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Aragonese
[arg] Zaragoza, Huesca Province; Pyrenea (north border), Navarra (west border); north of Montsó (east). Western Aragonese dialect: Ansó, Echo, Chasa, Berdún, and Chaca towns; Central Aragonese dialect: Panticosa, Biescas, Torla, Broto, Bielsa, Yebra, and L’Ainsa; Eastern Aragonese in Benás (Benasque, Benasc, Patués), Plan, Bisagorri, Campo, Perarruga, Graus, and Estadilla; Southern Aragonese in Agüero, Ayerbe, Rasal, Bolea, Lierta, Uesca, Almudébar, Nozito, Labata, Alguezra, Angüés, Pertusa, Balbastro, and Nabal. 10,000 (Salminen 2007). L2 users: 20,000 (1993 Counsel of the Aragonese Language). No monolinguals (1993). Older adults. Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Altoaragonés, Aragoieraz, Aragonés, Fabla Aragonesa, High Aragonese, Patués. Dialects: Western Aragonese (Ansotano, Cheso), Central Aragonese (Belsetán, Bergotés, Pandicuto, Tensino), Eastern Aragonese (Benasqués, Chistabino, Fobano, Grausino, Ribagorzano), Southern Aragonese (Ayerbense, Semontanés). Different from Spanish local variety (also called Aragonese influenced by High Aragonese). Eastern Aragonese transitional to Catalan [cat]. Reportedly, similarities to Catalan and Occitan [oci]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Pyrenean-Mozarabic, Pyrenean. Comments: Aragonese Speakers’ League (Ligallo de Fablans de l’Aragonés) in Zaragoza; Council of the Aragonese Language (Consello d’a Fabla Aragonesa) in Uesca. 6 organizations or more of L1 speakers working in the language. Written language based on Central and Eastern Aragonese. Christian.

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Asturian
[ast] Asturias, Cantabria, Castille and Leon autonomous communities; Montañes dialect: western Cantabria and Las Peñamelleras. Pasiegan dialect: eastern Cantabria and Espinosa de los Monteros, Burgos. 100,000 in Spain (Salminen 2007). 50,000 in Central Asturian, 30,000 in Western Asturian, 20,000 in Eastern Asturian. L2 users: 450,000 in Spain (1994 F. Botas). Ethnic population: 550,000 (1996). Total users in all countries: 560,000 (as L1: 110,000; as L2: 450,000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asturian-Leonese, Asturianu, Astur-Leonese. Dialects: Leonese (Lleones), Western Asturian, Central Asturian (Bable), Eastern Asturian, Montañes, Pasiegan (Pasiegu). As different from Spanish [spa] as Galician [glg] or Catalan [cat]; more different than Murcian and Andalusian dialects. About 80% intelligibility with Spanish (1989 R. Hall) enough to cause disruption of communicative ability (1992 T. Erickson). The Vaqueiros ethnic group speaks Western Asturian. Functional intelligibility among the 3 dialects. Reportedly similar to Mirandés [mwl] in Portugal. Leonese may be a separate language. Central Asturian is considered the model, and has the most speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Asturo-Leonese. Comments: About 43% immigrated into the region from the south since the 1950s, and have not absorbed Asturian culture or language. There is literature, both popular and literary, since the 17th century; poetry, traditional ballads, and chivalric novels of oral tradition. The Academy of the Asturian Language formed in 1981 to revive the academy of the 18th century. Western Asturian may need orthography adaptation. Montañes is a Spanish dialect with Asturian influence.

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Basque
[eus] País Vasco autonomous community: Alava, Bizkaia, and Gipuzkoa provinces; Navarra autonomous region. 468,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 residents of 3 provinces of Basque territory; 25% born outside territory, 40% in territory born to Basque parents. 4,400,000 in Spain have Basque surname; 19% live in Basque country. Total users in all countries: 545,800. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Basque Country Autonomous Community (1979, Basque Country Autonomous Community Act 3, 1979, Article 6.1). Alternate Names: Euska, Euskara, Euskera, Euskerie, “Vascuense” (pej.). Dialects: Middle Basque (Gipuzkera, Gipuzkoan, Guipuzcoan, Guipuzcoano), South High Navarrese (Alto Navarro Meridional, Hegoaldeko goi nafarrera, High Navarrese, Upper Navarran), Western Basque (Biscayan, Mendebaldeko euskalkia, Vizcaino), Eastern Navarrese (Ekialdeko nafarrera, Roncalese), Alavan (Arabar euskalkia). Some inherent intelligibility among regional varieties except Souletin. Regional varieties sometimes preferred for oral use, but strong desire for Batua unified standard. The Alavan, Eastern Navarrese and South High Navarrese dialects are all extinct (2015 B. Garaio). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: ‘Euskadi’ is name of Basque region, not the language. Christian.

