee (Kalla, Yaiwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest

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Gbaya-Mbodomo
[gmm] East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, Bétaré-Oya subdivision; Ngoura district. 8,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mbodomo Dialects: 45% with Biyanda [gso], 56% with Yaayuwee [gya] among Mbodomo speakers (Tong 2005). Lexical similarity: 70% with Mbodomo and Yaayuwee (Cameroon), and Mbodomo and Biyanda [gso] (CAR) (Tong 2005). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gey
[guv] North Region, Bénoué division, east of Pitoa. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,900 (1982 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gewe, Gueve Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Gueve

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Ghomálá’
[bbj] West Region, most of Mifi division, except extreme south and pockets north and west; Mifi division, Bamendjou subdivision; east Menoua division; a pocket in south Bamboutos division. 260,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloum, Bamileke-Bandjoun, Bandjoun, Banjoun-Baham, Banjun, Batie, Mahum, Mandju Dialects: Ghomálá’ Central (Baham, Bandjoun, Hom, Jo, We, Yogam), Ghomálá’ North (Fusap, Lang), Ghomálá’ South (Dengkwop, Pa, Te), Ngemba (Bamenjou, Fu’da, Meka, Monjo, Mugum, Sa). Bameka, Bansoa, and Balessing are subvarieties of South Ghomálá’, North Ghomálá’ has 2 subvarieties, Central Ghomálá’ 4, and Ngemba 5. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gidar
[gid] North Region, Mayo-Louti division, Guider and Figuil subdivisions; Far North Region, a small section of Diamare division. Also in Chad. 54,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 65,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baynawa, Gidder, Guidar, Guider, Kada Dialects: Lam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C

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Gimme
[kmp] North Region, Faro division, on Saptou plain, west of Poli along Nigeria border in Atlantika Mountains. 3,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koma Kompana, Kompana, Kompara, Panbe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme Comments: Distinct from Koma [kmy] (Koma Ndera) and Gimnime [gmn] (Komlama).

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Gimnime
[gmn] North Region, Faro division, Wangay area in Atlantika Mountains, northwest of Poli along Nigeria border. 3,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gimbe, Kadam, Koma Kadam, Komlama, Laame, Yotubo Dialects: Ritime. Similar to Gimme [kmp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme Comments: Distinct from Koma [kmy] (Koma Ndera) of Cameroon.

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Giziga, North
[gis] Far North Region, Diamare division, Meri subdivision, in Tchere and Mogazang massifs and Dogba plains, north and west of Maroua. 20,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogba, Gisiga, Gisika, Giziga de, Guiziga, Maroua, Marva, Mi Marva, Tchere Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Giziga, South
[giz] Far North Region, Diamare and Kaele divisions, in Diamare plains, southwest of Maroua. 60,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gisiga, Gisika, Guiziga Dialects: Mi Mijivin (Giziga de Midjivin), Muturami (Giziga de Moutouroua, Loulou, Muturua, Muturwa), Rum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Glavda
[glw] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Koza subdivision, on Nigeria border, south of Ashigashia, Gelvaxdaxa village area. 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelvaxdaxa, Guelebda, Vale Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Comments: Different from Vale [vae] of Chad and Central African Republic, which is Central Sudanic.

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Gude
[gde] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, south Bourrah subdivision, north and northwest of Dourbeye; North Region, Mayo-Louti division, extreme northwest Mayo-Oulo subdivision. 28,000 in Cameroon. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mubi, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade, Tcheke Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gvoko
[ngs] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, north of Tourou, Ngoshi village (different from Nggoshe). 1,000 in Cameroon (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

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Gyele
[gyi] South Region, Ocean division, Kribi, Campo, Bipindi, and Lolodorf subdivisions, forested areas between Nyong and Ntem rivers; many near Campo-Maan Reserve. Also in Equatorial Guinea. 4,250 in Cameroon (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 4,279. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babinga, Bagiele, Bagyele, Bajele, Bajeli, Bako, Bakola, Bakuele, Bekoe, Bogyel, Bogyeli, Bondjiel, Giele, Gieli, Gyeli, Likoya Dialects: Bagyeli, Bakola, Likoya. Lexical similarity: high with Kwasio [nmg]. Much shared vocabulary in Bakola dialect with Basaa [bas]. Likoya is a contact variety; Gyele who live near Bulu [bum] speakers borrow from that language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.801) Comments: Pygmies, dispersed in small groups in the forest. Probably different from Bakola (Bakoya) pygmies of Gabon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hausa
[hau] Widespread. 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haoussa, Hawsa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Muslim.

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Hdi
[xed] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Nigeria border northwest of Mokolo. 15 villages. Also in Nigeria (Hide). 25,000 in Cameroon (2001 SIL). Population total all countries: 29,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hedi, Hide, Turu-Hide, Xadi, Xedi Dialects: Tur (Ftour, Tourou, Turu). 51% intelligibility of Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 48% of Lamang [hia], 35% of Gvoko [ngs]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 64% with Lamang [hia], 56% with Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang

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Hijuk
[hij] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Bokito subdivision, southwest of Bokito, Batanga village, 1 quarter. 400 (1992 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 45% with Bafia [ksf], 84% with Basaa [bas]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.50)

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Hya
[hya] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Amsa. Also in Nigeria. 940 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 2,940. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ghye, Za Dialects: Similar to Kamwe [hig]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Psikye [kvj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

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Iceve-Maci
[bec] South West Region, Manyu division, north and south of Akwaya town. Also in Nigeria. 7,000 in Cameroon (1990). Population total all countries: 12,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bacheve, Bechere, Becheve, Icheve, Ocebe, Ochebe, Ocheve, Utse, Utser, Utseu Dialects: Icheve (Bacheve), Oliti (Akwaya Motom, Ihekwot, Kwaya, Maci, Matchi, Motomo, Olit, Olithi, Oliti-Akwaya). Lexical similarity: 80% between the Maci and Bacheve dialects, 60% with Otank [uta], 50% with Evant [bzz] and Tiv [tiv], 40% with Eman [emn] and Mesaka [iyo], 35% with Esimbi [ags]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ipulo
[ass] South West Region, Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, southeast of Akwaya. 2,500 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Assumbo, Asumbo, Badzumbo Dialects: Etongo, Olulu, Tinta. Lexical similarity: 90% between the Olulu and Tinta dialects, 60% with Eman [emn], 50% with Caka [ckx], 40% with Balo [bqo] and Osatu [ost], 35% with Esimbi [ags]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Isu
[isu] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision, widespread to Nigeria border. 10,400 (1994 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West Comments: Different from Isu [szv] (Subu, Bimbia), which is Narrow Bantu A.20. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Isu
[szv] South West Region, Fako division, Tiko subdivision, Bimbia estuary area east of Limbe and west of Douala, at the foot of Mount Cameroon. 3 villages. 800 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Few speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bimbia, Isubu, Isuwu, Su, Subu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.23) Comments: Distinct from Isu [isu], which is Narrow Grassfields.

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Iyive
[uiv] South West Region, Manyu division, northeast of Akwaya town on Nigeria border, Yive village. Also in Nigeria. 1,000 in Cameroon (1996 WT). Population total all countries: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uive, Yiive Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Tiv [tiv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Jimi
[jim] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division. Bourrha area, on Nigeria border. 3,500 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimi, Jimjimen, ’Um Falin Dialects: Djimi, Jimo, Malabu, Wadi (Wa’i), Zumo (Zame, Zomo, Zumu). Similar to Gude [gde]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Different from Jimi [jmi] of Nigeria in Bauchi State, which is West Chadic. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Jina
[jia] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, south Logone-Birni subdivision, Zina area and east of Waza town. 1,500 (2004 H. Tourneux). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zina Dialects: Jina (Zine), Mae, Muxule (Muxuli, Ngodeni), Sarassara, Tchide (Sede). People in Zina say they understand Lagwan [kot] and Musgu [mug] better than Jina. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Comments: Muxule may be a separate language. Glossonym: Mida’a and Da’a by the Mandage. Muslim.

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Jukun Takum
[jbu] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Ntjieka, Furu-Turuwa, and Furu-Sambari villages. Also in Nigeria. 2,440 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Diyu, Jukun, Njikum Dialects: Donga (Akpanzhi), Takum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Comments: ‘Njikum’ is preferred in Cameroon.

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Kako
[kkj] East Region, Kadey division, Batouri and Ndelele subdivisions. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. 100,000 in Cameroon (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 119,460. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaka, Mkako Dialects: Bera, Besembo, Mbonjoku, Ngbako. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.93) Comments: Different from Kaka [yam] (Yamba), which is Grassfields Bantu. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kamkam
[bgu] Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo division, Mambila plateau. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungnu, Bungun, Bunu, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Mbongno Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, mainly north of Mora between Limani and Bounderi, and Kolofata subdivisions; Diamare division, Maroua and Bogo subdivisions; Kaele and Mayo-Danay divisions, as far as Mindif and Guirvidig. 56,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Baribari” (pej.), “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri Dialects: Dagara, Fadawa, Guvja, Kabari (Kuvuri), Kaga (Kagama), Kwayam, Lare, Maiduguri, Mao, Mowor (Movar), Ngazar, Njesko, Sugurti, Temageri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Muslim.

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Karang
[kzr] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Madingring district (homeland), south border of Bouba Ndjida National Park, south from Madingring, southeast to Lawzigoy. 25 villages. Displaced: Garoua, Ngong, Ngaoundere, Touboro (and surrounding villages), Tcholliré. Also in Chad. 17,000 in Cameroon (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Very few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 18,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbum, Mbum-East Dialects: Ngumi. Related to Pana [pnz], Nzakambay [nzy], Kuo [xuo], and Mbere [mdt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kare
[kbn] Adamawa Region, Vina division, Belel area; North Region, Mayo-Rey division. 4,460 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kali, Kari, Karré Dialects: Kari, Tale. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Different from the Kari [kbj] of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Benue-Congo.

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Kemedzung
[dmo] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, northwest of Nkambe, Dumbu area, Kwei village. 4,500 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumbo, Dzumbo, Kemezung, Kumaju Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Naami [bzv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

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Kendem
[kvm] South West Region, Manyu division, Tinto and Upper Bayang subdivisions, east of Mamfe: Kendem, Kekpoti, and Bokwa villages. 1,500 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bokwa-Kendem Dialects: Higher lexical similarity with Denya [anv] but higher intelligibility of Kenyang [ken]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe

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Kenswei Nsei
[ndb] North West Region, Ngo Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, west of Ndop on Ndop plain, Bamessing village. 25,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamessing, Befi, Calebasses, Kensense, Kenswey Nsey, Melamba, Mesing, Ndop-Bamessing, Veteng, Vetweng Dialects: Similar to Vengo [bav] and Wushi [bse]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South

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Kenyang
[ken] South West Region, Manyu division, Mamfe Central and Upper Banyang subdivisions, around and southwest of Mamfe; Kupe-Muanenguba division, west corner of Nguti subdivision. 65,000 (1992 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banjangi, Banyang, Banyangi, Bayangi, Manyang, Nyang Dialects: Bakoni (Kicwe, Kitwii, Manyeman, Manyemen, Northern Balong, Twii, Upper Balong), Lower Kenyang (Bas-Kenyang), Upper Kenyang (Haut-Kenyang). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mamfe Comments: Upper Balong is distinct from Bafaw-Balong [bwt]. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kera
[ker] Far North Region, Mayo-Danay division, southeast of Doukoula. 6,000 in Cameroon. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3

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Kol
[biw] East Region, Upper Nyong division, south of Messamena town. 12,000 (1988 SIL). 1,000 in Bikeng. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bekol, Bikele-Bikay, Bikele-Bikeng Dialects: Bikele, Bikeng, Kol North, Kol South. Lexical similarity: with Makaa [mcp], Koonzime-Badwee [ozm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.832) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kolbila
[klc] North Region, Faro division, Bantadje canton, southeast of Poli, and east between Ngaoundere and Garoua. 2,500 (1997 L. Lode). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kolbilari, Kolbili, Kolbilla, Kolena, Zoono Dialects: Related to Samba Leko [ndi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kom
[bkm] North West Region, south Boyo division, southeast of Wum town, northeast of Bamenda city. 20,000 in major urban centers. 233,000 (2005 CABTAL), increasing. 30% monolingual. Ethnic population: 233,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bamekon, Bikom, Kong, Nkom Dialects: Mbizenaku (Itangimbesa, Mbesa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Koma
[kmy] North Region, Faro division, northwest of Tchamba in Alantika Mountains along Nigeria border. 3,000 in Cameroon (1984 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuma Dialects: Bangru, Koma Damti, Koma Ndera, Leelu, LIU, Yeru, Zanu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere Comments: Different from Gimme [kmp] (Kompara), Gimnime [gmn] (Komlama), Komo [xom] of Ethiopia and Central Koma of Sudan. Traditional religion.

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Koonzime
[ozm] East Region, Upper Nyong division areas, north and northwest Dja river, Lomie, Messok, Mindourou, Somalomo, and Alouma villages. 40,000 (2011 SIL). 66% monolingual. Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimu, Dzimou, Kooncimo, Koozhime, Koozime, Nzime, Zimu Dialects: Badwe’e (Badjoue, Bajwe’e, Koozime), Nzime (Koonzime). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.84) Comments: Glossonym: Koonzime refers to the Nzime dialect, Koozime to the Badwe’e dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Korop
[krp] South West Region, Ndian division, along Nigeria border, northwest of Mundemba. 7,440 in Cameroon (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Durop, Dyurop, Erorup, Ododop Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop

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Koshin
[kid] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum subdivision, Koshin village. 1,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaw, Kosin, Kusheen Benubcouh Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi

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Kuk
[kfn] North-West Region, Menchum division, Fungom subdivision, Ring Road between Weh and Bafmeng. 6 villages. 3,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kung
[kfl] North-West Region, Menchum division, Fungom subdivision. 1 village. 1,750 (2001 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuo
[xuo] North Region, between Sorombeo and Chad border, and Garoua area. 7,950 in Cameroon (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ko, Koh Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh Comments: Different from Oku [oku] which is Narrow Grassfields. Refugees only in Cameroon; their place of origin for many, several generations ago now, is Chad.

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Kutep
[kub] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Baji and Lubu villages near Nigeria border. 1,400 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ati, “Jompre” (pej.), Kuteb, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper Dialects: Fikyu, Jenuwa, Kentin, Kunabe, Lissam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb Comments: “Jompre” is an offensive name. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kwa’
[bko] Littoral Region, Nkam division, east Nkondjok subdivision; West Region, southwest corner of Nde division. 1,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakoa, Bakwa, Bamileke-Kwa Dialects: Kwa’ (Babwa, Bakoua, Bekwa’, Mipa), Mbyam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: ‘Bamaha’ may be an alternate name. Distinct from Kwa [kwb] (Ba) of Nigeria in the Adamawa branch.

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Kwaja
[kdz] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Nkambe subdivision. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Possibly intelligible with other Mfumte languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: Consider themselves ethnically Mfumte.

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Kwakum
[kwu] East Region, Upper Nyong division, Dimako and Doume subdivisions; Lom and Djerem divisions, north of Bertoua, Belabo subdivision. 10,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abakoum, Abakum, Akpwakum, Bakum, Kpakum, Pakum Dialects: Baki (Mbaki), Beten (Bethen, Petem), Kwakum, Til. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.91)

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Kwanja
[knp] Adamawa Region, most are south of Banyo between Mayo Darle and Bankim, west to Mbojdanga, east to Mbam river. 20,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kondja, Konja Dialects: Ndung (Ndungani), Njanga (Njang), Sundani (Sun), Twendi. The two Kwanja dialects are mutually intelligible for those who are in the Kwanja home area where they hear both dialects, more difficult for those who have not heard the other dialect. The Sundani dialect is similar to Mambila [mcu], the Ndung dialect is similar to Vute [vut]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Konja Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kwasio
[nmg] South Region, Ocean division, Kribi and Lolodorf subdivisions, Kribi forests area; Kribi and Lolodorf areas. Also in Equatorial Guinea. 9,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 22,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngumba Dialects: Mabi, Mvumbo (Mekuk, Ngoumba, Ngumba). Dialects mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: high with Makaa [mcp], Njyem [njy], and Koonzime [ozm] and grammatically similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.81) Comments: Distinct from Ngomba [jgo], which is in West Province. Christian, traditional religion.

