[arg] Zaragoza, Uesca Province; Pyrenea (north border), Navarra (west border); north of Montsó (east). Western Aragonese dialect: Ansó, Echo, Chasa, Berdún, and Chaca towns; Central Aragonese dialect: Panticosa, Biescas, Torla, Broto, Bielsa, Yebra, and L’Ainsa; Eastern Aragonese in Benás (Benasque, Benasc, Patués), Plan, Bisagorri, Campo, Perarruga, Graus, and Estadilla; Southern Aragonese in Agüero, Ayerbe, Rasal, Bolea, Lierta, Uesca, Almudébar, Nozito, Labata, Alguezra, Angüés, Pertusa, Balbastro, and Nabal. 10,000 (Salminen 2007). Includes 500 older adult monolinguals (1993). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Altoaragonés, Aragoieraz, Aragonés, Fabla Aragonesa, High Aragonese, Patués Dialects: Central Aragonese (Belsetán, Bergotés, Pandicuto, Tensino), Eastern Aragonese (Benasqués, Chistabino, Fobano, Grausino, Ribagorzano), Southern Aragonese (Ayerbense, Semontanés), Western Aragonese (Ansotano, Cheso). Different from Spanish local variety (also called Aragonese influenced by High Aragonese). Eastern Aragonese transitional to Catalan [cat]. Similarities to Catalan and Occitan [oci]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Pyrenean-Mozarabic, Pyrenean Comments: Aragonese Speakers’ League (Ligallo de Fablans de l’Aragonés) in Zaragoza; Council of the Aragonese Language (Consello d’a Fabla Aragonesa) in Uesca. 6 organizations or more of L1 speakers working in the language. Written language based on Central and Eastern Aragonese. Christian.
[ast] Asturias Princedom, west Cantabria and Leon, north Castilla-Leon. Montañes dialect (Spanish with Asturian influence): Cantabria and Las Peñamelleras. Also in Portugal. 100,000 in Spain (Salminen 2007). 50,000 in Central Asturian, 30,000 in Western Asturian, 20,000 in Eastern Asturian. Population total all countries: 110,000. Ethnic population: 550,000 (1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asturian-Leonese, Asturianu, Astur-Leonese Dialects: Central Asturian (Bable), Eastern Asturian, Leonese (Lleones), Montañes, Western Asturian. As different from Spanish [spa] as Galician [glg] or Catalan [cat]; more different than Murcian and Andalusian dialects. About 80% intelligibility with Spanish (Hall 1989) enough to cause disruption of communicative ability (1992 T. Erickson). The Vaqueiros ethnic group speaks Western Asturian. Functional intelligibility among the 3 dialects. Similar to Mirandés [mwl] in Portugal. Leonese may be a separate language. Central Asturian is considered the model, and has the most speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Asturo-Leonese Comments: About 43% immigrated into the region from the south since the 1950s, and have not absorbed Asturian culture or language. There is literature, both popular and literary, since the 17th century; poetry, traditional ballads, and chivalric novels of oral tradition. The Academy of the Asturian Language formed in 1981 to revive the academy of the 18th century. Western Asturian may need orthography adaptation. Montañes is a Spanish dialect with Asturian influence.
[eus] France-Spain border, 3 Basque provinces: Alava, Bizkaia, and Gipuzkoa of Autonomous Basque Community; north central Spain, north Autonomous Region of Navarra. Also in Australia, Costa Rica, France, Mexico, Philippines, United States. 580,000 in Spain (Trask 1997). 2,000,000 residents of 3 provinces of Basque territory; 25% born outside territory, 40% in territory born to Basque parents. 4,400,000 in Spain have Basque surname; 19% live in Basque country. Population total all countries: 657,872. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Basque Country AC (1979, Basque Country AC Act 3/1979, Article 6.1). Alternate Names: Euskara, Euskera, Vascuense Dialects: Alavan, Alto Navarro Meridional, Alto Navarro Septentrional (High Navarrese, Upper Navarran), Biscayan (Vizcaino), Gipuzkera (Gipuzkoan, Guipuzcoan, Guipuzcoano), Roncalese. Some inherent intelligibility among regional varieties except Souletin. Regional varieties sometimes preferred for oral use, but strong desire for Batua unified standard. Classification: Language isolate Comments: ‘Euzkadi’ is name of Basque region, not the language. Alavan no longer spoken. Christian.
[rmq] Scattered. Also in Brazil, France, Portugal. 40,000 in Spain. Population total all countries: 70,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gitano, Hispanoromani, Iberian Romani Dialects: Brazilian Calão, Catalonian Caló, Portuguese Calão (Calão, Lusitano-Romani), Spanish Caló. Gypsy language very different from other Romani. A cryptological variety of Spanish [spa] (I. Hancock 1995). McLane found 300 to 400 words based on Romani, but no individual acquainted with more than 100. Regional dialects have Iberian base of Caló, where boundary between Spanish and Portuguese [por] is not distinct. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani Comments: Movement to revive defunct inflected Spanish Romani; book printed in it (Hancock 1990). Christian.
