Colombia

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Achagua
[aca] Upper Meta River; right bank, Meta Department, between Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán, community of Umapo, and in El Turpial reservation; left bank, Casanare Department, contiguous area. 250 (2000 M. Lozano), decreasing. Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ajagua, Xagua Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piapoco [pio]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco Comments: Significant acculturation.

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Andaqui
[ana] Southern highlands, Caqueta Department, upper reaches of Caquetá river, Cauca Department, Fragua valley; Huila Department, Suaza valley. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: Rural Andaqui communities in Acevedo (Huila) and Belén de los Andaquíes (Caquetá), near Pescado and Fragua rivers, but no longer speaking their language. Some Incas who occupied former Andaqui areas insist that there are still uncontacted Andaqui people. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aguanunga, Andaki, Churuba Classification: Paezan Comments: Different from Andoque [ano] in Amazonas.

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Andoque
[ano] Amazonas Department, Aduche, tributary of Caquetá, 15 km downriver from Araracuara; also in Caqueta Department, Solano municipality. 370 (2007 B. Pencue), decreasing. 10,000 in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 520 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Andoke, Businka, Cha’oie, Paasi-ahá , Paasiaja Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ethnic autonym: Poosioho, people of the axe. Some intermarriage with Muinanes [bmr] and Huitotos [hux].

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Anserma
[ans] Caldas, Quindio, and Risaralda departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anserna Dialects: None known. Related to Cauca [cca], Arma [aoh] (both extinct), and Caramanta [crf]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Arhuaco
[arh] Magdalena and Cesar departments, northeast and southern slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 8,000 (2009 P. Frank). 7,200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aruaco, Bintucua, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, Ikan, Ike Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ika. Strong traditional culture. Traditional religion.

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Arma
[aoh] Huila Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco Comments: People spoke either Cenu or Cauca [cca] (both extinct).

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Pacific slopes of Andes, Narino Department, from Ecuador border north, near Barbacoas; Cumbal, Mallama, Ricaurte, Cuambíyaslambi, and Cuaiquer del Alto Albí reservations. 12,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. Population total all countries: 13,000. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Awa Pit, Coaiquer, Cuaiquer, Kwaiker, Quaiquer Dialects: None known. Distantly related to Chachi [cbi] and Colorado [cof]. Classification: Barbacoan, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Awa and Înkal Awa, both in Ecuador and Colombia. The presence of petroleum companies, paramilitary groups, guerrilla forces, the cultivation of illicit crops and subsequent widespread fumigation of their territory has had extremely disruptive effects on the Awa society that currently is coping with a very serious acculturation process. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Barasana-Eduria
[bsn] Southern Vaupes Department, Pira-Paraná river and tributaries, Sõnanã, San Miguel, Piedra Ñi, Cachivera Pina, Pacoa, Mitú; Amazonas Department, south bank, Apaporis river. 1,890 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banera yae, Barasana, Barasano, Come masa, Comematsa, Edulia, Eduria, Hanera oka, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano Dialects: Barasana (Comematsa, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Yebamasa), Eduria (Edulia, Taiwano). Reportedly similar to Macuna [myy] and Carapana [cbc] ( 2011 P. Jones). Lexical similarity: 98% between Eduria and Barasano; just some phonological differences. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka Comments: Barasana and Eduria considered separate languages by the people, and distinct ethnic groups that can intermarry.

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Barbacoas
[bpb] Narino Department, near Barbacoas coastal town. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Barbacoan, Northern

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Barí
[mot] Norte de Santander Department, Serranía de los Motilones, Upper Catatumbo and Oro River region, Reserva Indígena Motilón-Barí and Resguardo Indígena Gabarra-Catalaura; also in Cesar Department, Chimichagua, La Gloria, and Pailitas municipalities. 3,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barira, Cunausaya, Dobocubi, Motilón, Motilone Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian Comments: Classification as Chibchan has been questioned (1973 M. Durbin); Alternatively classified as Arawakan (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).

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Bora
[boa] Amazonas Department, Bora: Providencia on Igaraparana (tributary of the Putumayo); Miraña: lower Caquetá River, near Cahuinari river mouth. 100 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 660 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boro, Meamuyna, Miraña Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane Comments: Some intermarriage with Ocainas and Huitotos (2007 B. Pencue).

