Equatorial Guinea

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Batanga
[bnm] Bapuku along central coast, south of Mbini to Cabo San Juan. 9,000 in Equatorial Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001), decreasing. Population total all countries: 15,000. Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banoho, Banoo, Bano’o, Noho, Nohu, Noku Dialects: Bapuku (Bapoko, Bapuu, Naka, Puku). The Puku are an Ndowe coastal people. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.32) Comments: Different from Batanga [bdu] of South West Region in Cameroon (Balundu-Bima), and the Batanga dialect of Caka [ckx]. Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Benga
[bng] Corisco Island, Rio Muni. 3,900 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. 400 on Corisco Island. Population total all countries: 5,000. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boumba, Ndowe Dialects: None known. Related to Batanga [bnm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.34) Comments: Together with Batanga [bnm] they are called Boumba; Ndowe with Iyassa [yko], One [yko], Mari [yko], Bueko [yko], and Kombe [nui]. A ‘Ndowe’, coastal people. 80% moved to Libreville, Gabon or Bata. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bube
[bvb] Bioko Island, Fernando Po. 51,000 (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adeeyah, Adija, Bobe, Boobe, Boombe, Bubi, Ediya, Fernandian Dialects: North Bobe, Southeast Bobe, Southwest Bobe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.31) Comments: The Adiya names are historical (1800s). Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Equatorial Guinean Pidgin
[fpe] North central Bioko Island, Fernando Po, Malabo area; Musola, Las Palmas, Sampaca, Basupu, Fiston, and Balveri de Cristo Rey. 6,000 (2011 S. Smith), increasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. L2 users: 70,000 (2011 S. Smith). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as LWC across Bioko island, including the capital city of Malabo, in all domains except education and government. Alternate Names: Criollo, Fernandino, Fernando Po Creole English, Fernando Po Krio, Pichi, Pichinglis, Pidgin de Guinea Ecuatorial, Pidginglis Dialects: None known. Offshoot of Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone; intelligible with Cameroon Pidgin [wes], Nigerian Pidgin [pcm], but it has 20% of its lexical inventory as loanwords from Spanish [spa]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio Comments: Christian.

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Fa d’Ambu
[fab] Annobón Island, isolated from mainland by 360 km of ocean (2,000); Bioko Island, Malabo (500), a few on continental Equatorial Guinea. 5,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2010 SIL). Population total all countries: 5,600. 0 monolinguals. L2 users: Few. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Annobonense, Annobonés, Annobonese Dialects: Different from Equatorial Guinean Pidgin [fpe] and Crioulo [pov] of Guinea-Bissau and Kabuverdianu. Little variation between Annobonese in Annobón and Malabo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Sãotomense [cri]. 10% of the lexicon comes from Spanish [spa]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based Comments: Famed swimmers, fishermen, and whalers. Christian.

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Fang
[fan] Widespread. 589,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013 S. Smith), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,319,900. L2 users: 35,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013 S. Smith). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as LWC in continental Equatorial Guinea (the area previously known as Rio Muni). Used in church, market, business, media, and music. It became a LWC by virtue of its dominant status as mother tongue of 85% of the country’s population. Alternate Names: Pahouin, Pamue, Pangwe Dialects: None known. Ntumu, Okak (Ntumu). Intelligible with Bulu [bum] and Ewondo [ewo] in the Beti language subgroup. More similar to Bulu [bum] than Ewondo [ewo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.75) Comments: Ethnic groups are Okak, Ntumu, known as warriors of the jungle. Their knowledge of jungle plants, animals, survival is legendary. Christian, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] Mostly cities. L2 users: 100,000 in Equatorial Guinea. Increasing due to immigration. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1998, Constitution, Article 4(1) as amended). Alternate Names: Français, Francés Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Gyele
[gyi] Coast, northwest corner. 29 in Equatorial Guinea (1998 census). Possibly hundreds more in isolated camps. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babinga, Bagiele, Bagyele, Bajele, Bajeli, Bako, Bakola, Bakuele, Bekoe, Bogyel, Bogyeli, Bondjiel, Giele, Gieli, Gyeli, Likoya Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.801) Comments: Pygmies, dispersed in small groups in the forest. Traditional religion.

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Kombe
[nui] Rio Muni coast. 9,200 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Combe, Ngumbi Dialects: Asonga, Bomudi, Moganda. May be a dialect of Yasa [yko]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.33) Comments: An Ndowe coastal people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kwasio
[nmg] Bisio in coastal Rio Muni. 13,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bujeba, Mabea, Mabi, Magbea, Mgoumba, Mvumbo, Ngoumba, Ngumba Dialects: Bisio. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.81) Comments: One of 3 groups known as semi-playeros, who function well on the coast and in the jungle. Christian, traditional religion.

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Molengue
[bxc] South tip and Rio Benito, inland. 1,000 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. L2 users: 0. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balengue, Molendji Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.211) Comments: Glossonym: semi-playeros, who function well on the coast and in the jungle. Traditional religion.

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Seki
[syi] Coastal. 11,000 in Equatorial Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.21)

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Spanish
[spa] Widespread. Few L1 users. L2 users: Colonial L2 for most, but a mother tongue to few (city children with parents from two different ethnic groups who do not speak each other’s L1). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2011, Constitution, Article 4). Alternate Names: Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Yasa
[yko] Rio Muni, Yasa in Rio Ntem, 1 Yasa village; Bueko, One and Marry villages. 910 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bongwe, Lyassa, Maasa, Yassa Dialects: Bweko, Iyasa, Marry, One. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.33) Comments: An Ndowe coastal people. Bueko, One and Marry dialects in Equatorial Guinea more similar to Iyassa ([yko] in Cameroon) than to neighboring Kombe [nui]. Christian (Roman Catholic).

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