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A-Pucikwar
[apq] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Puchikwar, Pucikwar Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central

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Adi
[adi] Arunachal Pradesh, East, West, and Upper Siang districts, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley districts; Assam, north hills of Assam Valley, between Bhutan and Buruli rivers. Also in Bhutan, China (Boga’er Luoba). 97,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 100,190. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abhor, Abor, Boga’er Luoba, Lhoba, Luoba Dialects: Ashing, Bokar (Boga’er Luoba), Bori, Karko, Komkar, Milang, Minyong, Padam, Pailibo, Pangi, Pasi, Ramo, Shimong, Tangam. Sun (1993) lists Tani varieties as Apatani [apt], Milang, Damu, Mising [mrg], Bangni [njz], Tagin [tgj], Sagli, south Aya, Leli, and perhaps the Padam, Bokar, Pailibo, Ramo, Bori, Minyong and Pasi dialects of Adi; Asing, Panggi, Simong, Karok, Hill, Mising [mrg], and some northern and western dialects of Nyishi [njz]. A different language from Yidu Lhoba [clk]. Bokar, Milang, Pailibo, and Ramo are very divergent—possibly separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe with several subgroups. ‘Adi’, hillman, is a cover term for eastern Tani languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Adi, Galo
[adl] Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang, East Siang, Dibang Valley (south), Lohit (east), Changlang (northeast), and some in Upper Subansiri (west) districts; Assam. 30,000. A few older adult monolinguals. 62,000 (2001 census); 150,000 to 250,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adi, Adi-Gallong, Adi-Galo, Gallong, Galo, Galong Dialects: Karka, Lare, Pugo. Lare is the main dialect and is accepted by all Galo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Agariya
[agi] Madhya Pradesh, Mandla and Rewa districts, Maikal hills; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur District; Uttar Pradesh, Agra, Mathura, and Mirzapur districts. 72,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agaria, Agharia, Agoria Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari Comments: A Scheduled Caste in Uttar Pradesh. Chhattisgarhi [hne] L1 of tribe (Singh 1995). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Ahirani
[ahr] Gujarat and Maharashtra states. In Maharashtra: Dhulia, Jalgaon, Nandurbar, Nasik, and Aurangabad districts. 1,870,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahiri Dialects: Ahirani may be distinct from Khandesi [khn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi Comments: Hindu.

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Ahom
[aho] Assam. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Tai Ahom Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Former language of the Tai-Ahom king. Possibly 8,000,000 Assamese [asm] speakers claim to be of Ahom descent (1990 A. Diller).

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Aimol
[aim] Manipur State, Chandel district, Unapal, Satu, Kumbirei, Chingunghut, Aimol Tampak, Khodamphai, Ngairong Aimol, Chandonpokpi, Soibong (Khudengthabi), and Khomayai (Khunjai); Senapati district, Tuikhong; Churachandpur district, Luichungbum (Louchulbung); Bishnupur district, Kha-Aimol; Assam State. 2,640 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Langrong. Langrong may be a distinct language. Related to Chiru [cdf] and Purum [pub]. Reportedly intelligible to Koireng [nkd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Aiton
[aio] Assam, Jorhat and Karbi Anglong districts, Doboroni, Banlung, Ahomoni, Balipathar, Kaliyani, Chakihula, Tengani, and Barhula villages. 1,500 (Morey 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aitonia Dialects: Similar to Phake [phk]. Related to Shan [shn] of Myanmar. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist.

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Aka-Bea
[abj] Andaman Islands, South Andaman island except northeast coast, and north and east interiors; Rutland island except south coast; small islands southeast of Rutland; Labyrinth Islands. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aka-Beada, Bea, Beada, Biada, Bogijiab, Bojigniji, Bojigyab Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central

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Aka-Bo
[akm] Andaman Islands, east central coast of North Andaman island, North Reef island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ba, Bo Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern

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Aka-Cari
[aci] Andaman Islands, north coast of North Andaman island, Landfall island, other nearby small islands. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cari, Chariar Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern

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Aka-Jeru
[akj] Andaman Islands, interior and south North Andaman island, Sound island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jeru, Yerawa Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern

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Aka-Kede
[akx] Andaman Islands, central and north central Middle Andaman island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kede Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central

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Aka-Kol
[aky] Andaman Islands, southeast Middle Andaman island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kol Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central

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Aka-Kora
[ack] Andaman Islands, northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman island, Smith island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kora Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern

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Akar-Bale
[acl] Andaman Islands, Ritchie’s Archipelago, Havelock island, Neill island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bale, Balwa Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central

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Allar
[all] Kerala, Malappuram district, Perinthalmanna tahsil, Manjeri tahsil, Mannarmala, Aminikadu, and Tazhecode; Palakkad district, Mannarkkad and Ottappalam tahsils. 350 (Shashi and Shri 1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aalan, Alan, Alanmar, Alar, Allan, Chatans Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Malayalam [mal], 59% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion.

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Amri Karbi
[ajz] Assam, Kamrup district, south of Brahmaputra river in Chandubi, Loharghat, Rani block, Jalukbari, Pandu, Basbistha, Panikhaith, Jorabat, Sonapur, Khetri, and Kahi Kusi; Meghalaya, Ri-Bhoi district, Nongpoh area, Barni Hat and Umling. 125,000 (2003). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Amri Dialects: Lower Amri, Upper Amri. Reportedly unintelligible with Karbi [mjw]; intelligibility testing inconclusive regarding whether Guriaghuli area dialect is well understood in Meghalaya. Lexical similarity: 57%–68% with Karbi; 70%–86% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Karbi Comments: Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Anal
[anm] Southeast Manipur, Chandel district, Chandel, Chakpikarong, and Tengnoupal subdivisions, on Chakpi river banks. Possibly in Bangladesh. Also in Myanmar. 23,200 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 23,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Namfau Dialects: Laizo, Mulsom. Most similar to Lamgang [lmk] (Kuki Naga). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Declared themselves Nagas (ethnically) in 1963. Christian.

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Andaman Creole Hindi
[hca] Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair, 40 villages south of Port Blair. 10,000 (Singh 1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andaman Hindi Dialects: A creolization of Hindustani, Bengali [ben], and Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Creole, Hindi based Comments: Spoken as L1 by mixed generations of communities. Contains elements of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian grammar. No literature exists in the creole. Standard Hindi literature is used.

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Andh
[anr] Maharashtra, Akola, Aurangabad, Buldana, Nanded, Parbhani, and Yevatmal districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad, Hyderabad; Madhya Pradesh. 100,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 420,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andha, Andhi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Many speak Marathi [mar] as L1. Hindu.

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Angika
[anp] Northern Bihar. Also in Nepal. 725,000 in India (IMA 1997). Population total all countries: 740,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki Dialects: 79% inherent intelligibility of Brahmin Maithili. Lexical similarity: 81% (Brahmin) to 87% (non-Brahmin) with Darbhanga Maithili. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu.