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Cabiyarí
[cbb] Vaupes and Amazonas departments, Cananarí River, tributary of the Apaporis and Vaupés. 270 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cabiuarí, Cauyarí, Cuyare, Kabiyarí, Kauyarí, Kawiarí, Kawillary, Kawiyarí Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki

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Cacua
[cbv] Upper Vaupes Department, Wacará, 30 km east of Mitú. 400 (2010 A. Gonzalez). Many monolinguals, especially children. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Báda, Cakua, Kakua, Kákwa, Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Desano, Macu de Guanano, Macú-Paraná, Wacara Dialects: Macú-Paraná Cacua, Vaupés Cacua. Lexical similarity: 90% similarity with Nukak [mbr] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua

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Cagua
[cbh] Meta Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified

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Camsá
[kbh] Putumayo Department, Sibundoy valley, near Ingas. 4,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 4,020 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Camëntsëá, Coche, Kamemtxa, Kamsa, Kamse, Sibundoy, Sibundoy-Gaché Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial.

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Carabayo
[cby] Amazonas Department, halfway between San Bernardo and Pure rivers. At least 3 long houses. 150. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Amazonas Macusa” (pej.), Yuri Classification: Unclassified Comments: “Macusa” or “Macú”, savage, is arbitrarily applied to uncontacted groups.

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Caramanta
[crf] Antioquia Department, Jardín Municipality, near cities of Andes and Cristianía. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Carapana
[cbc] Vaupes Department, Cano Tí (tributary of middle Vaupés river) and upper Papurí and Pirá-Paraná rivers. 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 642. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Carapana-Tapuya, Karapaná, Karapanã, Karapano, Mextã, Mi tea, Mochda, Moxdoa, Muxtea Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tatuyo [tav] (Crevels 2007) and to Barasan-Eduria [bsn] (2004 DNP). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano

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Carijona
[cbd] Guaviare Department, southeast of Lake Espajo, Miraflores municipality. 6 (Crevels 2007). 6 speakers near La Pedrera and a few more near Miraflores (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Carifuna, Carihona, Hianacoto-Umaua, Huaque, Kaliohona, Karijona, Koto, Omagua, Umawa Dialects: None known. Possibly 2 separate languages, Hianacoto-Umaua and Carijona (1973 M. Durbin). The 2 groups had no contact for many years. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Karihona

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Cauca
[cca] Vaupes Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Related to Anserma [ans]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Chimila
[cbg] Cesar Department, Valle du Par minicipality; central Magdalena Department, lowlands south and west of Fundación; La Guajira Department, La Jagua del Pilar and Urumita municipalities. 480 (2006 T. Malone), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,700 (2013 T. Malone). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caca Weranos, Chimile, Ette Ennaka, San Jorge, Shimizya, Simiza Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian Comments: 2 major separated groups.

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Chipiajes
[cbe] Meta, Guaviare, and Vichada departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified Comments: A Sáliba surname. Many Guahibo also have that name.

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Amazonas Department, Ronda Island in the Amazon River opposite the city of Leticia, and in Naranjales, Palmeras, and San José villages. Possibly only a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cocama, Kokama Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama Comments: Ethnonym: Inikana, we ourselves. Intermarriage with Colombian mestizos, Tikunas, Yaguas, and Huitotos (2007 A. Pencue).

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Cofán
[con] Colombia-Ecuador border area, Putumayo Department, Valle del Gamuéz, Orito, and San Miguel; southeastern Narino Department. 1,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. Many monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: A’i, A’ingae, Kofan, Kofane Dialects: Aguarico, Santa Rosa. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Colombian Sign Language
[csn] Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Some signs reportedly similar to those in sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the United States. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Began 1929.

