Indonesia

Print
Abinomn
[bsa] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict. Lakes plain area, Baso river mouth east of Dabra at Idenburg river, to headwaters in Foya mountains. 300 (Clouse, Ma, and Donohue 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avinomen, “Baso” (pej.), Foja, Foya Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Abui
[abz] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Western half, Alor island. 16000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Barawahing” (pej.), Barue, Namatalaki Dialects: Abui Barat, Abui Selatan, Alakaman, Atimelang. Much dialect diversity. Alakaman may be a dialect of Kamang [woi] (Woisika). May be more than 1 language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor

More Information

Abun
[kgr] Papua Province, Sorong regency; Ayamaru, Sausapor, and Moraid subdistricts, about 20 villages. North coast, interior of central Bird’s Head, north, south of Tamberau mountain range. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A Nden, Karon, Manif, Yimbun Dialects: Abun Je, Abun Ji (Madik), Abun Tat (Karon Pantai). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Aceh
[ace] Aceh Province, north tip of Sumatra, coastal areas. 3,500,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 3,500,032. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Aceh province. Alternate Names: Acehnese, Achehnese, Achinese Dialects: Banda Aceh, Baruh, Bueng, Daja, Pase, Pidie (Pedir, Timu), Tunong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Acehnese Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Adang
[adn] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Northwest (Bird’s Head), Alor island, northwest of Kalabahi town towards Banda Sea coast. 3,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alor Dialects: Aimoli. Because of linguistic differences and social identity, considered a separate language from Kabola [klz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor Comments: Christian.

More Information

Adonara
[adr] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Adonara and east Solor islands, between Flores and Lembata islands. 98,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nusa Tadon, Sagu, Vaiverang, Waiwerang Dialects: East Adonara, East Solor, West Adonara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Aghu
[ahh] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Jair subdistrict, interior south coast area. Between Mapi and Digul rivers west of Tanamerah town. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djair, Dyair Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Different from Aghu-Tharnggala [gtu] of Australia. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Airoran
[air] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Hilir and Pantai Barat subdistricts, Subu, Motobiak, Isirania, and other villages. North coast area, lower Apauwer river. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adora, Aeroran, Iriemkena Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Alor
[aol] Nusa Tenggara Province, Coastal Bird’s Head of Alor, north Ternate island, pockets along north Pantar and adjacent islands. 25,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alorese Dialects: Baranusa, Muna. Not inherently intelligible with Lembata languages or Adonara [adr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Alune
[alp] Maluku Province. West Seram island, Seram Barat district, Kairatu, Taniwel districts, 27 villages. 17,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Patasiwa Alfoeren, Sapalewa Dialects: Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake), Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli), Kairatu, North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo), South Alune (Rambatu-Manussa-Rumberu). Rambatu dialect reportedly prestigious. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 77%–91% among dialects, 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 63% with Hulung [huk] and Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai Comments: Largest language in west Seram. Christian.

More Information

Amahai
[amq] Maluku Province, 4 villages. Southwest Seram island, near Masohi town. 50 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amahei Dialects: Makariki, Rutah, Soahuku. Lexical similarity: 87% with Makariki and Rutah dialects, probably 2 languages; 59%–69% with Saparua [spr], 59% with Kamarian [kzx], 58% with Kaibobo [kzb], 52% with Luhu [lcq] and Hulung [huk], 50% with Alune [alp], 49% with Naka’ela [nae], 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 45% with Wemale [weo] and Nuaulu, 44% with Boano [bzn] and Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Amarasi
[aaz] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Southwest tip, Timor island, 80 villages. Dialect locations: Kotos is central and east, Ro’is is west, Ro’is Tais Nonof is south, Ro’is Hero surrounded by Helong [heg] language area. 70,000 (2011 UBB-GMIT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Timor Amarasi, Uab Meto Dialects: Kotos, Ro’is, Ro’is Hero (Kopa), Ro’is Tais Nonof. Part of Uab Meto language chain. Reportedly similar to Uab Meto [aoz] but with differences in phonology, vocabulary, and discourse, with semantic shifts, structural differences, intelligibility problems. Ro’is Tais Nonof dialect has intonation like Ro’is dialect, vocabulary like Kotos dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto Comments: Interspersed with Helong [heg]. Most literature in Kotos dialect. Christian.

More Information

Ambai
[amk] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur subdistricts, 10 villages. On Ambai island in Cenderawasih bay, south of Serui town, along south coast of Serui island. 10,100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ambai-Menawi Dialects: Ambai (Wadapi-Laut), Manawi, Randawaya. Lexical similarity: 77% with Serui-Laut [seu], 71% with Wandamen [wad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Ambelau
[amv] Central Maluku, Ambelau island off southeast coast of Buru island; Buru coast, Wae Tawa village, opposite Ambelau. 8 villages. 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amblau Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Buru [mhs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Ambelau Comments: Schools through junior high on the island. Wild pigs and rocky terrain on Ambelau make cultivation impossible; that is done in Wae Tawa village on Buru Island. Muslim.

More Information

Ampanang
[apg] Southern East Kalimantan Province. West of Mahakam river delta, east of Jambu and Lamper towns. 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Anakalangu
[akg] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Sumba island, southwest coast, east of Wanukaka. 16000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anakalang Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba

More Information

Anasi
[bpo] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Hilir subdistrict. North coast, lower west bank Mamberamo river. 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bapu Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Andio
[bzb] Central Sulawesi Province, Lamala subdistrict, Tauge and Tangeban villages. Near tip of eastern peninsula. 1,700 (Busenitz 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andio’o, “Bobongko” (pej.), Imbao’o, Masama Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobongko [bgb], 60% with Batui [zbt], 62% with Coastal Saluan [loe], 66% with Balantak [blz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western Comments: ‘Masama’ is preferred local name. Muslim.

More Information

Ansus
[and] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat subdistrict, Ansus, Kairawi, Aibondeni, and Yenusi villages. Easternmost Serui island, south coast; Miosnum island to west. 4,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau [mvr] and Papuma [ppm], 77% with Wandamen [wad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Anus
[auq] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Bonggo subdistrict. Podena islands off north coast; coastal area east of Biri river. 320 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Koroernoes, Korur Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Podena [pdn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Anus and Fedan [pdn] may be the same language. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Aoheng
[pni] East Kalimantan Province. Near Sarawak border, western end of province, upper reaches of Kapuas, Barito, and Mahakam rivers. 2,630 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Penihing Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Hovongan [hov]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’

More Information

Aputai
[apx] Southwest Maluku Province, 2 villages. North central Wetar island, Banda Sea coast, Ilputih village; south central Wetar, Wetar strait coast, Lurang village. 150 (Hinton 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ilputih, Opotai, Tutunohan Dialects: Ilputih, Lurang, Welemur. Welemur dialect has no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Perai [wet], 74% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Ili’uun [ilu], 57% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Aralle-Tabulahan
[atq] West Sulawesi Province, Mambi subdistrict. Between Mandar and Kalumpang towns. 12,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Aralle, Mambi, Tabulahan. Lexical similarity: 84%–89% with other dialects listed, 75%–80% with Bambam [ptu], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumandak [ulm] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Arandai
[jbj] Papua Province, Manokwari regency, Bintuni subdistrict. South Bird’s Head, MacCluer Gulf; east and west of Wariaga river, Sebyar (Timoforo) river area. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dombano, Jaban, Sebyar, Sumuri, Yaban Dialects: Dombano (Arandai). Lexical similarity: 71% with the Kemberano and Dombano dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Arguni
[agf] Papua Province, Fak-Fak district. Off northwest coast, Bomberai peninsula on Arguni island in Maccluer gulf. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Argoeni Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

As
[asz] West Papua Province, Asbakin, Maklaumkarta, and Mega villages. West Bird’s Head area, north coast east of Dampler strait, inland towards Warsamson river. 230 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with some dialects on Misool Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Reportedly originates from Gag Island, west of Waigeo Island. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Asilulu
[asl] Maluku Province, Asilulu, Ureng, and Negeri Lima villages. Northwest Ambon island; some in west Seram island, Hoamoal peninsula, south coast. 8,760 (1987 SIL). L2 users: Spoken as L2 in northwest Ambon, north and west Seram, Manipa, Boano, and Kelang islands. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Asilulu, Negeri Lima (Henalima, Lima), Ureng. Lexical similarity: 88% with Asilulu and the Negeri Lima dialect, 78%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 72%–73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu [htu], 67%–72% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 71%–73% with Luhu [lcq] in Seram. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Asmat, Casuarina Coast
[asc] Papua Province, Mappi regency, Pantai Kasuari and Edera subdistricts. Casuarina Coast from Ewta river north, to Kuti river south, and inland. 9,000 (1991 SIL). 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaweinag Dialects: Matia, Sapan (Safan). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Asmat, Central
[cns] Papua Province. Casuarina coast areas. Asmat Regency; Sawa-Erma, Agats, Atsy, and Pantai Kasuari subdistricts. South coast from Owap river northwest to Farec river southwest, inland. Also, Mappi regency, Nambai and Edera subdistricts. Digul river delta area. 7,000 (Roesler 1972). Most are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jas, Manowee, Yas Dialects: Ajam (Ayam), Misman, Simai (Simay). Reportedly similar to Sempan [xse] north of the rivers, Kamoro [kgq] and Citak [txt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Asmat, North
[nks] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Sawa-Erma subdistrict. Near Pater Le Cocq river headwaters west to Unir river east to the foothills. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keenok Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Asmat, Yaosakor
[asy] Papua Province, Asmat regency, Agats and Atsy subdistricts. South coast, lower Sirac river area. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yaosakor Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Atohwaim
[aqm] Papua Province, Mappi regency, Pantai Kasuari subdistrict. South coast inland, northeast of Pirimapun town, between Cook and Kronkel rivers. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaugat Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Auye
[auu] Papua Province, Paniai regency, Napan subdistrict. Central highlands southeast of Cenderawasih bay; Siriwo river area. 350 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Auwje Dialects: None known. Related to Ekari [ekg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes Comments: Distinct from Awyi [auw] (Awye) in Taikat group. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awbono
[awh] Papua Province, Jayawuarar district. Modera river area. 100 (1999 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kvolyab Dialects: None known. Not related to these language families: Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna [mqf], or highland languages like Dani [dnw], or Mek family. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bayono [byl]. Classification: Bayono-Awbono Comments: Frequently at war with Kopkaka and Korowai.

More Information

Awera
[awr] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict,1 village. East side of Cenderawasih bay, Wapoga river mouth. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Lakes Plain, Awera Comments: Community shared with 100 Ansus [and] speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awyi
[auw] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Arso subdistrict. Northeast, highland enclave near Papua New Guinea border, south of Jayapura town. 350 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Awje, Awji, Awye, Njao, Nyao Classification: Border, Taikat Comments: Distinct from Auye [auu] in Ekari-Wolani-Moni group. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awyu, Asue
[psa] Papua Province, South coast area, southwest of Wildeman river, east of Kampong river, inland from Pirimapun. 6,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Miaro, Miaro Awyu, Pisa Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Edera Awyu [awy] and South Awyu [aws], but distinct from Central Awyu [awu] and Jair Awyu [awv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awyu, Central
[awu] Papua Province, Mappi and Boven Digul regencies; Obaa, Citak Mitak, Mandobo, and Bimikia subdistricts. South coast inland, west of Tanahmerah, southwest of Boma town. 7,500 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajau, Auyu, Avio, Awju, Awya, Nohon Dialects: 4 dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Awyu, Edera
[awy] Papua Province, Merauke district. Inland, both banks, lower Digul river; north of Keisak town. 3,870 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awyu, Jair
[awv] Papua Province, Merauke district. West of northward bend, Digul river. 2,300 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awyu, North
[yir] Papua Province, Merauke district. West side, Digul river, upstream from Tanamerah town. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awyu, Djair, Dyair, Jair, Yair Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Awyu, South
[aws] Papua Province, Merauke district. Both banks, lower Digul river; Bade town area. 9,340 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Babar, North
[bcd] South Maluku Province, Ilwiara, Nakarhamto, and Yatoke villages, northeast Babar island east of Timor island. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dialect variation reported. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North Comments: Christian.

More Information

Babar, Southeast
[vbb] South Maluku Province, Kroing, Letwurung, Kokwari, Wakpapai, Ahanari, Analutur, Manuweri, and Tutuwawan villages. Southeast Babar island coast. 4,460 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Bada
[bhz] South central Sulawesi Province, Lore Selatan, Pamona Selatan, Poso Pesisir, and Parigi subdistricts, at least 24 villages. Ako dialect in northern Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu subdistrict. Some in Ampibabo subdistrict, Lemusa village. 6,800 (Martens 1989), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bada’, Tobada’ Dialects: Ako, Bada. Lexical similarity: 85% with Bada and Behoa [bep], 91% with Behoa and Napu [npy], 80% with Bada and Napu [npy]. The 3 are geographically, politically, and culturally separate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic Comments: ‘Tobada’, Bada person. Christian.

More Information

Badui
[bac] Java, Bantan Province, Rangkasbitung regency, on Ujung river; Pandeglang town, near Mount Kendeng. Separate area in West Java Province, Sukabumi city area. 1 village. 20,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Kenekes village area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baduy, Bahasa Sunda, Gajebo Dialects: Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese Comments: A separate socio-religious group from Sunda [sun]. Inner and outer, Badui refer to location and status within the group religion. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Bagusa
[bqb] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict. East of Mamberamo river, south of Lake Rombebai. 300 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kapeso, Suaseso Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Kwerba [kwe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Baham
[bdw] West Papua Province, Fakfak regency, Kaimana, Fakfak, and Kokas subdistricts. Northwest Bomberai peninsula, east of Fakfak city. 1,100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Patimuni Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iha [ihp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Bahau
[bhv] East Kalimantan Province, Kutai Barat regency, Long Apari, Long Pahangai, Long Bagun, and Long Hubung subdistricts. Area around confluence of Ratah and Mahakam rivers. 19,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

More Information

Bahonsuai
[bsu] Central Sulawesi Province, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Bahonsuai village on the east coast. 200 (Mead 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bahoe-soeaai, Bahonsoewaai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tomadino [tdi], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bajau, Indonesian
[bdl] Widespread throughout Indonesia. Central and South East Sulawesi provinces, islands of the East Sunda Sea. North Maluku Province on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa, and Sula islands. South Sulawesi Province, Selayar, Bone, and Sinjai regencies. Gorontalo Province, Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts. North Sulawesi Province, Wori, Tumpaan, and Belang subdistricts. 150,000 (Mead, Lee, and Neveux 2007). 5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes and Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead, Lee, and Neveux 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981; Verheijen 1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Indonesian Bajaw, Orang Laut, Sama, Taurije’ne’ Dialects: Jampea, Jaya Bakti, Kajoa, Matalaang, Poso, Roti, Same’, Sulamu, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw Comments: Known as Bayo and Taurije’ne’ in the Makasar [mak] language. Known as Bajo in Buginese [bug]. Schools in some villages. They live in houses on stilts over water. Other Bajau languages are in Sabah, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Bakati’
[bei] Northwestern West Kalimantan Province. Sambas river headwaters. 4,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakati Nyam, Bakati Riok, Bakatiq, Bekati Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’

More Information

Bakati’, Rara
[lra] West Kalimantan Province, Pejampi and 2 other villages. Upper Lundu and Sambas rivers, southeast of Sambas town. 12,000 in Indonesia (2004 M. Connor). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bekati’ Kendayan, Bekati’ Nyam-Pelayo, Bekatiq, Lara’, Luru Dialects: Bina’e. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’ Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Bakati’, Sara
[sre] West Kalimantan Province, near Sanggau-Ledo northeast of Ledo. 4,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Riok Dialects: Some dialect differences. Unidirectional intelligibility of Rara-Bakati’ [lra] by Sara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’

More Information

Bakumpai
[bkr] Central Kalimantan Province. Kapuas and Barito rivers, northeast of Kuala Kapuas. 100,000 (2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as a LWC in the market in central Kalimantan Province. Alternate Names: Bakambai, Bara-Jida Dialects: Bakumpai, Mengkatip (Mangkatip, Oloh Mengkatip). Lexical similarity: 75% with Ngaju [nij], 45% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Balaesang
[bls] Central Sulawesi Province, Balaesang subdistrict, Manimbayu peninsula, Ketong, Kamonji, and Rano villages. 3,200 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balaesan, Balaisang, Pajo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Balantak
[blz] Central Sulawesi Province, Banggai regency, Luwuk, Balantak, Tinangkung, and Lamala subdistricts, at least 49 villages. Eastern peninsular tip, Cape Botok. 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 3,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Speakers of other area languages use Balantak as L2. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balanta, Kosian Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Saluan [loe], 39% with Bobongko [bgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bali
[ban] Java and Bali. Islands of Bali, north Nusa Penida. 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balinese Dialects: Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa Comments: Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.

More Information

Bambam
[ptu] West Sulawesi Province, west Polmas regency, Mambi subdistrict. Watershed of Maloso and Mapilli rivers; into Majene and Mamuju regencies. 22,000 (Strømme 1987). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pitu Uluna Salu, Pitu-Ulunna-Salu Dialects: Bambam Hulu, Bumal, Issilita’, Matangnga, Mehalaan, Pakkau, Pattae’, Salu Mokanam. Complex dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 83%–94% with Bumal; 85%–80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumanda [ulm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Banda
[bnd] South Maluku, Kei islands, west and northeast side of Kei Besar island, Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat villages, possibly another village. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Elat, Eli. Different from other south Maluku languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser Comments: The people originally came from the Banda Islands, but the language is no longer spoken there. Muslim.

More Information

Banggai
[bgz] Central Sulawesi Province, at least 157 villages. Off eastern peninsula, Banggai Islands. 125,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Banggaai, Banggaiy, Banggay, Banggaya Dialects: East Banggai, West Banggai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bangka
[mfb] Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung Province, Bangka island. 340,000 (2000 census). 50 or less speakers of the Lom dialect (Wurm 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Capital City Urban Bangka, Central Bangka, Lom (Belom, Mapor), North Bangka, Port Urban Bangka, South Bangka. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: A network of dialects with distinct lexical, phonological, and grammatical innovations set Bangka apart from other Malay speech varieties. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Banjar
[bjn] Kalimantan, around Banjarmasin south and east; East Kalimantan Province, coastal regions of Pulau Laut, Kutai, and Pasir; Central Kalimantan Province as far as Sampit. 3,500,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,505,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Banjar became a LWC through trade. LWC in the market, in business, and in media. Banjar, already dominant in South Kalimantan Province, is also growing rapidly in Central and Eastern Kalimantan provinces. Alternate Names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese, Labuhan Dialects: Hulu, Kuala. Lexically influenced by Javanese [jav]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Indonesian [ind], 66% with Tamuan (Malayic Dayak) [xdy], 45% with Bakumpai [bkr], 35% with Ngaju [nij]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bantik
[bnq] North Sulawesi Province, 11 villages. Northern peninsula, northeast section, area around Manado city. 3,000 (Utsumi 2001), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Barakai
[baj] South Maluku Province, Longgar, Apara, Bemun, and Mesiang villages. Southeast Aru chain, Barakai island; some on Gomo-Gomo island northeast of Barakai. 4,450 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Workai Dialects: Barakai, Mesiang. Reportedly similar to Karey [kyd]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Barapasi
[brp] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Atas subdistrict. East Cenderawasih bay, along Barapasi river and tributaries. 2,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baropasi Dialects: Marikai, Sipisi. Lexical similarity: 67% with Kofei [kpi], 71% with Sauri [srt], 61% with Tefaro [tfo], 64% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Baras
[brs] West Sulawesi Province, Mamuju Regency, Karossa subdistrict, Salubiro village, Baras subdistrict, in and north of Bambaloka village. 250 (Valkama 1987). 50 households. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ende Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Da’a Kaili [kzf], 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili, Da’a [kzf], 80% or more with other Kaili varieties, 64% with Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Some think the language will die out. Muslim.

More Information

Basap
[bdb] East Kalimantan Province, scattered in Bulungan, Sangkulirang, and Kutai regencies. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosap Dialects: Berau, Binatang, Bulungan, Dumaring, Jembayan, Karangan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Batak Alas-Kluet
[btz] Sumatra, southwest Aceh Province, northeast of Tapaktuan and Kutacane. 195,000 (2000 census). Includes 80,000 Alas, 50,000 Kluet, and 65,000 Singkil. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alas-Kluet Batak Dialects: Alas, Kluet, Singkil (Kade-Kade). Alas dialect may be more similar to Karo Batak [btx], 81% cognate (Soravia 2002), while Kluet and Singkil may be more closely related to Pakpak Dairi [btd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Comments: Many reject the label Batak for its cultural connotations. Unclear whether this is a single language.

More Information

Batak Angkola
[akb] North Sumatra Province. Sipirok town area; inland from near Sibolga city towards southern provincial border. 750,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anakola, Angkola Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mandailing Batak [btm], but distinct sociolinguistically. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Batak Dairi
[btd] North Sumatra Province. Southwest of Lake Toba; area around Sidikalang town, south to coast. 1,200,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dairi, Pakpak, Pakpak Dairi Dialects: Diari and Pakpak dialects are sociolinguistically distinct. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Batak Karo
[btx] North Sumatra Province. North central area west and northwest of Lake Toba. 600,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karo Batak Dialects: Singkil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Batak Mandailing
[btm] North Sumatra Province. Southern interior area extending across borders with Riau, West Sumatra provinces. 1,100,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batta, Mandailing Batak Dialects: None known. Sociolinguistically different from Angkola Batak [akb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Comments: A general form of Batak common to a wider area than Angkola. Muslim.

More Information

Batak Simalungun
[bts] North Sumatra Province. Area northeast of Lake Toba; Pematangsiantar town area. 1,200,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Simelungan, Timur Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Simalungan

More Information

Batak Toba
[bbc] North Sumatra Province. Samosir island; east, south, and west of Lake Toba. 2,000,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batta, Toba Batak Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Angkola Batak [akb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Bati
[bvt] Maluku Province. East coast, Seram island between Kian Darat and Keleser towns, inland. 3,500 (Loski and Loski 1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gah Dialects: None known. Related to Geser-Gorom [ges] and Watubela [wah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom Comments: Strong separation of ethnolinguistic identity from Geser-Gorom [ges]. Muslim.

More Information

Batui
[zbt] Central Sulawesi Province, Banggai regency, Batui subdistrict, Balantang, Tolando, Sisipan, and Batui villages. Eastern peninsula, mainland across from Peleng island. 2,900, decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baha Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Saluan [loe], 60% with Andio [bzb], 54% with Bobongko [bgb], 46% with Balantak [blz], 38% with Banggai [bgz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Batuley
[bay] Maluku Province, 7 island villages. Aru islands, east coast, Tanah Besar island. 3,640 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gwataley, Watulai Dialects: None known. Slightly more distant from Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Barakai [baj] and Karey [kyd], 81% with Mariri [mqi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bauzi
[bvz] Papua Province, Jayapura and Yapen Waropen regencies, Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas subdistricts, Vakiadi, Noiadi, Danau Bira, Solom, Kustera, Neao, and Itaba villages. Extensive inland area between Mamberamo and Rouffaer rivers. 1,500 (1991 SIL). 1,350 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baudi, Baudji, Baudzi, Bauri Dialects: Aumenefa, Gesda Dae, Neao. Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi Comments: Whistle speech reported. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Bayono
[byl] Papua Province, Merauke district. Eilanden and Steenboom rivers. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Not related to language families like Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highlands language families like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Awbono [awh]. Classification: Bayono-Awbono

More Information

Bedoanas
[bed] West Papua Province, Fakfak regency, Kokas subdistrict. Bomberai peninsula. 180 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Behoa
[bep] Central Sulawesi Province, Lore Utara subdistrict, 8 villages. Most speakers in Behoa valley, northwest of Lake Mantana. some in Napu valley. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ako, Besoa Dialects: None known. Geographically, politically, culturally, and lexically distinct from Bada [bhz] and Napu [npy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Beneraf
[bnv] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict. North coast area east of Tor river mouth, Beneraf and part of Nenke village. 200 (2005 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boneraf, Bonerif Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Edwas may be the name preferred by the people. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Benggoi
[bgy] Maluku Province, Benggoi, Balakeo, and Lesa villages. Seram island, Werinama and Bula districts, north Seram Sea coast. 350 (1989 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bengoi, Isal, Kobi-Benggoi, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei-Kaclakin, Uhei-Kahlakim Dialects: Balakeo, Benggoi, Lesa. Lexical similarity: 70% with dialects; 54%–66% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Salas Gunung dialect [sgu], 32%–46% with Manusela [wha]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Bengkala Sign Language
[bqy] Java and Bali, Bali island, Buleleng regency, Bengkala village. 41 (2007 SIL). More than 1,200 Kata Kolok signers; about 50 of them are deaf (2011 C. de Vos). 40 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Benkala Sign Language, Kata Kolok Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: In the linguistic literature the language is referred to as Kata Kolok which means deaf language in Balinese [ban].