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La’bi
[lbi] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision. No known L1 speakers. 4,400 L2 speakers (2006). Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, La’bi Comments: The language of initiation rites practiced by the Gbaya, Mbum, and some Sara-Laka. Vocabulary is borrowed from Sara languages (Samarin 1971).

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Lagwan
[kot] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, north of Waza National Park, Logone-Birni subdivision, Logone river bank across to Nigeria border. Also in Chad. 15,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004), increasing. 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004). Majority in Cameroon (2005 S. Allison). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana). Related to Mser [kqx], Afade [aal], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], and Mpade [mpi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Comments: The term Mandage is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam, Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan). Muslim.

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Laimbue
[lmx] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision; Boyo division, Fundong subdivision. 5,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lamnso’
[lns] North West Region, Bui division, east Kumbo and Jakiri subdivisions, northeast of Bamenda, Kumbo area. Also in Nigeria. 240,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL), increasing. 30% monolingual. Ethnic population: 240,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bansaw, Banso, Banso’, Lamnsok, Lamso, Nsaw, Nsho’, Nso, Nso’, Panso Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lefa
[lfa] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou division, Deuk subdivision. 10,000 (Mbongue et al. 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balom, Fak, Lefa’ Dialects: Cama (Tempanye), Lefa, Letia, Tingong. Intelligibility 81% of Bafia [ksf] (Ayotte 2001). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.51) Comments: Ethnonym is Fa.

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Leti
[leo] Center Region, Lekie division, north Sa’a subdivision, Sanaga river bend. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Unclassified

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Limbum
[lmp] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Nkambe subdivision, Nkambe and Ndu areas. Also in Nigeria. 73,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bojiin, Limbom, Llimbumi, Ndzungle, Ndzungli, Njungene, Nsungali, Nsungli, Nsungni, Wimbum Dialects: Tang, Wat, Wiyeh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe

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Longto
[wok] North Region, Faro division, Poli subdivision, southwest of Poli to Faro Reserve, Voko area. 2,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boko, Gobeyo, Longa, Longbo, Lonto, Voko, Woko Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Voko Comments: Muslim.

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Luo
[luw] Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo division, Bankim subdivision, a section of Atta. 1 (1995 B. Connell). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Unclassified Comments: May be extinct.

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Mada
[mxu] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Tokombere subdivision, Mada massif at edge of Mandara mountains and neighboring plain. 17,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Distinct from Mada [mda] of Nigeria, which is Benue-Congo.

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Mafa
[maf] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division. From Mokolo town north. Also in Nigeria. 136,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 140,910. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Matakam” (pej.), Mofa, Natakan Dialects: Central Mafa (Koza, Ldamtsai, Mokola, Mokolo, Ouzal), East Mafa (Roua, Soulede), West Mafa (Magoumaz, Mavoumay). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Majera
[xmj] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, extreme south Logone-Birni subdivision, Majera area. Also in Chad. 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 500 all Majera (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mazera Dialects: Hwalem (Holom), Kajire-’dulo, Majera (Mazra). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Comments: Included in what the Mandage call Mida’a and Da’a. Muslim.

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Makaa
[mcp] East Region, north Upper Nyong division, Abong-Mbang, Doume, and Nguelemendouka subdivisions. 80,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mekaa, South Makaa, South Mekaa Dialects: Bebent (Bebende, Bemina, Bewil, Biken), Besep, Mbwaanz, Shekunda. Related to Byep [mkk] and Kol [biw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.83) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Malgbe
[mxf] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, Chari river area, Goulfey and Goulfey subdivision, north of Kousseri. Also in Chad. 6,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goulfei, Gulfe, Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe Dialects: Douguia (Dugiya), Dro, Malgbe (Goulfei), Mara. Related to Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam, Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan). Muslim.

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Malimba
[mzd] Littoral Region, Sanaga-Maritime division, small pocket north of Edea, and Sanaga river mouth area. 2,230 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lemba, Limba, Mudima, Mulimba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.27)

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Mambai
[mcs] North Region, Benoue division, extreme north Bibemi subdivision, along Mayo-Kebi river near Chad border. Also in Chad. 8,000 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbei, Mongbay Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

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Mambila, Cameroon
[mcu] Adamawa Region, on Nigeria border, northwest Mayo-Banyo division, Banyo and Bankim subdivisions. 30,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bang, Bea, Ble, Juli, Lagubi, Mambere, Mambilla, Nor, Tagbo, Tongbo, Torbi Dialects: Ju Ba, Ju Naare (Mambila de Gembu), Langa, Sunu Torbi (Torbi). Closely related to Mvanlip [mcj] (Magu) in Nigeria. Similar to Mambila [mzk] of Nigeria. A continuum of related varieties; one end unintelligible to speakers of the other. Langa inherently intelligible to some, but not most others. At least 4 dialects in Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Manta
[myg] South West Region, Manyu division northeast of Mamfe, from Mom border, Akwaya subdivision, to Manta, Mamfe subdivision. 5,300 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anta, Banta, Bantakpa, Kisam, Menta, Tinta Dialects: Most similar to Atong [ato]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Masana
[mcn] Far North Region, southeast Mayo-Danay division, Yagoua town area. 103,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Banana” (pej.), Masa, Massa, Walia Dialects: Bongor, Budugum, Domo, Gizay (Guissey), Walya, Wina (Viri), Yagwa (Yagoua). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: The first 3 dialects listed are West Masa; Wina and Gizay are Central Masa. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Maslam
[msv] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, Makari subdivision, northwest of Kousseri, Maltam, and Saho. Also in Chad. 250 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). Nearly all are in Cameroon. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Related to Afade [aal], Mpade [mpi], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Speakers may be able to use literature in one of these languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade, Maslam [msv], Malgbe) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan). Muslim.

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Matal
[mfh] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Mora subdivision, southwest of Mora, to the south, east edge of Mandara mountains. 18,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balda, Mouktele, Muktele, Muktile Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

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Mazagway
[dkx] North Region, Mayo-Louti division, northwest of Guider, Mazagway, Baila, Boula Ibbi, Tam Djidde; Far North Region, southwest corner of Diamare division, Ndoukoula district, Kpala, Dagaï; Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Hina district, Zouvoul, Mayo-Ladde. 17,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mazagway-Hidi Dialects: Kpala (Daba-Kola, Kola), Mazagway (Daba-Mousgoy, Musgoi, Musgoy). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Mbembe, Tigon
[nza] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Ako subdivision, north of Nkambe. Also in Nigeria. 36,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 56,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akonto, Tigon, Tigong, Tigum, Tigun, Tikun Dialects: Ashuku (Kitsipki), Eneeme, Kporo, Nama (Dama, Namu), Nzare (Izale, Izare, Ndzale, Njari, Nsare). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe Comments: Distinct from Mbembe [mfn] of Nigeria, which is in the Cross River group. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbo’
[mtk] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division. North of Magba town on regional boundary. Some in West Region, Noun division. 1,490 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Mbaw, Mbe’. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: People are shifting to Tikar [tik] outside of the home. Distinct from Mbe [mfo] of Nigeria, which is in the Ekoid group.

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Mbo
[mbo] Mbo plain, Littoral Region, Moungo division, Nkongsamba and Melong subdivisions; West Region, Menoua division, Santchou subdivision and Upper Nkam division, Kekem subdivision. 45,000 (Ewané Etamé 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mboo, Sambo Dialects: Bareko (Ehow Mba, Minahe), Kekem (Nlembuu), Melong (Eho Mbo), Santchou (Nla Mboo). Related to Akoose [bss] and Bassossi [bsi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15) Comments: Different from Mbo [zmw] of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Bantu D.30.