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Coxima
[kox] Arauca and Casanare departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koxima Classification: Unclassified

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Coyaima
[coy] Tolima Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa

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Cubeo
[cub] Vaupes Department, Vaupés, Cuduyari, Querarí rivers and tributaries; possibly some in Guainía Department. 6,100 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), increasing. Population total all countries: 6,260. 610 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Cubeo is lingua franca for northwest Vaupés area and Tucano [tuo] is the lingua franca for the southeast section. Alternate Names: Cuveo, Hehenawa, Hipnwa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubwa, Pamiwa Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan Comments: Exogamous marriage pattern with speakers of other languages. Decrease in infant mortality has caused an increase in population. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cuiba
[cui] Arauca Department, Cravo Norte municipality; Casanare Department, Capanaparo rivers and tributaries, El Merey, Esmeralda, Santa María, Betania, Mochuelo, San José de Ariporo; also in Vichada Department along south bank of Meta river. 2,200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 2,850. 1,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiricoa, Cuiba-Wámonae, Cuiva, Hiwi, Maiben Dialects: Amaruwa (Amorua), Chiricoa, Chiripo (Siripu, Wupiwi), Masiware (Masiguare), Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi (Mariposas), Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara. 8 dialects in Venezuela and Colombia. Classification: Guajiboan Comments: Seminomadic bands.

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Cumeral
[cum] Guainia Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified

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Curripaco
[kpc] Guainia Department, Isana, and Inírida rivers, headwaters of the Río Negro, also in Inírida, Barrio La Primavera; Vaupes Department, Mitu and Papunahua minicipalities. 7,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 11,880. Ethnic population: 7,060 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Curipaco, Karrupaku, Koripako, Kuripaco, Kurripaco, Waquenia Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baniwa [bwi]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu Comments: The ethnic group is related to the Puinave [pui] and Piapoco [pio] (2011 Suárez).

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Desano
[des] Vaupes Department, Vaupés river tributaries, Papurí and Abiyu rivers; Papurí tributaries Pacá, Macú Parana and others; Villa Fátima village and Montfort, Piracuara, Acaricuara, and Teresita missions. 2,460 in Colombia (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Desána, Dessana, Kotedia, Kusibi, Oregu, Wina, Wira Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano

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Emberá, Northern
[emp] Choco and Antioquia departments, Atrato river basin; also inland from Cabo Corrientes north to Jurado, Pacific coast. 49,700 in Colombia (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atrato, Cholo, Darién, Eberã, Eberã Bed’ea, Emperã, Eperã Pedea, Panama Embera Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá Comments: Ethnic autonym: Embena (Embera, Epena), people, used by all Chocoan peoples except Waunana to refer to themselves. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Emberá-Baudó
[bdc] Choco Department, Baudó river basin and Pacific coastal rivers between Cabo Corrientes north towards Northern Embera language area. 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baudó, Catrú Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Northern Emberá [emp] and Epena [sja]. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Emberá-Catío
[cto] Antioquia, Cordoba, and Choco departments; upper Sinu, San Jorge, San Pedro, and Murri rivers. 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). Population total all countries: 15,040. 13,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Catio, Embena, Eyabida, Katio Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá Comments: Catio is sometimes used for other Chocoan groups.

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Emberá-Chamí
[cmi] Departments of Valle del Cauca, Risaralda, Antioquia, Choco, and Caldas, including Caramanta municipality. 5,510 (2001 DNP). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chami Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Emberá-Tadó
[tdc] Choco Departament, upper San Juan river region; also in Risaralda Department northwest of Pueblo Rico. 1,000 (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998)). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cholo, Êpêra Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá Comments: Secluded.

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Epena
[sja] South Pacific coast, Cauca, Narino, and Valle del Cauca departments; 2 separate areas. 3,500 in Colombia (2004 IMB), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,750. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cholo, Embera, Emberá-Saija, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Empera Dialects: Basurudó. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guahibo
[guh] Plains region, mainly Vichada and eastern Meta departments; border areas in Casanare, Guaviare, Arauca, and Guainia departments. 23,000 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Population total all countries: 34,200. 9,200 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goahibo, Goahiva, Guaigua, Guajibo, Guayba, “Sicuani” (pej.), “Sikuani” (pej.), Wahibo Dialects: Amorua (Rio Tomo Guahibo), Guahibo (Sikuani), Tigrero, Vichadeño. Guahiban languages may not be within Arawakan. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Río Tomo Guahibo are nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guambiano
[gum] Cauca Department, on western slopes of Andean Cordillera Central, Silvia, Jambaló, Totoró, Caldono, and Toribío municipalities, and on the banks of Piendamó river. 21,000 (Civallero 2008), increasing. 2,100 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guambia, Moguex Classification: Paezan, Coconuco Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Guanano
[gvc] Vaupes Department, south bank Vaupés river towards Mitu town. 300 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Ethnic population: 1,170 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kótedia, Kotiria, Uanano, Wanana, Wanano Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan Comments: The Guanano move back and forth across the border with Brazil.