More Information

Bentong
[bnu] South Sulawesi Province, inland parts of Maros, Bone, Pangkep, and Barru regencies where Bugis [bug], Makassar [mak] and Highland Konjo [kjc] language areas meet. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bentong-Dentong, Dentong Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Konjo [kjc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Comments: ‘Bentong’ and ‘Dentong’ are Bugis [bug] and Makasarese [mak] exonyms meaning ‘nonfluent’, but the names do not have negative connotations to speakers themselves. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Benyadu’
[byd] West Kalimantan Province, Landak and Bengkayang regencies. Northwest near Sarawak border. 54,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu, Nyadu Dialects: Nyadu (Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu), Pandu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak

More Information

Berik
[bkl] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Tor Atas subdistrict; Bora Bora, Waf, Doronta, Beu, Togonfo, Dangken, Kondirjan, Somanente, Tenwer, Sewan, Safrontani, and Taminambor villages. North coast area along mid and upper Tor river, inland from Sarmi peninsula. 1,200 (1994 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berick, Berrik, Sewan Teteris, Upper Tor Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45% with Keijar [kdy], 13% with Orya [ury]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Formerly the trade language of Tor area. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Betaf
[bfe] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict. North coast area east of Sarmi. 600 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tena Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Betawi
[bew] Java, Special Capital Territory, Jakarta city. 5,000,000 (2000 census). Population count imprecise due to vague ethnic and linguistic definition of ‘Betawi’. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Batavi, Batawi, Betawi Malay, Jakarta Malay, Melayu Jakarte Dialects: None known. A Malay-based creole distinct from both Indonesian [ind] and other Malay-based pidgins and creoles. It evolved mid-19th century. Unique phonological, morphological, and lexical traits. Influences from Peranakan Indonesian [pea] and Bali [ban]. Often not intelligible to Indonesian speakers not familiar with it (1989 R. Allen). Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Biak
[bhw] West Papua Province, Biak Numfor regency. Biak and Numfor islands north, numerous small islands east and west of Bird’s Head, including Mapia island. 30,000 (Wurm 2000). L2 users: A few thousand L2 users. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Biak-Numfor, Mafoor, Mafoorsch, Mefoor, Myfoorsch, Noefoor, Noefoorsch, Nufoor Dialects: Ariom, Bo’o, Bosnik, Dwar, Fairi, Jenures, Kamer, Korido, Korim, Mandusir, Mapia, Mios Num, Mofu, Monoarfu, Opif, Padoa, Penasifu, Rumberpon, Samberi, Sampori (Mokmer), Sor, Sorendidori, Sorido, Sundei, Vogelkop, Wadibu, Wardo, Wari, Warsa. Some consider Biak and Numfor dialect 2 languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] Northwestern Kalimantan Province. Area east of Suruh village, near Sarawak border. 8,480 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biatah, Bideyu, Landu, Lundu, Pueh, Siburan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central Comments: May be distinct from Biatah [bth] of Sarawak. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] West Kalimantan Province, Sanggau and Sintang regencies. Mount Cemaru, near Sarawak border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sabutan, Sadong, Serian, Tebakang Dialects: Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh), Bukar Sadong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern

More Information

Biga
[bhc] West Papua Province, Sorong district, Biga village. South of Misool island. 300 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat

More Information

Bilba
[bpz] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Northeast end of Rote island, west of Rikou. Communities on Semau island and Timor mainland near Kupang. 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belubaa, Bilbaa, Eastern Rote, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese Dialects: Bilba, Diu, Lelenuk. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: Christian.

More Information

Bima
[bhp] West Nusa Tenggara Province. Eastern third of Sumbawa island, east of the isthmus; northeast, Sangeang and Banta islands. 500,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimanese Dialects: Bima, Kolo, Mbojo, Sangar (Sanggar), Toloweri. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bintauna
[bne] North Sulawesi Province, around Bintauna town. 11,200 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bintaoena, Bintawoena, Bitaoena Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Biritai
[bqq] Papua Province, Puncakjaya district, Biri village. North of mid-Rouffaer river. 250 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aliki, Ati, Biri Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Obokuitai [afz], 61% with Eritai [ert], 60% with Kwerisa [kkb], 69% with Kaiy [tcq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Blagar
[beu] East Nusa Tenggara Province. East Pantar, north Pura, and south Ternate islands. 11,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belagar, Kaera, Pura, Tarang Dialects: Apuri, Bakalang, Limarahing, Pura. Retta [ret], spoken on south Pura and nearby islands, is a separate language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar

More Information

Boano
[bzl] Central Sulawesi Province, Moutong subdistrict, Bolano village. North peninsula, south coast, facing gulf of Tomini. 2,700 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boan-diks, Bolano Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 83% with Totoli [txe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli Comments: Different from Boano [bzn] in Maluku. Muslim.

More Information

Boano
[bzn] Maluku Province, North Buano main village. Boano island, facing northwest point, Seram island. 3,240 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buano Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal Comments: Different from Boano [bzl] in Sulawesi.

More Information

Bobongko
[bgb] Central Sulawesi Province, Togian islands, Lembanato village on Kilat bay, north side of Togian island, and Tumbulawa village, northwest coast of Batu Daka island. 1,500 (Mead 2001). 1,100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Different from Andio [bzb]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Coastal Saluan [loe], 44% with Andio [bzb], and 30% with Gorontalo [gor], 25%–30% with Gorontalo-Mongondow languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic Comments: Bobongko is not derogatory to its speakers, but it is to the Andio [bzb]. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bobot
[bty] Maluku Province. Southeast Seram, Werinama district, southeast from Atiahu village to Kota Baru; also Tunsai village in Liana area. 4,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ahtiago, Atiahu, Hatumeten, Ntau, Werinama Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Sepa [spb] and Teluti [tlt], 42% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Bobot Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bolango
[bld] North Sulawesi Province, Bolaang Mongondow Regency. South coast of peninsula, Molibagu area; Gorontalo Province, northeast coast, Atinggola town area. 23,000 (Sneddon and Usup 1986). Atinggola 16,000, Bolango 7,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atinggola-Bolango, Bolaang Uki, Bolang-Banka, Bulanga, Bulanga-Uki Dialects: Atinggola (Andagile, Attingola, Diu, Kattinggola), Bolango (Uki). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Distinct from Gorontalo [gor] (1974 J. Little). Muslim.

More Information

Bolongan
[blj] East Kalimantan Province. Tanjungselor town area, lower Kayan river. 30,000 (Kawi et al. 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulungan Dialects: May be a dialect of Tidong [tid] or Segai [sge]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Bonerate
[bna] South Sulawesi Province. Selayer island group; Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands. 9,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bonggo
[bpg] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict. 790 (2006 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Armopa, Bgu, Bogu, Bongo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Bgu may be the name preferred by the people. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Budong-Budong
[bdx] West Sulawesi Province, Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong subdistrict, Tongkou village. Budong-Budong river area. 70 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bubudong, Tangkou, Tongkou Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq] and Ulumandak [ulm]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx], 61% with Seko Tengah [sko], 72% with Panasuan [psn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bugis
[bug] South Sulawesi Province, Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang subdistricts, west coast, eastward through to Bone bay; Polmas and Mamuju districts, coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, and Polewali. Major towns, enclaves in Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra provinces. 5,000,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 5,017,800. L2 users: 500,000 in Indonesia. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi Dialects: Barru (Nepo, Pare-Pare, Soppeng Riaja, Tanete, Tompo), Bone (Dua Boccoe, Mare, Palakka), Camba, Luwu (Bua Ponrang, Luwu’, Malangke-Ussu, Wara), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sawitto (Pinrang), Sidrap (Alitta, Pinrang Utara, Sidenrang), Sinjai (Bulukumba, Enna, Palattae), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo. Bone and Soppeng dialects are central. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bukat
[bvk] West Kalimantan Province, northeast near Sarawak border, Kapuas river, southeast of Mendalam. 3 areas. 400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’

More Information

Bukitan
[bkn] Northwestern East Kalimantan Province, Iwan river, Sarawak border. 570 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 860. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan Dialects: Punan Busang, Punan Ukit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Comments: Christian.

More Information

Buli
[bzq] North Maluku Province, 3 villages. Central Halmahera, Buli bay, north shore. 2,520 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Buli, Wayamli (Jawanli, Wajamli). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Comments: Several communities of over 100 dwellings. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bunak
[bfn] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Timor island, central interior, near border with Timor Leste. Many in Belu district. 21,000 in Indonesia (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buna’, Bunake, Bunaq, Gae’, Marae Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor Comments: Small groups scattered among other languages. Traditional religion.

More Information

Bungku
[bkz] Central Sulawesi Province, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Selatan subdistricts, around 45 villages. Northern Southeast Sulawesi Province, Konawe regency, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo subdistricts; Tulambatu area. 27,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikinyikiusa, Nahina, Tamboeko, Tambuku, Tobuco Dialects: Bungku, Landawe, Routa, Torete (To Rete), Tulambatu, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects; 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf]; 88% with Landawe dialect; 84% with Waia dialect; 82% with Torete dialect; 74% with Wawonii [wow]; 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]; 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups; 82% with the Routa dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Buol
[blf] Central Sulawesi Province, Paleleh, Bunobogu, Bokat, Momunu, Biau, and Baolan subdistricts, 68 villages. North coast, near Gorontalo Province border. 96,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bual, Bwool, Bwo’ol, Dia Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Totoli [txe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Burate
[bti] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, 1 village. Near Wapoga river mouth. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Demisa [dei], 75% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Burmeso
[bzu] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict,1 village. Middle Mamberamo river, northeast of Lake Holmes. 250 (Donohue 1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boromeso, Borumesso, Burumeso, Manau, Monao, Monau, Taurap Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: less than 5% with other languages. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Burmeso Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Buru
[mhs] Maluku Province, all of Buru island, except northeast corner, 70 villages. Some on Ambon island, in Jakarta. 33,000 in Indonesia (1989 SIL). 6,620 Wae Sama, 9,600 Masarete, 14,300 Rana, 500 Fogi, and 2,000 in Ambon. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boeroe, Buruese Dialects: Central Buru (Rana, Wae Geren, Wae Kabo), Fogi (Li Emteban, Tomahu), Masarete (South Buru), Wae Sama (Waesama). Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3,000 to 5,000 users). Ethnic population Fogi dialect: 500, but no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama dialects, 88% between Masarete and Rana, 80% between Wae Sama and Rana, 68% between Lisela [lcl] and Masarete, 48% between Leliali dialect of Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 45% between Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 44% between Ambelau [amv] and Masarete, 27%–33% between Buru dialects and Sula [szn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru Comments: There are word taboos and complex intermarriage patterns on the island. Exogamous. 10 clans. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Burumakok
[aip] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, Burumakok village. 40 (1994 R. Kroneman). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western

More Information

Burusu
[bqr] East Kalimantan Province, Bulungan regency, Sesayap subdistrict, Sekatakbunyi town area, west of Kayan river delta. 4,350 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berusuh, Bulusu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau

More Information

Buruwai
[asi] West Papua Province, Fakfak regency, Kaimana subdistrict, Yarona, Kuna, Esania, Marobia, Guriasa, Tairi, Hia, and Gaka villages. South Bomberai peninsula, Kamrau bay southwest. 1,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Asianara, Asienara, Karufa, Madidwana, Sabakor, Sebakoor Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kamberau [irx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Busami
[bsm] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan subdistricts, south and north coast, Serui island, Kamanap, Masiaroti, and Kaonda villages. 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 71% with Ansus [and], 63% with Serui-Laut [seu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Busoa
[bup] Southeast Sulawesi Province, Batauga subdistrict, Busoa and Laompo villages. Southwest coast, Buton island. 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bosoa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Kambe-Kambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]), 70%–79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Lantoi [zka]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Campalagian
[cml] West Sulawesi Province, Polewali Mandar regency. South coast, Mandar bay west of Madjene town. 30,000 (Strømme 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tallumpanuae, Tasing, Tjampalagian Dialects: Buku, Campalagian. Lexical similarity: 50%–58% with Mandar [mdr], 50%–62% with Bugis [bug], 55% with Bugis Bone [bug], 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug], Bugis Sidrap [bug]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Widespread. Aceh, Bangka-Belitung, Java (5 provinces), Lampung, Maluku (Ambon island), Papua (Jayapura city), Riau islands (Batam island), North Sulawesi, South Suluwesi, North Sumatra, and South Sumatra. Also in West Kalimantan, Singkawang city; South Kalimantan, Banjarmasin city. 640,000 in Indonesia (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

More Information

Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Scattered throughout Indonesia. 460,000 in Indonesia (1982), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Mandarin is sometimes taught in ‘National Plus’ schools with English and Indonesian.

More Information

Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Java and Bali. Few speakers. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Foochow, Hokchiu, Min Dong Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

More Information

Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Hokkien: North Sumatra, Pekanbaru, Padang, Jambi, South Sumatra, Bengkulu, Java, Bali (especially Denpasar and Singaraja), Banjarmasin, Kutai, Sumbawa, Manggarai, Kupang, Makassar, Manado, Central Sulawesi, and Kendari. Teochew: North Sumatra, Riau, South Sumatra, and West Kalimantan provinces (especially Pontianak and Ketapang). 700,000 in Indonesia (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan Dialects: Hokkien (Fujian), Teochew (Chaochow, Tiu Chiu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

More Information

Chinese, Yue
[yue] Jakarta, Makassar, and Manado; East Kalimantan, Central Sumatra. 180,000 in Indonesia (1982). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

More Information

Cia-Cia
[cia] Extreme Southeast Sulawesi Province. South Buton island, Pasawajo town area; Binongko island; Batu Atas island to the west. 79,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boetoneezen, Buton, Butonese, Butung, South Buton, Southern Butung Dialects: Kaesabu, Masiri, Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo), Wabula. Lexical similarity: 93% with Masiri dialect, 74% with Kambe-Kambero dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 69% with Busoa [bup], 67% with Lontoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 66% with Liabuku [lix], 61% with Wolio [wlo], 60% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, West Buton Comments: Language name based on the negator, cia (no). Muslim.

More Information

Citak
[txt] Papua Province, Mappi regency, Citak-Mitak subdistrict, 19 villages. South coast area, west of upper Digul river, northeast of Senggo town. 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asmat Darat, Cicak, Kaunak, Tjitak, Tjitjak Dialects: Bubis, Esaun, Komasma, Pirabanak, Senggo, Tiau, Vakam. Reportedly similar to Asmat [cns]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Citak, Tamnim
[tml] Papua Province, Mappi,and Asmat regencies, Tamnim, Epem, Zinak, and Wowi villages. Senggo town area. 290 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asmat Darat, Tamnim Dialects: None known. May be linguistically more similar to Asmat, but speakers want to be called Citak, not Asmat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Col
[liw] Interior of South Sumatra, Lubuklinggau area and east of Bengkulu; Muaraklingi area, south, east, and north. 145,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cul, Sindang Dialects: Beliti, Lembak Delapan, Lubuk Linggau, Sindang Kelingi. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: The Lembak Delapan dialect of Col in Bengkulu is not to be confused with the Lembak subdialect of the Belide dialect of Musi [mui]. Muslim.

More Information

Dabe
[dbe] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Dabe village. Tor river valley north to coast. 440 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dai
[dij] Maluku Province, Sinairusi, 3 other villages. Babar island group, Dai island; north of Babar. 820 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: No dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (most similar) [ddw], 71% with Nakarahamto, 49% with Masela-South Babar, 48% with Tepa (Luang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North Comments: Christian.

More Information

Dakka
[dkk] West Sulawesi Province, Polewali-Mandar regency, Wonomulyo subdistrict. Northwest of Matakali town. 1,500 (Strømme 1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Damal
[uhn] Papua Province, Paniai Regency, Ilaga and Beoga subdistricts, central highlands west of Western Dani, east of Ekari, southeast of Kemandoga river source, throughout Puncak Jaya, north and south Carstens mountains. 14,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amung, Amung Kal, Amungme, Amuy, Enggipiloe, Hamung, Oehoendoeni, Uhunduni Dialects: Amongme, Amung, Damal, Enggipilu. Related to Ekari [ekg], Moni [mnz], and Wolani [wod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Damal Comments: Christian.

More Information

Damar, East
[dmr] Southeast Maluku Province, 6 villages. Northeast of Timor island, east of Roma island; Damar island, east side. 2,800 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: South Damar Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of West Damar [drn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, East Damar

More Information

Damar, West
[drn] Southeast Maluku Province, 2 villages. Northeast of Timor island, east of Roma island; Damar island, north side. 800 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Damar Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of East Damar [dmr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, West Damar

More Information

Dampelas
[dms] Central Sulawesi Province, Dampelas, Sojol, and Balaesang subdistricts, 8 villages. Northwesternmost point, north peninsula, Makassar Strait. 2,000 (Wurm 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dampelasa, Dian Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Comments: Dampal dialect is extinct. Muslim.

More Information

Dani, Lower Grand Valley
[dni] Papua Province. Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley; lower gorge. 20,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lower Bele, Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Bele, Upper Pyramid. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Dani, Mid Grand Valley
[dnt] Papua Province. Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley. 50,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baliem Valley Dani, Central Grand Valley Dani, Tulem Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dani, Upper Grand Valley
[dna] Papua Province. Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley; upper gorge. 20,000 (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dani, Western
[dnw] Papua Province. Central highlands, west of Baliem Grand Valley, east from upper Kemandoga river valley. 180,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dani Barat, Ilaga Western Dani, Laany, Lani, Oeringoep, Timorini Dialects: Western Dani of Bokondini, Western Dani of Pyramid. Lexical similarity: 65% with Obokuitai [afz], 60% with Wano [wno]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dao
[daz] Papua Province, Paniai regency, Napan subdistrict. West central highlands; east of Cenderawasih bay, along Dao river. 250 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maniwo, “X-Ray” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Auye [auu]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Dawera-Daweloor
[ddw] Southern Maluku Province. Twin coral islands northeast of Babar island. Daweloor island, to south, Wiratan, Watuwei, and Nurnyaman villages. Dawera island, to north, Welora, Letmasa, and Ilmarang villages. 1,270 (2007 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Davelor Dialects: Minor dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North Comments: Christian.

More Information

Dela-Oenale
[row] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Rote island west coast, Dela and Oe Nale domains. 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dela, Delha, Oe Nale, Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote Dialects: Dela (Delha), Oenale (Oe Nale). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dem
[dem] Papua Province. Western highlands; along Rouffaer river headwaters; north of Ilaga town. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lem, Ndem Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Dem Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Demisa
[dei] Papua Province, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, Desawa, Muyere, and Botawa villages. Inland, northeast Canderawasih bay, southeast of Waren town. 400 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Desawa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Burate [bti], 64% with Kofei [kpi], 60% with Sauri [srt], 65% with Tunggare [trt], 64% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dengka
[dnk] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Rote island, northwest coast, from Ba’a town west to Tasilo bay near northwest corner of island. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote Dialects: Eastern Dengka, Lelain, Western Dengka. Western Dengka dialect has marked intonation; some occurrences of, ngg, in Eastern Dengka dialect become, nd, in Western Dengka. Some vocabulary of Western Dengka is like Dhao [nfa]. Dengka and Dela-Oenale [row] are more divergent from other languages on Rote. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dera
[kbv] Northeast Papua Province, 13 villages. South of Jayapura town, near Waris. 1,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,690. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dra, Kamberataro, Mangguar Classification: Senagi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dhao
[nfa] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Ndao island, off western tip of Rote island. Other settlements scattered on Rote and Timor islands. 5,000 (1997 A. Ranoh). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dao, Kahore, Ndao, Ndaonese, Ndaundau Dialects: None known. Related to Hawu [hvn]. Complex phonology. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao Comments: Ethnic autonym: Dhao. Rote neighbors refer to them as ‘Ndao’. Christian.

More Information

Diebroud
[tbp] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict. Area south of Idenburg river, east of Taiyeve town. 300 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bok, Dabra, Taburta, Taria, Taworta, Taworta-Aero Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35%–40% with Foau [flh]. Classification: Lakes Plain, East Comments: Used as an inter-language. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dineor
[mrx] Papua Province, Jayapura district. North coast; area near Toarim river mouth. 55 (2006 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Maremgi, Marengge Dialects: None known. Unintelligible to speakers in neighboring settlements including Bonggo. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Diuwe
[diy] Papua Province. Southeast of Wamena city; east of Catalina river. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Diuwe

More Information

Dobel
[kvo] Southeast Maluku Province, Aru islands, entire east coast of Kobror island, 1 village in southeast Wokam island, 4 villages eastern half of Barakai strait (Kobror and Koba islands), 2 villages in central Kobror island. 18 villages; many in Dobo; some in Ambon. 5,680 (2011 SIL), increasing. L2 users: Chinese merchants and other outsiders who live in Dobel villages and residents of Lorang use it as L2. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doibel, Kobroor, Kobro’or, Sersifar Tannin Dialects: Northern Dobel, Southeast Dobel, Straits Dobel. At least 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Koba [kpd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Dondo
[dok] Central Sulawesi Province. Tolitoli and Buol regencies, Tolitoli Utara, Baolan, Dondo, Galang, and Dampal Utara subdistricts, at least 25 villages. North peninsula, inland from Dondo bay, east and south coasts. 13,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern Comments: Most of the hill Dondo interact socially with the Dondo coastal population which reinforces the use of Dondo in a variety of functions. Muslim.

More Information

Doutai
[tds] Papua Province, Toli-Dou village. Area west and south of Taiyeve town. 70 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 340 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Taori, Taori-So, Tolitai Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Duano
[dup] Sumatra, Riau Province, west Riau archipelago and Riau Daratan east coast. 15,000 in Indonesia (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 15,600. Ethnic population: Total ethnic population all countries: 19,000 (2006 E. Seidlitz). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Duano’, Orang Kuala Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Duri
[mvp] South Sulawesi Province, north Enrekang regency. Northwest of Enrekang town, west of Sadang river. Also, Makassar city; other communities in province. 127,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Masenrempulu, Massenrempulu Dialects: Baraka, Benteng Alla, Cakke-Kalosi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Duriankere
[dbn] West Papua Province. One island between Salawati island and the west end of Bird’s Head. 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 60. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Duriankari, Esaro, Sailen Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Dusner
[dsn] West Papua Province, Manokwari district. No known L1 speakers. There were 6 elderly speakers in 1978 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dusnir Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Dusun Deyah
[dun] South Kalimantan Province. Tabalong river northeast of Bongkang town. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Deah, Dejah Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Tawoyan [twy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, Central

More Information

Dusun Malang
[duq] Central Kalimantan Province, North Barito regency. One area west of Muarainu town; a second, northeast of Muarateweh town. 4,500 (2003). 2,000 Bayan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Bayan, Dusun Malang. Lexical similarity: 90% with the 2 dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South

More Information

Dusun Witu
[duw] Central Kalimantan Province, South Barito regency. Near Pendang and Buntokecil towns; south of Muarateweh town. 5,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dusun Pepas, Dusun Witu. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Paku [pku]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South

More Information

Duvle
[duv] Papua Province. Area south of Van Daalen river. Eastern dialect along Dagai river, western dialect along Fedide and Wedi rivers. 930 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duvde, Duve, Duvele, Duvre, Wiri Dialects: Eastern Duvle, Western Duvle. Few dialect differences. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Duvle Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Edopi
[dbf] Papua Province, Yapen Waopen district. Area at Tariku and Kliki rivers confluence. 1,500 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dosobou, Dou, Doufou, Elopi, Foi, Iau, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Eipomek
[eip] Papua Province. Eastern highlands area, Eipo river, east of Naltya town. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eipo, T-Valley Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Una [mtg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ekari
[ekg] Papua Province, Paniai district. West central highlands, inland; Lake Paniai area, south-southwest into West Papua Province. 100,000 (1985 M. Doble). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekagi, Kapauku, Me Mana, Mee Mana, Tapiro Dialects: Mapiya-Kegata, Mee, Simori, Yabi (Jabi). Reportedly most similar to Wolani [wod]. Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes Comments: Ethnonym: Kapauku by southern neighbors. Christian.

More Information

Elseng
[mrf] Papua Province, Jayapura and Keerom regencies, Arso, Abepura, Kemtuk Gresi, and Senggi subdistricts. South of Jayapura city; Lake Sentani area, south, southwest. 300 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djanggu, Janggu, “Morwap” (pej.), Sawa, Tabu Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Almost no outside influence. ‘Morwap’ is vigorously rejected as a language name by speakers and government officials. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Embaloh
[emb] West Kalimantan Province, Kapuas Hulu regency. Upper Kapuas river, Embaloh, Leboyan, Lauh, Palin, Nyabau, Mandai, and Kalis tributaries. 10,000 (1991 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malo, Maloh, Matoh, Mbaloh, Memaloh, Palin, Pari, Sangau, Sanggau Dialects: Kalis (Kalis Dayak, Kalis Maloh). Kalis may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic Comments: Complex mix of ethnic groups: Taman of upper Kapuas River, Suai, Taman Mendalem, Taman Sibau, Palin, Lauk, Leboyan, Kalis Dayak. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Emem
[enr] Papua Province. Border area south of Jayapura city. 2,000 (2005 SIL). Some elderly monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emumu, Imimkal, Kiamerop Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% with Yafi [wfg]. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Emplawas
[emw] Southern Maluku Province, Emplawas village. Babar island, southern tip, then northwest. 250 (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ende
[end] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South central Flores island. 110,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Endeh Dialects: Ende (Djau, Endeh, Ja’o), Nga’o (Ngao, West Ende). Some consider Li’o [ljl] to be a dialect of Ende. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian.

More Information

Enggano
[eno] Sumatra, Bengkulu Province. Enggano island, southwest of mainland; 4 smaller nearby islands. 1,500 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Engganese Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Not conclusively established as an Austronesian language, rather than an isolate with Austronesian loans. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Enrekang
[ptt] South Sulawesi Province, Enrekang and Pinrang regencies. Enrekang town area, west toward head of Mandar bay. 50,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Endekan, Endekan Timur Dialects: Enrekang, Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa), Ranga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Eritai
[ert] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Tengah and Mamberamo Hulu subdistricts, Erai, Kustera, and Haya villages. Northwest of confluence of Mamberamo and Rouffaer rivers; area in low mountains, around Kustera airstrip. 530 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aliki, Babiruwa, Babrua, Babruwa, Baburiwa, Barua, Editode Edai, Erai, Eri, Haya Dialects: The dialect in Obogwi village is reportedly similar but not the same. Lexical similarity: 76% with Obokuitai [afz], 86% with Sikaritai [tty]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Erokwanas
[erw] West Papua Province. Bomberai peninsula. 200 (Wurm 2000). Probably fewer than 200 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Darembang. Subgroup Darembang may better be considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Fayu
[fau] Papua Province. Kliki river area, west of its juncture with Tariku river; northwest towards Cenderawasik bay. 1,400 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sehudate Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West Comments: 4 nomadic groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Fedan
[pdn] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, coastal area and island off north coast of Biri river area. 280 (2005 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fandanus, Podena Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anus [auq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi

More Information

Foau
[flh] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya and Jayapura regencies, Kecamatan subdistrict, 1 village. Mamberamo basin region, bordering on the southwestern edge of the Foja Mountains; on the Dijai river, north of Mamberamo river. 350 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abawiri, Doa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35%–49% with Diebroud [tbp]. Classification: Lakes Plain, East Comments: Ethnic name is Fuau; Abawiri most accepted language name. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Fordata
[frd] Southeast Maluku Province, 30 villages. North Tanimbar islands, Fordata, Larat, and Molu-Maru groups; northwest, Yamdena island west coast. Seira island. Also Jakarta, other cities. 50,000 (Marshall 2000). 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Decreasing use in mixed language towns. 500 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Larat, Vai Fordata, Vai Sera-Larat-Fordata, Vai Tnebar, Vaidida Dialects: Fordata-Larat I, Fordata-Larat II, Molo (Molo-Maru), Sera (Seira). Sera is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kei [kei]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata Comments: Primary schools in nearly every village, secondary schools for every 3 or 4 villages. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Galela
[gbi] North Maluku Province. Halmahera island; Galela bay, north to northern tip of island, scattered communities, southwest coast. Morotai island except southeast quadrant. Gunage and Moari islands near Kayoa island. Bacan, Obi, Kasiratua, Mandioli, and Labutia islands, coastal areas. 79,000 (1990 SIL). 41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kadai, Kadina, Morotai, Sopi. Laba [lau] may be a dialect. 65% intelligibility of Loloda [loa], Loloda 85% of Galela. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Galolen
[gal] Southwestern Maluku Province, Wetar island, Iliwaki village. 680 in Indonesia (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Galoleng, Iliwaki, Ilmedu, Ilwaki, Lir Talo Dialects: Hiay, Ilputih, Ilwaki (Iliwaki). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Immigrants from Kisar learned Galolen. Christian.