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Mbonga
[xmb] East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, west of Betare-Oya town. 1,490 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mboa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon

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Mbudum
[xmd] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, northeast of Hina. 6,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mbedam Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbuko
[mqb] Far North Region, Diamare division, Meri subdivision east of Meri, Mbuko massif and neighboring Mayo-Raneo plain. 15,000 (2008 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbokou, Mboku, Mbuku Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbule
[mlb] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, south Bokito subdivision, Mbola village. 100 (2007), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dumbule, Mbola Dialects: Not intelligible with other Yambasa languages. Lexical similarity: 78% with Nubaca [baf], 77% with Yangben [yav], 72% with Elip [ekm] and Mmaala [mmu] (Boone and Bradley 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60)

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Mbum
[mdd] West Mbum, isolated in Adamawa Region, Vina and Djerem divisions, south and southwest of Ngaoundere; North Region, Faro division, Ngaoundere area to border of Faro Reserve; East Region, Lom and Djerem divisions, Belabo subdivision, Gbete. Also in Central African Republic. 38,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 51,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buna, Mboum, Mboumtiba, Wuna Dialects: Gbete (Byrre, Kepere, Kpere, Pere, Pono, Ripere, Vana), Mboum (Bum, West Mbum). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Medumba
[byv] West Region, Nde division, Tonga and Bangangte subdivisions east of Bangangte. 210,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagangte, Bamileke-Medumba, Bangangte Dialects: Batongtou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mefele
[mfj] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, south and east of Mokolo. 6 villages. 11,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boulahay, Bula, Bulahai Dialects: Mefele, Muhura (Mouhour), Serak (Sirak), Shugule (Chougoule). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

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Mendankwe-Nkwen
[mfd] North West Region, Mezam division, Bamenda Central subdivision, north and east of Bamenda town, either side of Ring Road, and mountainous circle of Menda Nkwe. 23,100 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mandankwe, Mendankwe Dialects: Mendankwe (Bamenda, Munda), Nkwen (Bafreng). The Mendankwe dialect has 74% intelligibility of the Nkwen dialect; Nkwen 79% intelligibility of Mendankwe. Socially very distinct groups. Related to Ngemba [nge], Bafut [bfd], Pinyin [pny], Awing [azo], and Bambili-Bambui [baw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba

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Mengaka
[xmg] West Region, Bamboutos division, South Galim subdivision, Bagam, Galim, and Bamendjing. 20,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Mengaka, Benzing, Ghap, Megaka Dialects: Bagam, Bamendjing (Bamendjin). Lexical similarity: 91% among villages, but no dialect differences reported. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Distinct from Mungaka [mhk] (Bali), which is Mbam-Nkam, Noone [nhu].

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Mengisa
[mct] Center Region, Lekie division, Sa’a subdivision, Sanaga river bend area between the river and Sa’a. 20,000 (1979 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mangisa, Mengisa-Njowe Dialects: Leti, Njowe. High exposure to and 97% intelligibility of Ewondo [ewo]. But Ewondo speakers have only 46% with Mengisa. The Mangisa people speak 2 languages: the Mengisa Njowi dialect, spoken daily, and Leti [leo], a secret language of tradition. Eton [eto], the A70 variety most similar to Mengisa (Njowe) is 90% cognate with Mengisa, but a lower comprehension level (91%) (Hatfield 1990). Lexical similarity: 90%–91% with Eton [eto], 81%–97% with Ewondo [ewo] (Risnes 1989). Mengisa Njowe is considered an A70 language with Ewondo and others, while Leti [leo] is considered an A60 language (possibly A64). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.64) Comments: The Mangisa people speak 2 languages: the Mengisa (Njowi dialect), spoken daily, and Leti [leo]. Christian, Muslim.

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Menka
[mea] North West Region, Momo division, Widikum-Menka subdivision, west of Mbengwi, northwest of Batibo. 10 villages. 5,200 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mamwoh, Wando Bando Dialects: Related to Atong [ato] and Manta [myg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo

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Merey
[meq] Far North Region, Diamare division. West of Meri town, near Meri massif. 10,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mere, Meri, Mofu de Méri Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

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Mesaka
[iyo] South West Region, Manyu division, on Nigeria border northeast of Akwaya, isolated. 14,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banagere, Iyon, Messaga, Messaga-Ekol, Messaka Dialects: Batomo (Babasi). Batomo dialect may be a separate language, or may be the same as Motomo (Oliti, Matchi), a dialect of Iceve-Maci [bec]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Tiv [tiv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ugare, Mesaka is used by the government, Iyon by the Tiv. Traditional religion.

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Meta’
[mgo] North West Region, Momo division, east and southeast Mbengwi and east Batibo subdivisions; Bamenda subdivision, Bafuchu and Nja village areas. 87,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bameta, Batibo, Chubo, Menemo-Mogamo, Metta, Mitaa, Moghamo-Menemo, Muta, Widikum-Tadkon Dialects: Menemo (Bameta, Meta’, Metta, Uta’), Moghamo (Batibo, Besi, Iyirikum, Kugwe, Muywi, Tiwirkum, Widekum). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mfumte
[nfu] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Nwa subdivision, Mfumte canton north of Nwa and east of Nkambe. 16 villages. 24,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nfumte Dialects: Bang, Jui, Koffa (Kofa), Kom, Lus, Manang, Mbah, Mballa, Mbat, Mbibji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mina
[hna] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Hina subdivision, south of Mokolo. 20 villages. 11,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Besleri, Hina Dialects: Besleri, Gamdugun, Jingjing (Dzumdzum). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mmaala
[mmu] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Mmala canton, in and south of Bokito. 5,300 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Benyi, Central Yambassa, Mmala, Numaala Dialects: Nuenie, Nukitia. Related to Elip [ekm] and Yangben [yav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60)

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Mmen
[bfm] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum subdivision, along Fundong road northwest of Fundong. 35,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. 1,000 Fungom (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bafmen, Bafmeng, Bafoumeng, Bafumen, Mme Dialects: Cha’, Fungom (Northern Fungom, We), Nyos. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Christian.

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Mofu, North
[mfk] Far North Region, Diamare division, massifs south of Meri. 27,500 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Douvangar, Mofu-Douvangar, Mofu-Nord Dialects: Douroun (Durum, Mofu de Douroum), Wazan (Wazang). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

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Mofu-Gudur
[mif] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division into Diamare division, Mokolo subdivision, massifs south of Tsanaga river to Mayo-Louti river. 60,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mofou, Mofou de Goudour, Mofu South, Mofu-Sud Dialects: Dimeo, Gudur, Massagal (Massakal), Mokong, Njeleng, Zidim. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mokpwe
[bri] South West Region, Fako division, Muyuka, Tiko, Buea, and Limbe subdivisions. 32,200 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakpwe, Bakwedi, Bakwele, Bakweri, Bekwiri, Kwedi, Kweli, Kwili, Kwiri, Mokpe, Ujuwa, Vakweli, Vambeng Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.22) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Moloko
[mlw] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Tokombere subdivision, Makalingay canton, Melokwo mountain area. 8,500 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Melokwo, Mokyo, Molko, Molkoa, Molkwo, Molokwo Dialects: Surrounded by 4 related languages, including Muyang [muy], Giziga North [gis], and the Mikiri dialect of Dugwor [dme], plus one other. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Christian.

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Mom Jango
[ver] North Region Faro division, Beka subdivision, north of Tchamba on Nigeria border. 6,520 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kobo, Vere, Verre, Were Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere

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Mono
[mru] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, north of Rey-Bouba, Kongrong area along Mayo-Godi river. 300 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mon-Non Dialects: Related to Dama [dmm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke Comments: Distinct from Mono [mnh] in Democratic Republic of the Congo in Banda group.

