Gabon

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Baka
[bkc] Cameroon border area. 3,200 in Gabon (1990 CMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babinga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi Comments: Babinga, ‘Pygmy’ is used for the Baka, Yaka [axk], and Gyele [gyi] Pygmy languages. Dispersed in small groups. Nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Barama
[bbg] Ogooue Maritime Province, east of Omboue; Nyanga Province, west of Moabi. 6,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bavarama, Ghibarama, Gibarama, Yibarambu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.402) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bekwel
[bkw] Extreme northeast corner, Ogooue Ivindo Province, northeast of Mekambo. 2,460 in Gabon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakwele, Bakwil, Bekwie, Bekwil Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.85) Comments: Different from Mokpwe [bri] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Benga
[bng] North of Libreville, Bata. 1,100 in Gabon (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bube-Benga (A.34) Comments: Spoken by small groups.

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Bubi
[buw] Ogooue-Lolo Province, west of Koulamoutou, between M’Bigou and N’djoli. 5,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhubhi, Eviia, Ibhubhi, Ibubi, Pove Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tsogo (B.305) Comments: Distinct from the Bubi dialect of Kele [keb], and from Bube [bvb] of Equatorial Guinea. Traditional religion.

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Bwisi
[bwz] Far south, Nyanga Province, Ndende area on Congo border. 1,230 in Gabon (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ibwisi, Mbwisi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.401) Comments: Different from Talinga-Bwisi [tlj] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda.

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Duma
[dma] Upper Ogooue Province, Franceville area near Lastourville. 9,840 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adouma, Aduma, Badouma, Douma, Liduma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Njebi (B.51) Comments: Can understand Njebi [nzb].

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Fang
[fan] Northwest, Estuary and Woleu-Ntem provinces. 588,000 in Gabon (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pahouin, Pamue Dialects: Make, Ntum, Ogowe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.75)

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French
[fra] 37,500 in Gabon (Johnstone 1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 2). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: The only language of formal education.

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Kande
[kbs] Ogooue-Ivindo Province, west of Booue. 1,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kanda, Okande Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tsogo (B.32) Comments: Threatened and undocumented (2000 B. Connell). Traditional religion.

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Kaningi
[kzo] Upper Ogooue Province, south of Franceville. 6,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakanike, Lekaningi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.602) Comments: Villages are scattered in areas dominated by other groups. Traditional religion.

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Kélé
[keb] Middle Ogooue Province, Mimongo area, scattered. 9,230 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akele, Dikele, Western Kele Dialects: Bubi, Western Kele. Similar to Ngom [nra]. Also related to Kota [koq], Mahongwe [mhb], Mbangwe [zmn], Ndasa [nda], Sake [sak], Seki [syi], Sighu [sxe], and Wumbvu [wum]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.22) Comments: Distinct from Kele [khy] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. They interact with the Tsogo [tsv] and Sangu [snq] around Mimongo. Traditional religion.

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Kota
[koq] Ogooue-Iwindo Province. Also in Congo. 34,400 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 43,460. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikota, Ikuta, Kotu Dialects: Many dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.25) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lumbu
[lup] Southwest coast, Nyanga Province, between Nyanga and Bangua rivers; Congo border. Also in Congo. 19,700 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 22,720. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baloumbou, Ilumbu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.44) Comments: Some intermarriage with Vili [vif] women. Traditional religion.

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Mahongwe
[mhb] Northeast corner, Mekambo area. 1,000 (2000 B. Connell). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.252)

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Mbama
[mbm] Upper Ogooue Province, south of Okondja. 9,700 in Gabon (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lembaamba, Obamba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.62) Comments: Intermarriage with neighboring groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbangwe
[zmn] Upper Ogooue Province, south and west of Franceville. Also in Congo. 3,690 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 5,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: M’bahouin Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.23) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mbere
[mdt] Upper Ogooue Province, Okondja area. 45,500 in Gabon (2000). All Mbere languages in Gabon: 110,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambede, Limbede, Mbédé, Mbété Dialects: Ngwii. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.61) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Myene
[mye] Ogooue-Maritime and Middle Ogooue provinces, Lambarene area to coast; Mpongwe on both sides of Gabon estuary, south of Libreville, Port Gentil area; Ajumba north of Lambarene; Enenga northeast of Lambarene; Galwa in Lambarene area and west; Nkomi on coast, southeast of Port Gentil. 46,700 (2000). 1,000–2,000 Dyumba, 1,000–5,000 Enenga, 2,000–11,000 Galwa, 1,000–4,000 Mpongwe, 10,000 Orungu, 20,000 Nkomi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Omyene, Pangwe Dialects: Ajumba (Adjumba, Adyumba, Dyumba), Enenga, Galwa (Galloa, Galoa, Galua, Omyene), Mpongwe (Mpongoué, Mpungwe, Npongué, Npongwe, Pongoué), Nkomi (N’komi), Orungu (Rongo, Rungu). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Myene (B.11)