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Guayabero
[guo] Meta and Guaviare departments, Upper Guaviare River. 1,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 N. López). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cunimía, Jiw, Mítua, Mítus Classification: Guajiboan Comments: Marriage within their own community; 5% urban, 95% rural. Traditional religion.

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Huitoto, Minica
[hto] Caqueta and Amazonas departments along Caqueta river basin at Isla de los Monos; into Putumayo Department, Leguizamo minicipality; Caguan river area near Sanvicente del Caguan unconfirmed. 6,800 (2002 A. Bríñez). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meneca, Minica Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai

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Huitoto, Murui
[huu] Amazonas, Putumayo, and Caqueta departments, between Putumayo and Caqueta rivers, north of Porto Arturo. 6,800 in Colombia (2002 A. Bríñez). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bue, Witoto Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai

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Hupdë
[jup] Vaupes Department, Papurí and Tiquié river systems. 240 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 240 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hup, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.), Ubdé Classification: Puinavean, Hupda Comments: Subservient to Tucanoan Indians. Some nomadic between Colombia and Brazil.

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Inga
[inb] Northwest Putumayo and southeast Narino departments; some in Cauca Department, Piamonte and Santa Rosa municipalities; 1,000 in Bogotá, some in regional capitals. 18,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Dispersed in various regions; adopted commerce as a survival strategy (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Inga Dialects: Aponte Inga, San Andrés Inga, Santiago Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Quichua [qvi] of Ecuador. Aponte Inga dialect is most distinct. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Inga, Jungle
[inj] Putumayo, Cauca, and Narino departments, upper Caquetá and Putumayo rivers. 11,200 (2007 Organización de Cabildos Indígenas del Putumayo). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Inga, Mocoa Dialects: Guayuyaco, Yunguillo-Condagua. Reportedly most similar to Highland Inga [inb]. Distinct from Napo Quechua [qvo]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Islander Creole English
[icr] San Andres y Providencia Islands. 12,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bende, San Andrés Creole Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Belize Creole English [bzj]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western

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Kogi
[kog] Magdalena and La Guajira departments; north, east, and west slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 9,910 (2004 DNP). Nearly all monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coghui, Cogui, Kagaba, Kaggaba, Kogui Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan

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Koreguaje
[coe] Caqueta Department, Orteguaza and Caquetá rivers and tributaries; also in Putumayo Department, Puerto Guzman municipality. 2,100 (Civallero 2008). Speakers of Koreguaje represent a fusion of various ethnic groups. Also spoken by Inga, Witoto, Carijona, and Tama (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caquetá, Chaocha Pai, Coreguaje, Correguaje, Ko’reuaju Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan Comments: ‘Caquetá’ is name of the river, not the people.

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Kuna, Border
[kvn] North coast region near Panama isthmus, Antioquia Department, along east and west banks of the Gulf of Uraba; Choco Department, Arquía. 2,600 in Colombia (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiman Nuevo, Colombia Cuna, Cuna, Paya-Pucuro Dialects: None known. Classification of Kuna uncertain; may be an isolate with some Chibchan features. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Cuna

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Macaguaje
[mcl] Lower Putumayo Department, tributaries of Caquetá River. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: A few still maintain group identity.

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Macaguán
[mbn] Arauca Department, Tame and Puerto Rondon municipalities; Casanare Department, Hato Corozal municipality; along Casanare river, other scattered locations. 300 (Civallero 2008). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 540 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Agualinda Guahibo, Hitnü, Macaguane, Macaguane-Hitnu Dialects: None known. Unintelligible to other Guahibo variety speakers. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Small groups. Semi-nomadic.

