Greece

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Albanian, Arvanitika
[aat] Aegean, Attica, Peloponnese, Western Greece and the Ionian Islands, Thessaly and Central Greece administrative units; Voiotia, south Evvoia and Salamis islands; Korinthia and Argolis areas; other Peloponnese areas, northwest Achaia, north of Lapas; Messinia, from Kalamitra northwest; Lakonia, east coastal area near Rikhea; Kyklades, Andros island north; Athens, mainly rural, 300 villages. 50,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 150,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Arberichte, Arvanitic, Arvanitika. Dialects: Thracean Arvanitika, Northwestern Arvanitika, South Central Arvanitika. Partially intelligible with Albanian Tosk [als]. Dialects perceived as mutually unintelligible. A member of macrolanguage Albanian [sqi]. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. Comments: The language is heavily influenced by Greek [ell]. Christian.

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Albanian, Tosk
[als] Epirus and Western Macedonia administrative unit: Central Florina, into Kastoria, northeast of Lake Kastoria; also, Epyrus region, village of Lehovo. 10,000 in Greece (2002). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Arvanitika, Camerija, Shqip. Dialects: Tosk, Cham. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. Comments: In Greece, Tosk is called Arvanitika, the Greek term for Albanian. Distinct from Arvanitika Albanian [aat] proper.

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Aromanian
[rup] Epirus and Western Macedonia, Macedonia and Thrace, and Thessaly and Central Greece administrative units; Pindus mountains, western Ioannina, southwest Trikala, southwest corner, Grevena; Pella area, southeast of Lake Vegoritis and into Imathia; central zone, Kastoria into Florina and Kozani. 50,000 in Greece (Salminen 1999). Ethnic population: 700,000 (Association of French Aromanians). Total users in all countries: 500,740. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armani, Armina, Armini, Arumanian, Arumenian, Macedo Romanian, Macedo-Rumanian, Vlach. Dialects: Structurally a distinct language from Megleno Romanian [ruq] (Agard 1984). It split from the other 3 Romanian languages between 500 and 1000 A.D. Many dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Macedonia and Thrace administrative unit: 3 departments, including Xanthi. 30,000 in Greece (1998 Greek Helsinki Monitor). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Pomak (Pomakci, Pomakika). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Also referred to locally as Macedonian and Vlach. Vlach refers variously to varieties of Bulgarian, Romani, and Romanian in Romania, Greece, Albania, and Serbia. Many Greek [ell] loanwords from ancient Thracean and Illyrian. Viewed as Turks in Greece. Muslim.

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Cappadocian Greek
[cpg] Thessaly administrative unit: Mandra village; Macedonia and Thrace administrative unit: Xirohori and Neo Agioneri villages. 2,800 (2015 M. Janse). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Sille, Western Cappadocian, Pharasa, Misiotika (Misti, Mistiot). Reportedly similar to Pontic [pnt]. Even more distinct from standard Greek [ell] than Pontic. Misiotika is the only Cappadocian dialect still spoken to any extent. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Different from the ancient Anatolian language spoken in Cappadocia. Christian.

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Greek
[ell] Widespread. 10,700,000 in Greece (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 13,116,360 (as L1: 13,059,360; as L2: 57,000). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Ellinika, Graecae, Grec, Greco, Neo-Hellenic, Romaic. Dialects: Katharevousa, Dimotiki, Saracatsan. Katharevousa is an archaic literary dialect, Dimotiki is the spoken literary and now official dialect. The Saracatsan are nomadic shepherds of northern Greece. The Greek of Italy and that of Corsica are probably distinct languages (1992 R. Zamponi). In Cyprus, the dialect is reportedly more similar to Classical Greek [grc] in some vocabulary and grammar than that spoken in Greece, and to have Latin [lat] and Turkish [tur] loanwords. Lexical similarity: 84%–93% with Greek [ell] in Cyprus. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: The Karamanli were Orthodox Christian Turks who came from central Turkey.

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Greek Sign Language
[gss] Scattered. 5,000 (2014 EUD). 42,600 (Van Cleve 1986). 62,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2000, Law 2817, Official language of deaf community). Alternate Names: Elleniké Noematiké Glossa, GSL. Dialects: None known. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 40 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Many L2 users. L2 teaching materials available. Christian.