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Apatani
[apt] Arunachal Pradesh, Subansiri district, 7 villages in Ziro valley: Hong, Hari, Billa, Dutta, Hija, Mudang-Tage, and Michi Bamin; Assam; Nagaland. 28,400 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 35,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apa Dialects: May be intelligible with Nyishi [njz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aranadan
[aaf] Kerala, Kozhihkode district, Ernad taluk; Palakkad district; Malappuram district, Nilambur tahsil; Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. 200 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aranatan, Eranadans Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63%–69% with Malayalam [mal], 53%–55% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Assamese
[asm] Assam; West Bengal; Meghalaya; Arunachal Pradesh. Also in Bhutan, United States. 12,800,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 12,828,220. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Assam State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Asambe, Asami, Asamiya Dialects: Jharwa (Pidgin), Mayang, Standard Assamese, Western Assamese (Kamrupi). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese

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Asuri
[asr] Jharkhand, southern Palamau, northern Ranchi, Gumla and Lohardaga districts of Chotanagpur Plateau; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh district, Jashpur area; Maharashtra; Odisha, Sambalpur district; West Bengal. 16,600 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ashree, Assur, Asura, Maleta Dialects: Brijia (Birjia, Koranti), Manjhi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: Asur and Birjia are Scheduled Tribes. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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A’tong
[aot] Meghalaya state, Garo hills; Assam, south Kamrup district. Also in Bangladesh. 4,600 in India. Population total all countries: 10,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Related to Koch [kdq] and Rabha [rah]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Koch Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awadhi
[awa] Uttar Pradesh, Kheri, Sitapur, Lucknow, Unnao, Rae-Bareli, Bahraich, Bara-Banki, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Gonda, Faizabad, and Allahabad districts; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. Also in Nepal (Avadhi). 2,530,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 3,091,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Avadhi, Baiswari, Kojali, Kosali Dialects: Gangapari, Mirzapuri, Pardesi, Uttari. The Awadhi dialects are generally mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: with Bhojpuri [bho], Rana Tharu [thr], Maithili [mai], Nepali [npi], Hindi [hin]. Also Sanskrit [san] borrowings. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: ‘Kosali’ is a name used for the Eastern Hindi group. Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

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Badaga
[bfq] Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris district, Kunda hills. 200 villages. 135,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Badag, Badagu, Baduga, Badugu, Vadagu Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bagheli
[bfy] Northeast Madhya Pradesh, Rewa, Satna, Sidhi, Shahdol, Umaria, Anuppur, Jabalpur, Mandla, Chhindwara, Dindori, and Panna districts; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Mirzapur, Banda, and Hamirpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur and Koriya districts. Also in Nepal. 2,860,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Gangai, Godwani Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewat, Kewati, Kewot, Kumhari, Mandal, Mannadi, Riwai Dialects: Godwani, Kumhari, Rewa. Godwani (refers to Bagheli-speaking Gonds), Kumhari (refers to Bagheli-speaking Kumhar). Though geographic and caste variation is found in Bagheli, no dialect is prevalent. Rewa area variety is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% between all Bagheli varieties; 72%–91% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: Hindu.

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Bagri
[bgq] Punjab, Firozepur, Rajasthan, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Haryana, Sirsa, and Fatehabad districts. Also in Pakistan. 647,000 in India (2001 census). 25% monolingual. Population total all countries: 847,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Bahgri, Baorias Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81%–95% between all varietes of Bagri, 58%–63% with Eastern Panjabi [pan], 56%–69% with Hindi [hin], 56%–70% with Haryanvi [bgc], 51%–66% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–69% with Merwari [wry], 69%–76% with Shekhawati [swv], 47%–63% with Godwari [gdx], 63%–65% with Dhundari [dhd], 60%–66% with Mewati [wtm], 74% with Jandavra [jnd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Traditional religion.

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Balochi, Eastern
[bgp] Uttar Pradesh; Gujarat. 800 in India (2007). Possibly L2 speakers only. Ethnic population: 95,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balochi, Baloci, Baluci Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan; and Southern Balochi [bcc] of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. Muslim (Sunni).

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Balti
[bft] Jammu and Kashmir. 20,000 in India (2001 census). Ethnic population: 38,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baltistani, Bhoti of Baltistan, Sbalt Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim.

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Bantawa
[bap] Sikkim State, Rolep, Lingdum and many other parts of the state; West Bengal State, Darjeeling. 14,400 in India (2001 census). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kirat Khambu, Kirat Khambu Rai, Rai Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Bareli, Palya
[bpx] Madhya Pradesh; Barwani district, Rajpur, Barwani tahsils; Khargone district, Jhirniya Tahsil; Maharashtra, Jalgaon district, Yawal, Raver tahsils; Dhule district, Shirpur tahsil. 10,000 (2000 V. Varkey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pali, Palodi, Palya Bareli Dialects: Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Choutharya village of Rajpur tahsil. Lexical similarity 62%–66% with Pauri Bareli [bfb], 67%–73% with Rathwi Bareli [bgd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bareli, Pauri
[bfb] Maharashtra; Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon, Shahada, and Taloda tahsils; Dhule district, Shirpur tahsil; Madhya Pradesh, Barwani district, Pansemal tahsil, Nivali and Pati blocks. 638,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bareli, Barewali, Barli Dialects: Pauri Bareli not intelligible with Rathwi Bareli [bgd] or Palya Bareli [bpx]. Dialect center in Maharashtra, Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon tahsil. Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with varieties of Pauri Bareli; 68%–79% with Rathwi Bareli [bgd]; 62%–66% with Palya Bareli [bpx]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bareli, Rathwi
[bgd] Madhya Pradesh; Barwani district, Barwani, Sendhwa, and Rajpur tahsils; Khargone district, Bhagawanpura, Jhirniya, and Bhikangaon tahsils; Dewas district, Bagli tahsil; Khandwa district, Burhanpur tahsil; Dhar district; Dahi block; South Jhabua district, Rathia Bhilala; Maharashtra northern Dhule district, Shirpur tahsil; Jalgaon district, Chopda, Raver, and Yawal tahsils. 101,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barel, Pauri, Pawari, Pawri, Rathi, Rathia, Rathwi Pauri Dialects: Pauri Bareli [bfb] and the Rathwi Pauri dialect not intelligible with Vasavi [vas] or Bhilori [noi]. Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Chiklia. Not intelligible with Palya Bareli [bpx] or Pauri Bareli. Understood by Rathia Bhilala of Nimad, Bhilala of Sondhwa block of Jhabua District and Bhils of south Dhar District. Lexical similarity: 81%–93% with Rathwi Bareli dialects; 67%–73% with Palya Bareli [bpx]; 68%–79% with Pauri Bareli [bfb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonym: Barela and Paura. Traditional religion.

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Bateri
[btv] Jammu and Kashmir, near Srinagar. 800 in India. 200 families. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani Comments: Muslim.

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Bauria
[bge] Punjab; Himachal Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Chandigarh; Rajasthan; Uttar Pradesh. 27,200 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babri, Badak, Baori, Basria, Bawari, Bawaria, Bhoria, Vaghri Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Bazigar
[bfr] Haryana; Chandigarh; Delhi; Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh; Punjab; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka. 58,200 (1981 census). Ethnic population: 800,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified Comments: Hindu.

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Bellari
[brw] Karnataka; Kerala; Tamil Nadu. 1,000 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Related to Tulu [tcy] and Koraga [kfd]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu Comments: Bellara is a Scheduled Caste in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Speak a dialect of Kannada [kan] (Singh 1995).

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Bengali
[ben] West Bengal; Jharkhand, Dhanbad, Manbhum, Singhbhum, and Santal Parganas; Bihar; Assam, Goalpara district; Meghalaya, Garo hills; Mizoram; Nagaland. 82,500,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam states (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria (Kishanganjia). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Muslim, Hindu, Christian.

