Algeria

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Algerian Sign Language
[asp] Scattered. 220,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des signes algérienne, Lghh alesharh aljza’er, LSA. Dialects: None known. It influenced the deaf community in Oujda in northern Morocco. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken
[aao] Adrar, Béchar, Biskra, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, Ghardaïa, Illizi, Laghouat, Naama, Ouargla, Tamanrasset, and Tindouf provinces; Morocco border along Atlas mountains, northeast to Médéa, south of Algiers, southeast to Righ Wadi, south as far as plateau du Tademait. 100,000 in Algeria (1996). Total users in all countries: 110,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saharan Arabic, Tamanghasset Arabic, Tamanrasset Arabic. Dialects: None known. Structurally distinct from other Arabic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Algerian Spoken
[arq] Widespread. 26,000,000 in Algeria (2012 Sherbrooke University), increasing. L2 users: 3,000,000 in Algeria. Total users in all countries: 31,827,000 (as L1: 28,827,000; as L2: 3,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Algerian. Dialects: Constantine, Algiers, Oran. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Hassaniyya
[mey] Tindouf province. 90,000 in Algeria (1995 UNHCR). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Mainly refugees from Western Sahara.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 3). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chenoua
[cnu] Aïn Defla province: north of Khemis; Chlef province: Mount Bissa area; Tipasa province: generally Mount Chenoua area; dialects: Chenoui in Mount Chenoua area, Beni Menacer to south and west; Djebel Bissa dialect in Tacheta forest area, and Beni Haoua village (Genevois and Reesink 1973). 76,300 (2007 Laval University). Estimated Beni Menacer population is 61,000 (2007). 15,300 for Chenoui (2007 Laval University). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chenoui. Dialects: Beni Menacer (Chleuh, Tachelhit, Tamenracit), Chenoui, Djebel Bissa, Tamazight de l’Atlas blidéen (Beni-Salah). Lexical similarity: 77% with Tachawit [shy], 76% with Kabyle [kab]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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French
[fra] Mostly in cities. 10,200 in Algeria (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, in higher education. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kabyle
[kab] Bouira, Béjaïa, Tizi Ouzou, Bordj Bou Arréridj, Sétif, M’Sila, Jijel, Boumerdès, Mila, and Médéa provinces; Mediterranean coast east of Algiers; north, Grande Kabylie, from Thenia to Bgayet (Béjaïa), Lesser Kabyle dialect: east of Béjaïa between Tichy and Ziama Mansouria on the coast and inland, Tizi n Berber and Aokas. 5,000,000 in Algeria (2012). Total users in all countries: 5,586,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of national identity (2002, Constitutional Revision, Law No. 02-03). Alternate Names: Amazigh, Kabyl, Kabylia, Tamazight, Taqbaylit. Dialects: Greater Kabyle, Lesser Kabyle (Tasahlit). Lesser Kabyle (Tasahlit) may be a separate language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Kabyle. Comments: Kabyle reported by some sources to derive from the Arabic word for tribesman. Patrilineal and patrilocal. Muslim, Christian.

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Korandje
[kcy] Southwestern Algeria, Tabelbala oasis, about halfway between Béchar and Tindouf, 3 villages: Kwara (Zaouia), Ifrnyu (Cheraia), Yami (Mahkhlouf). 3,000 (2010 L. Souag). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Belbalis, Kwarandzyey. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai.

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Tachawit
[shy] Khenchela, Tébessa, Biskra, Batna, Oum el-Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, and Guelma provinces: Aurès mountains, south and southeast of Grand Kabylie. 1,400,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aurès, Awras, Chaouia, Chawi, Shawia, Shawiya, Tacawit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Shawiya. Comments: Muslim.

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Tachelhit
[shi] Béchar province, south near Morocco border: Tabelbala area. 6,000 in Algeria (2014). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shilha, Southern Shilha, Tachilhit, Tashelhait, Tashelhayt, Tashelhit, Tasoussit. Dialects: Susiua (Sousse, Sus). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas. Comments: Non-indigenous. ‘Shilha’ is the Arabic name for Moroccan Berber varieties in general. Muslim.

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Tagargrent
[oua] South of Constantine, near Mzab. Ouargla and N’Goussa are main centers. 20,000 (2014). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ouargla, Ouargli, Wargla. Dialects: Ouedghir (Wadi), Temacin, Tariyit. Only moderate comprehension of Tumzabt. Tariyit dialect is spoken by the Haratine (former slaves of the Ouargli people). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamahaq, Tahaggart
[thv] Mainly Tamanrasset province south to Niger border; also southeast of Illizi and Adrar provinces; South Hoggar (Ajjer) mountain area. Hoggar Ghat dialect in southeast, Ganet area and west. 40,000 in Algeria. Total users in all countries: 77,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tamachek, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg. Dialects: Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet). A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamazight, Temacine
[tjo] North Ouargla province: Temacine, Tamelhat, Ghomra, and Meggarin areas, but mostly Bledit Amor. 6,000 (1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Touggourt, Tougourt, Tugurt. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Tagargrent. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamazight, Tidikelt
[tia] Tamanrasset province: Tidikelt, Salah area, and Tit south. 1,000 (2011), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Tidikelt, Tit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Tidikelt. Comments: Muslim.

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Tarifit
[rif] Oran, Tlemcen provinces. No known L1 speakers in Algeria (2010 L. Souag). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Fifia, Northern Shilha, Rif, Riff, Rifi, Ruafa, Shilha, Tirifie. Dialects: Arzeu, Igzennaian, Iznacen (Beni Iznassen). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Taznatit
[grr] Béchar, Naama, Adrar, and El Bayadh provinces; Gourara region; Igli, Taghit, Ouakda, Beni Ounif, Boussemghoun; dying out in Touat region. 11,000 in Algeria (2014 L. Souag). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zenatiyya. Dialects: Gourara (Gurara), Touat (Tuat, Tuwat), South Oran. Reportedly similar to Tumzabt [mzb], Tagargrent [oua], and Temacine Tamazight [tjo], but not as similar as they are to each other. Low intelligibility of other Tamazight speech forms, including Tumzabt and Tagargrent. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Muslim.

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Tumzabt
[mzb] Mzab region south of Algiers. 7 oases, Ghardaïa is principal one. 150,000 (2010 UNESCO). Women are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ghardaia, Mozabite, Mzab, Mzabi. Dialects: Only minor dialect variations. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Strong cultural vitality. Tumzabt villages are interspersed among Arabic-speaking villages. Muslim.

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