United Kingdom

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Angloromani
[rme] England, Scotland, and Wales. 90,000 in United Kingdom (Hancock 1990). Population total all countries: 197,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anglo-Romani, English Romani, Gypsy Jib, Pogadi Chib, Posh ‘N’ Posh, Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romano Lavo, Romany Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Welsh Romani [rmw], Traveller Swedish [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], or Traveller Danish [rmd]. Grammar is English with heavy Romani lexical borrowing. Many dialects. Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani Comments: Christian.

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British Sign Language
[bfi] England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. 60,000 (2013 K. Crombie Smith). L2 users: 250,000 (2013 K. Crombie Smith). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: BSL Dialects: Not inherently intelligible to users of American Sign Language [ase]. Deaf community is cohesive so communication good despite regional variation. Signing varies along a continuum from something usually called Signed English (which draws on BSL vocabulary but uses grammatical structure like spoken English) to natural BSL. Different styles of signing used in different situations, and signers vary in terms of how much of the range of signing styles they control. Many structural similarities between British Sign Language (BSL), Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility (2003 T. Johnston ). Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing them as separate related languages. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Cornish
[cor] Southwest, Duchy of Cornwall. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 532,000 (2011 census). L2 users: A few L2 speakers in Canada, Australia, Austria, and Brittany (France). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Curnoack, Kernewek, Kernowek Dialects: None known. Related to Breton [bre], Welsh [cym], Gaulish (extinct), Irish [gle], Manx Gaelic [glv], and Scottish Gaelic [gla]. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: Christian.

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English
[eng] 55,600,000 in United Kingdom (ELDIA 2012). Population total all countries: 335,148,868. L2 users: 1,500,000 in United Kingdom (Crystal 2003). L2 users worldwide: 505,000,000. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Belfast, Birmingham (Brummie, Brummy), Bolton Lancashire, Central Cumberland, Cockney, Cornwall, Craven Yorkshire, Cumberland, Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, East Anglia, East Devonshire, Edinburgh, Geordie, Glaswegian, Lowland Scottish, Newcastle Northumberland, Norfolk, North Lancashire, North Wiltshire, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, Radcliffe Lancashire, Scouse, Sheffield Yorkshire, Somerset, South Wales, Sussex, Tyneside Northumberland, West Country, West Yorkshire, Westmorland. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Christian.

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French
[fra] Channel Islands. Of the 3 French dialects spoken on the Channel Islands, 2,870 speak Jèrriais on Jersey Island (for 110 people, it was their L1), 1,300 speak Dgernesiais (2001 census) and 20 speak Serquiais on Guernsey Island. L2 users: 12,000,000 in United Kingdom (ELDIA 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dgernesiais, Jèrriais, Serquiais. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Auregniais was a dialect once spoken on Alderney. Societies are trying to preserve the dialects from becoming extinct. The States of Jersey have voted to designate Jèrriais as Jersey’s official minority language.

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Gaelic, Scottish
[gla] Northern Scotland, north and central Ross and Cromarty County; islands of Hebrides and Skye; Glasgow. 58,700 in United Kingdom (2001 census). Population total all countries: 63,130. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Scotland (2005, Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act). Alternate Names: Gaelic, Gàidhlig, Scots Gaelic Dialects: Biblical Gaelic is based on the 1801 Perthshire dialect, somewhat distant from today’s spoken dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic Comments: Status rising since the establishment of Scots Parliament in 1990s.

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Irish
[gle] Northern Ireland, Fermanagh and Armagh counties, Belfast. 116,000 in United Kingdom (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Widely used as L2 in all parts of Northern Ireland. Alternate Names: Erse, Gaeilge, Gaelic Irish Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic

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Polari
[pld] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Palari, Palarie, Parlare, Parlary, Parlyaree Classification: Unclassified Comments: An in-group language among theatrical and circus people. Used among homosexual men in Britain. Some observers trace its roots to sailors and seafarers, alleging that it derived from a maritime lingua franca.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 4,100 in United Kingdom (2004). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom, Romenes, Tsigane Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Welsh
[rmw] England and Wales. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Angloromani [rme]. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Ethnic groups: Volshanange, Kalá. Christian.

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Scots
[sco] Scotland lowlands, Aberdeen to Ayrshire; Northern Ireland. Doric dialect: northeast Scotland; Lallans dialect: southern Scotland lowlands; Ulster in Northern Ireland. 90,000 in United Kingdom (1999 B. Kay). 60,000 in Lallans, 30,000 in Doric. Population total all countries: 100,000. L2 users: 1,500,000 in United Kingdom. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Doric, Lallans, Ulster. Difficult intelligibility among dialects. Northern Scots on the Scottish Islands is considered by some a different language (Shetlandic or Orcadian). Lallans is main literary dialect. Scots is reportedly most similar to English [eng] and Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Christian.

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Traveller Scottish
[trl] 4,000 in United Kingdom. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Scottish Cant, Scottish Traveller Cant Classification: Unclassified Comments: Blend of High Romani and Elizabethan Cant. Earliest texts go back to 16th century. Not Gypsies. Nomadic in Scotland.

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Welsh
[cym] North, west, and south Wales. 508,000 in United Kingdom (1991 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 536,890. 32,700 monolinguals (1971 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Wales. Alternate Names: Cymraeg Dialects: Northern Welsh, Patagonian Welsh, Southern Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic

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