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Caló
[rmq] Scattered. 40,000 in Spain. Total users in all countries: 460,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caló Romani, Gitano, Hispanoromani, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Spanish Caló, Portuguese Calão (Calão, Lusitano-Romani), Catalonian Caló, Brazilian Calão. Gypsy language very different from other Romani. A cryptological variety of Spanish [spa] (1995 I. Hancock). Regional dialects have Iberian base of Caló, where boundary between Spanish and Portuguese [por] is not distinct. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani. Comments: Movement to revive inflected Spanish Romani; book printed in it (Hancock 1990b). Christian.

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Catalan
[cat] Catalonia, Valenciana,Balearic Islands, and Aragon autonomous communities; Carche region, Murcia autonomous community. 3,750,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 5,150,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 9,229,420 (as L1: 4,079,420; as L2: 5,150,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Balearic Islands (1983, Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands, No. 2 (1983), Article 3(3)). Statutory provincial language in Balearic Islands (1983, Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands, No. 2 (1983), Article 3(3)). Statutory provincial language in Valencia Autonomous Community (1982, Autonomy Act, No. 9, 1982, Article 7), Valencian in local laws. Statutory provincial language in Aragon Autonomous Community (1982, Autonomy Act, No. 8, 1982, Article 7), LAPAO (Eastern Aragonese) in local laws. Statutory provincial language in Catalonia Autonomous Community (1979, Autonomy Act, No. 4, 1979, Article 3(2,5)). Alternate Names: Català, Catalán, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Catalonian, Valencian. Dialects: Catalan-Rousillonese (Northern Catalan), Valencian (Valencià, Valenciano), Balearic (Balear, Eivissenc, Insular Catalan, Mallorqui, Menorqui, Menorquin), Central Catalan, Algherese, Northwestern Catalan (Aiguavivan, Eastern Aragonese, Lleidatà, Pallarese, Ribagorçan). Standardized variety is a literary composite of several dialects and written form is most similar to Barcelona speech. Pallarese and Ribogorçan dialects less similar to standard Catalan. Benasquese and Aiguavivan people live in isolated valleys and have distinct phonology from their neighbors. Tortosin may be more similar to Valencian. Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.). Lexical similarity: 87% with Italian [ita], 85% with Portuguese [por] and Spanish [spa], 76% with Ladin [lld], 75% with Sardinian [src], 73% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian. Comments: Christian.

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Catalan Sign Language
[csc] Scattered in Catalonia. 9,000 (2014). Deaf sign language users, total for all three sign languages in Spain: 60,000–80,000 (2000 Instituto Nacional de Estadística), 100,000 (2014 EUD). Based on these numbers and proportions of total population in various regions in Spain, estimated 9,000–15,000 for LSC. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Balearic Islands Autonomous Community (1985, Autonomy Act, No. 2, 1985, Article 3(2)). Recognized language (2006, Basic Law No. 6 of 19 July). Alternate Names: Catalonian Sign Language, Lengua de Señas Catalana, Lengua de Signos Catalana, Llengua de Signes Catalana, LSC. Dialects: None known. Similar to Spanish Sign Language [ssp] and Valencian Sign Language [vsv]. About 70%–80% intelligibility by users of Spanish Sign Language (2014 S. Parkhurst). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Many sign language classes for hearing people. Materials for learning as L2. Few parents actually learn to sign. (2014 S. Parkhurst). Christian.

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Erromintxela
[emx] Scattered in País Vasco autonomous community. 500 in Spain (2009 J. McLaughlin). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Basque Caló, Caló Vasco. Classification: Mixed language, Basque-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Extremaduran
[ext] Extremadura autonomous community: northwest Caceres province; Castille and Leon autonomous community: southwest Salamanca province. 200,000 in Spain. 500,000 able to use it, including some monolinguals (1994 T. Erickson). Most use northern dialect. Ethnic population: 1,100,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 201,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Barranquênhu, Barranquian, Cahtúo, Cahtúö, Ehtremeñu, Extremeño. Dialects: Northern Extremaduran (Artu Ehtremeñu), Central Extremaduran (Meyu Ehtremeñu), Southern Extremaduran (Bahu Ehtremeñu). Related to the eastern dialect of Tur-Leonese. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: 2 orthographies, one Castilian-like, developed early 20th century by the famous poet José María Gabriel y Galán; the other more recent and more phonetic.