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Macuna
[myy] Vaupes Department, lower Pira-Parana, Apaporis tributaries and Mirití-Paraná. 1,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 1,170. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buhagana, Emoa, Ide, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Roea, Suroa, Tabotiro Jejea, Umua, Wuhána, Yeba, Yepá-Mahsá Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Malayo
[mbp] La Guajira and Cesar departments, south and east slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arosario, Arsario, Damana, Guamaca, Guamaka, Maracasero, Marocasero, Sancá, Sanja, Sanka, Wiwa Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan, Guamaca-Atanque

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Muinane
[bmr] Amazonas Department, Puerto Santander municipality, south of Caquetá river; Caqueta Department between Caqueta and Yari rivers. 150 (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Muename, Muinana, Muinani Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane Comments: Not the same as Muinane Huitoto [hux].

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Natagaimas
[nts] Tolima Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified

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Nhengatu
[yrl] Far southeast Guainia Department, on Rio Negro; 2 separated areas, Vaupes Department, Caruru and Yavarate municipalities. 8,000 in Colombia (2004 IMB). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Waengatu, Yeral Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí

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Nonuya
[noj] Amazonas Department, Puerto Santander municipality, Peña Roja. 3 in Colombia (2007 J. Echeverri). Population total all countries: 4. Ethnic population: 90. Ethnic population covers both Colombia and Peru. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Witotoan

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Nukak Makú
[mbr] Jungle region between Guaviare and Inírida rivers, up to Mapiripan. Near Charco Caimán. 700 (2010 A. Gonzalez). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guaviare, Maczsa, Nukak Dialects: None known. Sometimes considered the same language as Kakua [cbv] as they share a large percentage of their lexicon and supposedly are mutually intelligible (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua Comments: Evasive hunters.

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Ocaina
[oca] Amazonas Department, Upper Igará-Paraná and tributaries. 140 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Okaina Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina

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Omejes
[ome] Vaupes Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified

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Páez
[pbb] Cauca, Huila, and Tolima departments, central Andes range, Popayán area. 40,000 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 119,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Paniquita (Panikita), Pitayo. Classification: Paezan, Paezan Comments: Christian.

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Palenquero
[pln] Bolivar Department, San Basilio de Palenque village southeast of Cartagena; Atlantico Department, small border area and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla. 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lengua, Palenque Dialects: None known. Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Hancock 1987). Classification: Creole, Spanish based Comments: People are culturally distinct from nearby Spanish [spa] speakers. Palenque is Spanish for a fortified village of runaway slaves.

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Piapoco
[pio] Vichada Department, river region between the Vichada and Guaviare rivers; Guainia Department, small areas bordering the Guaviare, south bank. 4,930 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Population total all countries: 6,380. Ethnic population: 4,930 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Very similar to Guarequena [gae] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco

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Piaroa
[pid] Extreme east of Vaupés Department, on the border with Venezuela, on the banks of the smaller tributaries of the Manaveni, Vichada, Guaviare, and Zama rivers, Selva de Matavén, Resguardo Matavén Fruta. 80 in Colombia (1991 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 800 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Adole, Ature, Guagua, Kuakua, Maco, Quaqua Dearuwa, Wo’tiheh Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco

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Pijao
[pij] Tolima Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Piajao Dialects: None known. Not enough data to classify it linguistically (1973 M. Durbin). Classification: Unclassified

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Piratapuyo
[pir] Vaupes Department, Yavarate municipality, Papurí and lower Vaupés rivers; most near Roman Catholic mission at Teresita. 450 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 630 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uaikena, Urubu-Tapuya, Waikino Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Playero
[gob] Arauca Department, Venezuela border, banks of Arauca river from Gaviotas Island to Arauca. 150 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 160 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pepojivi, Rio Arauca Guahibo Dialects: None known. Low intelligibility of other Guahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Many have fields in Venezuela.

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Ponares
[pod] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified Comments: A Sáliba surname. Might have been a Piapoco or Achagua subgroup.

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Providencia Sign Language
[prz] Providencia Island off Nicaraguan coast. 19 (Washabaugh 1986). Known by most people on the island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (Washabaugh 1986). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Not exposed to other sign languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: High deaf population probably caused by in-breeding. Deaf fairly well integrated into daily activities.