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Bhadrawahi
[bhd] Jammu and Kashmir, Doda district, Bhadarwah town and surrounding villages. 53,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baderwali, Badrohi, Bahi, Bhadarwahi, Bhaderbhai Jamu, Bhaderwali Pahari, Bhadrava, Bhadri Dialects: Bhalesi, Padari (Padar). Lexical similarity: 45% with Pangwali [pgg]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Bhalay
[bhx] Maharashtra, Amravati district. 8,670 (1981 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 90% with Gowlan [goj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified Comments: Bhalay probably an alternate spelling of Balahi (Balai), a Scheduled Caste found in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Traditional religion.

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Bharia
[bha] Madhya Pradesh, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Sidhi, and Tikamgarh districts; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur, Durg, and Surguja districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. 197,000 (1981 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhar, Bharat, Bhumia, Bhumiya, Paliha Dialects: They speak a variety of Hindi [hin] (Singh 1993). Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Bhatola
[btl] Madhya Pradesh. 5,050 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Unclassified Comments: Bhatola is a subgroup of the Gond Scheduled Tribe in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Chhattisgarh.

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Bhatri
[bgw] Chhattisgarh, Bastar district, Jagdalpur tahsil; Maharashtra; Odisha, Koraput district, Kotpad tahsil. 217,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Basturia, Bhatra, Bhattra, Bhattri, Bhottada, Bhottara Dialects: Dialects understand each other at 88% or more. Similar to Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 70%–90% between dialects, 58% with Adivasi Oriya [ort]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Bhattiyali
[bht] Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Bhattiyat tahsil, Sihunta sub-tahsil. 102,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhateali, Bhatiali Pahari, Bhatiyali Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Christian.

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Bhilali
[bhi] Madhya Pradesh, Khargone (Segaon), Barwani (Rajpur), southern Jhabua and southern Dhar districts; Maharashtra, Dhule district; some in Gujarat; Karnataka; Rajasthan. 681,000 (2001 census). 25,000 to 50,000 Parya Bhilali. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhilala Dialects: Parya Bhilali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Bhili
[bhb] Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua, Dhar, Ratlam, Indore, and Khargone districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha, Panchmahals, and Dahod districts. 3,310,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bhagoria, Bhil, Bhilbari, Bhilboli, Bhilla, Bhilodi, Lengotia, Vil Dialects: Ahiri, Anarya (Pahadi), Bhilodi, Bhim, Charani, Habura, Konkani, Kotali (Kotvali, Kotwalia), Magra Ki Boli, Nahari (Baglani), Naikdi, Panchali, Patelia, Ranawat, Rani Bhil, Siyalgir, Valvi. Bhili of Ratlam District in Madhya Pradesh is inherently intelligible with Wagdi [wbr] and a connecting link between Gujarati [guj] and Rajasthani (Marwari) [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: ‘Bhil’ is an ethnic designation (caste or tribe). Bhili is a Scheduled Tribe in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Tripura; Kotwalia is a Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Dewali (Dehawali) is a cover term for Vasavi and Kotali, among others. Traditional religion.

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Bhojpuri
[bho] Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur, Basti, Deoria, Azamgarh, Ghazipur, Varanasi, Mirzapur, and Ballia districts; Bihar, Champaran, Saran, and Shahabad districts; Jharkhand, Palamau and Ranchi districts; Assam; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Mauritius, Nepal. 37,800,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 39,846,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri, Bihari, Deswali, Khotla, Piscimas Dialects: Bhojpuri Tharu, Domra, Madhesi, Musahari, Northern Standard Bhojpuri (Basti, Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria), Southern Standard Bhojpuri (Kharwari), Western Standard Bhojpuri (Benarsi, Purbi). May be more than 1 language. Extent of dialect variation in India and Nepal not yet determined. The cover term “Bihari” (a pejorative alternate name for Bhojpuri) is also used for Maithili [mai], and Magahi [mag]. Bhojpuri Tharu dialect is spoken by Tharu caste in Nepal and India. Distinct from other Tharu languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

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Bhunjia
[bhu] Madhya Pradesh, Hoshangabad district; Chhattisgarh, Raipur district; Odisha, Kalahandi, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Balasore (Baleshwar), and Keonjhar Sambalpur districts, Sunabera Plateau area; Maharashtra. 6,790 (2000 USCWM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhumjiya, Bhunjiya, Bunjia Dialects: A more divergent dialect of Halbi [hlb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Biete
[biu] Northeast Mizoram, Aizawl district, Darlawn, Ratu, and New Vervek villages; Assam, Cachar Hills; Manipur; Meghalaya, Jaintia hills district. 19,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baite, Bete, Biate Dialects: Similar to Hrangkhol [hra], and similar enough to Mizo [lus] and Hmar [hmr] that they can be read with comprehension. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. An ethnic subgroup of the Mizo. Not the same as the Biate dialect of Chin Thado [tcz] (Breton 1997). Christian.

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Bijori
[bix] Jharkhand, Cowerdaga, and Ranchi districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts; Madhya Pradesh; Odisha. 25,000 (1998 GR). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binjhia, Birijia, Birjia, Brijia, Burja Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnic group called Birjia. Hindu, Christian.

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Bilaspuri
[kfs] Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur district. 295,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bilaspuri Pahari, Kahluri, Kehloori Pahari, Kehluri, Pacchmi Dialects: 95% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 94% of Kangri [xnr]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kangri of Palampur, 86% with Mandeali, 84% with Chambeali [cdh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: ‘Kahluri’ is based on the old name for the princely state. Hindu.

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Birhor
[biy] Jharkhand, southern Hazaribag, southern Palamau, Singhbhum, and Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District; Odisha, Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, and Sambalpur districts; West Bengal, Puruliya District; Maharashtra. 2,000 (Van Driem 2007). Nomadic habits make assessment difficult. Some estimates as low as 1,000 (Parkin 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bihor, Birhar, Birhore, Birhul, Mankidi, Mankidia, Mankiria Dialects: Lexical similarity: 55%–72% with Santhali [sat], Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], and Munda [unx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditionally nomadic. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Bishnupriya
[bpy] Assam, Cachar, Hailakandi, and Karimganj districts; north Tripura. Also in Bangladesh. 77,500 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 117,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bishnupria Manipuri, Bishnupuriya, Bisna Puriya Dialects: Madai Gang (Leimanai), Rajar Gang (Ningthaunai). Related to Bengali [ben], Assamese [asm]. Though once regarded as a Bengali-Meitei creole, it retains pre-Bengali features (Masica 1991). Lexical similarity: 81%–85% between dialects in Bangladesh, 41%–45% with Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Reported to also live in three villages in Myanmar but these villages cannot be identified. Hindu.

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Bodo
[brx] Assam, mainly in Darrang, Nagaon, and Kamrup, Goalpara, Sibsagar, and Lakhimpur districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Cooch-Behar districts; Manipur, Chandel (Tengnoupal) District; Meghalaya, West Garo Hills district, Tikrikilla block, 7 villages, East Khasi Hills district. Also in Nepal (Meche). 1,330,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,333,300. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Assam (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347). Alternate Names: Bara, Bodi, Boro, Boroni, Kachari, Mech, Meche, Mechi, Meci Dialects: Chote, Mech. Related to Dimasa [dis], Tripuri [trp], Lalunga. West Bengal dialect reportedly different from Assam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bodo Parja
[bdv] Odisha, Koraput district. 50,000 (2001 IBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bodo Paraja, Harja, Jhaliya, Jharia, Jhodia Parja, Parajhi, Parja, Parjhi, Parji, Paroja, Poroja, Sodia Parja Dialects: Phonology and grammar show Indo-European relationship, not related to Dravidian Duruwa Parji. 86%–96% intelligibility between Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties. Lexical similarity: 76%–86% with Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties, 70%–89% with Desia. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: Paroja is a Scheduled Tribe; the name comes from Sanskrit [san] subjects. It is used for a variety of ethnic groups from different language families. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Bondo
[bfw] Odisha, Malkangiri district, Khoirput block, Bondo Hills. 9,000 (2002 SIL). Few Lower Bondo are monolingual. 5,570 Upper Bondo and 3,500 Lower Bondo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhonda Bhasha, Bonda, Bondo-Poraja, Nanqa Poroja, Poraja Katha, Remo, Remosum Dialects: Lower Bondo, Upper Bondo. Bhuksa dialect sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji [bjj]. Lexical similarity: 70%–94% with other Bondo varieties, 45%–51% with Gutob Gadaba [gbj], 22%–32% with Upper Gata’ [gaq] (Didayi). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Gutob-Remo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Braj Bhasha
[bra] Uttar Pradesh, Agra region; Rajasthan, Bharatpur, and Sawai Madhopur districts; Haryana, Gurgaon district; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. 574,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Antarbedi, Antarvedi, Bijbhasha, Braj, Braj Bhakha, Bri, Brij Bhasha, Briju, Bruj Dialects: Antarbedi, Bhuksa, Braj Bhasha, Dangi, Jadobafi, Sikarwari. Bhuksa is sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji [bjj]. Braj Bhasha is usually considered a dialect of Hindi [hin], and was the predominant literary language before the switch to Hindi in the 19th century. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Brokskat
[bkk] Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh and Kargil districts along Indus river; northern Kashmir, Garkhon area, including Darchiks, Chulichan, Gurgurdo, Batalik, and Dah villages. 10,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Brokpa of Dah-Hanu, Dokskat, Kyango Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Broq-pa is a Scheduled Tribe. A very divergent variety of Shina [scl]. Minaro is an alternate ethnic name. Ethnonym: Brokpa by Ladakhi. Glossonym: Brokskat, and is the oldest surviving member of the ancient Dardic language. Buddhist, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bugun
[bgg] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, Singchung and Nafra circles, Wangho, Singchung, New Kaspi, Namphri, Mangopom, Diching, Sachita, Ramu, Situ, Lichini, Dikiang, and Bichom villages on the mountains on both sides of Rupa River, interspersed among the Aka. 900 (2001 Asia Harvest). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kho, Khoa, Khowa Dialects: May be mutually intelligible with Puroik [suv] (Chowdhury 1996); Burling (2003) groups it with Puroik and Sherdukpen [sdp] and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: low with all neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa Comments: Spoken by the Khoa (Khowa) ethnic group. They are culturally like the Hruso, but speak a different language. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Buksa
[tkb] Uttarakhand, southwestern Nainital district, from Ramnagar to Keneshpur. 130 villages in Kichha and Kashipur tahsils, some in Bijnor and Garhwal districts. 43,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: 95% intelligibility with Rana Tharu [thr]. Lexical similarity: 58%–79% with western Tharu varieties, 58% with Chitwania Tharu [the], 83% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bundeli
[bns] Uttar Pradesh, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur, Hamirpur, and Banda districts; Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Sagar, Sehore, Panna, Satna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Guna, Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Narsinghpur, Seoni, Datia districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, and Nagpur districts; Rajasthan; Gujarat; Andhra Pradesh. 3,070,000 (2001 census). population estimates range up to 20,000,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bondili, Bundelkhandi Dialects: Banaphari, Bhadauri (Towargarhi), Chhindwara Bundeli, Gaoli, Khatola, Kirari, Kundri, Lodhanti (Rathora), Nagpuri Hindi, Nibhatta, Raghobansi, Standard Bundeli, Tirhari. Chhatapur dialect is widely understood. Other dialects are standard Braj of Mathura, Aligarh, western Agra; standard Braj of Bulandshahr; standard Braj of eastern Agra, southern Morena, southern Bharatpur; Braj merging into Kanauji in Etah, Mainpuri, Budaun, and Bareilly; Braj merging into the Bhadauri subdialect in northern Morena; Braj merging into Jaipuri (Rajasthani) in northern Bharatpur and Sawai Uradhopur; Bhuksa in southern Nainital (Grierson and Konow 1901–1929). Lexical similarity: 41% with Nagpuri Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Bundeli Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian.

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Byangsi
[bee] Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Kuthi Yangti river valley in the Himalayas on Tibet and Nepal borders. Byangs Patti from Budi south to Kuti village in the north; includes Nabi, Gunji, Napalchyu, Rongkang, and Garbyang villages. 2,830 in India (2000). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Byangkho Lwo, Byangkhopa, Byanshi, Byansi, Jaba, Rang, Saukas, Shaukas Dialects: Kuti, Pangjungkho Boli, Yerjungkhu Boli. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora Comments: Cultural center seems to be India. Ranglo or Rang often used as a cover term for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darmiya and Rongpo. Some borrowing from Indo-Aryan. Hindu.

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Chakma
[ccp] Mizoram, southwest along Karnafuli river; Tripura, North Tripura district, Kailashahar subdivision; South Tripura district; Assam, Karbi, Anglong, North Cachar, and Cachar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap district, Changlang district, Miao subdivision; Lohit district, Chowkham circle; West Bengal; Manipur. 176,000 in India (2001 census). Other estimates less than 100,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakama, Takam, Tsakma Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Distinct from Chak [ckh]. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chamari
[cdg] Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow; Maharashtra. 406,000 (2001 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chamar, Chambhar Boli, Chambhari Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Comments: Chamar is a caste name for skin and hide workers. Speakers throughout India (Singh 1995). Traditional religion.

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Chambeali
[cdh] Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Chamba tahsil; Jammu and Kashmir. 130,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cameali, Chamaya, Chambiali, Chambiyali, Chamiyali Pahari, Chamya Dialects: Bansbali, Bansyari, Gadi Chameali. 91% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 87% of Kangri [xnr]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Palampuri Kangri [xnr], 86% with Bhattiyali [bht], 84% with Bilaspuri [kfs], 83% with Mandeali [mjl], 79% with Gaddi [gbk], 78% with Churahi [cdj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Chamling
[rab] Sikkim, Darjeeling, Regu and other parts of the state. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern

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Changthang
[cna] Jammu and Kashmir, Tibet border area, Changthang region east and southeast of Leh. 10,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Byangskat, Byanskat, Changs-Skat, Changtang, Changtang Ladakhi, Rong, Rupshu, Stotpa, Upper Ladakhi Dialects: 58%–85% intelligibility with Leh dialect of Ladakhi [lbj] with high standard deviation indicating some acquired intelligibility; 94%–95% intelligibility with Stod Bhoti [sbu] from Darcha village. Identify more with Leh Ladakhi culture than with Stod Bhoti despite lack of intelligibility. Related to Rangkas [rgk], Darmiya [drd], Byangsi [bee]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: Champa is a Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonym: Champas. Buddhist.

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Chaudangsi
[cdn] Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Chaudangs Patti, Kali river west bank facing the Nepal border along Mahakali valley. Villages include Panggu, Rongto, Rimzhim, Waiku, Monggong, Chilla, Song, Sosa, Sirdang, Sirkha, Rung, Zipti, Gala, Tangkul, and Syang Khola. 1,830 (2000 USCWM). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bangba Lo, Bangbani, Chanpa Lo, Chaudans Lo, Saukas, Shaukas, Tsaudangsi Dialects: Related to Rangkas [rgk], Darmiya [drd], and Byangsi [bee] (Sharma 1989), unintelligible with Darmiya and Byangsi (Sharma 1994). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora Comments: Ranglo or Rang often used as a cover term for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darmiya, and Rongpo. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Chaura
[crv] Nicobar Islands, Chaura island. 2,020 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chowra, Tutet Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chenchu
[cde] Andhra Pradesh, most in Kurnool district, Nallamalla hills; Karnataka; Odisha. 26,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chenchucoolam, Chenchwar, Chensulu, Chenswar, Choncharu Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Chetti, Wayanad
[ctt] Kerala, Wayanad district, Chekadi, Appapara, Panavalli, Pulpalli, Thirunelli, Tholpetti and Kattikkulam villages; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Nilgiri and Periyar districts; Karnataka, Bavali. 5,000 (2004). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chetti, Chetty Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62%–76% with Gowder, 65% with Jennu Kurumba [xuj], 52% with Kannada [kan]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Unclassified Comments: ‘Chetti’, trader, also loosely employed as a caste name (Thurston and Rangachari 1909). 10 groups of Chetti identified in Tamil Nadu.

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Chhattisgarhi
[hne] Chhattisgarh; Bihar; Odisha; possibly in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura. Baigani dialect in Madhya Pradesh, Shahdol District. 13,300,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Khaltahi, Laria Dialects: Baigani (Baiga, Bega, Bhumia, Gowro), Bhulia, Binjhwari, Chhattisgarhi Proper, Kalanga, Kavardi, Khairagarhi, Sadri Korwa. Most closely related to Awadhi [awa], Bagheli [bfy], and Surgujia [sgj]. Sadri Korwa spoken by Korwa people in Jashpur tahsil of Raigarh District; Baigani in Balaghat, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh, and Sambalpur District of Odisha; Binjhwari in Raipur and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh; Kalanga [kck] and Bhulia dialect are spoken in Patna District of Bihar; Chhattisgarhi Proper in Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur, and other districts of Chhattisgarh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Muslim.

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Mizoram, Chhimtuipui, Lunglei, and Aizawl districts; Tripura; Assam. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar. 4,440 in India (2004). Population total all countries: 15,940. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom Dialects: Linguistically and ethnically a subgroup of the Laizou (Anal) [anm] (Matisoff et al. 1996:8). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Chin, Falam
[cfm] Assam, Karimganj district, south, a few villages in Cachar and North Hills districts; Tripura; Mizoram; West Bengal. 38,300 in India (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fallam, Halam Chin, Hallam, Tipura Dialects: Chari Chong, Chorei, Halam, Kaipang, Kalai (Koloi), Mursum (Molsom), Rupini, Tapong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Ethnically Halam. A Scheduled Tribe. Many ethnic Halam speak Kok Borok [trp] as L1. Halam is a generic term under which 9 subgroups, each with a distinct dialect, are grouped together: (Sakachep [sch], Chorei, Rupini, Ranglong [rnl], Marcephang (Khochung–dialect of [cfm]), Molsom, Keipang (dialect of [cfm]), Bondcher (dialect of [cfm]), Rangkhol [hra]). Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Chin, Haka
[cnh] Mizoram, Chhimtuipui district, 41 villages, and Aizawi district, Champhai subdivision, southernmost tip; Assam; Meghalaya. 25,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baungshe, “Haka” (pej.), Lai, Lai Hawlh, Lai Pawi Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Lai Pawi is a Scheduled Tribe. Ethnic autonym in India: Lai. Christian.

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Mizoram. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kami, Khami, Khumi, Khuni, Khweymi, Kumi Dialects: Khami, Khimi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Called Khami Chin in India. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chin, Mara
[mrh] Mizoram, Chhimtuipui district. 60 villages. Also in Myanmar. 34,800 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 54,800. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lakher, Mara, Maram, Mira, Zao Dialects: Hlawthai, Tlongsai (Tlosai-Siaha). Similar to Shendu [shl]. Affiliated with Lai (Haka Chin) [cnh]. Tlosai-Siaha dialect is lingua franca of all Mara (Singh 1994, 1995). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Subgroup of Mizo (Lushai). Christian.

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Chin, Matu
[hlt] Mizoram. 10,000 in India (2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matupi, Nga La Dialects: Haltu, Thui Phum. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Paite
[pck] Manipur, Churachandpur district, Khuga valley, Copur Bazar; Mizoram, Aizawl district, Champhai subdivision, 20 villages; Tripura; Assam. 64,100 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Haithe, Paite, Paithe, Parte, Zoukam Dialects: Bukpi (Bukpui), Dapzal (Dapzar), Dim, Dimpi, Lamzang, Lousau, Saizang, Sihzang, Telzang (Teizang), Tuichiap. Related to Thado Chin [tcz], Tedim Chin [ctd], the Ralte dialect of Mizo [lus], and Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Paites in Mizoram speak Mizo (Go 1996). Most speak Teizang and Dapzal dialects (Singh 1995). Zomi is a collective ethnic autonym generally used by Tedim Chin of Myanmar, Paite, and Vaiphei of Manipur. Christian.

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Chin, Tedim
[ctd] Mizoram (north), Manipur (south). 155,000 in India (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tedim, Tiddim Dialects: Kamhau (Kamhao, Kamhow), Sokte. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chin, Thado
[tcz] Manipur, Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, and Tamenglong districts; Assam; Mizoram, northeast; Nagaland, Kohima district; Tripura. Also in Myanmar. 243,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 269,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuki, Kuki-Thado, Thaadou Kuki, Thado-Pao, Thadou, Thado-Ubiphei Dialects: Changsen, Hawkip, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Shithlou, Singson (Shingsol), Thangngen. Several varieties, but high mutual intelligibility among dialects. Related to Kamhau (Tedim Chin [ctd] dialect), Ralte [ral], Paite Chin [pck], Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some listed dialects are separate languages. Christian.

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Chin, Zyphe
[zyp] Mizoram, Saiha district, Siata and Iana villages. 3,000 in India (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vawngtu, Zophei, Zoptei, Zyphe Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic

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Chinali
[cih] Himachal Pradesh, Lahul valley, Pattan valley, and Gushal village. 750 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chana, Channali, Chinal, Dagi, Harijan, Shipi Dialects: Closely related to Sanskrit [san]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Spoken by the Chinal caste. Many are well educated. Hindu.

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Chiru
[cdf] Manipur, Tamenglong district, Lamdangmei and Dolang villages; Senapati, Kangchup, Thangzing, Sadu, Bungte, Nungshai, Dolang Khunou, and Uram villages; Churachandpur district, Charoi Khullen cillage; Thoubal sistrict, Vaithou; Bishnupur district; Assam, Cachar district, a village near Jirbom; Nagaland. Scattered. 7,000 (2000 A. Khorong). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chhori Dialects: Most similar to Chin Mizo [lus]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Chodri
[cdi] Gujarat, Surat, Broach and Dangs districts; some in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. 209,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chaudhari, Chaudri, Chodhari, Choudhara, Choudhary, Chowdhary Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnically Bhil. Hindu.

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Chug
[cvg] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, Chug village. 850 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chug Monpa, Chugpa, Monpa Dialects: Most similar to Lish [lsh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa Comments: ’Monpa’ (Moinba), man of the lower country, refers to several ethnically related peoples which may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Churahi
[cdj] Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Chaurah and Saluni tahsils, Bhalai sub-tahsil. 111,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaurahi, Churahi Pahari, Churai Pahari Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 83% of Kangri [xnr], 85% of Chambeali [cdh]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Chambeali [cdh] (most similar), 70% with Palampuri Kangri [xnr] and Bhattiyali [bht], 67%–69% with Gaddi [gbk], 65% with Mandeali [mjl] and Bilaspuri [kfs], 64% with Pangi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Darlong
[dln] Tripura, North Tripura district, Kailashahar and Kamalpur subdivisions; Assam, Cachar district. 6,000 (1998 T. Darlong). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dalong Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: Christian.

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Darmiya
[drd] Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Dhauli valley, from Tawaghat near Dharchula south to Sipoo in the north along Dhauli river. Dar, Bongling, Selachal, Nanglin, Baling, Dugtu, Saung, Baun, Philam, Datu, Gwo, Marchha, Dhakar, Sobla, and Sipoo villages. 1,750 (2006 C. Willis). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darimiya, Darmani, Saukas, Shaukas Dialects: Related to Rangkas [rgk], Chaudangsi [cdn] and Byangsi [bee]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora Comments: Ranglo or Rang often used for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darmiya, and Rongpo. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Deccan
[dcc] Central Maharashtra, Deccan Plateau; Karnataka, Belgaum and Bijapur districts; Madhya Pradesh, Raisen and Sehore districts; Gujarat. 12,800,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dakini, Deccani, Desi Dialects: Bijapuri, Kalvadi (Dharwar). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified Comments: May be the same as Dakhini dialect of Urdu [urd]. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Degaru
[dgu] Bihar; West Bengal. 10,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhekaru Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion.

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Deori
[der] Assam, Lakhimpur, Demaji, Tinsukia, and Jorhat districts. 28,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chutiya, Dari, Deuri, Dewri, Drori Dialects: May constitute its own subgroup under Bodo-Garo. Not similar to other languages. Dialect of Lakhimpur District is regarded as purest. Lexical similarity: 77%–93% with Deori varieties, 11%–16% with Bodo [brx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. ‘Deori’, the temple guard. Deori Chutiya is 1 of 4 Chutiya subgroups. Do not call themselves Chutiya. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Desiya
[dso] Odisha, Koraput district, Lamtaput block, Nabarangapur district. 50,000 (2003 Asha Kiran Society). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Deshia, Desia, Desiya Oriya, Koraput Oriya Dialects: Intelligible with Adivasi Oriya [ort] but uses different scripts. Lexical similarity: 80%–85% with Adivasi Oriya [ort] dialects in Andhra Pradesh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dhanki
[dhn] Gujarat, Dangs district; Maharashtra, Jalgaon district; Karnataka; Rajasthan. 139,000 (2001 census). Secondary speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dangi, Dangri, Dangs Bhil, Dhanka, Kakachhu-Ki Boli, Tadavi, Tadvi Bhil Dialects: Similar to Khandesi [khn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi Comments: Dhankia and Tadvi Bhil are Scheduled Tribes. Dhanka of Rajasthan reportedly speak Hindi as L1; Dhanka of Maharashtra use Gujarati as L1; Tadvi Bhil reportedly use Bhili [bhb] as L1. Ethnonym: Dhanka. Traditional religion.

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Dhatki
[mki] Western Rajasthan. 16,400 in India (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thar Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim, Hindu, traditional religion.

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Dhimal
[dhi] West Bengal, Naxalbari, Chengadhari, and Hatighisha, 16 villages. 450 in India (2000 K. Cooper). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Eastern Dhimal. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish

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Dhodia
[dho] Gujarat, Surat and Valsad districts, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Rajasthan. 169,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhobi, Dhore, Dhori, Dhowari, Doria Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Dhundari
[dhd] Rajasthan, Jaipur, Dausa, and Tonk districts. Possibly in Bundi, Kota, Kishangarh, Ajmer, Jhalawar, northern Karauli, and Sawai Madhopur districts. 1,870,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhundari-Marwari, Jaipuri Dialects: 54% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]; 86% of Shekhawati [swv]. Lexical similarity: 75%–89% with dialects; 62%–70% with Merwari [wry], 65%–81% with Shekhawati [swv], 46%–66% with Godwari [gdx], 56%–64% with Mewari [mtr], 64%–73% with Haroti [hoj], 62%–67% with Mewati [wtm], 59% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Digaro-Mishmi
[mhu] Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit district, Hayuliang, Changlagam, and Goiliang circles, Dibang Valley district; Assam. Also in China (Darang Deng). 34,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 34,850. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Darang Deng, Digaro, Digaru, Mishmi, Taaon, Taraon, Taying Dialects: May not be in the Tani group, but is related. Lexical similarity: 25% with Idu-Mishmi [clk], 10% with Miju-Mishmi [mxj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist, traditional religion, Christian.

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Dimasa
[dis] Assam, North Cachar district and Cachar hills, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts; Nagaland, Haflong district; Meghalaya, Mizoram. 112,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimasa Kachari, Hills Kachari Dialects: Dimasa, Hariamba. Related to Kachari [xac]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some ethnic Dimasa speak other languages as L1: Mikir Karbi [mjw], Bengali [ben], and Assamese [asm]. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Dogri
[doi] Population total all countries: 3,980,000. Comments: Member languages are: Dogri [dgo], Kangri [xnr]

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Dogri
[dgo] Jammu and Kashmir, Udhampur, Reasi, Kathua, and Poonch districts. 2,280,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347). Alternate Names: Dhogaryali, Dogari, Dogri Jammu, Dogri Pahari, Dogri-Kangri, Dongari, Hindi Dogri, Tokkaru Dialects: Dogri speakers understand each other well. Some reported difficulty understanding Kangri [xnr]. Department of Dogri at Jammu University designated Samba as the standard dialect and published textbooks based on this variety. Lexical similarity: 78% between dialects; excluding the most divergent site, others more than 86%. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Dogri formerly considered a Panjabi dialect, but now promoted as a written language in India. Dhogri is a Scheduled Caste in Himachal Pradesh and Punjab who speak Chambeali [cdh] in Himachal and Dogri in Punjab (Singh 1995). Hindu, Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Bihar, Saran and Champaran districts; Assam; West Bengal; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Odisha. 202,000 in India (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dom, Domra Magu Hiya Dialects: Domaki, Wogri-Boli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Efforts made to hide meaning of words from outsiders. Similar to Bhojpuri [bho]. Hindu.

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Dotyali
[dty] Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharastra. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari

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Dubli
[dub] Gujarat, Surat, Valsad, Bharuch (Broach), and Vadodara districts; Maharashtra, Thane District, Talasari and Dahanu areas; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Daman and Diu; Karnataka; Rajasthan. 252,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 791,000 (over half speak Gujarati [guj]) (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dubala, Dubla, Rathod, Talavia Dialects: Dubli of Bharuch District is intelligible with Dungri dialect of Vasavi [vas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Glossonym: Dubli. Ethnonym: Dubla. Hindu.

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Dungra Bhil
[duh] Gujarat, Vadodara district, Chotaudeyapur and Naswadi tahsils; Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua district, Alirajpur tahsil; Maharashtra, Dedgam tahsil; slopes of Vindhya Satpura mountains drained by Narmada river. 200 villages. 100,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: 84%–89% intelligibility with Bhilori [noi] of Maharashtra. Lexical similarity: 75%–85% between subgroups, 71%–87% with Bhilori and Noiri Bhili, less than 53% with Garasia [gas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat. A Bhil subgroup. Dungra Bhil sometimes used as alternate name for Adivasi Garasia [gas] and Rajput Garasia [gra] but probably refers to more than 1 group living in the hills. ‘Dungra’, hill. Hindu.