More Information

Gamkonora
[gak] North Maluku Province, a few coastal villages. North Halmahera island, northwest coast, from Baru town inland. 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Waioli [wli]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Gane
[gzn] North Maluku Province. Halmahera island, southernmost peninsula. 2,900 (1982 D. Teljeur). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gani, Giman Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kayoa, a dialect of East Makian [mky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Gayo
[gay] Sumatra, Aceh Province, Central Aceh, East Aceh, Gayo Lues, and Southeast Aceh regencies. North Sumatra highland region near Mount Sembuang. 300,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gajo Dialects: Deret, Lues, Lut, Serbejadi-Lukup. Not closely related to other languages. Some Gayo people consider Alas [btz] a distant Gayo dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Gebe
[gei] North Maluku Province, 4 villages. Papua Province, Halmahera island; Gebe, Yoi’umiyal, and Gag islands between Halmahera’s southeastern peninsula and Waigeo island. 2,650 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gebi Dialects: Umera. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: A school in each village. Muslim.

More Information

Geser-Gorom
[ges] Maluku Province. Seram island, southeast tip, nearby Gorom islands. 36,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gesa, Geser, Goram, Goran, Gorom, Gorong, Seram, Seran, Seran Laut Dialects: Goram Laut, Kelimuri, Mina Mina Gorong. Lexical similarity: 73%–93% among dialects, 51%–61% with Watubela [wah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Gorap
[goq] North Maluku Province, Morotai island, Pilowo and Waringin villages; Central Halmahera, Bobane and Igo villages. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. A mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Comments: Consider Sulawesi their ancestral homeland.

More Information

Gorontalo
[gor] Sulawesi, Gorontalo Province, north peninsula. 1,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorongtalo, Guarantala, Gunongtello, Holontalo, Hulontalo Dialects: East Gorontalo, Gorontalo Kota, Limboto (Limbotto), Tilamuta, West Gorontalo (Kwandang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Gresi
[grs] Papua Province, Hawa, Bring, Tabangkwari, Yansu, Ibub, Sunna, and Klaysu villages. West of Lake Sentani, southeast of Genyem town. 2,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Geresi, Glesi, Gresik, Klesi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Haji
[hji] South Sumatra Province, Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan regency. 17,500 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aji Dialects: None known. Genetically Malay with approximately one-third Lampung vocabulary. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

More Information

Hamap
[hmu] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Alor island, east Kalabahi bay, around Moru town, 2 villages. Area surrounds Kui [kvd] language area. 900 Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Said to be intelligible with Adang [adn], but Adang speakers live on Bird’s Head area of Alor, while Hamap speakers live geographically separated from Adang speakers, across the bay. Structural and lexical differences with Adang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor Comments: Separate sociopolitical history from Adang. Christian.

More Information

Haruku
[hrk] Maluku Province. Haruku island, including Lease islands; between Ambon and Seram islands. 18,200 (1989 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Hulaliu, Kabauw, Kailolo, Pelauw, Rohomoni. Each village uses a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: 81%–92% among dialects, 74%–76% with Tulehu [tlu], 67%–71% with Saparua [spr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Hatam
[had] West Papua Province, Manokwari regency. 16,000 (1993 The Evangelical Alliance Mission). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adihup, Atam, Borai, Hattam, Mansim, Miriei, Moi, Tinam, Uran Dialects: Adihup, Miriei, Moi (Moire), Tinam, Uran. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Hawu
[hvn] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Sawu and Raijua islands; 3 enclaves, 2 on Sumba island, Waingapu and Melolo areas; south central Flores island, Ende area. Others in Kupang city, Timor island. 110,000 (1997). About 30,000 outside Sabu Island. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Havunese, Sabu, Savu, Savunese, Sawu, Sawunese Dialects: Liae, Mesara (Mehara), Raijua (Raidjua), Seba (Heba), Timu (Dimu). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Helong
[heg] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Semau island off of Timor island, western tip of Timor, and Kupang city. Interspersed with Amarasi [aaz] and other languages. 14,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Helon, Kupang, Semau Dialects: Funai (Land Helong), Helong Darat (Bolok), Helong Pulau (Island Helong, Semau). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Hitu
[htu] Maluku Province, Wakal, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, and Hila villages. Northeast Ambon island, Piru Sea coast, Hitu peninsula. 16,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Hila, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, Wakal. Lexical similarity: 67%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 74%–82% with Tulehu [tlu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Hoti
[hti] Maluku Province. East Seram island. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). 10 elderly speakers in 1987, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, East Seram

More Information

Hovongan
[hov] West Kalimantan Province, Kapuas Hulu regency. Far northeast corner; near Sarawak, East Kalimantan province borders. 1,000 (1991 NTM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Punan Bungan Dialects: Hovongan, Penyavung, Semukung Uheng. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Aoheng [pni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Huaulu
[hud] Maluku Province, 10 villages. North Seram island, Salemen bay, south end. 300 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alakamat, Bahasa Asli Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64%–72% with Manusela [wha] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Comments: Culturally distinct from Manusela. Traditional religion.

More Information

Hukumina
[huw] Central Maluku, northwest Buru island, Hukumina, Palumata, and Tomahu districts. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bambaa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Hukumina

More Information

Hulung
[huk] Central Maluku, west Seram, Hulung village, Sauweli hamlet. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Spoken by fewer than 10 speakers in 1991, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Naka’ela [nae], 63% with Alune [alp], 59% with Wemale [weo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Hulung

More Information

Hupla
[hap] Papua Province. Central highlands area, Baliem gorge, east. 3,000 (1982 WT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Soba Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lower Grand Valley Dani [dni]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Iau
[tmu] Papua Province. Puncak Jaya regency, Barere, Fawi, and Taiyai villages. Area between Rouffaer, upper Van Daalen rivers. Dialects: Poi on Rouffaer river; Turu on Van Daalen river. 600 (2000 J. Bateman), increasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foi, Iaw, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau Dialects: Foi, Iau, Turu. Reportedly similar to Edopi [dbf]. Distinct from Yawa [yva]. Varieties listed as dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central Comments: Christian.

More Information

Iban
[iba] West Kalimantan Province. Upper Kapuas river, north bank, to Sarawak border, from east of Mount Betung, west to Senaning town. 15,000 in Indonesia (Benjamin and Chou 2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sea Dayak Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Desa, Kantu’, Ketungau (Air Tabun, Banjur, Demam, Maung, Sebaru’, Sekapat, Seklau, Sesat, Sigarau). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ibu
[ibu] North Maluku, north Halmahera island, Ibu river mouth, Gamlamo and Gamici villages. 35 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). In 1987, there were a few elderly speakers but it is now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 50 (1984). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. May be inherently intelligible with Sahu [saj]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu

More Information

Iha
[ihp] West Papua Province, Fakfak regency; Kaimana, Fakfak, and Kokas subdistricts. West Bomberai peninsula. 5,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kapaur Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baham [bdw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Iha Based Pidgin
[ihb] West Papua Province. Bomberai peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Iha based Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Ile Ape
[ila] East Nusa Tenggara Province. North Lembata island, Ile Ape peninsula; into nearby mainland Lembata island. 15,000 (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nusa Tadon Dialects: North Ile Ape, South Ile Ape. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Ili’uun
[ilu] Southwest Maluku Province, Telemar, Karbubu, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Erai, Nabar, Esulit, and Istutun villages. Wetar island west coast, southwest tip; nearby Lirang island. 1,400 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Erai, Hahutan, Hahutau, Iliun, Ilmaumau, Limera Dialects: Eray, Esulit, Ilmaumau, Karbubu, Klishatu, Nabar, Telemar, Ustutun. All also use the Ili’uun dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% among dialects, 73% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Aputai [apx], 67% with Perai [wet], 51% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Imroing
[imr] Southern Maluku Province, Imroing village. Babar island, southwest. 560 (2007 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Imroin Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Indonesian
[ind] Widespread throughout Indonesia. 22,800,000 in Indonesia (2000), increasing. Population total all countries: 23,200,480. L2 users: 140,000,000 in Indonesia. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1945, Constitution, Article 36). Alternate Names: Bahasa Indonesia Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: over 80% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Developed from literary ‘Classical Malay’ of the Riau-Johor sultanate (Sneddon 2003). Has regional variants. Muslim.

More Information

Indonesian Sign Language
[inl] Java and Bali. 8,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: A blend of Malaysian Sign Language [xml] and indigenous signs. American Sign Language [ase] not used.

More Information

Indonesian, Peranakan
[pea] East, Central Java provinces; Yogyakarta Special Region; West Java Province, north coastline area towards Pamanukan town. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baba Indonesian, Chinese Indonesian, Peranakan Dialects: None known. Based on Indonesian [ind] and Javanese [jav], with Mandarin [cmn] elements in contrast to Baba Malay [mbf], which has Hokkien (Chinese, Min Nan [nan]) elements. Classification: Creole, Malay based

More Information

Irarutu
[irh] West Papua Province, 44 villages. East Bomberai peninsula; Arguni bay north to Bintuni bay, southwest. 4,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arguni Bay, Irahutu, Irutu, Kaitero, Kasira Dialects: 6 or 7 dialects. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kuri [nbn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Isirawa
[srl] Papua Province, Jayapura, north coast, Sarmi area and west, Mararena, Kamenawari, Amsira, Siaratesa, Perkami, Martewar, Arsania, Nisero, Arabais, Webro, Wari, Nuerawar, and Waim villages. 1,800 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Okwasar, Saberi, Saweri Dialects: Eastern Isirawa, Western Isirawa. Reportedly similar to Kwerba [kwe]. Dialects very similar. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Isirawa Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Itik
[itx] Papua Province. North coast east of Tor river, along upper Biri river. 80 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Betef, Borto, Ittik, Ittik-Tor Dialects: Ittik, Ittik-Tor. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Ethnic group: Borto. 2005 survey data indicates this language may no longer exist or speakers moved to another location. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Jangkang
[djo] West Kalimantan Province, Central Sanggau regency. Between Sanggau and Balai Sebut towns along tributary of Kapuas river. 37,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Jangkang proper, Pompang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern

More Information

Javanese
[jav] Central Java Province, east third of west Java island, southwest half of east Java, including Banyumas, Cilacap, and Purbalingga regencies. Resettlements in Papua, Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, and Sumatra. 84,300,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Population total all countries: 84,308,740. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in central and eastern Java. Alternate Names: Djawa, Jawa Dialects: Banten, Banyumas, Cirebon (Cheribon, Tjirebon), Indramayu, Malang-Pasuruan, Manuk, Pasisir, Surabaya, Surakarta (Sawlaw, Solo), Tegal, Tembung. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but users diminishing and mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers. Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia now only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia reportedly cannot use High Javanese (Koentjaraninggrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Christian.

More Information

Javindo
[jvd] Central Java. No known L1 speakers. May be a few L2 speakers and even a very few L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: “Krontjong” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Derived from Dutch [nld] lexicon and Javanese [jav] grammar. Classification: Creole, Dutch based

More Information

Jofotek-Bromnya
[jbr] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Biridua village; Bonggo subdistrict, Srum village. Jofotek spoken in Biridua, Bromnya in Srum. 200 (2007), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Bromnya, Jofotek. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kabola
[klz] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Northwest Alor island, eastern half, Bird’s Head, north of Kalabahi town. 3,900 (1995 N. Johnston). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kebun Kopi, Meibuil, Otvai, Pintumbang, Tang’ala. Dialect names and locations in Wurm and Hattori (1981) are disputed by native speakers. May be more than 1 language. Based on linguistic differences and social identity, best considered a separate language from Adang [adn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Kaburi
[uka] West Papua Province, Manokwari regency, Merdei and Inanwatan subdistricts. South Bird’s Head, inland north of Maccluer bay; west bank lower Kamundan river. 600 (1986 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kadai
[kzd] North Maluku Province. Sula Islands; Taliabu island, eastern interior mountains. Possible speakers in Mangole island mountains. 350 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Taliabu [tlv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo Comments: The government wants to resettle them along the coast. Traditional religion.

More Information

Kafoa
[kpu] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Southwest Alor island, enclave north of Aluben town. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aikoli, Fanating, Jafoo, Pailelang, Ruilak Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor Comments: The name Kafoa is not known locally.

More Information

Kaibobo
[kzb] Maluku Province, Kairatu district, Kaibobo, Hatusua, Waisamu, Kamarian, Seruawan, and Tihulale villages. West Seram island, Piru bay area. 500 (Collins 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kaibubu Dialects: Hatusua, Kaibobo. Lexical similarity: 82%–88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua dialect, 75% with Kamarian [kzx], 62%–65% with Saparua [spr], 62% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kaidipang
[kzp] North Sulawesi Province. North coast, west and east of Bolaangitang town. 26,600 (2000 census). Kaidipang 8,900, Bolaang Itang 17,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dio, Kaidipang-Bolangitang Dialects: Bolaang Itang (Bolang-Hitam, Bolang-Itam), Kaidipang (Kaidipan, Kodipang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kaili, Da’a
[kzf] Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi provinces in Marawola, Dolo, Sigi-Biromaru, Palolo, and Banawa subdistricts. ‘Bunggu’ used for Da’a and Inde in West Sulawesi, Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu subdistrict, near Palu. 55,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 3,000–5,000 Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi. Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binggi, Bunggu, Da’a, Pakawa, Pekava, Pekawa Dialects: Da’a (Dombu), Inde. Some intelligibility of Ledo dialect of Kaili, Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties, but with major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da’a and Inde dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kaili, Ledo
[lew] Central Sulawesi Province, coastal area, both sides of neck south of Manimaya peninsula. 350,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Ledo is lingua franca in West Toraja area. Alternate Names: Ledo, Paloesch, Palu Dialects: Ado (Pakuli, Sibalaya), Doi (Kayu Malue, Mamboro), Edo (Sidondo), Ija (Sigi), Ledo (Palu), Rai (Sindue-Tawaili, Tawaili-Sindue), Raio (Kori), Ta’a (Dolago-Sausu, Sausu), Taa (Palolo), Tado (Ri Io, To ri Io, Torio, Toriu), Tara (Parigi). Doi dialect is intelligible of Ledo and Edo; Ado next most intelligible; Tado a little less. Some intelligibility of Da’a [kzf], but major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 80%–88% between Ledo and the Ado, Edo, Doi, and Lindu dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Tado dialect different from Tado, an alternate name for Lindu [klw]. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Kaili, Unde
[unz] Central Sulawesi Province, Banawa, Palu, and Tawaeli subdistricts; from Pulu bay west to Makassar strait shore. Also West Sulawesi Province, Pasangkayu subdistrict. 25,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banava, Banawa Dialects: Ganti, Lole. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Lole has negative term, unde. Ganti has negative term, ndepuu. Muslim.

More Information

Kaimbulawa
[zka] Southeast Sulawesi Province. Siompu island, Kaimbulawa and Lantoi villages; southwest Buton island, southwest of Baubau town, Kambe-kambero village. 2,200 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kaimbulawa (Lontoi), Kambe-Kambero. Not a dialect of Muna [mnb] or Cia-Cia [cia]. Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambe-kambero dialect, 75% with Busoa [bup], 64%–74% with Muna [mnb] dialects, 64% with Muna, 70% with Liabuku [lix], 66% with Cia-Cia [cia], 58% with Wolio [wlo], 45% with Kaledupa dialect of Tukang Besi North [khc]; Kambe-kambero dialect is 84% with Busoa [bup], 72% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Liabuku [lix]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kais
[kzm] West Papua Province, 8 villages. South Bird’s Head area; inland along Kais river. 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aiso, Atori, Kampung Baru, Mintamani Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kaiy
[tcq] Papua Province, Kaiy and Kokou villages. Lakes plain area around Kaiy airstrip on lower Rouffaer river. 220 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kai, Taori-Kaiy, Taori-Kei, Todi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kalabra
[kzz] West Papua Province. West Bird’s Head, southeast of Sorong city, along Kalabra river inland. 3,290 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beraur Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Tehit [kps]. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kalao
[kly] South Sulawesi Province. Selayar islands; Kalao island, west of Bonerate island. 500 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kalaotoa, Lambego Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Laiyolo [lji] and Wotu [wtw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kalumpang
[kli] West Sulawesi Province, southeast Mamuju regency, Kalumpang subdistrict. 20,000 (2012 S. Samboy). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galumpang, Maki, Ma’ki, Makki, Mangki, Mangkir Dialects: Bone Hau (Ta’da), Karataun (E’da, Makki). Smaller dialects not listed. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj], 78% with Tae’ [rob], 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]; 82% between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Kamang
[woi] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Alor island. 6,000 (2011 A. Schapper and M. Manimau). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamana-Kamang, Waisika, Woisika Dialects: Kamang, Manetaa, Moo, Suboo, Takailubui, Tiee. Probably more than 1 language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor Comments: North central Alor language complex.

More Information

Kamarian
[kzx] Maluku Province. West Seram island. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Under 10 in 1987; now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kamariang, Seruawan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaibobo [kzb], 67% with Saparua [spr], 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 59% with Amahai [amq], Luhu [lcq], Naka’ela [nae], and Hulung [huk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Kamarian

More Information

Kamaru
[kgx] Southeast Sulawesi Province. Southeast Buton island. 3,500 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm], 67% with Wolio [wlo], 54% with Cia-Cia [cia], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 49% with Tukang Besi [khc], 45% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kambera
[xbr] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Sumba island, eastern half. 240,000 (2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Sumba, East Sumbanese, Hilu Humba, Humba, Oost-Sumbaas, Sumba, Sumbanese Dialects: Kambera, Kanatang, Lewa, Mangili-Waijelo (Rindi, Wai Jilu, Waidjelu, Waijelo), Melolo, Southern Sumba, Uma Ratu Nggai (Umbu Ratu Nggai). Dialect network. Kambera dialect is widely understood. Lewa and Uma Ratu Nggai dialects have difficulty understanding those from Mangili. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kamberau
[irx] West Papua Province, Ubia-Seramuku, Bahomia, Waho, Wamoma, Inari, Tanggaromi, Koi, Wamesa, and Coa villages. Southeast Bomberai peninsula, Kamerau bay area. 1,570 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Iria, Kambrau, Kamrau Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buruwai [asi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kamoro
[kgq] Papua Province. South coast, Mukamuga river into West Papua Province, Etna bay area. 8,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamora, Kaokonau, Lakahia, Mimika, Mukamuga, Nafarpi, Nagramadu, Nefarpi, Neferipi, Umar, Umari Dialects: Nanesa, Tarya, Yamur. 4 other dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Kamoro Comments: Different from Yeretuar (Umari) [gop]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kangean
[kkv] East Java Province. Kangean islands. 110,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Barely intelligible with East Madura [mad]. A separate language (Stevens 1968). Lexical similarity: 75% with Madura [mad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese

More Information

Kanum, Bädi
[khd] Papua Province, south coast border area, southeast of Merauke city. 10 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common and much ritual exchange. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kanum, Ngkâlmpw
[kcd] Papua Province, Yanggandur, Tomer, and Onggaya villages. Southernmost point of province, east of Merauke city; along Papua New Guinea border. 150 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

More Information

Kanum, Smärky
[kxq] Papua Province, Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Rawa Biru, and Kondo villages. Southernmost point of province, southeast of Merauke city; bordering Papua New Guinea. 80 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

More Information

Kanum, Sota
[krz] Papua Province, Sota village. Southernmost point of province, east northeast of Merauke city; bordering Papua New Guinea. 100 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

More Information

Kao
[kax] North Maluku Province. North Halmahera island; on Kao bay, area near Kao river mouth. 400 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kau, Ka’u Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu [pgu], but relates uniquely to other languages in Kao River subbranch. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kapauri
[khp] Papua Province, Pagai village, Kamikaru and Magri hamlets. Upper Idenburg river, north bank; southwest of Jayapura city. 200 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kapori Classification: Kaure, Kapore Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kaptiau
[kbi] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Kaptiau village. North coast west of Jayapura city. 230 (2006 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kapitiauw, Kaptiauw Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: with Tarpia [tpf] and Bonggo [bpg] (most). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Karas
[kgv] West Papua Province, Antalisa and Mas villages. Karas island off southwest coast of Bomberai peninsula; outside of Sebakor bay. 240 (1983 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, Karas Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Karey
[kyd] Southern Maluku Province. South Aru Islands, Tarangan island, southeast coast, Karey valley. 610 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kerei, Krei Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Karon Dori
[kgw] West Papua Province, Pef, Asses, Sunopi, and Siakwa villages. Central Bird’s Head; area of headwaters of Kamundan river. 5,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maiyach, Mari, Meon Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mai Brat [ayz]. Classification: Maybrat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kaur
[vkk] Southwest Sumatra, southern Bengkulu Province. Southernmost extent of province. 40,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bintuhan, Ka’ur, Mulak Dialects: Borrowings from Lampung Api [ljp]; reportedly difficult to understand for Central Malay [pse] speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Central Malay [pse] dialects Pasemah and Serawai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Kaure
[bpp] Papua, southwest of Lake Sentani, Nawa River, Lereh, Harna, Wes, Masta, Aurina villages. 450 (1995 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kaureh Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kauwera
[xau] Papua Province. Middle Mamberamo river, north bank east; southeast of Lake Rombebai. 400 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabera, Kaowerawedj, Kauwerawec, Kauwerawetj, Kawera, Koassa, Tekutameso Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kawe
[kgb] West Papua Province, Salio, Selepele, Bianci, and Menyefun villages. West coast of Bird’s Head, west end of Waigao island and nearby islands. 600 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Maya [slz], Maden [xmx], and Matbat [xmt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kayagar
[kyt] Papua, south coast east of Atohwaim [aqm], south of Awyu Asue [psa] languages. 10,000 (1993 WT), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajagar, Kaygi, Kaygir, Wiyagar Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tamagario [tcg]; related to Atohwaim [aqm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kayan Mahakam
[xay] East Kalimantan Province, West Kutai and Malinau regencies. Area extends from Muller Mountains from south border northward, to within 25 km of Malasia, Sarawak State. 1,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Comments: Linguistic influences from Ot Danum [otd].

More Information

Kayan, Busang
[bfg] East Kalimantan Province. Muller Mountains; upper Mahakam, Oga, and Belayan river areas. 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Busang, Kajan, Kajang Dialects: Belayan, Long Bleh, Mahakam Busang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kayan, Kayan River
[xkn] East Kalimantan Province. 2 Kayan river areas: one downstream, the other larger one, headwaters and south. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kajang, Kayan River Kajan Dialects: Kayaniyut Kayan, Uma Laran, Uma Leken. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

More Information

Kayan, Mendalam
[xkd] West Kalimantan Province. Northeast of Putus Sibau town, along Mendalam river. 1,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mendalam Kajan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

More Information

Kayan, Wahau
[whu] East Kalimantan Province. North of Muara Wahau town, along north tributary of Telen river. 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wahau Kajan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

More Information

Kayeli
[kzl] Maluku Province. North Buru island. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last speaker of Liliali dialect died in 1989 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Caeli, Cajeli, Gaeli, Kajeli Dialects: Kayeli, Leliali (Liliali), Lumaete (Lumaiti, Lumara, Mumaite). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Kayeli Comments: Shifted to Ambonese Malay [abs] or Lisela [lcl] (Wurm 2007). Muslim.

More Information

Kayupulau
[kzu] Papua Province. Jayapura harbor. 50 (Wurm 2000). Used by under 10% of the ethnic group (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kajupulau Dialects: Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa) [tti]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kedang
[ksx] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Northeast Lembata island. 30,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dang, Kdang, Kédang, Kedangese Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Kehu
[khh] Papua Province, Wapoga river between Auye [auu] and Dao [nfa] in the foothills. 200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: East Geelvink Bay

More Information

Kei
[kei] Southeast Maluku Province, about 207 villages on 10 islands. Kei island group west of Aru islands; Kecil, Besar, and surrounding islands; also, Kur islands, lying west and northwest of Kei group. 85,000 (2000 E. Travis). 4,500 monolinguals. L2 users: Also used by outsiders such as ethnic Chinese and Butonese who live in Kei. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kai, Saumlaki, Veveu Evav Dialects: Kei Besar, Kei Kecil, Ta’am, Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar), Tayando. Kei Kecil is the prestigious urban dialect. Kei Besar speakers usually also know Kei Kecil, but not vice versa. Kei Besar is reportedly more similar to Fordata [frd] than other Kei dialects. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village. Lexical similarity: 60% with Fordata [frd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Keijar
[kdy] Papua Province. Pacific coast east; north of Tor river mouth. 370 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keder Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45% with Berik [bkl]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kelabit
[kzi] East Kalimantan Province, remote mountains, on Sarawak border, northwest of Longkemuat. 640 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apo Duat, Kalabit, Kerabit Dialects: Bareo (Bario), Lon Bangag, Long Napir, Pa’ Mada, Tring. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kemak
[kem] East Nusa Tenggara Province. North central Timor island, East Timor border area. 10,000 in Indonesia (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ema Dialects: Kemak, Nogo (Nogo-Nogo). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kembayan
[xem] West Kalimantan Province. Area from Balaikarangan and Kembayan towns to near Sarawak border, east of Landak river. 11,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karambai Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern

More Information

Kemberano
[bzp] West Papua Province, several villages. Bird’s Head, south coast, northwest Bomberai peninsula, south from Kalitami across Bintuni bay, east of Komundan river. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandai, Barau, Kalitami, Wariagar Dialects: Barau, Weriagar. Lexical similarity: 85% with Arandai [jbj], 60% with Kokoda [xod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kembra
[xkw] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Okbibab subdistrict. 20 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Unclassified

More Information

Kemtuik
[kmt] Papua Province, Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Yanim, Braso, Aib, Sabransamon, Mamda, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sekorup, Aimbe, and Sabron Yaru villages. Near southwest shore, Lake Sentani. 2,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamtuk, Kemtuk Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gresi [grs]. Classification: Nimboran Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kendayan
[knx] West Kalimantan Province, Sambas regency. Northeast of Bengkayang town, Madi and Papan jungle area. 321,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 331,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as LWC among non-Muslim Dayaks of northwest West Kalimantan province. Alternate Names: Baicit, Damea, Kanayatn, Kendayan Dayak, Kendayan-Ambawang, Salako Dialects: Ahe, Ambawang, Kendayan, Selako. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Comments: Indonesian [ind] well understood only by a few with at least a 6th-grade education.