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Fala
[fax] Extremadura autonomousrRegion: northwest corner, an isolated valley on Portugal border, Val de Xalima and Val du riu Ellas, Valverdi du Fresnu, As Ellas, and Sa Martín de Trebellu towns. 10,500 (1994 T. Erickson). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: A Fala de Xálima, A Fala do Xãlima, “Chapurreáu” (pej.), Galaico-Extremaduran. Dialects: Valvideiru, Mañegu, Lagarteiru. Not easily intelligible with surrounding language varieties. Intelligible to speakers of Galician [glg]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Do not identify with Galicians. Do not want orthography to be like Galician.

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Galician
[glg] Galicia and western Asturias autonomous communities; Castille and Leon autonomous community, western Leon and Zamora provinces. 2,340,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 2,355,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Galicia Autonomous Community (1981, Autonomy Statute, Act 1 of 6 April, Article 5). Alternate Names: Galego, Gallego. Dialects: Galician is reportedly between Portuguese [por] and Spanish [spa], but is more similar to Portuguese, which has about 85% intelligibility (1989 R. Hall). Many dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Growing sense of ethnic identity.

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Gascon, Aranese
[oci] Catalonia autonomous region: Aran valley, northwest corner, Garona River headwaters, Pyrenees Mountains. 3,810 in Spain (1991 census). Spoken by most of the 4,800 living in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 5,550 (1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory provincial language in Catalonia (2010, Occitan Act, Autonomous Community of Catalonia Parliament, 22 September), Aranese in local laws. Alternate Names: Aranés, Aranés Occitán, Aranese, Arnais, Gascón. Dialects: Baish Aranés, Mijaranés Aranés, Naut Aranés. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc. Comments: Called Aranese in France; influenced by Catalan [cat] and Spanish [spa] more than French [fra].

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Quinqui
[quq] Scattered throughout northern Spain. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mercheros. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Contains elements of Caló [rmq] and Germania argot. Used to be tinsmiths. Not Rom or Gypsies.

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Spanish
[spa] Widespread. 38,400,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 7,490,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 517,824,310 (as L1: 426,515,910; as L2: 91,308,400). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1978, Constitution, Art 3(1)), recognized statutory language in all autonomous cities and communities under various local laws. Alternate Names: Castellano, Castilian, Español. Dialects: Andalusian (Andalú, Andalusí, Andaluz), Aragonese, Murcian, Navarrese, Castilian, Canary Islands Spanish (Isleño), American Spanish (Chicano), Silbo Gomero. Lexical similarity: 89% with Portuguese [por], 85% with Catalan [cat], 82% with Italian [ita], 76% with Sardinian [src], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Ladin [lld], 71% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: The Aragonese dialect of Spanish is different from Aragonese language [arg]. Christian.

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Spanish Sign Language
[ssp] Scattered, except for Catalonia and Valencia. 45,000 (1994). Deaf sign language users, total for all three sign languages in Spain: 60,000–80,000 (2000 Instituto Nacional de Estadística), 100,000 (2014 EUD). Based on these numbers and proportions of total population in various regions in Spain, estimated 45,000–75,000 for LSE. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2007, Law 27, Official language of deaf community). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Española, Lengua de Signos Española, LSE, Mímica. Dialects: Significant regional variation but with only minor difficulties in intercommunication. About 70–80% intelligibility by users of Catalan Sign Language [csc] and 80% intelligibility by users of Valencian Sign Language [vsv]. There may have been some early influence from French Sign Language [fsl]. (2014 S. Parkhurst). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Many sign language classes for hearing people. Materials for learning as L2. Few parents actually learn to sign. (2014 S. Parkhurst). Christian.

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Valencian Sign Language
[vsv] Scattered in Valencia. 6,000 (2014). Deaf sign language users, total for all three sign languages in Spain: 60,000–80,000 (2000 Instituto Nacional de Estadística), 100,000 (2014 EUD). Based on these numbers and proportions of total population in various regions in Spain, estimated 6,000–10,000 for LSV. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory provincial working language in in Valencia (2006, Law 1-2006, Autonomy Statute of Valencia, Article 13(4)). Alternate Names: Lengua de Signos Valenciana, Llengua de Signes en la Comunitat Valenciana, Llengua de Signes Valenciana, LSCV, LSV. Dialects: None known. Similar to Catalan Sign Language [csc] and Spanish Sign Language [ssp]. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Many sign language classes for hearing people. Materials for learning as L2. Few parents actually learn to sign. (2014 S. Parkhurst). Christian.

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