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Duruwa
[pci] Chhattisgarh, Bastar district, southeast Jagdalpur tahsil; Odisha, Koraput district. 51,200 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1986); 65% in Bastar, 35% in Koraput. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhruva, Dhurwa, Durva, Paraja, Parajhi, Parjhi, Parji, Tagara, Thakara, Tugara Dialects: Dharba, Kukanar, Nethanar, Tiriya. Nethanar dialect is central. Lexical similarity: 90%-96% with dialects, 70%-82% with Halbi [hlb]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonym: Dhurwa. Glossonym: Parji. Traditional religion.

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Dzongkha
[dzo] West Bengal, Kalimpong and Darjeeling, just inside the Indo-Bhutan border; Sikkim; Assam; Arunachal Pradesh; Nagaland; Manipur; Meghalaya. 11,000 in India (2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Drukpa, Hloka, Lhoskad Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Buddhist.

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English
[eng] 350,000 in India (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1950, Constitution, Articles 343 and 348(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Neither British nor American English but a distinct Indian dialect with its own unique vocabulary and style.

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Eravallan
[era] Kerala, Palakkad district, Chittoor taluk; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district. 5,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 5,440 (2001 census). 3,890 in Kerala and 1,560 in Tamil Nadu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambuvilluvedar, Villu Vedan, Vilvedan Dialects: Lexical similarity: 91% between Eravallan of Coimbatore and of Palakkad, 70%–74% with Tamil [tam], 59%–77% with Irula [iru], 77%–86% with Malasar [ymr]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] 10,000 in India (2008). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Puducherry Union Territory (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347 inclusive), unscheduled language. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Gadaba, Bodo
[gbj] Odisha, Koraput district, Lamtaput, 40 villages; Malkangiri district, Khoirput block. 8,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boi Gadaba, Gadba, Gadwa, Godwa, Gudwa, Gutob, Gutop Dialects: Birong Raji, Kinda Raji, Koraput, Lamtaput. Dialects mutually intelligible. Speakers in Lamtaput block have 89%–94% intelligibility in Tikrapada and Audipoda villages. Intelligibility of the Hanumal village variety is less. Lexical similarity: 69%–89% among 7 varieties in Odisha, 90% between listed dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Gutob-Remo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some ethnic Gadaba in Madhya Pradesh speak Bhatri [bgw] as L1. Different from Dravidian Mudhili Gadaba [gau] and Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Gadaba, Mudhili
[gau] Andhra Pradesh, Vizianagaram district, Salur and Pachipenta mandals, Vishakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. 8,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gadaba, Gol Gadaba, Kondekar, Kondko Dialects: 93%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% between dialects. Different from Dravidian Mudhili Gadaba [gau] and Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar
[gdb] Odisha, Koraput district, Pottangi and Nandapur blocks. 15,000 (2002 M. Kurian). 4,000–7,000 in Koraput District, Pottangi block (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Allar, Gadba, Hallari, Hollar Gadbas, Konekor, Konekor Gadaba, Mundli, Ollar Gadaba, Ollari, Ollaro, San Gadaba, Sano Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69%–80% with 4 varieties in Odisha; 42%–47% with 1 variety in Andhra Pradesh; 52%–62% with Mudhili Gadaba [gau] in Andhra Pradesh. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba Comments: Gadaba is a Scheduled Tribe. Different from Gadaba [gbj] in Munda family, also spoken in Koraput. Traditional religion.

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Gaddi
[gbk] Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Brahmaur tahsil and Holi sub-tahsils; Uttar Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Punjab; Delhi. 110,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bharmauri Bhadi, Gaddyali, Gadi, Gadiali, Pahari Bharmauri, Panchi Brahmauri Rajput Dialects: Bharmauri, Macleod Ganj. 93% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 97% of Kangri [xnr], 83% of Chambeali [cdh]. Lexical similarity: 74%–80% with Palamuri Kangri [xnr], 79% with Chambeali [cdh], 67%–73% with Mandeali [mjl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Gaddi is generic for all indigenous populations of Bharmaur area of Chamba District. Hindu.

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Gahri
[bfu] Himachal Pradesh, Gahr Valley along Bhaga river from confluence with the Chandra and upstream, Biling, Kardang, Kyelang, Guskyar, Yurnad, Gumrang, Barbog, Paspara, Pyukar, and Styering villages. 4,000 (1997). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boonan, Bunan, Erankad, Ghara, Keylong Boli, Lahuli of Bunan, Poonan, Punan Dialects: Related to Tukpa [tpq], Kanashi [xns], Thebor [jna], Kanam [kcs], Sumcho [scu], Sungnam (Sungam) [ssk], and Zangram [jna]. Lexical similarity: 39% with Sunam [ssk], 26%–39% with varieties of Chamba Lahuli (Pattani) [lae], 37% with Tinani [lbf], 26%–34% with some varieties of Central Tibetan [bod], 34% with Jangshung [jna] and Shumcho [scu], 31% with Kinnaur Bhoti [nes], 30% with Chitkuli [cik] and Nesang (Tukpa) [tpq], 24% with Lhasa dialect of Central Tibetan [bod], 23% with Kanauri [kfk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Bodh caste, but speak a different language from Bodhs of Mayar, Khoksar, and Stod valleys. They consider themselves different from Bodhs of the north, whom they call Tibetans. Buddhist.

