Ecuador

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Achuar-Shiwiar
[acu] Pastaza Province, Pastaza canton, Montalvo and Simón Bolívar communities; Morona-Santiago Province, Taisha canton, Huasaga. Between Macuma and Conambo rivers, north to Copataza, Montalvo, and Conambo communities, south to the Peru border. 4,000 in Ecuador (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina, Mayna Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Extreme north, Andes west slopes, Colombia-Ecuador border, Carchi and Esmeraldas provinces, Mira river area. 1,000 in Ecuador (Civallero 2008), decreasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Most monolinguals are women or children under age 16. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 L. Henriksen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Cuaiquer Classification: Barbacoan, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Awa and Înkal Awa, both in Ecuador and Colombia.

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Chachi
[cbi] North coastal jungle, Esmeraldas Province, Cayapas river and tributaries (Onzole, Canandé, Sucio, Cojimíes, and others). 9,500 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Cayapa” (pej.), Cha’ Palaachi, Cha’palaa, Cha’palaachi, Kayapa Classification: Barbacoan, Southern Comments: Ethnonym: Chachi (sg.), Chachilla (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cofán
[con] Colombia and Ecuador border areas, Napo Province near Santa Rosa de Sucumbíos, and down Aguarico river 130 km; Sucumbíos Province; 5 main centers. 900 in Ecuador (2001 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,400. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A’i, Kofán, Kofane Dialects: None known. Variously classified as Chibchan with Western Tucanoan features (Ferndon, Borman), Barbacoan (J. Mason), or Jivaroan (Ruhlen 1987). Some Witotoan influences. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Colorado
[cof] Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Province, area around provincial capital. 2,300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Some monolingual in remote communities. Ethnic population: 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tsachila, Tsafiki, Tsafiqui Dialects: None known. Reportedly lexically similar to Chachi [cbi] and Awa-Cuaiquer [kwi], but major differences between the languages in phonology, syntax and grammatical structure (2011 W. Largo). Classification: Barbacoan, Southern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Tsachi (sg.), tsachila (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ecuadorian Sign Language
[ecs] Scattered. 231,000 (2011 CONADIS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas de Ecuador, LSEC Dialects: Regional variation between coastal dialect (centered in Guayaquil) and sierra dialect (centered in Quito). Ecuadorian deaf community reports variation based on age. Variant used by young signers shows borrowing from American Sign Language [ase] (30% of signs) and Spanish Sign Language [ssp] (20% of sign). (Eberle, Parks, Eberle and Parks 2012). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Instituto Nacional de Audición y Lenguaje, located in Quito, the largest deaf school in Ecuador, regards LSEC as the natural language and first language of deaf people in Ecuador, while Spanish [spa] is their second. Ecuadorian Sign Language has the most regular contact with sign languages from Peru, Colombia, and the United States. (Eberle, Parks, Eberle and Parks 2012).

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Epena
[sja] Northern Pacific coast, Esmeraldas Province, Santiago river delta, Borbón town. 250 in Ecuador (2002 N. Wiebe). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cholo, Emberá-Saija, Epená, Epéna Pedée, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Embera, Southern Empera Dialects: Basurudo. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Media Lengua
[mue] Cotopaxi Province, a few villages. 1,000 (1999 P. Bakker). L1 and L2 speakers. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mixed language, Spanish-Quechua Comments: Quechua grammatical system with Spanish vocabulary.