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Puinave
[pui] Guainia and Vichada departments, Inírida river and tributaries. 2,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 2,880. Ethnic population: 5,380 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Puinabe Dialects: None known. Related to Macú (Ruhlen and others). Classification: Puinavean

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Putumayo river. Undetermined number in Colombia. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lowland Napo Quechua Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 4,850 in Colombia (2005 census). Several hundred thousand in Latin America (Hancock 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Runa
[rna] Cauca Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Chocoan

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Sáliba
[slc] Casanare, Vichadad, Meta, and Arauca departments, upstream from confluence of Meta and Casanare rivers. 1,300 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 1,550. Ethnic population: 1,900 (2004 DNP). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sáliva Classification: Sálivan

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Siona
[snn] Putumayo Department, along Putumayo river and its tributaries, between Poñuna Blanca and Poñuna Negra, in the Resguardo Buenavista as well as in El Tablero. 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 500. Ethnic population: 730 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ceona, Ganteya, Ganteyabain, Kanú, Koka, Pioche-Sioni, Pioje, Sioni, Zeona Dialects: None known. Ethnically different from the Secoya [sey], but they use the same language, Paicoca (2011 W. Largo). Lexical similarity: 95% with Secoya [sey] (2007 W. Largo). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: Those in Ecuador consider themselves Colombians. Distinct from Secoya (Siona-Secoya) [sey].

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Siriano
[sri] Vaupes Department, 3 separate areas near the Vaupes River, south and west of Mitu town. 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 217. Ethnic population: 750 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chiranga, Cirnga, Si-Ra, Sura Masa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Desano [des], but the 2 languages diverge in their use of grammatical suffixes (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano Comments: Ethnic differences are important due to the system of exogamy, and persons are identified by L1 of father. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 42,300,000 in Colombia (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 10). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tama
[ten] Caquetá Department, Vicente, Orteguaza river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Koreguaje [coe]. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Tanimuca-Retuarã
[tnc] Vaupes and Amazonas departments, Guacayá and Oiyaka rivers (tributaries of the Mirití-Paraná), Mirití-Paraná, Apaporis, and Popeyaca rivers near mouth of Pira river below Popeyaca. 300 (1976 SIL). 180 Tanimuca. Retuarã more monolingual than Tanimuca. Ethnic population: 1,800 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Letuama, Letuhama, Ohañara, Opaima, Retuama, Retuarã, Tanimboka, Tanimuca-Letuama, Uairã, Ufaina Dialects: Retuarã, Tanimuca. Tanimuca and Retuarã are 2 ethnic groups living near each other who speak the same language. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan Comments: All work for one rubber hunter.

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Tariana
[tae] Vaupes Department, lower Papurí. No known L1 speakers in Colombia. Ethnic population: 330 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tariána, Tariano Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki

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Tatuyo
[tav] Vaupes Department, Pira-Paraná headwaters and upper Papurí. 400 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 400 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juna, Oa, Pamoa, Sina, Sura, Tatutapuyo Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano Comments: Majority marry Carapana, Northern Barasano, or Barasana women.

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Ticuna
[tca] Amazonas Department, north along the Amazon River, between Leticia and Perutate. 6,600 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 6,600 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukúna Classification: Language isolate

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Tinigua
[tit] Meta Department, Sierra de la Macarena. 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tiniguas Classification: Tiniguan

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Tomedes
[toe] Guainia Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tamudes Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified

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Totoro
[ttk] Cauca Department, 17 km west of Silvia, in Totoro town. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,550 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Tucano
[tuo] Vaupes Department, Upper Papurí river and tributaries. 2,000 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 6,800 (Civallero 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened).Tucano is the lingua franca for southeast Vaupés section and Cubeo [cub] is the lingua franca for the northwest area. Alternate Names: Betaya, Betoya, Dachsea, Dasea, Daxsea, Tukana, Tukano Dialects: Pisamira. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano

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Tunebo, Angosturas
[tnd] Arauca Department, headwaters, southern tributaries of Casanare River. 50. Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility by Barro Negro [tbn] of Angosturas Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Tunebo, Barro Negro
[tbn] Isolated, Andes foothills, edge of eastern plains above Paz de Ariporo, in Barro Negro, San Lope (Casanare), and Tabías (Casanare), south of Tame Arauca. 300 (1981 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Tunebo Dialects: None known. 62% intelligibility of Cobaría Tunebo [tuf]. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Boyaca and Arauca departments, north slopes of Sierra Nevada de Cocuy, Satocá, Calafita, Tegría (Boyacá), Cobaría (Boyacá); also in Santander Department, Capitanejo and Carcasi municipalities. 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cobaría Tunebo, Lache, U’wa, Uwa-Tunebo Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese Comments: A taboo on the use of paper for writing was observed at one time.