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Mpade
[mpi] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, south of Lake Chad, Makari area. Also in Chad, Nigeria. 16,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makari, Makary, Makary Kotoko Dialects: Bodo, Digam, Mpade (Makari), Shewe (Mani), Woulki. Related to Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade [mpi], Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot]). Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mpiemo
[mcx] East Region, Boumba and Ngoko divisions, Gari-Gombo subdivision, along Gribi to Yokadouma road. 5,000 in Cameroon (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimu, Mbimou, Mbimu, Mpo, Mpyemo Dialects: Bidjuki (Bidjouki), Jasua (Jasoa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.86) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mpumpong
[mgg] East Region. Menzime and Bangantu are in Kadey division, Mbang subdivision, south of Batouri; others in Boumba and Ngoko divisions, south and west of Yokadouma. 45,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bombo, Mbombo, Mpompo, Mpongmpong, Mpopo, Mpumpoo, Pongpong Dialects: Bageto (Baagato, Bangantu, Northern Bangantu), Kunabembe (Konabem, Konabembe, Kunabeeb, Nkumabem), Mbobyeng (Pobyeng), Menzime (Medzime, Mendzime, Mezime), Mpomam (Boman, Mboman). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.85)

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Mser
[kqx] Far North Region, Logone and Chari divisions, Kousseri subdivision. Also in Chad. 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Kuseri, Kouseri, Kousseri, Kuseri Dialects: Bodo, Digam, Mpade (Makari), Shewe (Mani), Woulki. Comprehension of Lagwan [kot] is marginal. Related to Lagwan, Afade [aal], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], and Mpade [mpi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Comments: ‘Mandage’ is used by the Kotoko to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade [mpi], Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [mxf]). Muslim.

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Mundabli
[boe] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum subdivision, northeast of Wum, Mundabli, Buu, and Mufu villages. (Buu village not to be confused with the Laimbue [lmx]-speaking village of Bu). 200 (Good et al. 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buu, Mufu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi

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Mundang
[mua] Far North Region, Kaele division, Kaele subdivision, near Chad border north and west of Kaele; North Region, Benoue division, south of Mayo-Kebi near Chad border. 44,700 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaele, Marhay, Moundan, Moundang, Musemban, Nda Dialects: Gelama, Imbana (Bana, Imbara, Mbana), Kiziere, Zasing (Djasing, Jasing, Yasing, Yassing, Zazing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai Comments: Gelama dialect may be a separate language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mundani
[mnf] South West Region, Manyu division, Mamfe and north Fontem subdivisions, south of Batibo town. 34,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bamumbo (Bamumbu), Bangang, Banti, Bechati, Besali, Folepi, Iguambo (Igumbo), Nko (Nkong). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo

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Mungaka
[mhk] North West Region, Mezam division, Bali subdivision; West Region, Bamboutos division, southeast Galim subdivision; Mifi division, north Bafoussam subdivision. 50,100 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Li, Munga’ka, Ngaaka, Nga’ka Dialects: Bali Nyonga (Bali), Nde (Bandeng), Ti (Bati). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Comments: Different from 3 languages in Democratic Republic of the Congo called Bali [bep], [bbn], [tek], Bali [ben] of Nigeria, or the Bali dialect of Chamba [ndi] of Nigeria and Cameroon, although many of these people have Chamba ethnic origins. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mungbam
[mij] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum subdivision, Bentsan, Nsun, Biya, Uba, and Bijun villages. 400 (Good et al. 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abar Dialects: Abar, Biya, Missong, Munken, Ngun. Missong is divergent from the other four dialects as far as mutual intelligibility is concerned. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Yemne-Kimbi Comments: Mungbam is an acronym made up of the initial syllables of the 5 villages where the language is spoken. No actual autonymn for the language.

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Musey
[mse] Far North Region, Mayo-Danay division, east of Guere on Chad border. 20,000 in Cameroon. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bananna, Bananna Ho, Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musaya, Musei, Museyna, Musiina, Musoi, Mussoi, Mussoy Dialects: Pe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Traditional religion.

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Musgu
[mug] Far North Region, Mayo-Danay division, Maga subdivision. Also in Chad. 61,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 85,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk, Muzuk Dialects: Beege (Jafga), Luggoy, Maniling (Mani-Iling), Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Muzuk (Mousgoum de Guirvidig), Ngilemong, Vulum (Mulwi, Vlum). Vulum dialect is mainly in Chad. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Muyang
[muy] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, northeast of Tokombere, Muyang, Mougouba, Gouadagouada, and Palbara massifs. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mouyenge, Mouyengue, Muyenge, Myau, Myenge Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Naami
[bzv] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, west of Nkambe, north of Ring Road, Bebe-Jama and Bebe-Jatto villages. 2,500 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bebe, Yi Be Wu Dialects: Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 85% with Kemedzung [dmo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid Comments: Ethnonym: Bebe.

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Nagumi
[ngv] North Region, Benoue division, Garoua subdivision between Benoue and Faro rivers and Poli mountains. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bama, Mbama Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon Comments: Voegelin and Voegelin (1977:55) identify this as the same as Ngong [nnx].

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Naki
[mff] North West Region, Menchum division, Furu-Awa subdivision, Nse chiefdom (population 300), Naki, Mekaf, Bukpang II, and Lebo villages. 3,000 (Breton 1993). 300 in Nse chiefdom. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bunaki, Mekaf, Munkaf, Nkap Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid Comments: In Nse chiefdom they are called ‘Bunsaa’.

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Ncane
[ncr] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, west of Nkambe, Nkanchi, Nfume, Chunge, Bem, Kibbo, and Mungong villages; Menchum division, Bum subdivision. 15,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cane, Nchane, Nchaney, Nchanti, Ntshanti Dialects: Mungong (Mungom), Ncane. Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Sari [asj], 88% with Noone [nhu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ndai
[gke] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Tchollire. 5. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Galke, Pormi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Dama-Galke

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Ndaktup
[ncp] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, northeast of Nkambe town. 2,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bitui (Bitwi), Ncha. Possibly intelligible of, or bilingual in, Mfumte [nfu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: Consider themselves ethnically Mfumte.

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Nda’nda’
[nnz] West Region, straddling Upper Nkam (east of Bana), Nde (north and west of Bangante), and Mifi (south of Bangou) divisions. 10,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Nda’nda’ Dialects: Undimeha (East Nda’nda’), Ungameha (South Nda’nda’, West Nda’nda’). Batoufam is a subvariety of East Nda’nda’. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke

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Ndemli
[nml] Littoral Region, Nkam division, between Yabassi, Yingui, and Nkondjok. 5,950 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bandem, Bayong, Ndemba Dialects: Related to Tikar [tik]. The Bandobo dialect of Tikar [tik] is very similar to Ndemli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ndemli

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Ndoola
[ndr] Adamawa Region, Faro and Deo divisions, south Mayo-Baleo subdivision, upper Mayo-Deo river, Dodeo village near Nigeria border; North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, north of Nkambe. 2,120 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndoro, Njoyame, Nundoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro

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Ngamambo
[nbv] North West Region, Momo division, east and southeast Mbengwi and east Batibo subdivisions; Mezam division, Santa subdivision, Bafuchu and Nja village areas. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bafuchu, Banja, Mbu, Mungyen, Nga, Ngembo Dialects: Lexical similarity: 88% with Meta’ [mgo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo

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Ngambay
[sba] North Region, along the route to Garoua, Mayo-Rey division, Rey-Bouba subdivision, near the Chad border east of Tchollire; Benoue division, in Garoua. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gamba, Gambai, Gambaye, Gamb-Lai, Ngambai, Sara, Sara Ngambai Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