More Information

Keninjal
[knl] West Kalimantan Province; areas near Nangapinoh, Nangaella, Nangasayan, and Gelalak towns; along Sayan and Melawi rivers. 32,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dayak Kaninjal, Kaninjal, Kaninjal Dayak Dialects: Kubing. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with other “Malayic Dayak” dialects in Melawi Basin like Barai, Nanga Nuak, Kebahan, Ransa, Kenyilu, Limbai and Kubin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Comments: Keninjal is one of many ill-defined “Malayic Dayak” varieties.

More Information

Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] East Kalimantan Province, Malinau regency, Kayan, Mahakam, Upper Baram, Bahau, Upper Balui, Malinau, Belayan, Segah, Kelai, and Telen river areas, Pimping, Long Setulang, Batu Kajang, Long Uli, and Long Belua villages. 12,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. Population total all countries: 52,000. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Kenyah, Usun Apau Kenyah Dialects: Badeng, Bakung, Lepo’ Bem, Lepo’ Ke, Lepo’ Kuda, Lepo’ Maut, Lepo’ Ndang, Lepo’ Tau, Lepo’ Tepu’, Uma’ Jalan, Uma’ Tukung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah

More Information

Kenyah, Wahau
[whk] East Kalimantan Province, Batu Majang, Buluk Sen, Uma’ Dian, Muara Pedohon, Kampung Baru, Uma’ Bekuai, and Tabang Lama villages. Upper Mahakam river area. 8,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. Population total all countries: 9,000. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lebu’ Kulit, Wahau Kenya Dialects: Lebu’ Kulit, Uma Timai, Uma’ Ujok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah

More Information

Ke’o
[xxk] East Nusa Tenggara Province, 4 villages. South central Flores island, south and southeast of Ebu Lobo volcano. 40,000 (2001 L. Baird). Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nage-Keo Dialects: None known. Reportedly distinct from but most similar to Nage [nxe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: People and language are both called Ke’o. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kepo’
[kuk] East Nusa Tenggara Province. 2 separate areas, Central Flores island; between Manggarai [mqy], Rembong [reb], and Wae Rana [wrx] language areas. 6,000 (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kepoq Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Kereho
[xke] West Kalimantan Province, far east Kapuas Hulu regency. Near Sarawak border, Kereho river. 500 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keriau Punan Dialects: Seputan, Uheng (Kereho-Uheng). Lexical similarity: 69% with Hovongan [hov], 69% with Aoheng [pni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’

More Information

Kerinci
[kvr] Sumatra, Jambi Province, western mountains, Sungaipenuh area, and north and west. 260,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 285,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kerinchi, Kinchai Dialects: High dialect diversity in a small area, shading into Jambi Malay [zlm] east and Minangkabau [min] north. Distinct from Kerinci-Minangkabau dialect of Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Ketengban
[xte] Papua Province. Near Papua New Guinea border, east highland slopes; scattered. 9,970 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kupel, Oktengban Dialects: Bime, Okbap, Omban, Onya. Lexical similarity: 69% with Una [mtg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ketum
[ktt] Papua Province. Foothills of Eastern Highlands, east of East Digul river, about 40 km west of Papua New Guinea border. 900 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitum, Wambon-Ketum Dialects: None known. Related to Wambon [wms] and Mandobo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kimaghima
[kig] Southeast Papua Province. Kolopom island, interior, east of Merauke city. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaladdarsch, Kimaama, Kimaghama, Teri-Kalwasch Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kimki
[sbt] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Batom subdistrict. Border area where Sepik river enters Papua New Guinea. 500 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong Classification: Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kioko
[ues] Southeast Sulawesi Province, North Buton regency, Bonegunu and Kambowa subdistricts. Buton island. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kambowa, Kioko. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb], 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kirikiri
[kiy] Papua Province, Dofu Wahuka and Paniai villages. On Papua New Guinea border, west of confluence of Tariku and Kliki rivers. 250 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kirira Dialects: Faia, Kirikiri. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West Comments: No schools in the area. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kisar
[kje] Southern Maluku Province, over 20 villages total. Kisar island, northeast of Timor island, 19 villages; nearby Roma and Wetar islands, Hila, Likagraha, Amau, Naumatan, and Hi’ai villages. Some in Ambon, Dili, and Kupang cities. 20,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meher, Yotowawa Dialects: Not related to Oirata [oia], which has sometimes been called a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma Comments: Called Yotowawa or Meher locally. Christian.

More Information

Klon
[kyo] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Southwest, Alor island, Halerman, Margera, Manatang, Probur, Probur Utara, and Tribur villages. 5,000 (2008 L. Baird). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalong, Kelon, Kelong, Kolon Dialects: Klon Bring, Klon Paneia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor

More Information

Koba
[kpd] Southeast Maluku Province, at least 3 villages. Aru island group, Baun and Fukarel islands southeast of Kobroor island, mouth of Barakai strait. 870 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Southeast Koba. Low comprehension of Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Dobel [kvo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru

More Information

Kodeoha
[vko] Southeast Sulawesi Province, North Kolaka regency, Lasusua subdistrict, 4 villages. Upper Bone bay, east coast. 1,500 (Mead 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kondea, Kondeha Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]; 70% with the Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kodi
[kod] East Nusa Tenggara, West Sumba. 20000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kudi Dialects: Kodi Bangedo, Kodi Bokol, Nggaro (Nggaura). May be most similar to Wejewa [wew]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kofei
[kpi] Papua Province. East side of Geelvink bay. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Sauri [srt], 63% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kohin
[kkx] Central Kalimantan Province, Kotawaringin Timur regency, 10 villages. Central and north Seruyan river area. 8,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Seruyan, Seruyan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Ot Danum [otd], 50%–69% with Ngaju [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North

More Information

Kokoda
[xod] West Papua Province, Sorong district. Bird’s Head, northwest coast of Maccluer Gulf, east of Inanwatan city. 3,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kasuweri, Komudago, Nebes, Oderago, Samalek, Tarof Dialects: Kasuweri (Komudago), Negri Besar (Negeri Besar), Tarof. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list Kasuweri and Tarof as separate languages. Komudago and Tarof dialects are most similar. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemberano [bzp]; Kasuweri dialect 86% with Tarof dialect; Negri Besar 82% with Tarof. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Central

More Information

Kola
[kvv] Southeast Maluku, 22 villages. North Aru islands, Kola island, widespread, to adjacent islands. 7,400 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kulaha, Marlasi, Warilau Dialects: Intelligibility test showed Marlasi dialect intelligible of Kompane [kvp]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Kompane [kvp], 70% with Ujir [udj]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Kombai
[tyn] Papua Province. Interior south coast area; on plain between upper Wideman and Digul rivers, east of Senggo city. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komboy Dialects: Central Kombai, Tayan. Reportedly most similar to Wanggom [wng]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Komering
[kge] South Sumatra Province. Separate areas along Komering river from Lake Ranau to near Palembang city. 470,000 (2000 census). 20,000 in Jakarta (1992). L2 users: Some immigrants from other ethnic groups. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kumoring Dialects: Downstream Komering, Kayu Agung, Kayu Agung Asli, Komering, Upstream Komering. Lexical similarity: 70% with the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp]; 74% with Sungkai dialect of Lampung Api (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung Comments: Muslim (Shafi Sunni).

More Information

Komodo
[kvh] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Komodo island, west coast, Flores island. 700 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. A separate language from Manggarai [mqy] (1982 J. Verheijen). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Kompane
[kvp] South Maluku Province, Kompane village. Northeast Aru islands, Kongan island east of Wokam island. 330 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komfana, Kongampani Dialects: None known. Similar to Kola [kvv], linguistically between Kola and Batuley [bay]. Good intelligibility of Kola. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Komyandaret
[kzv] Papua Province. Headwaters of Sungai river, west bank. 300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be mutually intelligible with Tsaukambo [kvz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Konda
[knd] Papua Province, Teminabuan subdistrict, Konda village. Southwest Bird’s Head area facing Seram Sea; lower Waromge river, south of Teminabuan city. 500 (1988 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ogit, Yabin, Yabin-Konda Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Yahadian [ner]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Koneraw
[kdw] Southeast Papua Province. Kolopom island, south coast. 1,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Konorau Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Konjo, Coastal
[kjc] South Sulawesi Province, Sinjai, Bulukumba, and Bantaeng regencies. Southeasternmost corner of peninsula; Salayer strait. 125,000 (1990 SIL). 50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kondjo, Tiro Dialects: Bantaeng (Bonthain), Konjo Pesisir (Ara, Bira), Tana Toa (Black Konjo, Kadjang, Kajang, Tana Towa). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]; Tana Toa dialect: 10% with other coastal dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Comments: Tana Towa resist modern ways, contact with outsiders. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Konjo, Highland
[kjk] South Sulawesi Province, Sinjai, Bone, Gowa, and Bulukumba regencies. Southern peninsula interior; Mount Lompobatang area northwest, past Makassar city. 150,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Konjo Pegunungan, Konyo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Coastal Konjo [kjc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Kopkaka
[opk] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, and Burungmakok villages. In lowlands south of the main ranges; headwaters area, several tributaries of upper Sirac river. 400 (2002 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kopka Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Reportedly similar to Kwer [kwr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Koroni
[xkq] Central Sulawesi Province, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Unsongi village. On Tolo bay, east coast, south of Bungku town. 500 (Mead 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Oengsongi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Taloki [tlk] and Kulisusu [vkl], 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Korowai
[khe] Papua Province. Southeast inland area, northeast of Senggo town; between upper Sirac and Digul rivers. 3,500 (2007 P. de Vries). 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolufaup Dialects: North Korowai, South Korowai. Dialects have high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 90% with dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Korowai Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Korupun-Sela
[kpq] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict. Eastern highlands, on upper reaches of Erok river. 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kimyal of Korupun, Korapun Dialects: Dagi, Deibula, Korupun (Duram), Sela, Sisibna (Gobugdua). Lexical similarity: 60% with Nipsan [nps]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kosare
[kiq] Papua Province. West of Nawa and Idenburg rivers confluence; south of Jayapura city. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kosadle Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kowiai
[kwh] West Papua Province, Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, and Kayumerah villages. Bomberai peninsula, southwest coast; Kamrau bay area; Kaimana. Namatote, and Adi islands, smaller islands in bay. 600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adi, Aiduma, Kaiwai, Kajumerah, Kayumerah, Koiwai, Kuiwai, Namatota, Namatote Dialects: Adijaya, Keroi, Namatota. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kubu
[kvb] Sumatra, Jambi Province. Eastern swamp region; possibly some in Riau and South Sumatra provinces. 10,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anak Dalam, Orang Hutan, Orang Rimba Dialects: Bajat, Dawas, Jambi, Lalang, Nomadic Kubu, Ridan, Supat, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Ulu Lako. Related to Lubu [lcf]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Territory rapidly shrinking, somewhat due to deforestation. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Kui
[kvd] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Alor island; Kui dialect on south coast in Lerabaing and Buraga villages, also in Moru in Kalabahi bay interspersed with Hamap [hmu]; Batulolong dialect: Sibera and Kapebang villages. 1,900. Ethnic population: 1,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lerabain Dialects: Batulolong, Kiramang (Kramang), Kui (Buraga, Lerabaing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Kula
[tpg] East Nusa Tenggara Province, Alor island, central eastern mountains, between Kamang [woi] and Sawila [swt] language areas; also on northeast coast, Maukuru, Takala, Koilela, Peisaka, and Kiralela villages. 5,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kola, Lamtoka, Lantoka, Tanglapui Dialects: Arumaka, Iramang, Kula, Kula Watena, Kulatela, Larena, Sumang, Watena. Reportedly structurally similar to Sawila [swt], but intelligibility is marginal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Tanglapui Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kulisusu
[vkl] Southeast Sulawesi Province, North Buton regency, Kulisusu Utara, Kulisusu Induk, Kulisusu Barat, and Bonegunu subdistricts. Northernost Buton island. 22,000 (Mead 1999), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalisusu, Kolensusu, Kolinsusu Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 77% with Tolaki [lbw], 75% with Koroni [xkq], 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group, 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kumbewaha
[xks] Southeast Sulawesi Province, Buton regency, Lasalimu subdistrict, Kumbewaha and Wajah Jaya villages. Buton island, southeast; west of Wangiwangi island. 3,400 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumberaha, Umbewaha Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kur
[kuv] Southeast Maluku Province, West Kei Kecil district. Kur and surrounding islands. 3,180 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different from Kei [kei]. Boundaries of intelligibility with dialects north and the central dialect, and with Teor [tev] need further investigation. Lexical similarity: 47%–50% with Kei [kei], 71%–83% with Teor [tev], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kuri
[nbn] West Papua Province, 16 villages. Southwest Bomberai peninsula; area south of Bituni bay, northeast of Arguni bay. 500 (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Modan, Nabi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Irarutu [irh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kurudu
[kjr] Papua Province, Kaipuri and Poiwai villages. Kurudu islands between east tip of Serui (Yapen) island and northwest mainland. 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo [wbb], 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kwer
[kwr] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, Kwer village. Lowlands area south of main ranges; headwaters of Sirac river tributaries, northeast of Senggo town. 100 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kopkaka [opk]; may be considered the same language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western

More Information

Kwerba
[kwe] Papua Province, Aurime, Munukania, Wamariri, Tatsewalem, and Apiaweti villages. Northeast mainland interior; headwaters of Apauwer river. 2,500 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Airmati, Armati, Koassa, Mataweja, Naibedj, Segar Tor, Serikenam, Tekutameso Dialects: Nogukwabai, Sasawa, Serikenam. Lexical similarity: 64% with Bagusa [bqb]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kwerba Mamberamo
[xwr] Papua Province, Kwerba, Edifalen, and Marinafalen villages. East bank, Mamberamo river, into highlands; southeast of Kasonaweja town. 300 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napok, Nobuk, Nogukwabai, Nopuk, Nopukw, Tatsewalem Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear Comments: ‘Nopukw’, language, in the Kwerba family, and does not distinguish a particular variety. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kwerisa
[kkb] Papua Province. Lower Rouffaer river. 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Taogwe Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kwesten
[kwt] Papua Province, Holmhaven, Mafenter, Arare, and Omte villages. Pacific coast area east of Sarmi town; lower Tor river area. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Berik [bkl]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kwinsu
[kuc] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Ansudu village. 500 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ansudu Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor

More Information

Laba
[lau] North Maluku Province, south end of Loloda district, 4 villages. North Halmahera island, interior from northwest coast. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kedi, South Loloda Dialects: None known. Phonology like Galela [gbi], 70% intelligibility, 75% of Loloda [loa]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Galela [gbi], 78% with Loloda [loa]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Christian.

More Information

Laha
[lhh] Maluku Province, Laha and other villages. Ambon island, south central coast. 3,890 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Ambon Dialects: None known. Distinct from Manusela [wha]. Lexical similarity: 64%–66% with Asilulu [asl] and Seit-Kaitetu [hik] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Laiyolo
[lji] South Sulawesi Province, Laiyolo, Barang-Barang, Lowa, and other villages. Selayar island south tip. 800 (1997 SIL). 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barang-Barang, Da’ang Dialects: Barang-Barang (Loa, Loa’, Lowa), Laiyolo (Lajolo, Layolo). Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect, 76% with Kalao [kly], 65% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Wotu [wtw], 39% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Lamaholot
[slp] East Nusa Tenggara Province. East tip Flores, west Solor islands; in pockets on north Pantar coast, northwest Alor, surrounding islands. 180,000 (2010). L2 users: Many L2 users. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Solor, Solorese Dialects: Lamaholot (Ile Mandiri, Larantuka, Lewolaga, Ritaebang, Taka, Tanjung Bunda), West Lamaholot (Muhang, Pukaunu), West Solor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: ‘Lamaholot-Alor’ is used to refer to both a lingua franca and also to any of several Austronesian varieties spoken from eastern Flores to Alor. Alor [aol] is part of a chain which includes Lamaholot. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Lamalera
[lmr] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South coast, Lembata island. At least 3 villages. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kawela, Lebatukan, Mulan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Lamatuka
[lmq] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lembata island, between Ile Ape [ila] and Lewo Eleng [lwe] language areas. Several villages. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamatoka Dialects: None known. Lewo Eleng [lwe] is probably most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Lamboya
[lmy] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Sumba island, southwest coast, southwest of Waikabubak city. 25,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lamboya, Nggaura. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba

More Information

Lampung Api
[ljp] Sumatra, west, central, and south Lampung Province; south Benkulu Province around Krui, Sanggi, and Kotajawa; South Sumatra Province, south of Muaradua, near headwaters of Kanan river. 827,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Api, Lampong, Lampung, Lampung Pesisir Dialects: Daya, Krui (Kroe, Kru’i, Njo, Western Lampung), Pubian, Ranau, Southern Pesisir, Sungkai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung Comments: Teachers must use L1, especially in lower grades. Muslim.

More Information

Lampung Nyo
[abl] Sumatra, east Lampung Province. 3 enclaves situated between Kanan and Seputih rivers. 180,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abung, Lampong Dialects: Abung, Melinting, Sukadana, Tulangbawang. Many differences in vocabulary and phonology with Lampung Api [ljp]. Lexical similarity: 72% between the Menggala dialect and the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp], 77% among dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Larike-Wakasihu
[alo] Maluku Province, Larike, Wakasihu, Tapi, Allang, and Lai villages. Southwesternmost Ambon island coast, Hitu peninsula. 12,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Allang, Larike, Wakasihu. The western end of the Ambon dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 81% among Allang, and Larike, and Wakasihu dialects; 92% between Larike and Wakasihu; 68%–71% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–72% with Negeri Lima dialect of Asilulu [asl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Lasalimu
[llm] Southeast Sulawesi Province, Lasalimu subdistrict, Lasalimu and Malaoge villages. Buton island, southeast; Lasalima town area. 1,700 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru [kgx], 64% with Cia-Cia [cia], 48% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 49% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Latu
[ltu] Maluku Province, Latu village. Seram island southwest, Elpaputih bay, Point Latu. 2,130 (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Saparua [spr] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua

More Information

Lauje
[law] Central Sulawesi Province, Dampelas Sojol, Dondo, Tinombo, Tomini, and Ampibabo subdistricts. Northwest coast along Tomini bay, Sidoan river area. 44,000 (Himmelmann 2001). 6,000 use Ampibabo dialect (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laudje, Tinombo Dialects: Ampibabo (Ampibabo-Lauje). Ampibabo dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Laura
[lur] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Northwest Sumba island, from Mamboru town west to Cape Karosso. 10,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laora Dialects: Laura, Mbukambero (Bukambero). Not intelligible with Kodi [kod]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba

More Information

Lawangan
[lbx] Central East Kalimantan Province. Karau river area. 100,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luwangan, Northeast Barito Dialects: Ajuh, Bakoi (Lampung), Bantian (Bentian), Banuwang, Bawu (Bawo), Benua, Kali, Karau (Beloh), Lawa, Lolang, Mantararen, Njumit, Pasir, Purai, Purung, Taboyan, Tuwang. At least 17 dialects. Tawoyan [twy] may be inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tawoyan [twy], 53% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Benua (population 25,000, six subdialects) may be distinct enough to be considered a separate language. (Nikolić 2008). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North

More Information

Legenyem
[lcc] Papua Province, Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo island in northwest end of main bay and on south coast, Beo, Lempintol, and Wawiai villages. 250 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laganyan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Lembata, South
[lmf] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South Lembata island, between Lamalera [lmr] and Lamatuka [lmq] language areas. 7,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Lembata, West
[lmj] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Lembata island, western end. 8,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Labalekan, Mingar Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Lemolang
[ley] South Sulawesi Province, Luwu Utara regency, Sassa and Salassa villages. Inland from northeast coast, Bone bay; middle Rongko river area. Scattered in Sabbang, possibly Baebunta areas. 2,000 (Vail 1991), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baebunta, Limola, Limolang Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz], 39% with Mori Atas [mzq], 38% with Bungku [bkz], 39% with Wolio [wlo], 31% with Seko Padang [skx], 30% with Rampi [lje], 29% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 26% with Muna [mnb], 25% with Wotu [wtw], 24% with Bugis [bug]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Lemolang Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Lengilu
[lgi] Northeast Kalimantan, between Sa’ban and Lundayeh. 3 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

More Information

Lepki
[lpe] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Okbibab subdistrict. Near middle Sogber river, north of Apmisibil town. 530 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic similarities with Murkim [rmh]. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Leti
[lti] Maluku Province, Leti island. 7,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Marginal intelligibility and difficulty with written Luang [lex]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Luang [lex]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang Comments: Matrilineal. They share historical and cultural heritage with Luang [lex], but maintain their own identity and local pride. Christian.

More Information

Levuka
[lvu] East Nusa Tenggara Province. West central Lembata island between Ile Ape [ila] and Lamalera [lmr] language areas. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lembata, Lewokukun, Lewuka, Painara Dialects: Kalikasa, Levuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Lewo Eleng
[lwe] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Central eastern Lembata island, between Lamatuka [lmq] and Kedang [ksx] language areas, several villages. North coastal plains villages are from recent government-induced migrations. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lamatuka [lmq] probably most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Lewotobi
[lwt] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Southeastern Flores island across from Solor island, Lewotobi volcano area. 6000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southwest Lamaholot Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Liabuku
[lix] Southeast Sulawesi, Bungi subdistrict, south Buton island, part of Liabuku village north of Bau-Bau. 75 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb], 72%–76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko [ues]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Liana-Seti
[ste] Central Maluku Province, Bula, Werinama, and Tehoru districts, 8 villages. Seram island, from east Teluti bay north to Seram Sea coast. 3,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liambata-Kobi, Liana, Lianan, Teula, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei Kaclakin, Uhei Kahlakim Dialects: Kobi, Seti, Wahakaim. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast) dialects, 69%–78% between Kobi and Seti, 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim, 42%–61% between Kobi and Manusela [wha], 54%–66% between Kobi and Benggoi [bgy], 48%–58% between Kobi and Salas [sgu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Comments: Speakers use Liana. Christian.

More Information

Liki
[lio] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Sarmi subdistrict, Islands off north coast of Sarmi. 11 (2005 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Moar Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sobei [sob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi

More Information

Lindu
[klw] Central Sulawesi Province, Lindu subdistrict, Anca, Tomado, and Langko villages. Area near Lake Lindu. 2,400 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lindoe, Linduan, Tado Dialects: Lindu is reportedly very similar to Moma [myl]; considered by some a Moma dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: ‘Tado’ (alternate for Lindu) is different from Tado dialect of Kaili Ledo [lew]. Christian.

More Information

Li’o
[ljl] East Nusa Tenggara Province. East central Flores island, bi-coastal, between Sika [ski] and Ende [end] language areas. 105,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aku, Lio, Lionese, Tanah Kunu Dialects: Dialect subgroup with Ende [end]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian.

More Information

Lisabata-Nuniali
[lcs] Maluku Province, 5 villages. West and north Seram island, across north coast. 1,830 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lisabata, Noniali, Nuniali Dialects: Kawa, Lisabata-Timur, Nuniali, Sukaraja. Lexical similarity: between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) dialects is 85%, 72% with Naka’ela [nae], 67% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram Comments: Muslim, Christian (Nuniali).

More Information

Lisela
[lcl] Maluku Province. Buru island, west of Manipa, Seram islands. 4 separate areas; largest area: northeast coast, lower inland Wae and Apo river valleys west of Kajeli town; other 3 areas westward across north Seram Sea coast. Some in Ambon. 11,900 (1989 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Buru, Li Enyorot, Liet Enjorot, North Buru, Wayapo Dialects: Lisela (Licela, Licella), Tagalisa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Lola
[lcd] Southeast Maluku Province, Lola, Warabal, and Jambuair villages. Aru island group; 3 islands east of Kobroor and Baun islands. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lola, Warabal. Reportedly linguistically between Batuley [bay] and Dobel [kvo]; similar to Koba [kpd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Lolak
[llq] North Sulawesi Province, Bolaang Mongondow regency, Lolak subdistrict, Lolak, Mongkoinit, and Motabang villages. Inland area watershed of lower Mongodow river. 3,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Structurally related to Gorontalo [gor], but with heavy lexical borrowing from Mongondow [mog]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Ponosakan [pns], 63% with Kaidipang [kzp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Lole
[llg] East Nusa Tenggara Province. West central Rote island, from northern coast Ba’a town to south coast. North Lole dialect covers north and central regions of Lole domain. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ba’a, Baä, Central Rote, Loleh, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese Dialects: Ba’a, North Lole, South Lole. North Lole, na-hina, becomes South Lole, ni-hina. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: Christian.

More Information

Loloda
[loa] North Maluku Province. North Halmahera island, northwest coast, nearby islands. 15,000 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Bakun. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loda, North Loloda Dialects: Bakun. Intelligibility of Laba [lau] very limited. 85% intelligibility of Galela [gbi], Galela [gbi] has 65% intelligibility of Loloda. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Lorang
[lrn] Southeast Maluku Province. Central Aru island group, Koba island, northwest coast. 220 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Koba [kpd] and, to a lesser extent, Dobel [kvo]. Some similarities with Manombai [woo], but intelligibility is lower than might be expected. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Christian.