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Ndasa
[nda] Upper Ogooue Province, south of Franceville. 2,460 in Gabon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andasa, Ndash, Ndassa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.201) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ndumu
[nmd] Upper Ogooue Province, Lastoursville north of Franceville. 4,310 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bandoumou, Doumbou, Dumbu, Lendumu, Mindoumou, Mindumbu, Minduumo, Ndumbo, Ndumbu, Nduumo, Ondoumbo, Ondumbo Dialects: Epigi, Kanandjoho, Kuya, Nyani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.63) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ngom
[nra] Extreme northeast, Mekambo area; Ogooue-Lolo Province, Koulamoutou area. Also in Congo. 8,240 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 12,770. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angom, Bangom, Bangomo, Ngomo, Ongom, Ungom Dialects: Similar to Kele [keb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.22)

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Njebi
[nzb] Ogooue-Lolo and Ngounie provinces, west of Franceville, to Lebamba area. Also in Congo. 120,000 in Gabon (2007 R. Radke). Population total all countries: 135,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bandzabi, Injebi, Ndjabi, Ndjevi, Njabi, Nzebi, Yinjebi, Yinzebi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Njebi (B.52)

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Pinji
[pic] Ngounie Province, east of Mouila, between Eleke and Fougamou. 5,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apindje, Apindji, Apinji, Gapinji Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tsogo (B.304) Comments: Different from Phende [pem] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion.

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Punu
[puu] Nyanga and Ngounie provinces, Tchibanga and Ndende areas. Also in Congo. 123,000 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 132,060. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ipunu, Pouno, Puno, Yipounou, Yipunu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.43)

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Sake
[sak] Central, Ogooue-Iwindo Province, Booue area. 1,000 (2000 B. Connell). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Asake, Shake Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.251) Comments: Threatened and undocumented (2000 B. Connell).

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Sangu
[snq] Ngounie Province, Mimongo and Iboundji area. 20,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chango, Isangu, Shango, Yisangou, Yisangu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.42) Comments: Not related to Sangu [sbp] of Tanzania or Sango [sag] of Central African Republic. Traditional religion.

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Seki
[syi] Northwest coast, Cocobeach area. Also in Equatorial Guinea. 3,690 in Gabon (2000). Population total all countries: 14,690. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seke, Sekiana, Sekiani, Sekiyani, Sekyani, Seseki, Sheke, Shekiyana Dialects: One of 3 groups known as semi-playeros who function well on the coast and in the jungle. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.21)

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Sighu
[sxe] Ogooue-Lolo Province, Koulamoutou-Lastourville area. 1,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lesighu, Mississiou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.202) Comments: Threatened and undocumented (2000 B. Connell).

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Simba
[sbw] Ogooue-Lolo Province, between Sindare and Mimongo. 3,000 (1990 CMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nsindak Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tsogo (B.302) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Sira
[swj] Ngounie Province, west of Mouila, southwest of Fougamou and Mandji. 39,400 (2000). 250,000 in all Sira languages in Gabon (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eshira, Gisira, Ichira, Ishira, Isira, Shira, Shire, Yichira Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.41) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tchitchege
[tck] Mboua village, south from Franceville to Boumango. 2,000 (2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70)

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Teke-Tege
[teg] Upper Ogooue Province, east of Franceville. Also in Congo. 90,000 in Gabon (2011 SIL). 25%–50% monolingual. Population total all countries: 139,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iteghe, Katege, Ketego, Latege, Northern Teke, Teke Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Ombamba [mbm], 79% with Kukuya [kkw], 77% with Ngungwel [ngz], 76% with Eboo [ebo], 75% with Tyee [tyx], 74% with Mbere [mdt], 73% with Laali [lli] and Tsaayi [tyi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.71) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tsaangi
[tsa] Upper Ogooue Province, west and southwest of Franceville. 8,610 in Gabon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batsangui, Icaangui, Itsaangi, Itsangi, Tcengui, Tchangui, Tsangi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Njebi (B.53) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tsogo
[tsv] Ngounie Province, north and east of Mouila. 12,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Getsogo, Ghetsogo, Mitsogo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tsogo (B.31)

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Vili
[vif] Extreme south, on the coast near Mayumba. 3,690 in Gabon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Civili, Fiot, Fiote, Tsivili Dialects: Yoombe (Ciyoombe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.12) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Vumbu
[vum] Yetsou area, west of Mouila. 2,460 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yivoumbou Dialects: Related to Punu [puu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.403) Comments: Distinct from Wumbvu [wum] in the Kele subgroup (B.20).

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Wandji
[wdd] Ogooue-Lolo and Haut Ogooue. 10,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bawandji Dialects: May be a dialect of Njebi [nzb], which they understand. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Njebi (B.501) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wumbvu
[wum] Ngounie Province, east of Lebamba. Also in Congo. 18,300 in Gabon (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wumvu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.24) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Yangho
[ynh] Haut Ogooue, Mamidi and Bakoumba areas. 5,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bayongho, Miyangho, Yongho Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.603) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Yasa
[yko] Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bongwe, Lyassa, Maasa, Yassa Dialects: Asonga, Bodele, Bomui, Bweko, Iyasa, Mapanga, Marry, Mogana, Mooma, One, Vendo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bube-Benga (A.33) Comments: Some or all reportedly are Pygmies.

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