Guyana

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Akawaio
[ake] Cuyuni-Mazaruni region: Mazaruni river basin, north of Patamona. 4,500 in Guyana (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 5,350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Ingariko, Kapon. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Macushi [mbc]; marginally intelligible with Arecuna dialect of Pemon [aoc]. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: Important differences in vocabulary from Patamona [pbc]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Arawak
[arw] Widespread. West coast and northeast along Corantyne river. 1,500 in Guyana (Forte 1990). Ethnic population: 15,500. The ethnic group represents 33% of the Amerindians in Guyana. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arowak, Lokono. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Atorada
[aox] Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region: Southwest, near Wapishana [wap] language area. Few in Guyana. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Atorai, Ator’ti, Dauri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Wapishana [wap], 20% with Mapidian [mpw]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Berbice Creole Dutch
[brc] East Berbice-Corentyne and Upper Demerara-Berbice regions. No known L1 speakers (2011 SIL). 15 with limited competence (Holm 1989). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: May not be inherently intelligible with Skepi Creole Dutch [skw] or the Rupununi dialect of Guyanese Creole English [gyn]. About one-third of the basic lexicon and most of the productive morphology is from Izon [ijc] in Nigeria; most of the rest of the lexicon is from Dutch [nld], 10% loans from Arawak [arw] and Guyanese Creole English. Classification: Creole, Dutch based.

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Carib
[car] Barima-Waini and Pomeroon-Supenaam regions: Northwest, coastal river heads and coastal lowland forests. 480 in Guyana (1991). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 J. Forte). The ethnic group represents 6% of the Amerindians in Guyana. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibi, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kariña, Kari’ña, Kari’na auran, Kari’nja, Kari’nya. Dialects: Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Aretyry. Classification: Cariban.

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English
[eng] 650,000 in Guyana (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 30,000 in Guyana (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Guyanese English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Guyana, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers.

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Guyanese Creole English
[gyn] Widespread. Possibly also in French Guiana. 650,000 in Guyana. 250,000 Blacks and 400,000 Hindustanis. Total users in all countries: 700,000. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Creolese, Guyanese Creole. Dialects: Afro-Guyanese Creole, Rupununi, Indo-Guyanese Creole. Most similar to creoles of Saint Vincent and Tobago (Holbrook). Rupununi dialect may be a separate language. Rupununi claim they are not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern. Comments: There is a continuum of variation from basilectal Creole to acrolectal English of the educated.

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Hindustani, Sarnami
[hns] Barima-Waini and Pomeroon-Supenaam regions. Ethnic population: 539,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aili Gaili, Caribbean Hindustani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu.

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Macushi
[mbc] Potaro-Siparuni and Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo regions: Southwest border area, Rupununi north savannahs, 20 small settlements up to Pakaraima mountain foothills. 930 in Guyana (2001 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 7,750 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Macusi, Macussi, Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teueia, Teweya. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Mapidian
[mpw] Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region. No known L1 speakers in Guyana. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maiopitian, Maopityan. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana. Comments: Non-indigenous. Most if not all moved to Brazil in the 1960s. No remaining speakers in Guyana.

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Mawayana
[mzx] Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region: southwest, among the Waiwai [waw] language group. 50 in Guyana (1986 C. Howard). Total users in all countries: 60. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mahuayana. Dialects: None known. No semantic similarity with and not related to Wapishana [wap], Atorada [aox], or Mapidian [mpw] (2002 R. Hicks). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Patamona
[pbc] Potaro-Siparuni and Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo regions: west central, upland savanna in Pakaraima mountains, about 13 villages. 4,700 in Guyana (Forte 1990). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 J. Forte). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eremagok, Ingariko, Kapon. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Macushi [mbc] but not inherently intelligible. Marginally intelligible of the Arecuna dialect of Pemon [aoc]. Reportedly most similar to Akawaio [ake], but vocabulary differences and language attitudes separate them. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: The Akawaio [ake] are less acculturated than Patamona. Ingariko is the Macushi term for bush people.

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Pemon
[aoc] Cuyuni-Mazaruni region: Paruima and Kaikan on upland savannah. 480 in Guyana (Forte 1990). Ethnic population: 500 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamarakotos, Pemong. Dialects: Camaracoto, Taurepan (Taulipang, Taurepa, Taurepang), Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Jaricuna). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Skepi Creole Dutch
[skw] Essequibo Islands-West Demerara region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Essequibo. Not inherently intelligible with Berbice Creole Dutch [brc] or the Rupununi dialect of Guyanese Creole English [gyn]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Berbice Creole Dutch [brc]. Classification: Creole, Dutch based.

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Taruma
[tdm] Southern East Berbice-Corentyne and Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo regions, Guyana-Brazil border area, in the Wapishana [wap] language area. 3 (Carlin 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aroaqui, Taruamá. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Live among the Wapishanas [wap].

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Waiwai
[waw] Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region: southwest, headwaters of Essequibo river. 200 in Guyana (Forte 1990). Ethnic population: 240 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ouayeone, Parukota, Uaieue, Uaiuai. Dialects: Katawian (Katawina, Katwena). Classification: Cariban, Waiwai.

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Wapishana
[wap] East Berbice-Corentyne and Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo regions: southwest, south of the Kanuku mountains, a few villages northwest of the Waiwai [waw] language area. 6,000 in Guyana (2000 J. Forte). Ethnic population: 6,900 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 12,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uapixana, Vapidiana, Wapichan, Wapichana, Wapisana, Wapishshiana, Wapisiana, Wapitxana, Wapixana. Dialects: Amariba. Lexical similarity: 10% with Mapidian [mpw]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Warao
[wba] Barima-Waini, Pomeroon-Supenaam, and Essequibo Islands-West Demerara regions: near the coast, mixed with Arawak [ake] and Carib [car] speakers. Few speakers (Forte 1990). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 J. Forte). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warau, Warrau. Classification: Language isolate.

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