More Information

Loun
[lox] Central Maluku, north central Seram. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Loun

More Information

Luang
[lex] Maluku Province. East of Timor island; entire Wetan island, across Wetan strait to northwest Babar island. 18,000 (1995 SIL). 200 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Letri Lgona, Lgona, Literi Lagona Dialects: Lakor, Luang, Moa, Wetan (Wetang). Low comprehension of Leti [lti]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Leti [lti]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang Comments: Matrilineal. Christian.

More Information

Lubu
[lcf] Sumatra, West Sumatra Province. 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Kubu [kvb]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Luhu
[lcq] Maluku Province, western Seram island, Hoamoal peninsula, Luhu village. Boano and Kelang islands, west of Seram island. 6,500 (Collins 1983). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Piru Dialects: Batu Merah, Kelang, Luhu. Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu dialect, 71%–73% with Asilulu [asl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Lun Bawang
[lnd] East Kalimantan Province; mountainous area where Sesayap River tributaries arise. 2 enclaves in western Sabah State. 23,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 47,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya Putuk, Lundayeh, Southern Murut Dialects: Lun Bawang (Long Bawan, Sarawak Murut), Lun Daye, Papadi. Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ma’anyan
[mhy] Central Kalimantan Province, Barito Selatan regency, Dusun Hilir, Karau Kuala, Dusun Selatan, Dusun Utara, Gunung Bintang Awai, Dusun Tengah, Awang, and Patangkep Tutui subdistricts. South Tamianglayang town area, Patai river watershed. 150,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ma’anjan, Maanyak Dayak Dialects: Dusun Balangan, Samihim (Buluh Kuning), Sihong (Siong). Related to Malagasy languages in Madagascar. Lexical similarity: 77% with Paku [pku], 75% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Maba
[mqa] North Maluku Province. Halmahera island, southeast peninsula, north coast facing Buli bay; Wasilei area. 6,620 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicoli, Bitjoli, Ingli Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Maden
[xmx] West Papua Province. Raja Ampat islands; western Salawati island. 600 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Palamul, Saparan, Sapran Dialects: Kawait. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Possibly the same as Maya [slz]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Madura
[mad] East Java Province, Madura island, Sapudi islands; coastal area of Java island, south and west of Surabaja city, southwest of Madura island. 6,770,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), decreasing. 86,000 Bawean. 2000 census reports large population decrease. Due to intermarriage, language attitudes, and other socioeconomic issues, the Madurese population is likely underreported. Population total all countries: 6,770,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese Dialects: Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Bawean (Babean, Bhebien, Boyanese), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Bawean may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean [kkv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese Comments: Mainly rural. Bawean consider their language separate from Madurese. East Madurese, especially Sumenep, is considered high, or standard Madurese. Sumenep is isolated culturally and geographically. Bangkalon, spoken in Surabaya, is important economically because that city is highly urbanized and is most affected by Bahasa Indonesia. Muslim.

More Information

Mai Brat
[ayz] West Papua Province, about 40 villages. Central Bird’s Head, area around Ayamaru lakes. 20,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ajamaru, Atinjo, Ayamaru, Brat, Maibrat, Maite, Majbrat, Maybrat, Mey Brat Dialects: Maimaka, Maisawiet, Maisefa, Maite, Maiyah. Lexical similarity: 10% with Tehit [kps], Mpur [akc], Abun [kgr], and its most similar neighbors. Classification: Maybrat Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ayamaru. Traditional religion.

More Information

Mairasi
[zrs] Papua Province, Bomberai peninsula, southwest coast facing Arafura Sea; area from Arguni bay east, southeast toward Triton bay on south coast. 3,300 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Faranyao, Kaniran Dialects: Northeastern Mairasi. Reportedly similar to Semimi [etz]. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 69% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mer [mnu]. Classification: Mairasi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Maiwa
[wmm] South Sulawesi Province, Enrekang and Sidenrang-Rappang regencies. Interior highlands east of Enrekang town; both sides of Boya river. 50,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masenrempulu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Makasar
[mak] South Sulawesi Province, southwest corner of the peninsula, most of Pangkep, Maros, Gowa, Bantaeng, Jeneponto, and Takalar regencies. 2,130,000 (2000 census). L2 users: 400,000. Ethnic Chinese speakers. Many ethnic Chinese speak Makassar dialect as L1. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goa, Macassar, Macassarese, Makassa, Makassaarsche, Makassar, Makassarese, Mangasara, Mengkasara, Taena, Tena Dialects: Gowa (Goa, Lakiung), Maros-Pangkep, Turatea (Jeneponto). Gowa dialect is prestigious. Dialects form a chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Makian, East
[mky] North Maluku Province. South Halmahera island, west coast; nearby east Makian and south Mori islands; Kayoa, Bacan, and Obi islands. Transmigration project near Kao. 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makian Dalam, Makian Timur Dialects: East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane Comments: A volcanic eruption on Makian Island, transmigrations, speakers of other languages in the area and pressure from those languages have taken a toll on vitality. Muslim.

More Information

Makian, West
[mqs] North Maluku Province. South Halmahera island, southwest coast near Gita town; west Makian island, some Kayoa islands. 12,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makian Barat, Makian Luar Dialects: None known. Language isolate within north Halmahera. Formerly classified as Austronesian. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, West Makian Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Maklew
[mgf] Papua Province, south coast area, east side of Marianne strait, west of Marind [mrz] and east of Yelmek [jel] language areas. 120 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makleu Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yelmek [jel]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Malay
[zlm] Primarily coastal regions of central and north Sumatra and western Kalimantan. 4,910,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 3,970,000 in Sumatra (100,000 in Belitung, 1,830,000 in Riau, 2,000,000 Deli, Asahan, etc. in North Sumatra and 40,000 Tamiang in Aceh), and 940,000 in Kalimantan (primarily Pontianak, Sambas and Ketapang). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Sumatra. Alternate Names: Bahasa Daerah, Bahasa Melayu, Malayu Dialects: Akit, Belitung, coastal Jambi, Deli, Kapuas Hulu, Ketapang, Landak, Pontianak, Riau islands (Sea Tribe dialects), Riau Mainland, Sakai, Sambas, Sanggau, Sekadau, Sintang, Sukadana, Tamiang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: This entry refers to numerous, local or vernacular, Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, as well as varieties for which further research is required to clarify differentiation from more mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] and Indonesian [ind]. Muslim (Sunni), Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Malay, Ambonese
[abs] Maluku Province. Central area: Ambon, Haruku, Nusa Laut, and Saparua islands; coastal areas of Seram island. Southern area: northwest Aru island group, Wamar island. 200,000 in Indonesia (1987 J. Collins). Population total all countries: 245,020. L2 users: 1,400,000 in Indonesia (2013 M. Connor). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Became an LWC through trade, and is used in inter-cultural ommunication, market, and some media. Alternate Names: Ambonese, Ambong, Malayu Ambon, Moluccan (Maluku) Malay Dialects: Dobo Malay. Marginal intelligibility with Indonesian [ind]. Difficult intelligibility with North Moluccan Malay [max]; speakers switch to Indonesian. Lexical similarity: 81% with Indonesian [ind]. Banda Malay [bpq] may best be considered a dialect of Moluccan Malay [max]. Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Developed from Sabah Malay [msi] and still reflects some archaic forms. Further diverged by adapting to the vernaculars of central Maluku. Many varieties of trade Malay are considered Malay-based creoles (Grimes 1988, 1991; Holm 1989) and as Austronesian with contact features (Collins 1980; Gil 2001; Wolff 1988). Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Malay, Bacanese
[btj] North Maluku Province, at least 2 villages. Bacan island west of southern Halmahera island, Labuha Area; some on Mandioli Island. 6 (2012 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bacan, Batjan Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: No evidence of an earlier indigenous language (1987 J. Collins). Muslim.

More Information

Malay, Balinese
[mhp] Bali Province, Bali island. 25,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Balinese Malay arose as L1 in the Muslim community of Western Bali among immigrants from Southern Sulawesi (2007 S. Paauw).

More Information

Malay, Banda
[bpq] Maluku Province. Banda islands; south, off southeast coast of Seram island. 3,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: May better be considered a dialect of Moluccan (Ambonese) Malay [abs]. Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Malay, Berau
[bve] East Kalimantan Province. Central coastal area; north, Cape Pandan, Tanjungreder, and Muaramalinau towns on lower Segah river; south along Celebes Sea coast past Sepinang town to Cape Batube area. 11,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berau, Merau Malay Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Shares phonological innovations with Kutai Malay [vkt], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd].

More Information

Malay, Bukit
[bvu] South Kalimantan Province. Central interior; Sampanahan river area, northwest of Limbungan town. 59,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukat, Bukit, Meratus Dialects: None known. A variant of Banjar Malay [bjn] (Collins 2001). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Malay, Central
[pse] South Sumatra Province. East down Lematang and Ogan river valleys; south of Muaraenim town, east and southeast of Lahat town. Bengkulu Province; central Bukit Barisan highlands west to Indian Ocean along Bengkulu coast. 590,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bengkulu, Besemah, Enim, Lintang, Midden Maleisch, Ogan, Pasemah, Semendo, Serawai Dialects: Benakat, Bengkulu, Enim, Kikim, Kisam, Lematang Ulu, Lintang, Ogan, Pasemah, Rambang, Semenda, Serawai. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaur [vkk], 80% between Pekal [pel] and some dialects such as Pasemah and Bengkulu. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Malay, Jambi
[jax] Southeast Sumatra, Jambi Province. Widespread. 1,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batin, Djambi Dialects: Downstream Jambi Malay, Upstream Jambi Malay. Forms a network of related varieties with Minangkabau [min] west, Riau Malay [zlm] north, and Musi [mui] south (Anderbeck 2008). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai
[mqg] East Kalimantan Province. Lakes Semajang and Melintang areas, north along Belayen river; westward then south, central Mahakam river basin. 80,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not intelligible with mainstream Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt], but may be with one of its dialects (Northern Kutai). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay

More Information

Malay, Kupang
[mkn] East Nusa Tenggara Province, west end,Timor island, Kupang city area. 200,000 (1997 M. Jacob). L2 users: 100,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Regional L2. Alternate Names: Basa Kupang, Kupang Dialects: Air Mata, Kupang. Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Loanwords from several Rote and Chinese languages, Portuguese [por], Uab Meto [aoz], Sabu [hvn], Spanish [spa], Dutch [nld], English [eng]. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Malay, Larantuka
[lrt] East Nusa Tenggara Province. East end, Flores island, Larantuka city area. 20,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Nagi, Ende Malay, Melayu Larantuka, Nagi Classification: Creole, Malay based

More Information

Malay, Makassar
[mfp] South Sulawesi, Makassar port area. L2 users: 1,880,000 (2000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Macassarese Malay, Makassarese Malay, Sulsel Indonesian, Ujung Pandang Indonesian Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay

More Information

Malay, Manado
[xmm] North Sulawesi Province, throughout Minahasa regency; other areas in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo provinces. 850,000 (2001). L2 users: 1,500,000. In North Sulawesi. Status: 3 (Wider communication).An important, growing lingua franca in many parts of Sulawesi. Alternate Names: Manadonese Malay, Minahasan Malay Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to North Moluccan Malay [max]. Also similar to Sri Lankan Malay [sci]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Influences from Portuguese [por] and Ternate [tft]. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Malay, North Moluccan
[max] North Maluku Province. Islands off of southern tip of Halmahera island; Sula and Obi island groups to south and west. 700,000 (2001 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 300,000 (2001 R. Whisler). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Became LWC through trade, also used in daily life, inter-ethnic contact. Alternate Names: Ternate Malay Dialects: None known. Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. Reportedly more similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Malay, Papuan
[pmy] Papua Province. 500,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. L1 and L2 speakers combined. L2 users: 500,000 L1 and L2 speakers combined. Status: 3 (Wider communication).LWC in Papua Province. Used in market, some business, and in situations where ethnic groups are mixed (market, sports, etc.) and in government offices. Became an LWC through trade. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to both Ambonese Malay [abs] and Manado Malay [xmm]. Classification: Creole, Malay based

More Information

Malay, Tenggarong Kutai
[vkt] East Kalimantan Province. East central coastal area, from Mahakam river basin east to Celebes Sea coast, north from Cape Pandan along coast south to Samarinda city area. 210,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 100,000 in Tenggarong, 60,000 in Ancalong, 50,000 in Northern Kutai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kutai, Tenggarong Dialects: Ancalong Kutai, Northern Kutai, Tenggarong Kutai. Many dialects. Tenggarong and Kota Bangun (Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai [mqg]) are not inherently intelligible. Shares phonological innovations with Berau Malay [bve], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay

More Information

Malayic Dayak
[xdy] Widespread. Eastern West Kalimantan and west Central Kalimantan provinces. Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk dialects: southeast of Kapuas river, from Sintang to Putus Sibau towns; Banana and Tapitn dialects: area bounded by Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya towns; Kayung and Delang dialects: area bounded by Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja towns. 520,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 300 Tapitn, 100,000 Banana’, 100,000 Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamayo, Bumayoh Dialects: Arut (Sukarame), Banana’, Belantikan (Sungkup), Delang, Kayung (Kayong), Lamandau (Landau Kantu), Melahui, Mentebah-Suruk, Pangin, Payak, Riam (Nibung Terjung), Sekakai, Semitau, Serawai, Silat, Suhaid, Sukamara (Kerta Mulya), Tamuan, Tapitn, Tebidah, Tomun, Undau. Listed dialects form a chain and may constitute 3 or more languages. Related to Keninjal [knl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Comments: Serawai dialect different from the Serawai dialect of Central Malay [pse] in Sumatra. The term Malayic Dayak is misleading (would better be termed Dayak Malayic (Collins 2003) and not linguistically based. However, it is not yet clear what linguistic label(s) should replace it.

More Information

Malimpung
[mli] South Sulawesi Province, Pinrang regency, Patampanua subdistrict, Malimpung, Sulili (part), and Urung villages. Northward bend of Sadang river, northwest of Maiwa town. 5,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm], 70% with Enrekang [ptt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Comments: They view themselves as distinct from Bugis [bug] and Enrekang [ptt]. Muslim.

More Information

Mamasa
[mqj] West Sulawesi Province, Mamasa regency, along Mamasa river. 100,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mamasa Toraja Dialects: Central Mamasa, Northern Mamasa, Pattae’ (Binuang, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi, Patta’ Binuang, Southern Mamasa, Tae’). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Comments: Christian, Muslim (Pattae’).

More Information

Mamboru
[mvd] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Northwest Sumba island, coastal area, Memboro town. 10,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Memboro Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba

More Information

Mamuju
[mqx] West Sulawesi Province, Mamuju regency, Mamuju, Kalukku, and Budong-Budong subdistricts on Makassar strait coast. 60,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 in Mamuju dialect. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mamoedjoe, Mamoedjoesch, Mamudju, Udai Dialects: Mamuju, Padang, Sinyonyoi, Sumare-Rangas. Mamuju dialect is prestigious. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mamuju Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Mandar
[mdr] West Sulawesi Province, Majene, Polewali Mandar, and Mamuju regencies. Main area near Cape Mandar and Majene city; 3 coastal enclaves north of Majene city; northernmost point of province, coastal area between Parangkayu and Simajo towns. Also, south Sulawesi Province, Pangkep regency, Pabbring islands near Makassar city, other areas. 475,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andian, Mandharsche, Manjar Dialects: Balanipa (Napo-Tinambung), Majene, Malunda, Pamboang, Sendana (Cenrana, Tjendana). A complex dialect grouping. May be more dialects than those listed. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Balanipa is prestige dialect. Mandar, Mamuju [mqx], and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mandar Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Mander
[mqr] Papua Province. North coast area; upper Tor river tributary of upper Bu river. 20 (1991 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mandobo Atas
[aax] Papua Province. Area south of Digul river headwaters, between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah towns, extending towards Fly River border, Papua New Guinea. 10,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumut, “Kaeti” (pej.), Kambon, Kwem, Mandobbo, Nub, Wambon Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mandobo Bawah
[bwp] Papua Province, Getentiri, Anggai, Butiptiri, Subur, Aiwat, and Kaisah villages. Area east of Digul river south of Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah towns, to Fly River on Papua New Guinea border. 20,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dumut, “Kaeti” (pej.), Kambon, Mandobbo, Nub Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Manem
[jet] Papua Province, Wembi, Yeti, and Kiba villages. Northeast border area, south of Jayapura. 400 in Indonesia (1978 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Manggarai
[mqy] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Flores island, western third. 900000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Central Manggarai (Ruteng), Eastern Manggarai, West-Central Manggarai, Western Manggarai. Around 43 subdialects. Reportedly similar to Riung [riu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Mangole
[mqc] North Maluku Province. Sula islands; Mangole island, south coast; south to Sulabesi island, south tip. 7,280 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mangoli, Sula Mangoli Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Manikion
[mnx] Papua Province, about 50 villages. Bird’s Head area, east; southeast from the Anggi lakes to Momi town on northwest Cenderawasih bay. 12,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mantion, Sogh, Sougb Dialects: 4 dialects. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Mantion Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Manipa
[mqp] Maluku Province, 4 villages. Manipa island, west of Seram island. 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Collins 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Soow Huhelia Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Luhu [lcq], 60%–62% with Hitu [htu], 60%–61% with Tulehu [tlu] and Asilulu [asl], 58%–61% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 55%–60% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 56% with Boano [bzn] and Kaibobo [kzb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Manombai
[woo] Southeast Maluku, Aru islands, Manombai strait (Sungai) area as far as Wakua, west coast of Wokam island, from Wokam village south, 21 villages; Kobror island, Benjina; west end of Barakai strait, Maikor island, Gardakau; east coast of Wokam island, Kobamar village. May no longer be spoken on Wamar island. 9,110 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manobai, Wamar, Wokam Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Lorang [lrn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Manusela
[wha] Maluku Province, 30 villages. Seram island, north, Mansuela mountain area; south, area along Teluti bay. 7,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wahai, Wahinama Dialects: Hatuolu, Kanikeh, Maneo, South Manusela. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between the Kanikeh dialect and other varieties, 67%–75% with Hatuolo, 64%–86% with Maneo, 66%–86% with Maneoratu, 67%–80% with South Manusela; 64%–72% with Huaulu [hud], 42%–61% with Liana Seti [ste], 45% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

More Information

Mapia
[mpy] Papua Province. Mapia islands, about 290 km north of Manokwari town. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: The ethnic group emigrated to Micronesia and probably now speak either Palauan [pau], Sonsorol [sov], or Tobian [tox]. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mapian Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic

More Information

Marau
[mvr] Papua Province, 5 villages. South coast, eastern Serui island fronting Cenderawasih bay. 1,700 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Warabori (Natabui, Warembori). Probably the same language as Munggui [mth] (96% lexically similar). Lexical similarity: 82% or more with Pom [pmo], Munggui [mth], Papuma [ppm], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian.

More Information

Marind
[mrz] Papua Province, Merauke regency. South coast area; north and west of Merauke city. Also enclave at southernmost extreme of province. 7,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gawir, Holifoersch, Southeast Marind, Tugeri Dialects: Gawir, Halifoersch, Southeast Marind, Tugeri. Significant differences between inland and coastal dialects, but speakers report intelligibility. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Marind, Bian
[bpv] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Muting subdistrict, Sanayu village. Upper Bian river area. 2,900 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bian, Boven-Mbian, Northwest Marind Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Marind [mrz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mariri
[mqi] Southeast Maluku Province,1 village. Aru island group; Mariri island, east of Kobroor island. 280 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mairiri Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Masela, Central
[mxz] Maluku Province, 3 villages. Marsela island southwest of Babar island, Marsela town area. 510 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Central Marsela, Marsela-South Babar Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Masela, East
[vme] Maluku Province south, 3 villages. Marsela island southwest of Babar island, east central area across island. 520 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: East Marsela Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Masela, West
[mss] Maluku Province south, 5 villages. Marsela island southwest of Babar island, western tip. 850 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Marsela Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Masimasi
[ism] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, island off north coast east of Tor river mouth. 10 (2005 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Masiwang
[bnf] Maluku Province, Bula district. Seram island; area along northeast coast, up from Waru bay. 1,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bonfia Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobot [bty], 43% with Salas [sgu], 39% with Sepa [spb] and Teluti [tlt], 36% with Liana Seti [ste] and Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Masiwang

More Information

Massep
[mvs] Papua Province, north coast east of Mamberamo river mouth and west of Sarmi, near Apauwer river. 25 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 85. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Masep, Potafa, Wotaf Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Matbat
[xmt] West Papua Province. Raja Ampat archipelago; Misool and Segaf islands. 1,250 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Me Dialects: Magey, Tomolol. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mawes
[mgk] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Mawes Wres, Mawes Dai, and Mawes Mukti villages. Northeast coastal area, southeast of Sarmi town; west bank of Buri river inland. 850 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Mawes Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ma’ya
[slz] West Papua Province. Raja Ampat islands; central Waigeo, Salawati islands. 4,000 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sailolof, Salawati, Samate Dialects: Banlol, Batanta Island, Ma’ya. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mekwei
[msf] Papua Province, Maribu, Waibrong, Kendate, and Sabron Dosay villages. Area west of Lake Sentani. 1,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Demenggong-Waibron-Bano, Menggei, Menggwei, Moi, Mooi, Munggai, Mungge, Munkei, Waipu Dialects: Moi. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran Comments: Different from Moi (Mosana) [mxn]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mentawai
[mwv] West Sumatra Province. Mentawai islands, across from Padang city. 58,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mentawei, Mentawi Dialects: North Siberut, Pagai, Sakalagan, Saumanganja, Silabu, Simalegi, Sipura, South Siberut, Taikaku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Meoswar
[mvx] West Papua Province. Meoswar island, west Cenderawasih bay. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: War Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mer
[mnu] West Papua Province. Central Bird’s Head area; headwaters of Wosimi and Uremo rivers. 85 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Miere, Muri Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mairasi [zrs]. Classification: Mairasi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Meyah
[mej] West Papua Province. Eastern Bird’s Head; northeast coast, west of Manokwari town. 14,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arfak, Mansibaber, Meah, Meax, Mejach, Mejah, Meyach Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Manikion [mnx]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Minangkabau
[min] Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; west central Sumatra Province, Padang area. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra; South Sumatra, west coast Mukomuko area. 5,530,000 (2007). 500,000 in Jakarta. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Minang, Padang Dialects: Agam, Aneuk Jamee (Jamee), Batu Sangkar-Pariangan, Kerinci-Minangkabau, Orang Mamak, Pajokumbuh, Pancuang Soal (Muko-Muko), Penghulu, Si Junjung, Singkarak, Tanah, Ulu. Not intelligible with Indonesian [ind]. Pekal [pel] may be intelligible with Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

More Information

Mlap
[kja] Papua Province. Northwest coast, west of Lake Sentani. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kuangsu-Bonggrang, Kwangsu-Bonggrang, Kwansu, Kwansu-Bonggrang, Malf Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran Comments: Much intermarriage with Kemtuik [kmt] speakers. Kwansu is an obsolete village name. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mo
[wkd] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict. Coastal area of Wakde island, off the north coast, just east of Tor river. 550 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wakde Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Modang
[mxd] East Kalimantan Province. 5 enclaves, upper reaches of the Mahakam, Segah, Kelinjau, and Belayan rivers. 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Benehes, Kelingan (Long Wai, Long We), Liah Bing, Long Bento’, Long Glat, Nahes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang

More Information

Modole
[mqo] North Maluku Province. Interior north Halmahera island, Kao river headwaters. 2,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Madole Dialects: North Modole, South Modole. Minimal differences between north and south Modole. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Some intermarriage with the Tabaru [tby]. Christian.

More Information

Moi
[mxn] West Papua Province, 9 villages. West Bird’s Head area; eastern Salawati island around to Sorong city east and southeast. 4,600 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mekwei, Mooi, Mosana, Waipu Dialects: Mosemah. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head Comments: Different from Mekwei [msf] (Moi) dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Moksela
[vms] Central Maluku Province, possibly east Buru island, near Kayeli. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1974. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maksela, Opselan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru

More Information

Molof
[msl] Papua Province, 9 villages. Around 100 km south of Jayapura city, west of Senggi town. 230 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Poule Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Stronger use in Molof than in Waley. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Moma
[myl] Central Sulawesi Province, Kulawi subdistrict. Primarily Kulawi and Toro town areas. 5,500 (Barr, Barr, and Salombe 1979). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kulawi Dialects: None known. Reportedly historically a variety of Kaili [lew], but strong lexical influences from Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Christian.

More Information

Mombum
[mso] Papua Province. Island next to southeast coast of Kolopom island; west of Marauke city across Arafura Sea. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kemelom, Kemelomsch, Komolom Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Koneraw [kdw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Momina
[mmb] Papua Province, Samboka village. Low hills just south of main ranges; headwaters area of Brazza and Einladen rivers. 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Momuna [mqf]. Classification: Somahai

More Information

Momuna
[mqf] Papua Province, lowlands just south of main ranges, from south of Silimo east to south of Korupun-Sela [kpq] language area. 2,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Somage, Somahai, Sumohai Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Momina [mmb]. Classification: Somahai Comments: They have contact with Dani who are learning Momuna. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mongondow
[mog] North Sulawesi Province. North peninsula, both coasts; north side from Poigar town west to Bijaj river; south side, between Pinolosian town and west of Belang town. 230,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolang-Mogondo, Minahassa, Mongondou Dialects: Dumoga, Lolayan, Passi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Moni
[mnz] Papua Province, central highlands, northeast Lake Paniai area. 20,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djonggunu, Jonggunu, Migani Dialects: Awembak (Awembiak). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mor
[mhz] Papua Province, Mor islands, east Cenderawasih bay near Nabire. 700 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Austronesian Mor Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor Comments: Different from Trans-New Guinea Mor [moq]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mor
[moq] Papua Province, northwest Bomberai peninsula, Bintuni bay coast. 30 (2012 H. Hammarström). 70 semi-speakers (2012 H. Hammarström). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mor2 Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mor Comments: Distinct from Austronesian Mor [mhz]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Moraid
[msg] Papua Province, West Bird’s Head. 1,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mori Atas
[mzq] Central Sulawesi Province, Mori Atas, Lembo, and Petasia subdistricts, 25 villages. Southeast peninsula neck, southeast of Lake Paso; into South Sulawesi Province, Nuha subdistrict. 14,000 (1988 D. Mead). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aikoa, Berg-Tomori, Boven-Mori, Upper Mori, West Mori Dialects: Impo, Molio’a, Molongkuni, Tambee (Ajo, South Mori, Tambee, Zuid-Mori), Ulu Uwoi. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior Comments: Christian.

