Fiji

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[eng] 6,000 in Fiji (Crystal 2003b). L2 users: 170,000 in Fiji (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 4(1)), dominant language in commerce, education, government. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fijian
[fij] Kabara, Kadavu, Komo, Lakeba, Moce, Namuka, Nayau, Ogea, Oneata, Vatoa, and Vulaga islands; Vanua Levu and offshore islands, east half of Viti Levu and eastern offshore islands. 330,000 in Fiji (1996 census). 10,000 in Kadavu (1,500 Nabukelevu), 20,000 in Northeast Viti Levu. L2 users: 320,000 in Fiji (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 659,210 (as L1: 339,210; as L2: 320,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2000, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Boumaa Fijian, Eastern Fijian, Fiji, Nadroga, Standard Fijian. Dialects: Kadavu (Nabukelevu, Ono, Tavuki), Southeast Viti Levu (Lutu, Naimasimasi, Nandrau, Waidina), Bau (Bauan, Mbau), Northeast Viti Levu (Lovoni, Namena, Tokaimalo), Central Vanua Levu (Baaravi, Nabalebale, Savusavu, Seaqaaqaa), Northeast Vanua Levu (Dogotuki Saqani, Korolau, Labasa), Southeast Vanua Levu (Baumaa, Navatu-C, Naweni, Tunuloa), West Vanua Levu (Bua, Navakasiga, Navatu-B, Soolevu). Southern Vanua Levu has several dialects similar to Bau dialect. On Northern Vanua, Levu, and adjacent islands people speak a somewhat related variety. Bau is very similar to standard Fijian, used as traditional lingua franca among Fijians. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fijian, Western
[wyy] Viti Levu (western half) and Waya islands. 57,000 (1977 P. Lincoln). 38,500 in Waya (Waya and Ba-Navosa), 18,500 in Nadroga. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiji, Nadrogaa. Dialects: Nuclear Western Fijian (Baaravi, Nadrogaa, Tubaniwai), Waya (Magodro, Nakoroboya, Noikoro). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, West Fijian.

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Gone Dau
[goo] Dau and Gone islands off western Vanua Levu. 690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gonedau. Dialects: Dialect chain from Gone Dau to Bau (standard) Fijian [fij]. Though speakers learn standard Fijian, it is not inherently intelligible. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian.

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Hindi, Fiji
[hif] 380,000 in Fiji (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (2000, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Fiji Baat, Fiji Hindustani, “Fijian Hindi” (pej.), “Fijian Hindustani” (pej.). Dialects: Labasa. No significant regional variation. A type of Awadhi [awa], also influenced by Bhojpuri [bho]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central. Comments: Brought by British as indentured laborers from 1879 until 1920s. Hindu, Muslim.

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Kiribati
[gil] 5,300 in Fiji (1988). 3,000 or more Banaban. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gilbertese, Ikiribati. Dialects: Banaban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Lauan
[llx] Lau island group of Lakeba, Lau, and Nayau; Yagasa Cluster of Kabara, Komo, Moce, Namuka, Ogea, Oneata, and Vulaga; Vatoa island, outlier southeast. 16,000 (Geraghty and Pawley 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lau. Dialects: Lau, Vanua Balavu. Middle East Fijian dialect chain; a subgroup of dialects. Similarities to Bau Fijian; may be inherently intelligible with it. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lomaiviti
[lmv] Batiki, Gau, Koro, Levuka, Makogai, Nairai, Ovalau; Lomaiviti archipelago east of Viti Levu. 1,630 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian.

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Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua
[bwb] Naitasiri, Nadroga Namosi, and Serua provinces: west and southwest of Viti Levu island. 1,630 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Namosi-Naitaasiri-Seerua. Dialects: Batiwai, Tubai, Nalea. Namosi is a divergent variety of West Fijian. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, West Fijian.

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Rotuman
[rtm] Rotuma Island, about 450 km northwest of Vanua Levu. 9,000 (1991 UBS). 2,500 on Rotuma, 300 overseas (1990 J. Vamarasi). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rotuna, Rutuman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, Rotuman.

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