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Quichua, Calderón Highland
[qud] Pichincha Province, Quito, Calderon and Cayambe areas; northern third, Napo Province; northeast Cotopaxi Province. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Calderón Quichua, Cayambe Quichua, Pichincha Quichua Dialects: None known. Distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Salasaca [qxl]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Quichua, Cañar Highland
[qxr] Southern highlands, entirety of Cañar Province; southern Chimborazo and north and northeast Azuay provinces; into Morona-Santiago Province, Morona canton. 100,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical differences and a strong sense of linguistic and cultural identity. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Chimborazo Highland
[qug] Central highlands, mainly Cotopaxi, Chimborazo, and Bolivar provinces; Tungurahua Province west of Ambato; very small border area, northwest Los Ríos Province. 800,000 (2010 UBS). High percentage of monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Imbabura Highland
[qvi] Northern highlands, Imbabura Province, south and west of Ibarra town into northern Pichincha Province; smaller enclave, Esmeraldas Province, west Quininde canton. 150,000 (Gómez-Rendón 2007). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Imbabura Quichua, Otavalo Quichua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Loja Highland
[qvj] Southern highlands, northern Loja Province, Sarragaro area; Zamora-Chinchipe Province, Yacuambi canton; El Oro Province, Portovelo and Zeruma cantons; southern Azuay Province; sizable community in Zamora city. 30,500 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Loja Quichua, Saraguro Quichua Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Cañar Highland Quichua [qxr]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Trend to see Unified Quichua as proper grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Eastern jungle along Napo, Aguarico, and Putomayo rivers, Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces; concentrated near schools. 14,000 in Ecuador (2009), increasing. 800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo Quichua Dialects: Santa Rosa Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Ingano is a name for all lowland Quichua. Locations along the Putomayo River not confirmed. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Northern Pastaza
[qvz] Pastaza Province, eastern jungle along Bobonaza and Conambo rivers. 8,000 in Ecuador (2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 10,000. 300 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alama, Bobonaza Quichua, Canelos Quichua, Pastaza Quichua, Sarayacu Quichua Dialects: Tigre Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Distinct from Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup] of Peru. Spanish [spa] is used for education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Salasaca Highland
[qxl] Tungurahua Province, Salasaca area, 17 towns south and east of Ambato; small border areas, Pastaza and Chimborazo provinces; dialects in Cotopaxi and throughout Tungurahua. 14,300 (2000). 3,580 monolinguals. Children 0–5 and older adults. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Salasaca Quichua, Tungurahua Highland Quichua, Tungurahua Quichua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Lexically distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Calderón [qud]. Population growing in the Galápagos Islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Tena Lowland
[quw] Eastern jungle, mainly Napo Province; into Orellana Province, Loreto canton, and northern border, Pastaza Province. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napo Kichwa, Yumbo Dialects: None known. Napo [qvo], Pastaza [qvz] and Tena [quw] Quichua understand each other’s spoken language, but not written texts. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Notable differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Secoya
[sey] Northeast, Sucumbíos Province, Cuyabeno canton; Aguarico, Cuyabeno, and Eno rivers, near Colombian border. 550 in Ecuador (2007 M. Johnson). Population total all countries: 1,230. A few elderly monolinguals (2007 M. Johnson). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Angotero, Ecuadorian Siona. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Shuar
[jiv] Morona-Santiago Province, east of Cuenca City. 35,000 (2007 CODENPE). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Morona Santiago Province (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Chiwaro, “Jibaro” (pej.), Jivaro, Shuara, Siurra, Siwora, Xivaro Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Different from Achuar Jívaro [acu] of Peru. Preferred ethnic autonym: Shuar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Siona
[snn] Northeast, Sucumbíos Province, south bank, Putamayo river, Biaña, Puerto Bolívar and Orawaya communities. 300 in Ecuador (2000 CODENPE). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baicoca Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje

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Spanish
[spa] 13,500,000 in Ecuador (2014). L2 users: 742,000 in Ecuador (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Christian.

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Tetete
[teb] Sucumbíos Province near Colombia border, eastern Cofán jungle area. No known L1 speakers. Only 3 ethnic group members reported in 1969 (SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Secoya [sey] but intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Waorani
[auc] Eastern jungle between Napo and Curaray rivers; Orellana Province, central, south from Tiputini, into Pastaza Province, Arajuno and northern Pastaza cantons; very small area in Napo Province. 1,650 (2004). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Auca” (pej.), Huaorani, Sabela, Waodani Classification: Language isolate Comments: “Auca”, non-Quichua, in Quichua. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Záparo
[zro] Pastaza Province, Peru border, between Curaray and Bobonaza rivers. 5 (2007 UNESCO). About 20 elderly Záparo still have some variable degree of knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (2007 UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kayapwe, Sápara, Zápara Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo Comments: Distinct from Andoa [anb] (Shimagae) of Peru.

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