[rme] England, Scotland, and Wales. Also in South Africa, United States. 90,000 in United Kingdom (Hancock 1990). Population total all countries: 197,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: English Romani, Pogadi Chib, Posh ‘N’ Posh, Romani English, Romanichal Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Welsh Romani [rmw], Traveller Swedish [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], or Traveller Danish [rmd]. Grammar is English with heavy Romani lexical borrowing. Many dialects. Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani
British Sign Language
[bfi] England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. 40,000 L1 users (Deuchar 1984) out of 909,000 deaf; majority probably have some degree of sign language competence (Deuchar 1977). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: BSL Dialects: Not inherently intelligible to users of American Sign Language [ase]. Deaf community is cohesive so communication good despite regional differences. Signing varies along a continuum from something usually called Signed English (which draws on BSL vocabulary but uses grammatical structure like spoken English) to natural BSL. Different styles of signing used in different situations, and signers vary in terms of how much of the range of signing styles they control. Many structural similarities between British Sign Language (BSL), Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [nzs], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [asf] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility (Johnston 2003). Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing each as a separate language. Classification: Deaf sign language
[cor] Southwest, Duchy of Cornwall. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 469,000 (1991 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Curnoack, Kernewek, Kernowek Dialects: Related to Breton [bre], Welsh [cym], Gaulish (extinct), Irish [gle], Manx Gaelic [glv] (extinct), and Scottish Gaelic [gla]. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic Comments: A few L2 speakers in Canada and Australia. Christian.
[eng] Also in American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bhutan, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Caribbean Netherlands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Hong Kong, Macao, Cook Islands, Curacao, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Isle of Man, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Montserrat, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe. 58,200,000 in United Kingdom (Crystal 2003). Population total all countries: 334,800,758. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Belfast, Birmingham (Brummie, Brummy), Bolton Lancashire, Central Cumberland, Cockney, Cornwall, Craven Yorkshire, Cumberland, Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, East Anglia, East Devonshire, Edinburgh, Geordie, Glaswegian, Lowland Scottish, Newcastle Northumberland, Norfolk, North Lancashire, North Wiltshire, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, Radcliffe Lancashire, Scouse, Sheffield Yorkshire, Somerset, South Wales, Sussex, Tyneside Northumberland, West Country, West Yorkshire, Westmorland. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Christian.
[fra] Channel Islands. Of the 3 French dialects spoken on the Channel Islands, 2,870 speak Jèrriais on Jersey Island (for 110 people, it was their L1), 1,300 speak Dgernesiais (2001 census) and 20 speak Serquiais on Guernsey Island. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dgernesiais, Jèrriais, Serquiais. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Auregniais was a dialect once spoken on Alderney. Societies are trying to preserve the dialects from becoming extinct. The States of Jersey have voted to designate Jèrriais as Jersey’s official minority language.
[gla] Northern Scotland, north and central Ross and Cromarty County; islands of Hebrides and Skye; Glasgow. Also in Australia, Canada, United States. 58,700 in United Kingdom (2003 census). Population total all countries: 63,130. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gaelic, Gàidhlig, Scots Gaelic Dialects: The Gaelic of the Bible is based on Perthshire dialect of 1801, somewhat distant from today’s spoken dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic Comments: Status rising since the establishment of Scots Parliament in 1990s.
[pld] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Palari, Palarie, Parlare, Parlary, Parlyaree Classification: Unclassified Comments: An in-group language among theatrical and circus people. Used among homosexual men in Britain. Some observers trace its roots to sailors and seafarers, alleging that it derived from a maritime lingua franca.
[sco] Scotland lowlands, Aberdeen to Ayrshire; Northern Ireland. Doric dialect: northeast Scotland; Lallans dialect: southern Scotland lowlands; Ulster in Northern Ireland. Also in Ireland. 90,000 in United Kingdom (1999 B. Kay). 60,000 in Lallans, 30,000 in Doric. Population total all countries: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Doric, Lallans, Ulster. Difficult intelligibility among dialects. Northern Scots on the Scottish Islands is considered by some a different language (Shetlandic or Orcadian). Lallans is main literary dialect. Scots is most similar to English [eng] and Frisian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Christian.
[trl] Also in United States. 4,000 in United Kingdom. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Scottish Cant, Scottish Traveller Cant Classification: Unclassified Comments: Blend of High Romani and Elizabethan Cant. Earliest texts go back to 16th century. Not Gypsies. Nomadic in Scotland.
[cym] North, west, and south Wales. Also in Argentina, Canada, United States. 508,000 in United Kingdom (1991 census), decreasing. 32,700 monolinguals (1971 census). Population total all countries: 536,890. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Wales. Alternate Names: Cymraeg Dialects: Northern Welsh, Patagonian Welsh, Southern Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic