[est] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,219,500. Comments: Includes: Standard Estonian [ekk], Võro [vro].
Estonian Sign Language
[eso] Scattered, mostly in Tallinn and Pärnu. 1,500 (Paales 2011). 4,500 users out of 1,600 deaf and 20,000 hearing impaired. 2,000 persons need regular help from interpreters (1998 U. Sutrop). 1,500 signers (2014 Estonian Deaf Association). 6,300 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, No. RT1, Language Act, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Eesti viipekeel, EVK, Viipekeel Dialects: Some local dialects. The dialect in Pärnu is most archaic. Influences from Finnish [fse] and Russian Sign Languages [rsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Fingerspelling system unlike other European countries. Sign language interpretation service started 1996. Estonian Sign Language was first recognized in 2007. Systematic teaching and research since 1990 at Tartu University. (2014 Estonian Association of the Deaf). Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children in Tallinn.
[ekk] 1,040,000 in Estonia (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 1,132,500. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 52(1)). Alternate Names: Eesti Dialects: Mulgi, Seto, Tallinn (Reval), Tartu (Dorpat). Dialects are grouped into three: Northeastern Coastal Estonian (between Tallinn and Narva), North Estonian (island, western, central, and eastern dialects), and South Estonian (Mulgi, Tartu). All the other dialects are assimilated into Standard Estonian. Related to Võru [vro], Vod [vot] and Finnish [fin]. A member of macrolanguage Estonian [est]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Some linguistic influences from Russian [rus], German [deu], Swedish [swe], Latvian [lav], Lithuanian [lit], and Finnish [fin]. Christian.
[rus] 383,000 in Estonia (2011 census). Ethnic population: 321,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 725,000 in Estonia (European Commission 2012). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East
Russian Sign Language
[vro] Põlva, Tartu, Valga, and Võru counties. 87,000 (2011 census). Seto speakers: 12,500 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Voro, Võro-Seto, Voru, Võru Dialects: Eastern Võro, Seto, Western Võro. Seto is linguisticaly very close to Eastern Võro but many Setos consider Seto an independent language. There are about 5,000 Seto speakers. A member of macrolanguage Estonian [est]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.