More Information

Mori Bawah
[xmz] Central Sulawesi Province, Petasia, Lembo, and Bungku Tengah subdistricts, 24 villages. Southeast peninsula neck, Lake Towuti area. Also, South Sulawesi Province. 14,000 (1988 D. Mead). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Beneden-Tomori, East Mori, Lower Mori, Nahina, Oost-Mori, Petasia Dialects: Karunsi’e (Karonsie, Korongsi, Sinongko), Moiki (Tomoiki), Nuha (Soroako), Tinompo (Mokole, Soroako), Tiu (Tioe), Watu (Towatoe). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Moronene
[mqn] Southeast Sulawesi Province, Bombana regency. Southeast mainland, Rumbia mountains area. Kabaena island, Tokotu’a village; on the mainland portion opposite Kabaena; Wita Ea village. Wita Ea dialect: Rumbia, Poleang, and Poleang Timur subdistricts. Also Kolaka regency, Watubangga subdistrict. 37,000 (2000 D. Andersen), increasing. Wita Ea 23,000, Tokotu’a 14,000. Includes about 3,500 living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. 1,850 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Maronene Dialects: Tokotu’a (Kabaena), Wita Ea (Poleang, Rumbia). Lexical similarity: Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu’a dialect; 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow], 66% with Kulisusu [vkl], 65% with Taloki [tlk], Koroni [xkq], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 64% with Bungku [bkz], and 57% with Tolaki [lbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, Southwest Comments: Formerly a kingdom. Muslim.

More Information

Morop
[iwo] Papua Province, Iwur river valley border area, Ok Iwur, east to Ok Denom. Dintere dialect: 22 villages; Dinmane dialect: Dewok; Upper Dintere dialect: Aurarin hamlet. 6,900 (2011 J. Elliot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iwoer, Iwur Dialects: Dinmane, Dintere, Nemah/Nehayah, Upper Dintere. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland Comments: Ethnonym: Morop. Dintere most widespread dialect. The previous language name ‘Iwur’ came from a single village within the Morop group. Relationship between Nemah and Dintere is unclear, and may constitute more than one language. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Morori
[mok] Papua Province, south coast border area 20 km east of Merauke, east of Marind, west of Kanum. 50 (1998 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marori, Moaraeri, Moraori, Morari Dialects: Menge dialect remembered as the language of ceremony, though the last Menge speaker died in 1997. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Moraori Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Moskona
[mtj] Papua Province, southeast Bird’s Head, south of Meyah, west of Manikion. 8,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meninggo, Meningo, Meyah, Sabena Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Meyah [mej]. Also related to Manikion [mnx]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mpur
[akc] Papua Province, north coast of Bird’s Head, west of Manokwari, and Kebar valley. 7,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amberbaken, Dekwambre, Ekware, Kebar Dialects: Ajiw, Sirir. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mualang
[mtd] West Kalimantan Province, Belitang Hilir, Belitang, and Belitang Hulu Sekadau subdistricts. Area along Ayak and Belitang rivers, about 320 km upstream from Pontianak. 40,000 (Tjia 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Mualang Ili’, Mualang Ulu. Reportedly similar to Iban [iba]; however only one-way intelligibility from Mualang to Iban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Muna
[mnb] Southwest South Sulawesi Province, Muna island; northwest coast, Buton island. Also, central Maluku Province, Ambon city. 300,000 (2007 R. Van den Berg). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wuna Dialects: Burukene, Gu, Kadatua, Kapontori, Katobengke, Lakudo, Laompo, Mawasangka, Siompu, Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Tiworo (Eastern Muna). Subvarieties of standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gulamas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, and Burukene. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp], 62% with Cia-Cia [cia], 52% with Wolio [wlo], 50% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq], 45% with Kamaru [kgx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Munggui
[mth] Papua Province, north coast of Serui island, 1 village. 800 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Natabui Dialects: None known. Probably the same language as Marau [mvr], reportedly 96% lexically similar (Price and Donohue 2009). Lexical similarity: 82% with Papuma [ppm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Murkim
[rmh] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Batom subdistrict, southeast of Yetfa [yet] language area, Mot and Milki villages. 290 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic relationship to Lepki [lpe]. Classification: Unclassified

More Information

Musi
[mui] South Sumatra Province, Musi river upstream to Bukit Barisan mountains, downstream to eastern coastal swamplands. 3,105,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Much of the population from other language groups in South Sumatra Province learn enough Urban Palembang dialect to use it as a trade language. Alternate Names: Palembang, Palembangnese, Sekayu Dialects: Belide, Burai, Coastal Malay, Kelingi, Lematang Ilir, Meranjat, Musi Sekayu, Palembang Lama, Pegagan, Penesak, Penukal, Rawas. A mutually-intelligible dialect chain stretching along the Musi River with 2 subgroups: Musi and Palembang. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Muyu, North
[kti] Papua Province, south coast border area, north of South Muyu [kts] and east of Wambon [wms] language areas. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataut, Kati-Ninanti, Niinati, Ninatie, North Kati, North Moejoe, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom Dialects: Kanggewot, Toemoetoe (Are). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland

More Information

Muyu, South
[kts] Papua Province, south coast, just north of Fly river border with Papua New Guinea. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Digoel, Digul, Kati Metomka, Metomka, Moejoe, Ok Bari, South Kati, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom Dialects: Metomka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland

More Information

Nafri
[nxx] Papua Province, Jayapura area, southeast end of Yotafa bay, Nafri village. 1,630 (1975 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nage
[nxe] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Flores island, Ebu Lobo volcano north, west slopes. Northeast of Ngad’a [nxg] language area. 50,000 (Forth 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nagé, Nage-Keo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Naka’ela
[nae] Central Maluku Province, northwest Seram, Kairatu village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai Comments: Formerly lived in mountains then moved down to Kairatu.

More Information

Nakai
[nkj] Papua Province, east of upper Digul river, Awimbom village in the center of 5 other villages extending toward Ok Sibil northeast, and southwest toward Iwur [iwo]. 700 (1999 M. Donohue). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Na’ai, Nagai, Na’i Dialects: They report Indonesian [ind] and Papuan Malay [pmy] difficult to understand. Probably 3 dialects, two of these may constitute a separate language called Nagi. Not the same as Larantuka Malay [lrt] (Nagi) in Nusa Tenggara. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Nalca
[nlc] Papua Province, northeast of Korupun [kpq] language area and southeast of Nipsan [nps] language area, north slopes, east highlands area. 16,000 (2013 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hmanggona, Hmonono, Kimjal, Kimyal, Naltje, Naltya Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Kosarek Yale [kkl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern Comments: Distinct from Korupun (Kimyal) dialect of Korupun-Sela [kpq]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Namla
[naa] Papua Province, Senggi subdistrict, Keerom regency, Namla village. 30 (2005 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic relationship to Tofanma [tlg]. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Christian.

More Information

Napu
[npy] Central Sulawesi Province, Lore Utara subdistrict, 10 villages. Napu valley. 6,100 (2000 R. Hanna), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pekurehua Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Behoa [bep]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Narau
[nxu] Papua Province, Jayapura area, Kecamatan Kaureh. Status: Unattested. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper Comments: 2006 survey data indicates language may not exist and could possibly be merged with Kosare [kiq]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nasal
[nsy] Sumatra, Bengkulu Province, Kaur regency, Tanjung Betuah, Gedung Menung, and Tanjung Baru villages. Nasal river area. 3,000 (2008 K. Anderbeck). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to surrounding languages, but heavy loans from Lampung [ljp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Nasal Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Ndom
[nqm] Papua Province, Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) island. 1,200 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kimaghima [kig] and Riantana [ran]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nduga
[ndx] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Tiom, central highlands, south of high ranges, south of Western Dani, north of Asmat. Scattered. 10,000 (1985 M. Owen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dauwa, Dawa, Ndauwa, Ndugwa, Pesecham, Pesechem, Pesegem Dialects: Hitadipa Nduga, Sinak Nduga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nedebang
[nec] East Nusa Tenggara Province. North central Pantar island, south, southwest of Kabir town. 1500 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balungada, Klamu, Nédebang Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar

More Information

Ngad’a
[nxg] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South central Flores island, between Manggarai [mqy], Ende [end], and Li’o [ljl] language areas. 60,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Badjava, Bajava, Bajawa, Nad’a, Ngada, Nga’da, Ngadha, Rokka Dialects: Bajawa, Central Ngada, South Ngada. Dialect diversity. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ngad’a, Eastern
[nea] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South central Flores, Kabupaten Ngada and Kecamatan Golewa between Ngad’a [nxg] and Nage [nxe] language areas, Sara Sedu, Taka Tunga, and Sanga Deto administrative villages; Desa Rowa, Kecamatan Boawae. 5,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southeast Ngada Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ngaju
[nij] Central Kalimantan Province. Upper reaches or headwaters of Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, and Mentaya rivers. 890,000 (2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Widely used as LWC for trade in much of Kalimantan, from Barito to Sampit rivers. Used in many domains (church, school, village-level government, market, etc.). Alternate Names: Biadju, Dayak Ngaju, Ngadju, Ngaja, Ngaju Dayak, Southwest Barito Dialects: Ba’amang (Bara-Bare, Sampit), Kahayan, Kahayan Kapuas, Katingan Ngaju, Katingan Ngawa, Mantangai (Oloh Mangtangai), Pulopetak. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bakumpai [bkr], 62% with Kohin [kkx], 50% with Ot Danum [otd], 35% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South

More Information

Ngalum
[szb] Papua Province, northeast of Nakai [nkj] language area, Ok Sibil, Ok Tsop, and perhaps Ok Bon valleys, main range border area north of Muyu [kts] (Yongkom) and Morop [iwo] language areas. 10,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sibil Dialects: Apmisibil, Ngalum, Sibil. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nggem
[nbq] Papua Province, north of Wamena, middle Hablifoeri river. 4,400 (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Yali [yac] (Pass Valley), 62% with Walak [wlw], and 50% with Western Dani [dnw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nias
[nia] North Sumatra Province. Nias, Batu islands off west coast. Northwest dialect: Alasa area, west in Sirombu and Mandrehe areas; Central dialect: Gomo area, south in Teluk Dalam and Batu islands. 770,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batu, Nias Selatan Dialects: Central Nias, North Nias (Gunung Sitoli), Northwest Nias, South Nias, West Nias. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias Comments: North dialect (particularly Gunung Sitoli) has high prestige and is a lingua franca in Nias. The South dialect (particularly Teluk Dalam variety) has lower prestige, especially in northern Nias, and is considered by many Nias speakers from other areas as unrefined. Christian.

More Information

Nila
[nil] Central Maluku Province, south central Seram island transmigration area. 6 villages. (Originally Nila island in south central Maluku). No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Serua [srw]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua

More Information

Nimboran
[nir] North Papua Province, due west of Lake Sentani. About 26 villages. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nambrong Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran

More Information

Ninggerum
[nxr] Papua Province, border area. 1,000 in Indonesia. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Muyu, Ninggeroem, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Orgwo Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland Comments: 2002–2003 survey data indicates probably all live in Papua New Guinea, but have land on the Indonesia side where they temporarily migrate to gather food. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nipsan
[nps] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, just west of Hmanggona. 2,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Jale, Yale-Nipsan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kosarek Yale [kkl], 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern Comments: Distinct from Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Angguruk [yli], and Yali of Pass Valley [yac]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nisa
[njs] Papua Province, east side of Geelvink bay inland, Danau Nisa area. 500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonefa, Kerema Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nuaulu, North
[nni] Maluku Province, 2 villages. Seram island, central north coast, inland from west shore, Saleman bay. 500 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with South Nuaulu [nxl], 64% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu Comments: Distinct from Huaulu [hud].

More Information

Nuaulu, South
[nxl] Maluku Province, Amahai district, 6 villages. Seram island, upland from south coast. 1,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with North Nuaulu [nni]; 50% with South Wemale [weo], Hulung [huk], and Naka’ela [nae]; 48% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu Comments: Different from Huaulu [hud]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Nusa Laut
[nul] Central Maluku Province, Lease islands, Nusa Laut island, Titawai village. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,230 (1989 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nusalaut Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Saparua [spr], 65% with Amahai [amq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi Comments: Christian.

More Information

Obokuitai
[afz] Papua Province, Lakes plain just north of mid-Rouffaer river, Obogwi village. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aliki, Ati, Obogwitai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Eritai [ert], 69% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: ’Ati’, language.

More Information

Oirata
[oia] Southwestern Maluku Province, southeast Kisar island, east and west Oirata. 2 villages; Ambon city. 1,220 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maaro Dialects: None known. Not related to other languages on Oirata or to central Maluku languages. Not closely related to languages in East Timor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Okolod
[kqv] East Kalimantan Province. Along Sabah border, northwestern corner of province; east of Lumbis town, north of Lundayeh town. 3,390 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 4,970. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod variety in Sabah, 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv], 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Onin
[oni] Papua Province, north and northwest Bomberai peninsula. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Onim, Sepa Dialects: Nikuda, Ogar, Patipi, Sepa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Onin Based Pidgin
[onx] Papua Province, Onin peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Onin based

More Information

Ormu
[orz] Papua Province, north coast area just west of Jayapura, north of Cyclops mountains, Ormu Besar and Ormu Kecil villages. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Orya
[ury] Papua Province, Unurum-Guay, Bonggo, and Lereh subdistricts, Taja, Witi, and Wamho (formerly of Orya) villages. 1,600 (1985 P. Fields). 900 in Unurum-Guay, 100 in Bonggo subdistrict, 600 in Lereh subdistrict. 0 monolinguals. L2 users: Some store owners and police have learned Orya. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oria, Uria, Warpok, Warpu Dialects: Barat (West Orya), Timur (East Orya), Yapsi-Taja. Slight dialect differences. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Orya Comments: Uria is a misspelling used earlier. Glossonym: Warpok by the Nimboran. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Osing
[osi] East Java Province, Banyuwangi regency area, east coast Java island, west side, Bali strait. 300,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banyuwangi Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Ot Danum
[otd] Central Kalimantan Province, 7 villages. Remote area, upper reaches of south Kapuas river, large area south of Schwaner range. West Kalimantan Province. 78,800 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dohoi, Malahoi, Uud Danum, Uut Danum Dialects: Dohoi, Kadorih, Kuhin, Ot Balawan, Ot Banu’u, Ot Murung 1 (Murung 1, Punan Ratah), Ot Olang, Ot Tuhup, Sarawai (Melawi), Sebaung, Ulu Ai’ (Da’an). Lexical similarity: 70% with Siang [sya], 65% with Kohin [kkx], 60% with Katingan dialect of Ngaju [nij], 50% with Ngaju (main dialect) [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North Comments: Dohoi and Murung 1 dialects may be separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Padoe
[pdo] South Sulawesi Province, east Luwu Utara regency, Nuha, Malili, and Mangkutana subdistricts, 9 villages. Inland betwen Lake Mantana and Usu arm of north Bone bay. Central Sulawesi Province, Morowali regency, Mori Atas and Pamona Utara subdistricts, 4 villages. 5,000 (1991 P. Vuorinen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alalao, Pado-e, Padoé, South Mori Dialects: Central Padoe, Western Padoe. 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Pagu
[pgu] North Maluku Province. Interior northern Halmahera south of Modole [mqo] language area, to mouth of Kao river. 3,310 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Pago, Pagoe Dialects: Isam, Pagu, Toliwiku (Toliliko). Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Paku
[pku] Central Kalimantan Province, East Barito regency. South of Ampah town. 3,500 (2003), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bakau Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South

More Information

Palu’e
[ple] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Palu’e island, north of central Flores island. North coast, Flores mainland, northwest of Maumere, Nangahure village. 10,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lu’a, Palue, Paluqe Dialects: None known. Possible grouping with Ende [end] and Li’o [ljl] languages; marginal intelligibility of Li’o. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Palumata
[pmc] Central Maluku, northwest Buru island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balamata, Palamata Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru

More Information

Pamona
[pmf] Central and South Sulawesi provinces, total 193 villages. Central Sulawesi Province, Poso regency, Poso Kota, Poso Pesisir, Parigi, Lage, Pamona Utara, Pamona Selatan, Tojo, Ulubongko, Ampana Kota, Ampanatete, Una-Una, Mori Atas, Petasia, Bungku Utara, and Bungku Tengah subdistricts; South Sulawesi Province, Luwu Utara district, Mangkutana, north Wotu, and Bone-Bone subdistricts. 137,000 (Lauder et al. 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baree, Bare’e, Poso Dialects: Laiwonu (Iba), Pamona, Rapangkaka (Aria), Taa (Topotaa, Wana), Tobau (Bare’e, Tobalo, Tobao), Tokondindi, Tomoni, Topada. Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)–90% among dialects, except for Tombelala [ttp], which has 66%–76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects, and is considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona Comments: Pamona speakers in Bungku Utara recognize 5 ethnic groups with minor dialect differences: Pusangke, Kajumorangka, Tokasiala, Burangas, and Topotaa. The first 4 are interior mountain dwellers; the Topotaa are coastal. Bungku Tengah recognize 5 varieties: Topotaa (same as Taa), Tobau, Tokondindi, and Topada. Christian.

More Information

Panasuan
[psn] West Sulawesi Province, Mamuju regency, Kalumpang and Seko subdistricts. 2 villages. 800 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: To Pamosean, To Panasean Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko], 63% with Seko Padang [skx], 72% with Tangkou [tkx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan Comments: Christian.

More Information

Pancana
[pnp] South Sulawesi Province, central Buton island. 6,000 (2005 D. Andersen). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pantjana Dialects: Kalende (Lawele), Kapontori (Akido), Labuandiri. Dialect names are also place names. May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Muna [mnb], 57% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Pannei
[pnc] West Sulawesi Province, Polewali Mandar regency, Wonomulyo subdistrict. 9,000 (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tapango Dialects: Bulo, Tapango. Lexical similarity: 87%–93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties, 75%–80% with dialects of Ulumanda’ [ulm], Bambam [ptu], and Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Pantar, Western
[lev] Nusa Tenggara Province, west Pantar island. 10,000. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamma, Lamma’, Lemma, Mauta, Pantar Barat Dialects: Lamma’, Mauta, Tubbe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar

More Information

Papasena
[pas] Papua Province, Lakes plain area, lower Idenburg river just east of Rouffaer river juncture. 400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 23% with Sikaritai [tty]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Papuma
[ppm] Papua Province, Serui island south coast, Papuma village. 600 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Munggui [mth], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Patani
[ptn] North Maluku Province, 9 villages. Halmahera island, narrow tip, southeast peninsula, west along the coast. 10,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Comments: Schools. Muslim.

More Information

Paulohi
[plh] Central Maluku Province, west Seram, south central Seram island, Elpaputih bay west shore. 2 villages, Kecamatan Amahai. 50 (1982). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Solehua Comments: Experienced a severe earthquake and tidal wave in 2009.

More Information

Pekal
[pel] South Sumatra and Bengkulu provinces. West coast, near northern provincial border; northeast of Ipuh town to Tembesi river, to near Argamakmur town south. 30,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Minangkabau [min] with Rejang influences [rej]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: See themselves as Malay culturally and linguistically, not Minangkabau [min], though Pekal has Minangkabau influences. Neither Minangkabau nor Malay readily understand Pekal, due to lexical and phonological distinctiveness. Muslim.

More Information

Pendau
[ums] Central Sulawesi Province, centered in Balaesang district, Walandano, Sibayu, and other villages. Scattered settlements as far north as Dampal Utara district. 4,500 (Quick 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ndaoe, Ndau, “Umalasa” (pej.) Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Comments: “Umalasa” is a Bugis [bug] exonym meaning ‘the sick ones’ with negative connotations. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Perai
[wet] Southwestern Maluku Province, Wetar island northeast coast, north of Timor, Uhak and Moning villages. 280 (Hinton 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutunohan Dialects: Moning, Uhak. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Aputai [apx], 76% with Tugun [tzn], 67% with Ili’uun [ilu], 51% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Comments: Intermarry with the Kisar [kje]. Christian.

More Information

Petjo
[pey] Java, Jakarta Special Capital Region. Urban area. There are some L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Peco’, Pecok, Petjoh Dialects: None known. Influences from Dutch [nld], Javanese [jav], and Betawi [bew]. Classification: Creole, Dutch based Comments: Predominantly Malay and Dutch [nld] vocabulary, with Malay and Sundanese elements.

More Information

Pom
[pmo] Papua Province, Miosnum island, west Serui island, Pom, Serewen, and Mias Endi villages. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jobi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ponosakan
[pns] North Sulawesi Province. North peninsula, south coast, Belang town area. 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ponasakan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Lolak [llq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Punan Aput
[pud] East Kalimantan Province. South of Kayan river, northwest of Mount Menyapa. 370 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aput Dialects: None known. Allegedly unintelligible of other Penan languages (Soriente 2003). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’

More Information

Punan Merah
[puf] East Kalimantan Province. Mahakam river, east of Ujohhilang town. 140 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Comments: Distinct from Punan Merap [puc].

More Information

Punan Merap
[puc] East Kalimantan Province. Upper Malinau river, east of Longkemuat town. 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Comments: Distinct from Punan Merah [puf].

More Information

Punan Tubu
[puj] East Kalimantan Province. Malinau, Mentarang, and Sembakung river areas. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Punan Tubu Comments: Not a Kenyah language (2003 A. Soriente). Penan is generic, nonagricultural peoples (Blust 1974). There are no Penan languages as a distinguishable subgroup.

More Information

Puragi
[pru] Papua Province, southwest Bird’s Head along Maccluer Gulf, inland Matamani river area. 700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mogao Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Putoh
[put] East Kalimantan Province. Area on both sides of Mentarang river; Longberang, Mensalong, and Bangalan town areas. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Putuk Dialects: Abai, Pa Kembaloh. May be the same as Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

More Information

Rahambuu
[raz] Southeast Sulawesi Province, North Kolaka Regency, Pakue subdistrict. West coast, upper Bone bay, north of Kodeoha [vko] language area to Central Sulawesi Province border. Some in Central Sulawesi Province. 5,000 (Mead 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lellewao, Lellewau, Noihe, Wiaoe, Wiau Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha [vko], 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Rajong
[rjg] East Nusa Tenggara Province. 2 enclaves on Central Flores island. Area near Mount Watuweri; also, south of northern Kepo’ [kuk] language area. 6,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Razong Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Rampi
[lje] South Sulawesi Province, Luwu Utara regency, Rampi district, 6 isolated mountain villages; also scattered in Sabbang, Limbong, Wotu, and Mangkutana districts. Also, Central Sulawesi Province. 10,000 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ha’uwa, Leboni, Rampi-Leboni Dialects: Rampi (Lambu), Rato. Leboni is prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Rasawa
[rac] Papua Province, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, south coast. 2 villages. 200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ratahan
[rth] North Sulawesi Province. Northeast section of peninsula, southwest of Lake Tondano to northeast coast. 500 (Himmelmann and Wolff 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bentenan, Pasan, Toratan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Rejang
[rej] Sumatra, north Bengkulu Province. Southwest highlands; areas near Arga Makmur, Muara Aman, Curup, and Kapahiang towns; South Sumatra Province, Musi Rawas Ulu. 350,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djang, Redjang Dialects: Kepahiang (Kebanagung), Lebong, Musi (Curup), Pasisir, Rawas. Lebong recognized as central dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Rejang Comments: 85% live in remote rural areas. Different from Rejang-Baram group of languages on Borneo. Musi and Rawas dialects (named after rivers they are on) not to be confused with Malay varieties of the same name. Muslim.

More Information

Rembong
[reb] East Nusa Tenggara Province. North central Flores island, between eastern Manggarai [mqy] and Riung [riu] language areas. 5,000 (2010 C. Grimes). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Namu, Rembong, Wangka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Reta
[ret] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South Pura island; south Ternate island. 800 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Retta Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of languages on north Pura. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar

More Information

Riantana
[ran] Papua Province, Frederik Hendrik island. 1,100 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimaam Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ribun
[rir] West Kalimantan Province, Kapuas Hulu regency, Tayan Hulu subdistrict. Landak river area west of Kembayan town. 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bekidoh, Ribun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern

More Information

Rikou
[rgu] East Nusa Tenggara Province. East Rote island, Rikou, Landu, and Oe Pao domains. 12,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Rote, Ringgou, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese Dialects: Landu, Oe Pao (Oepao), Rikou. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: ‘Ringgou’ is the pronunciation in some other Rote languages. Ethnic autonym: Rikou. Christian.

More Information

Riung
[riu] East Nusa Tenggara Province, North central Flores island, Kabupaten Ngada, Kecamatan Riung. 14,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Far Eastern Manggarai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Manggarai [mqy], but marginal intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Roma
[rmm] Southwestern Maluku Province, Jerusu village. Roma island east of Wetar island. 1,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romang Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma Comments: Christian.

More Information

Rongga
[ror] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South central Flores island, between Manggarai [mqy] and Ngad’a [nxg], and south of Wae Rana [wrx] language areas. 4,000 (2005 W. Arka). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Roon
[rnn] Papua Province, Roon island west of Cenderawasih bay, north of Wandamen peninsula. 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ron Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sa’ban
[snv] East Kalimantan Province, Nunukan regency. East of Sarawak border, south of Benuang town. 850 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Merau Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

More Information

Sahu
[saj] North Maluku Province. North Halmahera island, southwestern coast, Jailolo town area. 7,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). 3,500 in Tala’i, 4,000 in Pa’disua. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sahu’u, Sau, Sa’u Dialects: Pa’disua (Palisua), Tala’i. Reportedly similar to Waioli [wli] and Gamkonora [gak]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Sajau Basap
[sjb] East Kalimantan Province, Berau, and Bulungan regencies. Northeast of Muaramalinau town. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sajau, Sujau Dialects: Punan Basap, Punan Batu 2, Punan Sajau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau

More Information

Salas
[sgu] Central Maluku Province, Seram island, Gunung village. 50 (1989 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lenkaitahe, Liambata, Salas Gunung Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–58% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Benggoi [bgy], 35%–46% with Manusela [wha]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Comments: Christian.

