[gsw] Northeast, Alsace. 1,500,000 in France (Comrie 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alemannic, Alemannisch, Alsacien, Elsaessisch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic Comments: No standardized form of Alsatian, but a variety of village dialects. Christian.
[frp] Savoy, Ain, Rhône, Loire, northern and central Isère, southern Jura and Doubs departments. 60,000 in France (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 137,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Francoprovençal, Patois Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally distinct from French, Piemontese [pms], and Lombard [lmo] (1985 F. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among dialects, especially Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern
[eus] Pyrénées Atlantiques Province (French-Spanish border), Labourd (Lapurdi) and Basse-Navarre departments, Bayonne and Soule areas. 76,200 in France (1991). 45,000 Labourdin, 22,500 Lower Navarro, 8,700 Souletin. Ethnic population: 730,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Navarro-Labourdin (Bajo Navarro Occidental, Bajo Navarro Oriental, Benaffarera, Eastern Low Navarrese, Labourdin, Lapurdiera, Western Low Navarrese), Souletin (Souletino, Suberoan, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberoera). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian.
[bre] West Brittany; East Brittany dispersed. 206,000 (2013 R. Milin), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Brezhoneg Dialects: Gwenedeg (Vannetais), Kerneveg (Cornouaillais), Leoneg (Leonais), Tregerieg (Tregorrois). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: In 1914 reportedly 90% (about 1 million) of the population of the western half of Brittany spoke Breton. In 1945 it was about 75%, and today, in all of Brittany the most optimistic estimate would be that 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of roughly 4 million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique separated from official Brittany in 1941.
[cos] Corsica, Paris, Marseilles. 30,000 in France (2009), decreasing. On Corsica, 125,000 people have some command of Corsican. Population total all countries: 31,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory provincial working language in Island of Corsica (2005, Autonomy Law No. 97, Article 7), mainly used in education. Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso, Corsu Dialects: Northern Corsican (Bastia, Cape Cors), Sartenais, Venaco, Vico-Ajaccio. Lexical similarity: 79%–89% with Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene dialects. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican
[fra] 60,000,000 in France (ELDIA 2012). Population total all countries: 74,980,460. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, Consitution, Article 2.1). Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Lorraine, Norman (Normand), Poitevin, Saintongeais, Standard French. Lexical similarity: 89% with Italian [ita], 80% with Logudorese Sardinian [src], 78% with Romansch [roh], 75% with Portuguese [por], Romanian [ron], and Spanish[spa], 29% with German [deu], 27% with English [eng]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Christian.
French Sign Language
[fsl] 100,000 in France (2013 European Union of the Deaf (EUD)). Estimates of population in France vary: 50,000–100,000 users (Van Cleve 1986). Of these, approximately 1,000 use Marseille Sign Language (Sallagoity 1975). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Langue des Signes Française, LSF Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). When Deaf and hearing people interact in sign, they use a mixture of elements drawn from LSF and French, and deaf people themselves vary in how much their signing is influenced by French. Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language), is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat and Salon de Provence. Many sign languages have been derived from or influenced by LSF, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. Lexical similarity: 58% with American Sign Language [ase] in an 872-word list (Woodward 1978). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Promoted by the educational efforts of Charles Michel de l’Épée in the 18th century and one of the first sign languages in the western world to gain recognition as an actual language. Consequently it has influenced several other sign languages, especially in Europe and the Americas.
[lij] Corsica, Bonifacio town, and between Italy and Monaco borders. 300–400 in Corsica (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ligure Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian
[ltz] Moselle Department, Germany border to Luxembourg, Thionville. 40,000 in France (2001 J. Nousse). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Frankish, Luxembourgeois, Platt Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian
Lyons Sign Language
[oci] Auvergne, Gascogne, Languedoc, Limousin, and Provence provinces. 110,000 in France (Bernissan 2012). Population total all countries: 218,310. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Occitani Dialects: Auvergnat (Auverne, Auvernhas), Gascon, Languedocien (Langadoc, Languedoc, Lengadoucian), Limousin (Lemosin), Provençal (Alpine Provençal, Mistralien, Prouvençau, Provençal). Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between some varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc
[pcd] Region de Picardie, Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, Saint Quentin; region Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Arras, Valenciennes, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais (except Dunkerque district); east zone, Haute Normandie region near Dieppe, Picardie border. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi Dialects: Amienois (Amies), Artois, Boulonnais, Calaisis, Cambresis, Hainaut, Lillois, Ponthieu, Santerre, Vermandois, Vimeu. All dialects, including those in Belgium, are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Christian.
[vls] Westhoek (French Flanders). 10,000 in France (1993 M. Evenhuis). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Frans Vlaams, Vlaemsch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Ethnonym in France: Vlamingen. Glossonym: Vlaemsch. Dutch [nld] sometimes referred to as Vlaams. Different orthographies used in the 3 countries. Christian (Roman Catholic).