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Ngemba
[nge] North West Region, Mezam division, Tuba and Bamenda subdivisions. 18,800 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Megimba, Mogimba, Ngomba, Nguemba Dialects: Alatening (Alatining), Anyang (Bamundum 2, Mundum 2), Bagangu (Akum), Mangkunge (Bande, Bande’, Bandeng, Mukohn, Ngemba, Nkune), Mankon (Bida), Mbrerewi (Bamundum 1, Mundum 1), Mbutu (Alamatu, Bambutu, Mbotu), Njong (Banjong), Shomba (Almatson, Bamechom), Songwa (Bangwa, Ngwa, Nsongwa). Related to Bafut [bfd], Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd], Pinyin [pny], and Awing [azo]. Distinct from Ngiemboon [nnh] (Nguemba). Lexical similarity: 87% between the Mbrerewi and Anyang dialects, 78% between Mbrerewi and Bafut [bfd], 85% between Mbrerewi and the Mankon dialect, 74% between Bafut and Mankon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba

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Ngie
[ngj] North West Region, Momo division, west Mbengwi subdivision, Andek area. 37,000 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angie, Baminge, Baninge, Mingi, Ngi, Ugie, Ungie Dialects: Mengum. Lexical similarity: 56% between Ngie [ngj] and the Mengum dialect, which may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Ngiemboon
[nnh] West Region, Bamboutos division, Batcham subdivision and west Mbouda subdivision in Balatchi; Menoua division, north of Penka-Michel. 250,000 (2000 CABTAL), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngiemboon, Bamileke-Ngyemboon, Nguemba, Ngyemboon Dialects: Balatchi, Balessing, Bamougong, Bangang, Batang, Batcham. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Distinct from Ngemba [nge]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngomba
[jgo] West Region, Bamboutos division, south Mbouda subdivision, southeast of Mbouda. 5 villages, each a separate dialect. 63,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngomba, Ndaa, Nda’a Dialects: Babete (Bamete), Bamendjinda, Bamendjo, Bamenkumbo, Bamesso. Dialect speakers appear to understand each other well. Bamendjinda, Bamesso, and Bamenkumbo are most similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Ethnic autonym: Nda’a. Bafounda is a separate town and language (see Ghomálá’ [bbj]), but ethnically Nda’a. Different from Kwasio [nmg] in the Maka-Njem group.

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Ngombale
[nla] West Region, Bamboutos division, north Mbouda subdivision, northwest of Mbouda. 45,000 (1993 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngombale Dialects: Babadjou (Basso, Nchobela), Bamessingue (Bassing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngong
[nnx] North Region, Benoue division, south of Garoua on road to Ngaoundere, Ngong village. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gong, Nagumi, Puuri Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Cameroon Comments: Voegelin and Voegelin (1977:55) identify this as the same as Nagumi.

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Ngoshie
[nsh] North West Region, Momo division, east Njikwa subdivision. 9,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ngishe, Oshie Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo

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Ngwe
[nwe] South West Region, Lebialem division, west of Dschang town. 73,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamileke-Ngwe, Fomopea, Fontem, Nwe, Nweh Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Part of a language subgroup which includes Yemba [ybb] and Ngiemboon [nnh].

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Ngwo
[ngn] North West Region, Momo division, Njikwa subdivision. 22,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngwaw Dialects: Bako, Banya, Basa (Bassa), Ikweri (Ekperi), Konda, Ngwo (Miguhni, Nguni, Ngunu, Ngwaw), Okorobi, Zang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo

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Nimbari
[nmr] North Region, Benoue division, Basheo subdivision, Gorimbari village; Mayo-Louti division, Guider subdivision, Padjara-Djabi and Badjire villages. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 130. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bari, Niamniam, Nimbari-Kebi, Nyamnyam, Nyam-Nyam du Mayo-Kebi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Nimbari Comments: Different from Suga [sgi] (Nyamnyam).

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Njen
[njj] North West Region, Momo division, southeast of Batibo town, Njen village. 1,800 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nen, Nyen, Nzin Dialects: Lexical similarity: 47% with Meta [mgo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Momo

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Njyem
[njy] East Region, Upper Nyong division, Ngoila subdivision. Also in Congo. 3,500 in Cameroon. 85% monolingual. Population total all countries: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djem, Dzem, Ndjem, Ndjeme, Ndzem, Ngyeme, Njem, Njeme, Nyem Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.84) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nkongho
[nkc] South West Region, Kupe-Muanenguba division, Nguti subdivision. 2,230 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kinkwa, Lekongo, Upper Mbo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.15A)

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Nomaande
[lem] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, west and north Bokito subdivision, southwest of Bafi. 6,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lemande, Mande, Mandi, Noomaante, Numand, Pimenc Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.46) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Noone
[nhu] North West Region, Bui division, northwest Kumbo subdivision. 25,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Noni, Nooni Dialects: Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 88% with Ncane [ncr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

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Nubaca
[baf] Center Region, Mbam division, Bokito subdivision, Yangben canton, south of Yangben, Bongo village, 8 quarters: Puéméné, Galala, Bupili, Buyatolo, Gafogo, Buaya, Ganok, and Nikoss. 4,500 (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baca, Bango, Bongo, Central Yambassa, Nu Baca Dialects: Center Nubaca, Kélendé, Nibiég. No significant dialect differences. Not intelligible with other Yambassa language varieties. Related to Elip [ekm] and Mmaala [mmu]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Baka [bkc], 77% with Yangben [yav], 72% with Elip [ekm] and Mmaala [mmu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60)

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Nugunu
[yas] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Ombessa and Bokito subdivisions, Ombessa area southwest. 35,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Behie, Beke, Gounou, Gunu, Nu Gunu, Ombessa, Yambasa, Yambassa Dialects: Northern Gunu, Southern Gunu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60)

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Nyokon
[nvo] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Makenene subdivision, Nyokon. 3,900 (Guthrie and Tucker 1956). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fung, Hung, Ni Nyo’o, Nyo’on Dialects: Similar to Tunen [tvu], Nomaande [lem], and Tuotomb [ttf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.44) Comments: Nyokon is the French [fra] version of the local name. The term is accepted by the speakers as the label used in French. It is also the official name of the town where the language is spoken. There is not yet a standardized way to write the autonym. Christian.

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Nyong
[muo] North West Region, Ngo-Ketunjia division, Balikumbat subdivision, near Ndop plain in Balikumbat, Baligansin, and Baligashu villages; Mezam division, Baligham. Also in Nigeria. 30,000 in Cameroon (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daganonga, Daganyonga, Mubako, Mumbake, Ndagam, Nyongnepa, Samba Bali Dialects: They consider themselves the same ethnically as Samba Leko [ndi], but intelligibility is low. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nzakambay
[nzy] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision, Touboro area. 13,000 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbay, Nzak Mbai, Nzak Mbay, Nzakmbay Dialects: Gonge (Ngonge). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang

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Nzanyi
[nja] North Region, Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo subdivision, Doumo area, west of Dourbeye near Nigeria border. 9,000 in Cameroon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeng, Kobochi, Kobotshi, Mzangyim, Njai, Njanyi, Njegn, Njei, Njeng, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany Dialects: Holma. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Oblo
[obl] North Region, Bénoué division, Pitoa subdivision, Gobtikéré, Ouro Bé, and Ouro Badjouma areas. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Unclassified

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Oku
[oku] North West Region, Bui division, west Jakiri subdivision, Mt. Oku and Lake Oku areas. 40,000 (1991 L. Davis). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bvukoo, Ebkuo, Ekpwo, Kuo, Ukfwo, Uku Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, Center Comments: Distinct from Kuo [xuo] which is Adamawa.