More Information

Saleman
[sau] Maluku Province, Saleman, Pasanea, Sawai, Besi, and Wahai villages. North central Seram island, Saleman bay. 4,800 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hatue, Sawai, Seleman, Wahai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni], 48% with South Nuaulu [nxl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Saluan
[loe] East Central Sulawesi Province, Batui, Batui, Kintom, Luwuk, East Luwuk, Boalemo, Pagimana, Bunta, and Nuhon subdistricts, 136 villages. 76,000 (1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Loinang, Loindang, Madi, Mondono Dialects: Kintom-Pagimana-Boalemo, Loinang (Baloa’, Kohumama’, Lingketeng), Luwuk. Lexical similarity: 74% with Batui [zbt], 53% with Bobongko [bgb], 62% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Balantak [blz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic Comments: Users prefer Saluan over Loinang. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Samarokena
[tmj] Papua Province, north coast inland just east of Apauwar river, west of Sarmi, Karfasia, Samarkena, Maseb, and Tamaya villages. 400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karfasia, Samarkena, Tamaja, Tamaya Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sanggau
[scg] West Kalimantan Province, Sanggau regency. Kapuas river, both sides, west, south of Sanggau town. 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dosan, Mayau, Sanggau. Very heterogenous dialects, probably more than 1 language in this group. Not all Sanggau isolects mutually intelligible. Koman and Semerawai could be in this group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak

More Information

Sangir
[sxn] North Sulawesi Province. Northwest of east end of peninsula, Great Sangir island. 200,000 in Indonesia (Maryott 1993), increasing. 50,000 Siau, 10,000 Tagulandang. Population total all countries: 255,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sangi, Sangih, Sangihé, Sangirese Dialects: Manganitu (Tamako), Siau (Sjauw), Tabukang (Tabukan), Tagulandang (Tahulandang), Taruna (Tahuna). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Saparua
[spr] Maluku Province, Kulur, Iha, Siri-Sori, Iha, Kulur, Latu, Hualoy, Tomalehu, and Kairatu villages. Saparua, nearby Seram islands. 10,200 (1989 SIL). 4,520 in Iha. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Iha-Saparua, Iha-Seram, Kulur, Siri-Sori. Each village has its own dialect. Lexical similarity: 86%–89% among dialects; 82%–84% with Latu [ltu], 69% with Amahai [amq], 67% with Kamarian [kzk], 68%–71% with Haruku [hrk], 65% with Kaibobo [kzb], 62%–66% with Tulehu [tlu], 49% with Luhu [lcq], 54% with Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua Comments: Spoken by hundreds of Latu [ltu] people in Kairatu village. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Saponi
[spi] Papua Province, interior Waropen Bawah subdistrict, Botawa village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi

More Information

Sarudu
[sdu] West Sulawesi Province, north Mamuju regency, south Pasangkayu subdistrict. Enclaves on Makassar strait north coast. 4,000 (Grimes and Grimes 1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doda’ Dialects: Kulu (Lariang), Nunu’. Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk], 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern Comments: Contact with Bugis [bug] and Kaili Ledo [lew] speakers. Muslim.

More Information

Sasak
[sas] West Nusa Tenggara Province, Lombok island. 2,100,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lombok Dialects: Kuto-Kute (North Sasak), Meno-Mene (Central Sasak), Mriak-Mriku (Central South Sasak), Ngeno-Ngene (Central East Sasak, Central West Sasak), Ngeto-Ngete (Northeast Sasak). Complex dialect network. Some varieties have low mutual intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa Comments: Subgroups: Waktu Lima, Waktu Telu. Most Waktu Telu own farms; most Waktu Lima are landless, travel more, and have diverse occupations. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Sauri
[srt] Papua Province, east side of Cenderawasih bay near Waropen [wrp] language area, Sauri-Sirami village, near Sirami river. 100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Barapasi [brp], 60% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Kofei [kpi], 63% with Tefaro [tfo]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sause
[sao] Papua Province, southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, and Puaral villages. 250 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seuce Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Sause Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sawai
[szw] North Maluku Province, Gane Timur and Weda districts,13 villages. Halmahera island, southeast peninsula, Weda bay, both coasts. 12,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Weda, Weda-Sawai, Were Dialects: Faya-Mafa, Kobe, Messa-Dote, Sawai, Weda. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Comments: Different from Saleman [sau]. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Saweru
[swr] Papua Province, Serui Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan subdistrict, central Serui island, an island south of Yapen island near Serui. 300 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sarwar Use Classification: West Papuan, Yapen Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sawi
[saw] Papua Province, Asmat Regency, Pantai Kasuari and Fayit subdistricts, near south coastal lowland, between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit river area, Kamur, Esebor, Wiagas, Minahai, and Comoro villages. 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aejauroh, Sawuy Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Sawi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sawila
[swt] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Southeast Alor island, between Kula [tpg] and Wersing [kvw] language areas. 3,000 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanglapui Dialects: Lalamana, Lona, Salimana, Sawila, Sileba. Marginal intelligibility but reportedly structurally similar to Kula [tpg]; distinct historical ethnic identities. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Tanglapui Comments: Many current village locations are the result of recent migrations from older locations. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Seberuang
[sbx] West Kalimantan Province. Kapuas river area from Nanga Silat town to Selimbau town, on Belimbing, Lebang, Belitang, Seauk, Tempunak, Selimbau, and Silat rivers. 37,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Quite similar to Desa, a dialect of Iban [iba] (2004 M. Connor). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sedoa
[tvw] Central Sulawesi Province, Lore Utara subdistrict, Sedoa village; Poso Pesisir subdistrict, parts of Tambarona and Pinedapa villages. 900 (2009 S. Shore). 900 in Sedoa village; 3,000 ethnic Sedoa also live outside the area, but most do not speak Sedoa. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baria, Tawaelia, Tawailia, Topobaria Dialects: Not a dialect of nearby Napu [npy] or of Kaili languages. Most closely related to Moma [myl] in Palolo Valley. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Christian.

More Information

Segai
[sge] East Kalimantan Province, Berau regency. Kelai river area around Longlaai town. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ga’ay, Segayi Dialects: Kelai, Segah. Called Segayi by the Berau, Ga’ay by the Kenyah and Kayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang

More Information

Seget
[sbg] Papua Province, west Bird’s Head southwest of Sorong, west and southwest of Moi [mxn] language area, Walian, Sailolof, Segum, and Seget villages. 1,200 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Seit-Kaitetu
[hik] Maluku Province, Seit and Kaitetu villages. Ambon island, north coast. 10,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hila-Kaitetu Dialects: Kaitetu, Seit (Seith). Lexical similarity: 85% between Kaitetu and Seit dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–82% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–74% with Tulehu [tlu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Sekak
[lce] Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung Province. 2 coastal enclaves, northeast Bangka island; Lepar, Liat, Mendanau, and others between Bangka and Belitung. Some possible on nearby coast, South Sumatra Province. 420 (2000), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lonchong, Loncong, Lontjong, Orang Laut, Sawang, Seka, Sekah Dialects: Lexically and phonologically distinct from the Belitung dialect of Malay [zlm] and other Sea Tribe varieties. Lexically most similar to Bintan Orang Laut Malay [zlm] dialect. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Ethnic autonym: Orang Sawang, sea people. Southernmost of dozens of Malayic-speaking Orang Laut, sea tribe, groups ranging from the waters of Thailand through the Riau archipelago and Bangka and Belitung. Traditional religion.

More Information

Sekar
[skz] Papua Province, northwest Bomberai peninsula coast and one small island. 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Seka Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: highest with Arguni [agf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Seko Padang
[skx] South Sulawesi Province, North Luwu regency, northeast Limbong subdistrict. Northwestern corner of province. Also, Central Sulawesi Province, Palolo valley. 5,000 (1985 SIL). 2,300 in the Seko area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seko, Wono Dialects: Hono’ (Wono), Lodang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko Comments: Many primary schools. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Seko Tengah
[sko] Northern South Sulawesi Province, west Limbong subdistrict. Area along Betue river. 2,500 (Laskowske and Laskowske 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pewanean, Pewaneang, Pohoneang, Seko Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx], 67% with Panasuan [psn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Selaru
[slu] Southest Maluku Province, at least 6 villages. Tanimbar island group; Selaru island off southwest tip of main island Yamdena; Yamdena island itself; Nuswotar island off Yamdena west coast. Some in Saumlake, Ambon towns. 8,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Salaru Dialects: Kandar. Slight dialect differences. Not closely related to nearby languages. Lexical similarity: 56% with Seluwasan [sws]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Selayar
[sly] South Sulawesi Province. Selayar island. 128,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Salajar, Salayar, Salayer, Saleier, Siladja, Silajara Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Selungai Murut
[slg] East Kalimantan Province, Nunukan regency. East of Lumbis town; upper reaches of Sembakung river. 640 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 1,240. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Murut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

More Information

Seluwasan
[sws] Southeast Maluku Province, Wermatang, Batu Putih, Marantutu, and Makatian villages. Tanimbar island group, Yamdena island, southwest coast. 2,840 (Florey 2005). 740 in Makatian, 2,100 in Seluwasan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Selvasa, Selwasa Dialects: Makatian, Seluwasan. Makatian dialect quite different from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern Comments: Christian (Protestant).

More Information

Semandang
[sdm] West Kalimantan Province, Ketapang regency. Kualan and Semandang river areas. 20,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kualan-Semandang Dialects: Beginci, Bihak, Gerai, Komi, Semandang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sembakung Murut
[sbr] East Kalimantan Province, Nunukan regency. Sembakung river mouth; west of Alang town. 3,180 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

More Information

Semimi
[etz] Papua Province, Bomberai peninsula near Kaniran, south end extending west to Triton bay. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Etna Bay, Muri, Wesrau Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Mairasi [zrs], 63% with Mer [mnu]. Classification: Mairasi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sempan
[xse] Papua Province, middle south coast, between Kokonao and Agats, east of Kamoro [kgq] and west of Asmat language areas. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nararapi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kamoro [kgq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sempan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sentani
[set] Papua Province, Lake Sentani area, about 30 villages. Scattered in Papua and other parts of Indonesia. 30,000 (1996 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buyaka Dialects: Central Sentani, East Sentani, West Sentani. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tabla [tnm]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper Comments: Ethnic autonym: Buyaka. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sepa
[spb] Maluku Province, Sepa village. Seram island, several enclaves along southwest coast between Elapaputih and Teluti bays. 2,600 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tamilouw Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69%–78% with Teluti [tlt], 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East

More Information

Serili
[sve] Southern Maluku Province. Babar island group, Marsela island, northeast tip. 330 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Serua
[srw] Central Maluku Province, south central Seram island, transmigration area. 4 villages. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nila [nil]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua Comments: Government had moved them from Serua Island, south central Maluku, to Seram due to volcanic activity on their island.

More Information

Serui-Laut
[seu] Papua Province, south central Serui island, Nau island south of Serui. 5 villages. 1,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arui Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Ansus [and], 77% with Ambai [amk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian.

More Information

Siang
[sya] Central Kalimantan Province, Murung Raya regency. Northern bend area, Barito river, north along tributary. 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ot Siang Dialects: Murung 2, Siang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North

More Information

Sika
[ski] East Nusa Tenggara Province. East Flores island, between Li’o [ljl] and Lamaholot [slp] language areas. 175,000 (Lewis and Grimes 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krowe, Maumere, Sara Sikka, Sikka, Sikkanese Dialects: Sara Krowe (Central Sikka), Sikka Natar (Kangaé, South Coast Sikka), Tana Ai. Wide linguistic and cultural variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian.

More Information

Sikaritai
[tty] Papua Province, Lakes plain area, Idenburg and Rouffaer river junctions north, Mamberamo river, Sikari, Haya, and Iri villages. 800 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aikwakai, Araikurioko, Ati, Sikari, Tori, Tori Aikwakai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Eritai [ert]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sikule
[skh] Sumatra, Aceh Province. Simeulue archipelago; central portion, Simeulue island. 20000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sichule, Sikhule, Wali Banuah Dialects: Lekon, Tapah. Reportedly similar to Nias [nia]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias

More Information

Silimo
[wul] Papua Province, central highlands south of the range immediately west of Baliem River, Amo and Kiniage valleys. 5,000 (1987 SIL). 2,500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paiyage, South Ngalik, Usak, Wulik Dialects: Lower Samenage. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Simeulue
[smr] Sumatra, Aceh Province. West and east ends of Simeulue island; Babi and Banjak islands. 30000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Long Bano, Simalur, Simeuloë, Simulul Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Skou
[skv] Papua Province, east of Jayapura, north coast border area, Tami river mouth, Sko-Yambe, Sko-Mabu, and Sko-Sai villages. 700 (1999 M. Donohue). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sekol, Sekou, Sko, Skouw, Skow, Sukou, Te Mawo, Tumawo Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Skou Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

So’a
[ssq] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Flores island, central Kabupaten Ngada, between Ngad’a [nxg] and Riung [riu] language areas. 10,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Soa Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngad’a [nxg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Comments: Christian.

More Information

Sobei
[sob] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Sarmi subdistrict, north coast area east of Sarmi. 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Biga, Imasi, Liki Dialects: None known. Reportedly comprehension of Liki [lio]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Government schools through entire area. Increasing intermarriage with other groups. Christian.

More Information

Sowanda
[sow] Papua Province, south of Jayapura, northeast border area. 210 in Indonesia (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waina, Waina-Sowanda, Wanja, Wanya, Wina Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sowari
[dmy] Papua Province, north coast west of Tanahmerah bay, Muris Besar, Muris Kecil, Ambora, and Yougafsa villages. 1,300 (2000), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Demta, Muris Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Demta Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Suabo
[szp] Papua Province, south Bird’s Head along Maccluer bay. 15 villages. 1,100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iagu, Inanwatan, Mirabo, Suabau Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Duriankere [dbn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Sula
[szn] North Maluku Province. Sula islands; Sulabesi island, widespread, scattered on Mangole island, east and west ends, north coast, Buru island, northeast coast. 20,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sanana Dialects: Facei (Facé), Fagudu, Falahu. Reportedly similar to Mangole [mqc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Sumbawa
[smw] West Nusa Tenggara Province. Sumbawa island, west of the isthmus, Moyo island off northern coast. 300,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Semawa, Sumbawarese Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa

More Information

Sunda
[sun] West Java and Banten provinces. Western third of the island. 34,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in western Java. Alternate Names: Priangan, Sundanese Dialects: Bogor (Krawang), Cirebon, Pringan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Sunum
[ymn] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, coastal area and an island off north coast, east of Tor river. 560 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yamna Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Suwawa
[swu] Sulawesi, Gorontalo Province. Bunda river valley, east of Gorontalo city. 5,000 (2012 Y. Kitada). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bonda, Bone, Bunda, Bune, Suvava, Toewawa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Comments: Separate language from Gorontalo [gor]. Muslim.

More Information

Tabaru
[tby] North Maluku Province, Ibu, Jailolo, and Oba districts. North Halmahera island. 15,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tobaru Dialects: Adu, Nyeku. Northern dialect is the main one. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tabla
[tnm] Papua Province, Jayapura, Demta, Depapre, 13 villages on north coast east and west of Tanahmerah bay. 3,750 (1990 UBS). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jakari, Tabi, Tanah Merah, Tanahmerah 2, Tepera Dialects: Tepera, Yewena-Yongsu, Yokari. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%, others have 95%–100% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 30% with Sentani [set]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper Comments: Distinct from Tanahmerah [tcm] (Sumeri) of Bomberai Peninsula. Ethnic autonym: Tepera. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tae’
[rob] South Sulawesi Province, Luwu and North Luwu regencies. Main area along the northwest coast; Bone bay; west in Bastem subdistrict, along Rongkong river valley past Salutallang village; Seko Lemo subdialect spoken in its own enclave in Uro valley, northwest of Sallutallang; enclave of Rongkong speakers in East Luwu regency, Nuha subdistrict near Soroako. 340,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Toraja, Luwu’, Luwu-Rongkong, Rongkong, Rongkong-Luwu, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, “Toala’", Toraja Timur, Toware Dialects: Bua, Northeast Luwu (Bone-Bone, Masamba), Rongkong, South Luwu. Dialect chain throughout Tae’ area east into Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Lexical similarity: 82% or greater among dialects, 82% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Comments: Different from Toraja-Sa’dan (Tae’) [sda]. Different from the Bugis-Luwu dialect of Bugis [bug]. Different from the Bugis-speaking “Toala” identified by P. and F. Sarasin (1903). “Toala’" is a pejorative Bugis exonym meaning forest people. Rongkong dialect has Seko Lemo, Rongkong Atas (Rongkong-Kanandede) and Rongkong Bawah (Sabbang) subdialects. Bua dialect has Bajo (Palili’) and Bastem (“Toala’”) subdialects. Muslim.

More Information

Tagal Murut
[mvv] East Kalimantan Province, Nunukan regency. 2,000 in Indonesia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Semambu, Semembu, Sumambu, Sumambuq, Sumambu-Tagal Dialects: Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan, Taggal, Tagul), Rundum (Arundum), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Sumambu (Semembu, Sumambuq), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Tagol), Tawan, Tolokoson (Telekoson), Tomani (Tumaniq). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

More Information

Taikat
[aos] Papua Province, due south of Jayapura, northeast border area. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arso, Tajkat Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Awyi [auw]. Classification: Border, Taikat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Taje
[pee] Central Sulawesi Province, Parigi Tengah, and Ampibabo subdistricts. 350 (Himmelmann 2001), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andje, Lole, Petapa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Comments: Different from the Lole dialect of Kaili Unde [unz]. Muslim.

More Information

Tajio
[tdj] Central Sulawesi Province, Ampibabo, Tinombo, and Sindue subdistricts, 21 villages. Western shore, Tomini bay. 12,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Adjio, Kasimbar, Ta’adjio, Tadjio Dialects: Central Tajio, Northern Tajio, Western Tajio. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Tajio. Kasimbar is the main town. Muslim.

More Information

Talaud
[tld] North Sulawesi Province. Talaud islands, northeast of Sangir islands. 82,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Talaur, Talaut, Talodda Dialects: Arangka’a, Awit, Beo, Dapalan (Riung), Essang, Kaburuang, Lirang (Salebabu, Salibabu), Nenusa-Maingas, South Karakelong (Karakelang, Karakelong). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Taliabu
[tlv] North Maluku Province. Sula island group; Taliabu island, northwest coast; some on Mangole island. 4,520 (2000). 500–1,500 in Mangei. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taliabo Dialects: Mananga, Mangei (Mang, Mange, Mange’e, Sobojo, Soboyo), Padang (Samada). Dialects 90% or more lexically similar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo Comments: Talo, Seho, Biha, and Bono (Mbono) are place names. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Taloki
[tlk] South East Sulawesi Province, Buton island. Wakorumba subdistrict, Maligano village; northwest coast; Kapontori subdistrict, Wakalambe village, in southern island area. 550 (2005 R. Van den Berg). 400 in Maligano, 150 in Wakalambe. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Talloki, Taluki Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]; 75% with Koroni [xkq]; 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Talondo’
[tln] West Sulawesi Province, Mamuju regency, Bonehau subdistrict, part of Bonehau village. 1,200 (2011 A. Tadollo), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Talondo Kondo Dialects: None known. May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Tamagario
[tcg] Papua Province, south coast area, south and east of Kayagar [kyt] and west of Yaqay [jaq] language areas. 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buru, Tamaraw, Wagow, Wiyagar Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kayagar [kyt], also related to Atohwaim [aqm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Taman
[tmn] West Kalimantan Province, Kapuas Hulu regency. Upper Kapuas river; upriver from Putussibau town. South of Mount Lawit. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dayak Taman, Taman Dayak Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tanahmerah
[tcm] Papua Province, north Bomberai peninsula, Gondu and Bapai rivers. 500 (1978 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sumeri, Sumerine Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tanah Merah Comments: Distinct from Tanahmerah (Tabla) of Sentani [set] branch. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tandia
[tni] Papua Province, Bird’s Head neck area just south of Wandamen peninsula and Wohsimi river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tangko
[tkx] Papua Province, west of Nakai [nkj] language area, Kawemaot village. 100 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Tangko Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tarangan, East
[tre] Southeastern Maluku Province, south Aru islands, Tarangan island east coast, and villages in Maikor strait (Sungai Maikor). 12 villages. 6,110 (2011 SIL). Population counted in the 12 villages only. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: East Trangan, Tarangan Timur Dialects: North East Tarangan, South East Tarangan. Lexical similarity: 71% with West Tarangan [txn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Tarangan, West
[txn] Southeastern Maluku Province, south Aru islands, Tarangan island west coast. 7,910 (2011 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. L2 users: Used as L2 on Aru Islands, especially to the south. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tarangan Barat, West Trangan Dialects: North Central Tarangan, Southwestern Tarangan. 2 sharply distinct dialect groups with minor variation within them. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Manombai [woo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Largest language group in Aru Islands. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Tarpia
[tpf] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Demta subdistrict, Tarfia village. 630 (2006 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sufrai, Tarfia Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kaptiau [kbi] and Bonggo [bpg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tause
[tad] Papua Province, west Lakes plain (Paniai), southwest of Danau Bira, Deraposi area, northeast of Fayu [fau] and northwest of Edopi [dbf] language areas. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darha, Doa Dialects: Deirate, Tause, Weirate. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West Comments: First contact with outside world in 1982. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tausug
[tsg] Coastal settlements in Northeast Kalimantan Province, immigrants from Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. 12,000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Joloano Sulu, Moro Joloano, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tawoyan
[twy] Eastern Central Kalimantan Province. Near border of southern East Kalimantan Province; area around Palori town. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tabojan, Tabojan Tongka, Taboyan, Tabuyan, Tawoyan Dayak, Tewoyan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North

More Information

Tebi
[dmu] Papua Province, border area south of Jayapura, south of Zorop [wfg], east of Emem [enr], and north of Towei [ttn] language areas, Dubu, Jembatan Web, and Affi villages. 220 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dubu Classification: Pauwasi, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tefaro
[tfo] Papua Province, east side of Cenderawasih bay, Tefaro and Demba villages. 100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Demba Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Barapasi [brp], 63% with Sauri [srt], 70% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tehit
[kps] Papua Province, southwest Bird’s Head, Sorong regency, most of Teminabuan subdistrict, half of Sawiat subdistrict. About 31 villages. 10,000 (2000 R. Hesse). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaibus, Tahit, Tehid, Teminabuan Dialects: Fkar, Imyan, Mbol Fle, Saifi, Sawiat Salmeit, Sfa Riere, Tehit Jit. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kalabra. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Teiwa
[twe] East Nusa Tenggara Province, 6 villages. Central Pantar island. 4,000 (Klamer and Klamer 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tewa Dialects: Deing, Lebang, Madar. Deing (Diang) may be a separate language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar

More Information

Tela-Masbuar
[tvm] Maluku Province south, Tela and Masbuar villages. Southwest Babar island. 1,050 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masbuar-Tela, Tela’a Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar Comments: Christian.

More Information

Teluti
[tlt] Maluku Province. South Seram island, Teluti bay. 17,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Silen, Taluti, Tehoru, Tihoru, Wolu Dialects: Laha Serani, West Teluti (Haya, Tehoru, Tehua, Wolu). Lexical similarity: 74%–89% among dialects, 69%–78% with Sepa [spb], 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Tengger
[tes] East Java Province. South of Pasuran regency. Area near Mount Bromo. 80,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tenggerese Dialects: None known. May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Ethnically distinct from Javanese. Hindu.

More Information

Teor
[tev] Maluku Province. Watubela archipelago, Teor and Ut islands. 1,100 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tio’or Dialects: Gaur Kristen, Ut. Self-report to understand Kur [kuv]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Gaur Kristen and Ut, 71%–83% with Kur [kuv], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Tereweng
[twg] East Nusa Tenggara Province, 2 villages on Tereweng island off southeast coast of Pantar island, and one village on Pantar. 800 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar Comments: Distinct ethnic identity from Blagar.

More Information

Termanu
[twu] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Termanu, Keka, Talae, Korbafo, and Bokai domains. Central Rote island. 30,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Rote, Pa’da, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese Dialects: Bokai, Korbafo (Korbaffo), Pa’da (Termanu), Pa’da Kona (Keka-Talae, Southern Termanu). Reportedly seems more similar to Lole [llg] than to other varieties on Rote. Korbafo and Bokai may need to be separated for sociolinguistic reasons. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ternate
[tft] North Maluku Province. Ternate island. Kayoa islands on north end of Lapan bay; islands between Bacan and Kasiruta islands. Halmahera island; Damar, Yoronge islands off of southeasternmost point, some communities on western north coast. 42,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 20,000. North and northeast Halmahera. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tidore [tvo]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Ternateño
[tmg] North Maluku Province. Ternate island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ternatenyo Dialects: Spanish [spa] relexification. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects, still spoken in the Philippines. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based

More Information

Tetun
[tet] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Timor island, bi-coastal. 400,000 in Indonesia (2011). Population total all countries: 463,500. L2 users: Additional 50,000 L2 speakers in both East Timor and Indonesia. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in portions of Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara province. Alternate Names: Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetung Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los, Tetun Terik), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Foho, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Fehan, Lia Fehan, Plains Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Different language from Tetun Dili [tdt]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Te’un
[tve] Central Maluku Province, south central Seram island transmigration area. 4 villages. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Teun Comments: Government moved them from Teun Island, south central Maluku, due to volcanic activity on their island.