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Greek, Ancient
[grc] Scattered. Religious language. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Koine Greek, Classical Greek. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Judeo-Italian
[itk] Peloponnese, Western Greece and the Ionian Islands administrative unit: Kerkyra regional unit. 50 in Greece (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Italkian. Dialects: Corfiote Italkian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pontic
[pnt] Epirus and Western Macedonia, and Macedonia and Thrace administrative units: all of Serrai, Kilkis, and Pella; Thessaloniki except for portion south of Kalamaria borough; fringe enclaves in Drama and Imathia. 400,000 in Greece (2009 Z. Diakonikolaou). Total users in all countries: 1,178,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pontic Greek. Dialects: None known. Standard Greek [ell] speakers cannot understand Pontic, and Pontic speakers reportedly do not understand or speak standard Greek [ell]. Pontic clubs and centers exist in the Athens-Peiraeus suburbs. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Brought to Greece in the 1920s and 1930s by immigrants from the Black Sea coast, which had been inhabited by Greeks since antiquity.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Attica administrative unit: Athens, Agia Varvara suburb, about 500 families. 40,000 in Greece (1996 B. Igla). 10,000 Arlija, 30,000 Greek Romani. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Greek Romani, Arli (Erli). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Muslim.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Attica administrative unit: Ajia Varvara, suburb of Athens. 1,000 in Greece. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom, Romanés, Tsingani. Dialects: Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Nonsettled Gypsies are called Yifti. Distinct from Rumanovlach, a variety of Romanian. Christian.

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Romanian, Megleno
[ruq] Macedonia and Thrace administrative unit: Kilkis and Pella regional units, Meglen area, north of Salonika. 3,000 in Greece (2002). Total users in all countries: 5,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Meglenite, Meglenitic. Dialects: None known. Structurally a distinct language from Romanian [rom], Aromanian [rup], and Istro Romanian [ruo] (Agard 1984). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: The 4 Romanian languages split between 500 and 1000 A.D.

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Romano-Greek
[rge] Thessaly and Central Greece Administrative Unit; secret language, itinerant builders, especially in Evrytania and Fthiotis. 30 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hellenoromani, Romika. Dialects: None known. Structured on Greek [ell] with heavy Romani lexicon. Classification: Mixed language, Greek-Romani. Comments: Related variants are Dortika, a secret language spoken by wandering builders from Eurytania Prefecture, and Kaliarda, spoken in Athens. Both may no longer be anyone’s L1.

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Slavic
[mkd] Epirus and Western Macedonia, Macedonia and Thrace administrative units: mainly Pella, Florina, and Thessaloniki; Kastoria except south Nestorio municipality; smaller bands in Kozani (northwest), Kilkis (south), Imathia (north); some in Ioannina and Serrai. Population for Slavic speakers in Greece is very difficult to find. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Macedonian, Macedonian Slavic. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Called Slavic in Greece, where Macedonian refers only to people living in Macedonia, a region in Greece.

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Tsakonian
[tsd] Peloponnese, Western Greece and the Ionian Islands administrative unit: Arkadia regional unit, Kastanitsa, Sitena, Prastos, Leonidi, Pramatefti, Sapounakeika, Tyros, and Melana towns, possibly Korakovunio, Peloponnesos east coast; isolated in summer in east Peloponnesus in mountains west of Leonidi, in winter Leonidi town area. 200 (Salminen 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tsakonia. Dialects: Northern Tsakonian (Kastanista-Sitena), Southern Tsakonian (Leonidio-Prastos), Propontis Tsakonian (Vatka-Havoutsi). Derived from the Doric dialect spoken in Lakonia by ancient Spartans. Northern and Southern are reportedly mutually intelligible, but Propontis was more distinct, and more similar to standard Greek [ell]. Not inherently intelligible with modern Greek (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Lexical similarity: 70% or less with standard Greek [ell]. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Doric. Comments: Christian.

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Turkish
[tur] Macedonia and Thrace administrative unit: Xanthi, west of Lake Vistorius, on Bulgaria border; Rodopi, Bulgaria border west of Komotini. 128,000 in Greece (1976 World Almanac). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Xanthi, 2 other eastern provinces (1923, Treaty of Lausanne). Alternate Names: Osmanli. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Turkish population in Greece remains fairly constant, due to steady emigration to Turkey. Muslim, Christian.

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