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Tunebo, Western
[tnb] Santander and Norte de Santander department, east of Floridablanca; small area in Boyaca department. 700 (1998). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aguas Blancas, U’wa Dialects: None known. Most divergent Tunebo language. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Tuyuca
[tue] Southeast, Vaupes Department, on the Upper Tiquié, Papurí, and Inambú along headwaters of the Comeyaca. 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 940. Ethnic population: 570 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka

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Waimaha
[bao] Southeastern Vaupes Department, tributaries of mid and upper Pira-Paraná, upper Papurí and Tiquié, Mitú. 500 in Colombia (2004 DNP). Population total all countries: 539. Some monolinguals over 40. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Bará” (pej.), Barasano, Northern Barasano Dialects: Eastern Waimaha, Pamoa Bara. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wajiara
[yui] Upper Paca river (tributary of the Papurí river), Caño Yi river (tributary of the Vaupes river), and Caño Tuy river (tributary of the Vaupés river). 1,100 in Colombia (2011 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,150. Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juriti, Juriti-Tapuia, Juruti, Luruty-Tapuya, Patsoka, Totsoca, Wadzana, Waijiara masa-wadyana, Waikana, Waimasá, Wayhara, Yuriti, Yuruti, Yuruti-Tapuya, Yurutiye Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano Comments: Marriage patterns require spouses to be from different language groups. Children speak the languages of both parents and grandparents, but identify with the father’s language. Ethnic autonym: Wajiara, fish people. Yuriti and Juriti are incorrect spellings.

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Wayuu
[guc] La Guajira Department, Guajira peninsula, Caribbean coast. 122,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 321,000. Ethnic population: 144,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro, Uáira, Waiu, Wayu, Wayúu, Wayuunaiki Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean

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Woun Meu
[noa] Choco Department, banks of middle and lower San Juan river, especially north of Buenaventura; small areas in Valle del Cauca. 4,000 in Colombia (Aikhenvald 2007). Population total all countries: 10,800. Ethnic population: 7,970 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waumeo, Waun Meo, Waunana Classification: Chocoan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wounaan.

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Yahuna
[ynu] Amazonas Department, on the Apaporis and Mirití rivers. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Yaúna, Yayuna Dialects: Datuana, Opaina. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Yarí
[yri] Caqueta Department, Yarí river, above El Capitán waterfalls, upper Vaupés river near Puerto Nare. 760 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Carijona [cbd] (Carib), a Western Tucanoan language, or Huitoto [huu]. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Ethnonym: Yarí, due to location on Yarí river.

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Yucuna
[ycn] Amazonas Department, Puerto Santander municipality, 3 enclaves; Mirití-Paraná, La Pedrera on lower Caquetá, Ararcuara, Leticia; part of westernmost enclave in Caqueta Department. 1,800 (2001 SIL). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matapi, Yucuna-Matapi, Yukuna Dialects: None known. In some traditional ceremonies ritual language used, mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki Comments: Local subversive activity caused some Yucuna to move to other areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yukpa
[yup] Serranía de Perijá, Cesar Department, Augustín Codazzi municipality and neighboring municipalities north and south, Colombia-Venezuela border. Río Casacará dialect in Agustín Codassi municipality along Casacará river and Caño Iroka. Yukpa sur dialect, Becerril municipality. 3,000 in Colombia (2009 W. Largo). Population total all countries: 6,020. 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,530 (Arango Ochoa 1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Carib Motilón, Macoíta, Northern Motilón, Yuco, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa Dialects: Coyaima, Río Casacará (Iroka), Río Maracas, Yukpa sur (Caño Padilla-La Laguna). At least 5 extant dialects including 2 in Venezuela. Río Cascará and Río Maracas dialects are probably largest, and may be separate languages. Venezuela dialects seem more similar to Río Maracas. Unrelated to Barí [mot]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Japreria [jru] of Venezuela (2008 W. Largo). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria Comments: Traditional religion.

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