More Information

Tidong
[tid] East Kalimantan Province, Bulungan regency. Sembakung and Sibuka river deltas; Tarakan, Bunyu, Baru, Tibi, and nearby islands; coastal areas north to Point Sida; interior, Malinau river. 27,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camucones, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong Dialects: Nonukan (Nunukan), Penchangan, Sedalir (Sadalir, Salalir, Saralir, Selalir), Sesayap (Sesajap), Sibuku, Tarakan (Terakan), Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

More Information

Tidore
[tvo] North Maluku Province. Tidore island. Ternate, Mare, and northern Moti islands. Also Halmahera island, west coast areas, facing in turn Tidore, Moti, and Kayaa islands. 26,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ternate [tft]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tii
[txq] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Rote island, southwest. East of Dela-Oenale [row], west of Lole [llg], and south of Dengka [dnk] language areas. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Thie, Ti, Western Rote Dialects: Minor variation, third singular verb prefix, na-fa’da, varies with, i-fa’da. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tobati
[tti] Papua Province, Jayapura bay, near Jayapura, Tobati, Enggros, Entrop, Kota Raja, and Tanah Hitam villages. 100 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Enggros, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Jotafa, Tobwadic, Yautefa, Yotafa Dialects: None known. Formerly classified as Papuan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tobelo
[tlb] North Maluku Province, Tubelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts, North Halmahera; Maba and Wasile districts, Central Halmahera. Halmahera island, west coast, contiguous area surrounding Kao bay, inland. Morotai island, east coast central. Communities on Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, and Raja Ampat islands. Papua Province, Sorong area. 27,700 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Boëng, Dodinga, Tobelo (Heleworuru). Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Taught in middle school in Tobelo town. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tofanma
[tlg] Papua Province, south Jayapura border area, Keerom regency, Senggi subdistrict, Tofanma Satu, Tofanma Dua, and most of Namla villages. 250 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tofamna Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tolaki
[lbw] South East Sulawesi Province, North Konawe, Konawe, South Konawe, Kolaka, and North Kolaka regencies; Mekongga district, west coast. Broad area from Point Kolono, southeast peninsula, extending northwest across plains up to highlands; along west coast, past Klaka town towards Bone bay narrows. 331,000 (2000 census). 298,000 Tolaki (Konawe), 33,000 Mekongga and 200 Wiwirano. Asera and Laiwui not separately listed, but less than 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laki, Lolaki, Tokia, Tololaki, To’olaki Dialects: Asera (Asera Wanua, Noie), Konawe (Kendari, Kioki, Tambuoki), Laiwui, Mekongga (Bingkokak, Kolaka, Konio, Norio, Tamboki), Wiwirano (Nohina). Lexical similarity: 88% with Asera, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Comments: Language names based on negative forms are no longer in use. Muslim.

More Information

Tomadino
[tdi] Central Sulawesi Province, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Sakita village. On east coast, Tolo bay, near Bungku town. 600 (Mead 1999). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tombelala
[ttp] Central Sulawesi Province, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, 4 villages. On west coast, Tolo bay, south of Bungku town. 1,100 (Mead and Mead 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baria, Belala, Mbelala Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66%–76% with Pamona [pmf] varieties and 38% with Bungku [bkz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona Comments: Consider themselves Pamona. Muslim.

More Information

Tombulu
[tom] North Sulawesi Province. Northeast coast, near Manado city, Tanawangko and Tomohon areas. 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Minahasa, Minhasa, Tombalu, Tombula, Tombulu’, Toumbulu Dialects: Taratara, Tomohon. Reportedly most similar to Tondano [tdn] and Tonsea [txs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tomini
[txm] Central Sulawesi Province, Moutong, Tomini, and Tinombo subdistricts, 42 villages. Northeast coast along Tomini bay, inland. Southwest corner of Gorontalo Province. 30,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mouton, Moutong, Tiadje, Tialo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tondano
[tdn] North Sulawesi Province, Toulour regency. North peninsula, Lake Tondano area southeast and east. 92,000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tolou, Tolour, Tondanou, Toulour Dialects: Kakas (Ka’kas), Remboken, Tondano. Reportedly most similar to Tombulu [tom] and Tonsea [txs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tonsawang
[tnw] North Sulawesi Province. Landlocked area southwest of Lake Manado; near Tombatu town. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tombatu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tonsea
[txs] North Sulawesi Province, northeasternmost tip. 90,000 (1989), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tonsea’ Dialects: Airmadidi, Kalabat Atas, Kauditan, Likupang, Maumbi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tontemboan
[tnt] North Sulawesi Province. Minahasa peninsula, northeast coast, southern shore, Amurang bay inland. 150,000 (1990 J. Merrifield). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pakewa, Tompakewa, Tountemboan Dialects: Sonder (Matanai, Matana’i-Maore’), Tompaso (Makelai, Makela’i-Maotow). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North Comments: Christian.

More Information

Topoiyo
[toy] West Sulawesi Province, Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong subdistrict. Inland along Budong-Budong river. 450 (Yamaguchi and Nakashima 2001), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da’a [kzf], 56% with Ledo [lew], 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Comments: Recent settlers from elsewhere and rubber plantation development brought new language contacts. Muslim.

More Information

Toraja-Sa’dan
[sda] South Sulawesi Province, Tana Toraja and Luwu regencies; South East Sulawesi Province, Kolaka and Wundulako subdistricts; west coast. Some in Makassar city. 750,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sada, Sadan, Sa’dan, Sadang, Sa’dansche, South Toraja, Tae’, Taeq, Toradja, Toraja Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (Mappa-Pana, West Toraja). Rantepao is prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Totoli
[txe] Central Sulawesi Province, Tolitoli Utara, Galang, Baolan, and Dondo subdistricts, 29 villages. Northernmost portion of province; west coast, Dondo bay; Kabetan island; area southwest of Point Arus. 25,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gage, Tolitoli, Tontoli Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Towei
[ttn] Papua Province, border area south of Jayapura, Towe Hitam village, south of Dubu [dmu] and west of Emem [enr] language areas. 120 (1975 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Towe Classification: Pauwasi, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Trimuris
[tip] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict, Mamberamo river east bank, between Kauwera [xau] and Bagusa [bqb] language areas. 300 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Low intelligibility of Kwerba [kwe]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kauwera [xau] and 60% with Kwerba [kwe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tsaukambo
[kvz] Papua Province, west side of upper Digul river, north of Wanggom, south of Komyandaret. 780 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kotogüt, Tsakwambo, Tsokwambo Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Komyandaret [kzv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tugun
[tzn] Southwestern Maluku Province, Mahuan, Masapun, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin, Ilway, and Arwala villages. Wetar island west of Barat Daya archipelago; southeast end of island. 1,200 (1990 SIL). 10 monolinguals. L2 users: Those who marry into group learn the language. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahuan, Tutunohan Dialects: Arwala, Ilpokil, Kahailin Ilway, Mahuan, Masapua, Tomliapat. Lexical similarity: 92%–97% among dialects, 76% with Perai [wet], 74% with Aputai [apx], 73% with Ili’uun [ilu], 52% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Comments: Christian (Protestant).

More Information

Tugutil
[tuj] North Maluku Province, Tobelo, Kao, Wasile, and Maba districts, Miaf, Bebseli, and Marasibno villages. North Halmahera island, inland around Kusuri, inland in Tobelo district, Taboulamo area in Kao district, the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Wasilei district, Dodaga, Tutuling, Akelamo, and Mabulan rivers in Maba district. A few on Lili, Waisango, and Afu rivers. 2,590 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kusuri, Teluk Lili. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo [tlb] variety. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda Comments: Forest people who have contact with village people when selling copra and purchasing supplies. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tukang Besi North
[khc] South East Sulawesi Province,Tukang Besi archipelago north, Kaledupa and Wangiwangi islands; also, Runduma islands, to east. Maluku, Bacan, Taliabu, Mongole, Buru, Sulabesi, Seram, and Ambon islands. Also, Baubau and Sumbawa cities. 120,000 in Indonesia (1995 SIL). 60,000 in Maluku. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buton, Wakatobi Dialects: Kaledupa (Kahedupa), Wanci (Wangi- Wangi, Wanje, Wanji, Wantji). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaledupa and Wanci, and may be separate languages. 70%–75% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 48% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Cia-Cia [cia], 40% with Kamaru [kgx], an average of 35% with other nearby languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate Comments: Most in Nusa Tenggara and Maluku are mixed with Tukang Besi South. Muslim.

More Information

Tukang Besi South
[bhq] South East Sulawesi Province. Tukang Besi archipelago, south islands; northern Binongko and Tomea islands; South Sulawesi Province, Selayar regency, Madu, Kalaotoa, Bonerate, and Karompa islands. Maluku, Taliabu, Mongole, Sulabesi, Buru, Seram, Ambon, and Alor islands. Settlements throughout western Papua Province. 130,000 (1995 SIL), increasing. 100,000 in Maluku. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buton, Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi Dialects: Binongko, Bonerate, Tomea (Tomia). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 48% with Cia-Cia [cia], 49% with Lasalimu [llm], average of 35% with other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 85% with Binongko and Tomea, 81% with Bonerate, 79% with Tomea and Bonerate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tulehu
[tlu] Maluku Province, 4 villages. Ambon island, northeast coast. 18,800 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northeast Ambon, Sou Amana Teru Dialects: Liang, Tengah-Tengah, Tial, Tulehu. Each dialect is in a separate village. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% among dialects, 74%–82% with Hitu [htu], 72%–76% with Haruku [hrk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Tunggare
[trt] North central Papua Province, west of Mamberamo river, east Geelvink bay near Nabire, inland from Waropen [wrp] language area. 500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tarunggare, Turunggare Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bauzi [bvz], 75% with Burate [bti], 65% with Demisa [dei], 70% with Tefaro [tfo], 69% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Burate [bti]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tunjung
[tjg] East Kalimantan Province, Kutai regency. Area between Adas, Dempar, and Melak towns; then down the Mahakam rivers, east around Djempang lake; area south of Muntaiwan town. 50,000 (Nikolic 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tunjung Dayak Dialects: Pahu, Tunjung (Tunjung Tengah), Tunjung Linggang, Tunjung Londong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam

More Information

Uab Meto
[aoz] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Most of west Timor island. 700,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atoni, “Dawan” (pej.), Meto, Orang Gunung, “Rawan” (pej.), Timol, Timor, “Timor Dawan” (pej.), Timoreesch, Timoreezen, Timorese, Uab Atoni Pah Meto, Uab Pah Meto Dialects: Amanuban-Amanatun (Amanatun, Amanuban, Amanubang), Amfoan-Fatule’u-Amabi (Amabi, Amfoan, Amfuang, Fatule’u), Biboki-Insana (Biboki, Insanao), Kusa-Manlea (Kusa, Manea, Manlea), Mollo-Miomafo (Miomafo, Mollo). Much dialect variation. Ethnological and linguistic differences in nearly every valley. Same language chain as Amarasi [aaz] and Baikeno [bkx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ujir
[udj] Southeast Maluku Province. Northwest Aru islands, Ujir and Wokam islands west peninsula tip. 1,030 (2011 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Udjir Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kola [kvv] in north Aru, and slightly less with Kola on the west coast of Kola Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Ulumanda’
[ulm] West Sulawesi Province, Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali-Mandar regencies. Mostly interior area north of Majene town. 30,000 (1986 SIL). 18,000 in Polmas and Majene. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awo-Sumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, Kado, Oeloemanda, Tubbi, Ulumandak, Ulunda Dialects: Botteng, Sondoang, Tappalang. About 6 dialects. Lexical similarity: 75%–80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], and Pannei [pnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Uma
[ppk] Central Sulawesi Province, Donggala regency, South Kulawi and Pipikoro subdistricts, 32 villages. Along Lariang river and tributaries. South Sulawesi Province, North Luwu regency, Bana in enclave within the Seko Padang language area; south Pasangkayu regency, Mamuju subdistrict. Gimpu and Palolo valleys, other areas north of Palu. 20,000 (1990 M. Martens), increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koro, Oema, Pipikoro Dialects: Bana, Benggaulu (Bingkolu), Kantewu (Central Uma), Southern Uma (Aria), Tobaku (Dompa, Ompa, Western Uma), Tolee’ (Eastern Uma), Winatu (Northern Uma). Literature exists in Kantewu dialect, but many would prefer to read their own dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Uma’ Lasan
[xky] East Kalimantan Province, Malinau regency, Long Pujungan, Long Jelet Mesahan, and Long Pejalin (Uma Alim dialect) villages. 1,500 in Indonesia (Soriente 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Western Kenyah Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Baka, Uma’ Lasan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan Comments: Christian.

More Information

Uma’ Lung
[ulu] East Kalimantan Province, Malinau regency, Pimping, Long Setulang, Batu Kajang, Long Uli, and Long Belua villages. Middle Malinau river. 3,000 (Soriente 2006), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oma Longh Dialects: None known. Marginally intelligible of Uma Lasan [xky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan

More Information

Una
[mtg] Papua Province, east highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela valley, west of Ngalum, Bidabuh, east Weip valley, Yay valley, around Langda, Bomela, and Sumtamon. 5,600 (2006 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goliath, Langda, Mt. Goliath, Oranje-Gebergte Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Eipomek [eip], 69% with Ketengban [xte]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Uruangnirin
[urn] Papua Province, Karas island and 2 small islands between Karas island and mainland of southwest Bomberai peninsula. 400 (1983 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Faur, Tubiruasa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Comments: Blust (1991) says this appears to be Central Malayo-Polynesian. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Usku
[ulf] Papua Province, south of Jayapura, Usku village; west of Namla [naa] and south of Molof [msl] language areas. 110 (2004 SIL). Population estimates range from 20 to 160 (Wurm 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afra Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Afra may be the name preferred by the people.

More Information

Viid
[snu] Papua Province, border area south of Jayapura, Senggi village. 250 (2005 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Senggi Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Vitou
[vto] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Takar village. 630 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takar Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Betaf [bfe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Wabo
[wbb] Papua Province, Serui island, north and south coast of east end. 6 villages. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nusari, Woriasi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Kurudu [kjr], 46% with Western Serui [seu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Wae Rana
[wrx] East Nusa Tenggara Province. South central Flores island, 2 separate enclaves between Manggarai [mqy] and Ngad’a [nxg] language areas. 3,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waerana Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata

More Information

Waigeo
[wgo] Papua Province, north central Waigeo island off western Bird’s Head, Sorong regency, Waigeo Selatan subdistrict, Warsanbin, Selegop, Waifoi, Go, Kabilol, Kabare, and Nyandesawai villages. 300 (1978 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ambel, Amber, Amberi, Waigiu Dialects: Metnyo, Metsam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Waioli
[wli] North Maluku Province. Northwest Halmahera island, Coastal area, from Sasu town, inland to highland interior. 3,000 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wajoli, Wayoli Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Gamkonora [gak]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Walak
[wlw] Papua Province, Ilugwa, Wodo, Bugi, Mogonik, and Wurigelebut villages. 20,000 (2007 P. Seow). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Pyramid, Wodo Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Wambon
[wms] Papua Province, south coast area north of Mandobo language area. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kenon, Kenyam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Wandamen
[wad] Papua Province, Wasior, Manokwari, west Cenderawasih bay along Wandamen bay extending west to east end of Bintuni bay. 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bentoeni, Bentuni, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wandamen-Windesi, Windesi, Windessi Dialects: Aibondeni, Ambumi, Bintuni, Dasener, Steenkool, Wamesa (Ubu), Waruritinao, Wasior, Windesi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian.

More Information

Wanggom
[wng] Papua Province, upper Digul river area. East of Kombai [tyn] and west of Wambon [wms] language areas. 1,180 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wanggo, Wangom Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kombai [tyn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut

More Information

Wano
[wno] Papua Province, central highlands area, upper Rouffaer river basin north of Damal [uhn], northwest of Dem [dem], south of Kirikiri [kiy], Iau [tmu], and Duvle [duv], east of Moni [mnz], west of Western Dani [dnw] language areas. 1,000 (2011), decreasing. 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. L2 users: 0. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Waano Dialects: Central Wano, East Wano, West Wano. Reportedly similar to Nggem [nbq], and Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Western Dani [dnw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Wano Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Wanukaka
[wnk] East Nusa Tenggara Province. West Sumba island, southwest coast, southeast of Waikabubak city. 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wanokaka Dialects: Rua, Wanukaka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba

More Information

Warembori
[wsa] Papua Province, north coast, Mamberamo river mouth and west to Poiwai, Warembori, Tamakuri, and Bonoi villages. 600 (1998 SIL). L2 users: 20. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Waremboivoro, Warenbori Dialects: Bonoi Buroro. Lexical similarity: 33% with Yoke [yki]. 30% Austronesian vocabulary. Classification: Lower Mamberamo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Wares
[wai] Papua Province, north coast area inland from Kwesten [kwt] language area on upper Biri river, south side, Maweswares village. 200 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor Comments: 2005 survey data indicates language may not exist or speakers have moved. Maweswres village now inhabited by Mawes [mgk] speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Waris
[wrs] Northeastern Papua Province, Keerom regency, Waris subdistrict, south of Jayapura. 1,500 in Indonesia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walsa Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Waritai
[wbe] Papua Province, Lakes plain area around Taiyeve. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wari, Weretai Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East Comments: Different from Waris [wrs] or Wares [wai]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Warkay-Bipim
[bgv] Papua Province, south coast area bordering Asmat languages to east and Sawi [saw] language to west, lower Eilanden river. 3 villages. 300 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bipim, Bipim As-So Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Waropen
[wrp] Papua Province, south coast of Serui island, east Cenderawasih bay. 6,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aropen, Wonti, Worpen Dialects: Mo’or, Napan, Waropen Kai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen Comments: Christian.

More Information

Waru
[wru] South East Sulawesi Province, North Konawe regency, Asera subdistrict, Mopute village. Interior area; north of confluence of Solo and Lindu rivers. 350 (Mead 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mapute, Mopute Dialects: Lalomerui, Waru. Lexical similarity: 86% with the Waru and Lalomerui dialects, 79% with Mekongga and other Tolaki [lbw] dialects, 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko], 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Watubela
[wah] East central Maluku Province. Watubela islands, north of Kur island. 4,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esiriun, Kasiui, Kasui, Kesui, Matabello, Snabi Watubela, Wesi Dialects: Sulmelang, Tamher Timur. Lexical similarity: 77% between dialects, 51%–61% with Geser-Gorom [ges], 41% with Teor [tev] and Kur [kuv], 37% with Bobot [bty], 34% with Masiwang [bnf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Wauyai
[wuy] Papua Province, southwest Waigeo island, Wauyai village. 300 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Wawonii
[wow] South East Sulawesi Province. West coast, Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari port. 30,000 (2004 D. Andersen), increasing. 22,500 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wowonii Dialects: Menui (Manoei), Wawonii. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 66% with Taloki [lbw], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Wejewa
[wew] East Nusa Tenggara Province. West Sumba island, interior. 55,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Veveva, Waidjewa, Wajewa, West Sumbanese, Wewewa, Wewjewa, Weyewa Dialects: Lauli (Loli), Tana Righu, Weyewa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Wemale
[weo] Maluku Province, at least 14 villages. Seram island north coast, from Taniwel to Walakone towns; southwest Seram, northeast of Kairatu town. 6,000 (2000 census). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Honitetu, Oemale, Tala Dialects: East Wemale, South Wemale, West Wemale, West-Central Wemale. Lexical similarity: 84% with east and west dialects, 70% with South Wemale dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale Comments: Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Wersing
[kvw] East Nusa Tenggara Province. Alor island. East coast area, southeast coast, Pietoko and Pureman, 2 enclaves on central north coast. 3,700 (Grimes et al. 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolana, Kolana-Wersin, Warsina, Wersin Dialects: Kolana, Langkuru (Mademang, Pureman), Maneta. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar Comments: Cultural and historical relationship with Liquisa area in East Timor. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Woi
[wbw] Papua Province, Miosnum and west Serui islands, Wooi and Wainap villages. 1,800 (2012 Y. Sawaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wo’oi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Pom [pmo], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Comments: Christian.

More Information

Wolani
[wod] Papua Province, west central highlands, Kemandoga and Mbiyandogo rivers, north of Ekari [ekg] language area, northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes and northwest of Moni [mnz] language area. 5,000 (1992 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Woda, Woda-Mo, Wodani Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Wolio
[wlo] Southeast Sulawesi Province. Buton island, southwest coast towards Buntung strait; Baubau city, adjacent areas northeast and east. 65,000 in Indonesia (2004 D. Andersen). Population does not include those in other provinces. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baubau Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia]; 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru Comments: ‘Buton’ usually used generically inside Southeast Sulawesi to refer to Wolio; outside Southeast Sulawesi it refers to people from Southeast Sulawesi, or is sometimes confused with Bajau people as sailors. Muslim.

More Information

Woria
[wor] Papua Province, interior Waropen Bawah, Botawa village. 5 (2000 R. Doriot). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 63% with Kofei [kpi], 69% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Comments: Botawa is a Demisa and Waropen [wrp]-speaking village.

More Information

Wotu
[wtw] South Sulawesi Province, East Luwu regency, Wotu subdistrict, Lampenai, and Bawalipu villages. Northern end of Bone bay; coast near mouth of Kalaena river between Wotu and Angkona villages. 500 (2009 Masruddin and Wahibah), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wadu Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Laiyolo [lji], average 43% with South Sulawesi Group, 43% with Kaili-Pamona Subgroup, 41% with Seko Padang [skx], 39% with Tae’ Luwu [rob], 36%–43% with Bungku-Tolaki Subgroup, 37% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 33% with Bugis [bug], 31% with Rampi [lje], 25% with Lemolang [ley]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Yahadian
[ner] Papua Province, south Bird’s Head, along Maccluer bay between lower Mintamani and Sekak rivers. 500 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jahadian, Nerigo, Yabin Yahadian Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Konda [knd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yalahatan
[jal] Maluku Province, south central Seram island, coastal area west of Teluti bay. 1,700 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atamanu, Awaiya, Jahalatan, Jahalatane Dialects: Slight dialect differences reported between the 2 villages. Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Sepa [spb], 49%–50% with Teluti [tlt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers Comments: The name Atamanu is not currently known.

More Information

Yale, Kosarek
[kkl] Papua Province, eastern highlands, just east of Yali of Ninia, northwest of Nipsan, east of Dani, north of Yali [yli] of Angguruk. 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot). 2,300 monolinguals. Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: In-lom, Kosarek, Wanam, Yale-Kosarek Dialects: Gilika (Kilika), Kosarek, Tiple. Lexical similarity: 78% with Nipsan [nps], 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern Comments: The name In-lom refers to only half the group. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yali, Angguruk
[yli] Papua Province, central highlands area northwest of Nalca [nlc] and east of Grand Valley Dani language areas. 15,000 (1991 J. Wilson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angguruk, Northern Yali, Yalimo Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yali, Ninia
[nlk] Papua Province, central highlands area south of Angguruk, east of Soba, west of Korupun, Ninia, Holuwon, and Lolat villages; Elelim, transmigrated by government in 1989 following earthquake. More than 50 villages. 10,500 (1999 J. Wilson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jalè, Jaly, Ninia, North Ngalik, Southern Yali, Yali Selatan Dialects: None known. Different from Yali of Pass Valley [yac], Yali of Angguruk [yli], and Hupla [hap]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yali, Pass Valley
[yac] Papua Province, central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima regencies. 5,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abendago, North Ngalik, Pass Valley, Western Yali, Yaly Dialects: Apahapsili, Landikma, Pass Valley. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yamdena
[jmd] Southeast Maluku Province, 35 villages. Tannembar islands; east coast Yamdena island, down to north tip of Selaru island. Latdalam village, southwest Yamdena. 25,000 (1991 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jamden, Jamdena, Tanemprar lirin Dialects: North Yamdena (Nus Das), South Yamdena (Nus Bab). A chain of related varieties from north to south with 90% lexical similarity between extremes, but with morphological and phonological differences. Southern dialect thought more prestigious. Lexical similarity: 90% among the north and south dialects, 47% with Fordata [frd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Yamdena Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant).

More Information

Yaqay
[jaq] Papua Province, south coast Obaa river area, southeast of Kayagar [kyt] and southwest of Central Awyu [awu] language areas. 10,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jakai, Jaqai, Mapi, Sohur, Yaqai Dialects: Bapai, Nambiomon-Mabur, Oba-Miwamon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Yarsun
[yrs] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, island off north coast east of Biri river. 200 (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Comments: Yarsun may not exist or speakers may have moved (2005 SIL). Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yaur
[jau] Papua Province, lower end of Cenderawasih bay, west of Yeresiam [ire] language area. 350 (1978 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jaur Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Yawa
[yva] Papua Province, Yapen island: 8 north coast villages, 2 interior villages, and 18 south coast villages, all in the central portion of the island. 10,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mantembu, Mora, Turu, Unat, Yapanani, Yava, Yawa Unat Dialects: Central Yawa (Mora), East Yawa, North Yawa, South Yawa, West Yawa. Classification: West Papuan, Yapen Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yei
[jei] Papua Province, south coast border area, east of Marind along Maro river. 6 villages. 2,390 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Je, Jei, Yei-Nan, Yey Dialects: Lower Yei, Upper Yei. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Yey Comments: Different cultural group from Marind. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yelmek
[jel] Papua Province, south coast area, east side of Marianne strait between Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) island and mainland. 400 (1978 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jab, Jabsch, Jelmek, Jelmik Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Maklew [mgf]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yeresiam
[ire] Papua Province, south Cenderawasih bay, west of Nabire and around Yamur lake. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beduba, Iresim Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Yeretuar
[gop] Papua Province, lower Cenderawasih bay, south of Wandamen [wad] language area. 350 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Goni, Umar, Umari Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar Comments: Distinct from Kamoro [kgq]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yetfa
[yet] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Okbibab subdistrict, border area east and north of Sobger river, south of Ji mountain. 1,000 (1996). L2 users: 400 (2013 M. Donohue). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Trade language in the area, extending to Papua New Guinea border. Alternate Names: Biaksi, Biksi, Inisine Dialects: None known. Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups, speaking the same language. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yoke
[yki] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, east of Warembori, east of Mamberamo river, Mantarbori village. Recently moved to coast from interior. 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bitovondo, Jauke, Pauwi, Yauke, Yoki Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 33% with Warembori [wsa]. Classification: Lower Mamberamo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Zorop
[wfg] Northeastern Papua Province, border area south of Jayapura, Warlef village, Yabanda Satu. 230 (2005 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jafi, Jafi Wagarindem, Wagarindem, Wargarindem, Warlef, Yaffi, Yafi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% with Emem [enr]. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information