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Oroko
[bdu] South West Region, Meme division, southwestern corner of Kumba subdivision, all but eastern edge of Konye subdivision, northern two-thirds of Mbonge subdivision; Ndian division, most of Mundemba subdivision, except eastern edge, most of Ekondo-Titi subdivision, Dikome Balue subdivision. 106,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bakundu-Balue, Oroko-East, Oroko-West Dialects: Bima, Ekombe (Bekombo, Ekumbe), Lokoko (Bakoko), Lokundu (Bakundu, Bawo, Bekunde, Kundu, Lakundu, Nkundu), Lolue (Babue, Balue, Barue, Lue, Western Kundu), Londo (Balondo Ba Diko, Balondo Ba Nanga), Longolo (Ngolo), Lotanga (Batanga), Mbonge. The Batanga dialect is distinct from Batanga [bnm] (Banoho) and the Batanga dialect of Caka [ckx]; the Bakoko dialect is distinct from Bakoko [bkh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Lundu-Balong (A.11) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Osatu
[ost] South West Region, Manyu division, Akwaya subdivision, southeast of Asumbo. 400 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ihatum, Ossatu Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Balo [bqo], 40% with Ipulo [ass] and Caka [ckx], 35% with Mesaka [iyo] and Esimbi [ags]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pam
[pmn] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, south of Tchollire town. 30 (2003 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified

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Pana
[pnz] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision. Some urban areas. 2,980 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani Dialects: Man. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Man dialect may be a separate language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Parkwa
[pbi] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Mora subdivision, west and southwest of Mora. 30,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gwadi Parekwa, Kudala, Padogo, Padokwa, Paduko, Parekwa, Pawdawkwa, Podogo, Podoko, Podokwo Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Podoko Comments: Traditional religion.

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Peere
[pfe] Adamawa Region, Northwestern Tignere subdivision between Tignere and Nigeria border, Faro and Deo divisions; northeast of Banyo, Mayo-Banyo division. Also in Nigeria. 15,000 in Cameroon (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kotofo, Kotopo, Kotpojo, Koutin, Koutine, Kutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Patapori, Peer, Pere, Potopo, Potopore Dialects: Dan Muure (Kotofo, Kotopo, Kpotopo, Potopo), Peer Muure, Zongbi (Djonbi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin Comments: Ethnic autonym: Peer. Primer. Traditional religion.

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Pévé
[lme] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, northeast of Tchollire, Bouba-Ndjida Park area. 5,720 in Cameroon (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ka’do, Lamé Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Different from Lame [bma] of Nigeria.

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Pidgin, Cameroon
[wes] Primarily South West and North West regions; Littoral Region, Douala; Center Region, Yaounde; South West and North West regions, urban centers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cameroon Creole English, Wes Cos Dialects: Similar to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone and Pidgin English of various West African countries; probably an offshoot of 19th century Krio. Also similar to Sranan [srn] (Todd and Mühlhäusler 1978). There are dialect variations. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pinyin
[pny] North West Region, Mezam division, southwest Bamenda subdivision, southwest of Bamenda. 24,600 (2001 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bapinyi, Pelimpo Dialects: Related to Awing [aal], Ngemba [nge], Bafut [bfd], and Mendankwe-Nkwen [mfd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Pol
[pmm] East Region, Upper Nyong division, Dimako subdivision, east of Doume; Lom and Djerem divisions, east of Belabo. Also in Congo (Pomo). 38,700 in Cameroon (2000). Population total all countries: 44,130. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo Pol, Pomo, Pori, Pul Dialects: Azom (Asom, Pori Asom), Bobili, Dondi, Mambaya, Pori Kinda (Kinda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.92)

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Psikye
[kvj] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, southwest Mokolo subdivision. Also in Nigeria. 40,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 52,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake Dialects: Psikye (Kamu, Kapsiki), Zlenge. Similar to Hya [hya] and Kamwe [hig] of Nigeria. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samba Leko
[ndi] North Region, Faro division, between Tchamba and Mayo-Louti river, west of Poli; south Beka subdivision along Nigeria border. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chamba Leeko, Samba Dialects: Bangla, Deenu (Koola), Samba de Wangai, Samba Leko (Laeko, Lego, Leko, Lekon, Ndii, Suntai), Sampara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko Comments: Different from Samba Daka [ccg].

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Sari
[asj] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Misaje subdivision, both sides of Ring Road between Misaje and Nkambe: Mbissa, Kamine, and Akweto villages. 7,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akweto, Nsari, Pesaa, Saari, Sali Dialects: Member of the Eastern Beboid subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ncane [ncr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

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Sharwa
[swq] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, South Bourrah subdivision; a few in North Region, Mayo-Louti division. 5,100 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sarwaye, Sherwin, Tchevi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Different from Sarua [swy] (Sarwa) of Chad. Muslim.

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Suga
[sgi] Adamawa Region, Faro and Deo divisions, Galim area southwest of Tignere; Mayo-Banyo division, north Banyo subdivision, Sambolabbo area. 10,000 (1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galim, “Jemjem” (pej.), “Njemnjem” (pej.), “Nyamnyam” (pej.), Ssuga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Suga Comments: Different from Nimbari [nmr] (Nyamnyam) of Cameroon. Sewe may be an alternate name. Ethnic autonym: Baghap. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Swo
[sox] Center Region, Nyong and Mfoumou divisions, Akonolinga subdivision, Melan and Emvane cantons; East Region, a few in Upper Nyong division. 9,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fo, Shwo, Sô, Sso Dialects: Emvane So, Melan So. Dialects have vocabulary and pronunciation differences, but no reported problem with mutual intelligibility. The Melan Swo dialect has been influenced by Ewondo [ewo] and Bulu [bum]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.82)

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Tibea
[ngy] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, extreme north Ngoro subdivision, northeast of Bafia. 3 villages. 1,400 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djanti, Minjanti, Ngayaba, Njanti, Nyabea, Zangnte Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bafia (A.54)

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Tikar
[tik] Center Region, Mbam and Kim divisions, Ngambe-Tikar subdivision, scattered over northwest Yoko and northeast of Foumban; Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo division, Bankim subdivision; West Region, Noun division, Magba subdivision. 25,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndob, Ndome, Tikali, Tikar-East, Tikari, Tingkala Dialects: Bandobo, Gambai, Kong, Mankim, Nditam, Tige (Tikar de Ngambe), Twumwu (Tikar de Bankim, Tumu). Bandobo may be a separate language. The Bankim call their dialect Twumwu, the Ngambe call theirs Tige. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tikar

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Tiv
[tiv] South West Region, Manyu division, northeast of Akwaya on Nigeria border, Njobo (Njawbaw) village. Few in Cameroon. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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To
[toz] North Region, Mayo-Rey division, Touboro subdivision. Also in Central African Republic. No known L1 speakers in Cameroon. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified Comments: An ancient secret male initiation language of the Gbaya.

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Tsuvan
[tsh] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, southeast Bourrah subdivision, northeast of Dourbeye, Tchevi village, 5 quartiers found in an area 10 km in diameter; some in North Region, Mayo-Louti division. 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Matsuvan, Motsuvan, Tchede, Telaki, Teleki, Terki Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

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Tuki
[bag] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, along Sanaga river north of Saa; north of Sanaga river between Ombessa and Ntui. 26,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bacenga, Baki, Batchenga, Betsinga, Betzinga, Ki, Oki, Osa Nanga, Sanaga Dialects: Bundum, Kombe (Bakombe, Tukombe, Wakombe), Mbere (Bambele, Bamvele, Mbele, Mvele, Tumbele), Ngoro (Aki, Tu Ngoro, Uki), Tocenga (Bacenga, Tiki), Tonjo (Boudjou, Bunju), Tsinga (Batsingo, Chinga, Tutsingo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Sanaga (A.601) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tunen
[tvu] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Ndikinimeki and Makenene subdivisions; Littoral Region, Nkam division, Yingui subdivision. 35,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banen, Banend, Nen, Penin, Penyin Dialects: Alinga (Eling, Tuling), Ndoktuna, Niguessen (Mese, Paningesen, Sese), Toboany (Itundu), Tufombo (Logananga, Ndogbang, Ndokbiakat). Similar to Nyokon [nvo], Nomaande [lem], and Tuotomb [ttf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.44) Comments: May be in Bantu A.60. Distinct from Pinyin [pny] in the Ngemba group. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tuotomb
[ttf] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Bafia subdivision, Ndikinemeki area, Bonek village. 1,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). A few speakers found in Bonek near Ndikinemeki (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bonek, Ponek, Tuotom Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.461)