[cat] Northeast, Barcelona area; Catalonia, Valencia provinces, Balearic Islands; Carche region, Murcia Province. Also in Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela. 6,890,000 in Spain (2010). Population total all countries: 7,220,420. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Valencia AC (1982, Autonomy Act, No. 9/1982, Article 7), Valencian in local laws. Statutory provincial language in Catalonia AC (1979, Autonomy Act, No. 4/1979, Article 3(2,5)). Alternate Names: Català, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Catalonian, Catalán Dialects: Algherese, Balearic (Balear, Eivissenc, Insular Catalan, Mallorqui, Menorqui, Menorquin), Catalan-Rousillonese (Northern Catalan), Central Catalan, Northwestern Catalan (Aiguavivan, Lleidatà, Pallarese, Ribagorçan), Valencian (Valencià, Valenciano). Standardized variety is a literary composite of several dialects and written form is most similar to Barcelona speech. Pallarese and Ribogorçan dialects less similar to standard Catalan. Benasquese and Aiguavivan people live in isolated valleys and have distinct phonology from their neighbors. Tortosin may be more similar to Valencian. Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.). Lexical similarity: 87% with Italian [ita], 85% with Portuguese [por] and Spanish [spa], 76% with Ladin [lld], 75% with Sardinian [src], 73% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian Comments: Christian.
Catalan Sign Language
[csc] Catalonia. 18,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Balearic Islands AC (1985, Autonomy Act, No. 2/1985, Article 3(2)). Language of recognized nationality (2006, Basic Law No. 6 of 19 July). Alternate Names: Catalana, Catalonian Sign Language, Lengua de Señas Catalana, Llengua de Signes, LSC, Signos Catalana Dialects: About 50% intelligibility by users of Spanish Sign Language [ssp]. Classification: Deaf sign language
[ext] Extremadura Autonomous Region (except Fala [fax] language area valley northwest, Portuguese [por] dialect area west, and Spanish [spa] area strip east); some neighboring areas. Also in Portugal (Barranquian). 200,000 in Spain. 500,000 able to use it, including some monolinguals (1994 T. Erickson). Most use northern dialect. Population total all countries: 201,500. Ethnic population: 1,100,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Barranquian, Cahtúo, Cahtúö, Ehtremeñu, Extremeño Dialects: Central Extremaduran (Meyu Ehtremeñu), Northern Extremaduran (Artu Ehtremeñu), Southern Extremaduran (Bahu Ehtremeñu). Related to the eastern dialect of Tur-Leonese. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: 2 orthographies, one Castilian-like, developed early 20th century by the famous poet José María Gabriel y Galán; the other more recent and more phonetic.
[fax] Extremadura Autonomous Region, northwest corner, an isolated valley on Portugal border, Val de Xalima and Val du riu Ellas, Valverdi du Fresnu, As Ellas, and Sa Martín de Trebellu towns. 10,500 (1994 T. Erickson). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: A Fala de Xálima, A Fala do Xãlima, “Chapurreáu” (pej.), Galaico-Extremaduran Dialects: Lagarteiru, Mañegu, Valvideiru. Not easily intelligible with surrounding language varieties. Intelligible to speakers of Galician [glg]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician Comments: Do not identify with Galicians. Do not want orthography to be like Galician.
[glg] Northwest Spain, Galicia Autonomous Region. Also in Portugal. 3,170,000 in Spain (1986). Population total all countries: 3,185,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in AC of Galicia (1981, Autonomy Statute, Act 1 of 6 April, Article 5). Alternate Names: Galego, Gallego Dialects: Galician is between Portuguese [por] and Spanish [spa]; more similar to Portuguese, which has about 85% intelligibility (1989 R. Hall). Many dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician Comments: Growing sense of ethnic identity.
[oci] Pyrenees Mountains, Catalonia Autonomous Region, Aran valley, northwest corner, Garona River headwaters. 3,810 in Spain (1991 census). Spoken by most of the 4,800 living in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 5,550 (1991). Status: 2 (Provincial). Language of recognized nationality (1979, Autonomy Act, No. 4/1979), Aranese in local laws. Alternate Names: Aranés, Aranese, Aranese Occitán, Arnais, Gascón Dialects: Baish Aranés, Mijaranés Aranés, Naut Aranés. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc Comments: Called Aranese in France; influenced by Catalan [cat] and Spanish [spa] more than French [fra].
[spa] Central, south; Canary Islands. Also in Andorra, Anguilla, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Caribbean Netherlands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Jamaica, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sint Maarten, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela. 29,900,000 in Spain (2010). Population total all countries: 405,638,110. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1978, Constitution, Art 3(1)), recognized statutory language in all autonomous cities and communities under various local laws. Alternate Names: Castellano, Castilian, Español Dialects: American Spanish (Chicano), Andalusian (Andalú, Andalusí, Andaluz), Aragonese, Canary Islands Spanish (Isleño), Castilian, Murcian, Navarrese, Silbo Gomero. Lexical similarity: 89% with Portuguese [por], 85% with Catalan [cat], 82% with Italian [ita], 76% with Sardinian [src], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Ladin [lld], 71% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: The Aragonese dialect of Spanish is different from Aragonese language [arg]. Christian.
Spanish Sign Language
[ssp] 102,000 (1994). 20,000 members of deaf associations (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mímica Dialects: Small differences throughout Spain with no difficulties in intercommunication, except in Catalonia. Origin unknown, but reportedly influences from American [ase], French [fsl], and Mexican [mfs] sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Manual spelling system.