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Tupuri
[tui] Far North Region, Kaele division, southeast Moulvouday plain east of Kaele; Mayo-Danay division, Kar-Hay subdivision. Also in Chad. 125,000 in Cameroon. Population total all countries: 229,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dema, Honya, Mata, Ndoore, Ndore, Tongoyna, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi, Wina Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Twendi
[twn] Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo division, north of Bankim, Sanga village. 30 (2000 B. Connell). Ethnic population: 1,000 or fewer (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Konja

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Usaghade
[usk] South West Region, Ndian division, Isangele subdivision, near the coast. Also in Nigeria. 10,000 in Cameroon (1990 B. Connell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Isangele, Usakade, Usakedet Dialects: Distinct from Efik [efi] (1998 B. Connell, Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade

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Vame
[mlr] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Mora and Tokombere subdivisions, Southern Mora massif south of Mora. 8,500 (1992 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maslava, Ndreme, Pelasla Dialects: Hurzo, Ndreme, Pelasla. Pelasla is more similar to Wuzlam [udl] than the other dialects are. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Pelasla is one of 6 ethnic groups: Pelasla, Mbreme, Ndereme, Afaem, Dumwa, Hurzo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Vemgo-Mabas
[vem] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mabas village on Nigeria border northwest of Mokolo. 5,000 in Cameroon (Dieu and Renaud 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mabas, Vemgo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Comments: Different from Maba of Chad. Maya may be an alternate name.

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Vengo
[bav] North West Region, Ngo Ketunjia division, Ndop subdivision, north of Ndop on Ndop plain, Babungo village. 27,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Babungo, Nge, Ngo, Nguu, Ngwa, Pengo, Vengi, Vengoo Dialects: Similar to Wushi [bse] and Kenswei-Nsei [ndb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South Comments: Ethnic autonym: Vengoo. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Vute
[vut] Center Region, northeast Mbam division; Upper Sanaga division, near Nanga-Eboko and Mbandjok; Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo and Djerem divisions (near Tibati and Banyo); some in East Region, west Lom and Djerem divisions. Also in Nigeria. 20,000 in Cameroon (1997 L. Lode). 300 in Banyo (1995 B. Connell). Population total all countries: 21,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ’Abotee, ’Abwetee, Baboute, Bamboute, Boute, Bubure, Bule, Bute, Foute, Luvure, Nbule, Pute, Voute, Voutere, Woute, Wute Dialects: Bute Bamnyo (Vute de Banyo), Kumbere (Vute de Sangbe), Nduvum (Vute de Tibati), Ngoro (Vute de Ngorro), Nudoo (Vute de Yangba), Nugane (Vute de Doume), Nujum (Vute de Linte), Vute Mbanjo (Vute de Mbandjok). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wandala
[mfi] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, east of Mora, north and northwest in a semicircle, to Nigeria border. Also in Nigeria. 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 43,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandara, Mandara Montagnard, Ndara Dialects: Gamargu (Gamergou, Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa), Gwanje, Jampalam, Kamburwama, Masfeima, Mazagwa, Mura (Duwe, Kirdi-Mora, Mora Brousse, Mora Massif), Wandala (Mandara), Ziogba. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara Comments: Muslim.

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Wawa
[www] Adamawa Region, Mayo-Banyo division, Bankim subdivision, west of Banyo, 13 villages. 3,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Gandua. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute

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Weh
[weh] North West Region, Menchum division, Wum Central subdivision, Weh village. 6,900 (1994 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Little dialect variation. Similar to Aghem [agq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wumboko
[bqm] South West Region, Fako division, Buea subdivision; Meme division, Kumba subdivision. 4,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bamboko, Bambuku, Bomboko, Bumboko, Mboko, Womboko Dialects: Probably intelligible of Mokpwe [bri], but different enough from Duala [dua] to possibly need separate literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Duala (A.21)

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Wushi
[bse] North West Region, Ngo Ketunjia division, Babessi subdivision, east of Ndop, Babessi village. 25,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babessi, Cho’ Wushike, Pesii, Sii, Vesi Dialects: Similar to Vengo [bav], Kenswei-Nsei [ndb], and Bamunka [bvm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, South Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wushi. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Wuzlam
[udl] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Tokombere subdivision, Wuzlam massif south of Mora. 10,500 (1982 SIL), increasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mizlime, Ouldeme, Udlam, Uldeme, Uzam, Uzlam Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: Traditional religion.

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Yamba
[yam] North West Region, Donga-Mantung division, Central Nwa subdivision; plains east of Nwa, Nkongsamba, Bafia. Seasonal immigrants in Mambila plateau, Nigeria. Also in Nigeria. 80,000 in Cameroon (2000), increasing. Includes those living outside the area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bebaroe, Boenga Ko, “Kaka” (pej.), Kakayamba, Mbem, Mbubem, Muzok, Swe’nga Dialects: Bom, Fam, Gamfe, Gom, Gwembe, Kwak, Mbem, Mfe, Ngung, Nkot, Ntim, Ntong, Nwa, Rom, Saam, Sih, Yang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: Mbem is reference dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yambeta
[yat] Center Region, Mbam and Inoubou divisions, Kom-Yambeta subdivision northwest of Bafia town. 3,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Njambeta, Yambetta Dialects: Nedek (Begi-Nibum, Kibum), Nigii (Nigi). Related to Bati [btc], Mbule [mlb], Elip [ekm], Leti [leo], Mmaala [mmu], Nubaca [baf], Nugunu [yas], Tuki [bag], and Yangben [yav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, West (A.462)

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Yangben
[yav] Center Region, Mbam division, Bokito subdivision, Yangben canton south of Bokito town. 2,300 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Yambassa, Kalong, Nuasue, Nukalonge Dialects: Nukalonge, Numende, Nutanga. Similar to Elip [ekm] and Mmaala [mmu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbam, Yambasa (A.60) Comments: Nukalonge is the reference dialect.

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Yasa
[yko] South Region, Ocean division, Campo and Kribi subdivisions, on the coast near Equatorial Guinea, 15 villages. Also in Equatorial Guinea, Gabon. 1,490 in Cameroon (2000). Population total all countries: 2,400. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bongwe, Iyasa, Lyaasa, Maasa, Yassa Dialects: Avandje, Iyassa. Lexical similarity: with Ngumbi [nui] (Kombe) in Equatorial Guinea. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bube-Benga (A.33) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yemba
[ybb] West Region, Menoua division, Dschang area. 300,000, increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atsang-Bangwa, Bafou, Bamileke-Yemba, Bangwa, Dschang, Tchang Dialects: Foreke Dschang (Dschang, Tchang), Yemba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Comments: Part of a language subgroup which includes Ngwe [nwe] and Ngiemboon [nnh]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yeni
[yei] Nyalang area north of Mayo Darle village. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified Comments: Apparently all that remains of the language is a song, known by Sandani (Kwanja [knp]) speakers.

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Yukuben
[ybl] North West Region, Menchum division, west of Furu-Awa, near Nigeria border. 950 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayikiben, Balaabe, Balaaben, Boritsu, Gohum, Nyikobe, Nyikuben, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb Comments: Glossonym: Uuhum Gigi, preferred. Ethnonym: Yukuben.

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Zhoa
[zhw] North West Region, Menchum division, Fungom subdivision. 1 village. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Most similar to Weh [weh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, West Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zizilivakan
[ziz] Far North Region, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah subdivision, near Nigeria border. 200 in Cameroon (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Àmzírív, Fali of Jilbu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

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Zulgo-Gemzek
[gnd] Far North Region, Mayo-Sava division, Tokombere subdivision, east edge of Mandara mountains, north of Maroua. 16 villages. 26,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gemjek, Guemshek, Zulgo Dialects: Gemzek (Gaduwa), Mineo (Minew), Zulgo (Zelgwa, Zoulgo, Zulgwa). Slight dialect differences between villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Comments: The Mbuko [mqb], Muyang [muy], and Mada [mxu] languages are in the surrounding area. Christian, traditional religion.

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Zumaya
[zuy] Far North Region, Diamare division, Maroua subdivision, Ouro-Lamorde. 25 (1987 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

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