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Gamit
[gbl] Gujarat, Surat district; some in Bharuch, Dangs, and Valsad districts. 284,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gamati, Gameti, Gamith, Gamta, Gamti, Gavit Dialects: Similar to Mawchi [mke]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Gangte
[gnb] Manipur, south Churachandpur district, 37 villages; Meghalaya; Assam. 14,500 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gante Dialects: Related to Thado Chin [tcz]. Differs little from Vaiphei [vap], Paite [pck], or Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Garasia, Adiwasi
[gas] North Gujarat, Banaskantha district, Danta taluk; Sabarkantha district, Poshina taluk. 100,000 (1988 V. Patel). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adiwasi Girasia, Adiwasi Gujarati, Girasia Dialects: Understand Rajput Garasia [gra] well. Lexical similarity: 89%–96% between dialects, 75%–93% with dialects of Rajput Garasia; 79%–92% with dialects of Patelia [bhb]; 79%–93% with Wagdi [wbr]; 76%–87% with Marwari [rwr] dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: Speakers are Bhils. Dungra Bhil is sometimes used as an alternate name for Adiwasi Garasia and Rajput Garasia [gra] but probably refers to more than 1 group living in the hills (Dungra means hill). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Garasia, Rajput
[gra] Rajasthan, Sirchi, Pali, Udaipur districts; Gujarat, Banaskantha district. 100,000 (1999 IEM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhungri Garasia, Dungari Garasia, Dungri Grasia, Girasia, Grasia, Nyar, Rajput Garasia Dialects: Rajput Garasia do not understand Adiwasi Garasia [gas] but intelligibility is high the other way. Lexical similarity: 94%–99% with Gujarati [guj] and Rajasthani [mve] dialects, 75%–93% with Adiwasi Garasia [gas] dialects; 76%–84% with Patelia [bhb] dialects; 79%–86% with Wagdi [wbr]; 67%–84% with Marwari [rwr] dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Rajasthan, Warrior Caste. Distinct from Dungra Bhil [duh], which is sometimes used as an alternate name for Adiwasi Garasia [gas] and Rajput Garasia but probably refers to more than 1 group living in the hills (Dungra means hill). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Garhwali
[gbm] Uttarakhand; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh. 2,920,000 (2000 survey). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali Dialects: Badhani, Bangani, Bhattiani, Chandpuri, Dessaulya, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Jaunpuri, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Nagpuriya, Parvati, Rathi, Ravai, Salani (Pauri), Srinagari, Tehri (Gangapariya). Kumaoni [kfy] is most similar language; Jaunsari [jns] is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they cannot understand it. Parvati dialect also reportedly not intelligible; Srinagari is literary standard; Pauri generally regarded as the, sweetest; Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity: 53%–84% among dialects; 54%–69% with Hindi [hin], 55%–66% with Kumaoni [kfy]. The divergent dialect varieties of Bangani, Parvati, and Ravai are no more similar to Western Pahari varieties than to Garhwali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali Comments: Jaunpuri and Ravai dialects are culturally similar to Jaunsari and distinct from Garhwali. Castes are Brahmin, Rajput, Harijan. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Garo
[grt] Meghalaya, Garo Hills district; West Assam, Goalpara, Kamrup, and Karbi Anglong districts; Nagaland, Kohima district; Tripura, South Tripura district, Udaipur subdivision; North Tripura district, Kamalpur, Kailasahar subdivisions; West Tripura district, Sadar subdivision; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri and Koch Bihar districts. Also in Bangladesh. 889,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,009,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Meghalaya State (1950, Constitution, Articles 347), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Garrow, Mande, Mandi Dialects: A’beng (A’bengya, Am’beng), A’chick (A’chik, A’we, Chisak, Dual, Matchi), Dacca, Ganching, Kamrup. A’chick is the standardized dialect in India. A’beng dialect used in Bangladesh, but is not mutually intelligible. Most similar to Koch [kdq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Garo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Gata’
[gaq] Odisha, Koraput, and Malkangiri districts, Kudumulgumma and Chitrakonda blocks, south of Bondo Hills; some in Khairput block. 47 villages; Andhra Pradesh, East Godavari district. 3,060 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 7,370 in Odisha (census 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Didayi, Didei, Dire, Gataq, Geta’, Getaq, Gta’, Gta Asa Dialects: Hill Geta’, Plains Geta’. Ruhlen treats Plains Geta’ and Hill Geta’ as separate languages. Lexical similarity: 68%–93% among dialects, 27%–37% with Bondo [bfw] varieties, 22%–28% with Gadaba Gutob [gbj] dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Geta’ Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Godwari
[gdx] Rajasthan, Jhalor, Sirohi, and Pali districts. 3,000,000 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Balvi, Khuni, Madahaddi, Sirohi. 88%–92% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 70% between dialects; 62%–75% with Merwari [wry], 45%–69% with Shekhawati [swv], 51%–73% with Mewari [mtr], 46%–66% with Dhundari [dhd], 44%–67% with Haroti [hoj], 62%–74% with Marwari [rwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu.

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Gondi
[gon] Population total all countries: 2,050,000. Comments: Member languages are: Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo]

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Gondi, Northern
[gno] Madhya Pradesh, Betul, Chhindwara, Seoni, Mandla, and Balaghat districts; Maharashtra State, Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, and Yavatmal districts. 1,950,000 (1997 BSI). 2,630,000 all Gondi. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gaudi, Ghond, Godi, Gondi, Gondiva, Gondu, Gondwadi, Goondile, Goudi, Goudwal Dialects: Amravati, Betul, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Mandla, Nagpur, Seoni, Yavatmal. Inherent intelligibility between dialects 94%–97%. Speakers tested in other dialects understood Amravati 94%–97%; Betul 83%–96%, and Seoni 82%–97%. 58%–78% intelligibility of Southern Gondi [ggo]. Different from Muria [hlb], Maria [mrr] of Garhchiroli, Dandami Maria [daq], and Koya [kff]. Lexical similarity: 58%–90% among dialects. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Gondi, Southern
[ggo] Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad district; Maharashtra, south Yavatmal, south Chandrapur and southeast Garhchiroli districts; Chhattisgarh. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koi Gondi, Telugu Gondi Dialects: Aheri, Bhamragarh, Etapally Gondi, Nirmal (Adilabad), Rajura, Sironcha, Utnoor. Sironcha dialect understood best by the others, with 73%–98% intelligibility. 49%–58% intelligibility of Northern Gondi [gno]. Lexical similarity: 64%–90% among dialects. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Gowlan
[goj] Maharashtra, Amravati district, and among Korku [kfq] people. Madhya Pradesh, Hoshangabad district; some in north Karnataka. 20,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dialects in Maharashtra and Karnataka reportedly different. May be more similar to Hindi [hin] (Central zone) than to Marathi [mar] (Southern zone). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified Comments: Surrounded by Korku. Belong to Gowli caste. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gowli
[gok] Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra, Amravati district. 35,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nand Dialects: Khamla, Lingaayat, Nand, Ranya. Nand subdialects have 93% or higher intelligibility with Khamla dialect. Dialect used in Madhya Pradesh appears more similar to Marathi [mar] (Southern zone) than to Hindi [hin] (Central zone). Lexical similarity: 84%–92% between the Ranya and Nand dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Comments: Speakers belong to Gowli caste. 1 and a half subgroups; Nand Gowli the highest, Musalman (the half tribe) the lowest. Surrounded by Korku [kfq]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Great Andamanese, Mixed
[gac] Andaman and Nicobar, Strait island, about 100 km northeast of Port Blair. 7 (2009 A. Abbi). The last fluent speaker died in 2009. Ethnic population: 55. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andamese Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese Comments: Mixed Greater Andamanese is used only as a code language in front of outsiders.The seven existing speakers use it occasionally among themselves in day-to-day speech. Other languages in the Central Andamanese group have no remaining speakers. Great Andamanese is a Scheduled Tribe.

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Groma
[gro] Sikkim, North district, Chumbi valley. 14,000 in India (2007 Asia Harvest). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tromowa Dialects: Lower Groma, Upper Groma. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Gujarati
[guj] Gujarat; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Karnataka; Madhya Pradesh. Also in Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Pakistan, Singapore, South Africa, Tanzania, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia, Zimbabwe. 45,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 46,633,190. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in West Bengal State; union territories Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu. (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Gujerathi, Gujerati, Gujrathi Dialects: Gamadia (Ahmedabad Gamadia, Anawla, Brathela, Charotari, Eastern Broach Gujarati, Gramya, Patani, Patidari, Surati, Vadodari), Kakari, Kathiyawadi (Bhawnagari, Gohilwadi, Holadi, Jhalawadi, Sorathi), Kharwa, Parsi, Standard Gujarati (Mumbai Gujarati, Nagari, Patnuli, Saurashtra Standard), Tarimuki (Ghisadi). Memoni ethnic group reportedly speak a Kachchi [kfr] variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu, Muslim (Sunni).

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Gujari
[gju] Jammu, line of control border tahsils; Kashmir, Kukernag, Kangan, Tral, Doru, Pahalgam, Shopian, Kulgam, Handwara, Karnah, Kupwara, and Uri tahsils; Himachal Pradesh; Uttarakhand. Also in Afghanistan, Pakistan. 690,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 992,000. Ethnic population: 1,600,000 (2002) in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gogri, Gojari, Gojri, Gujar, Gujer, Gujjari, Gujuri, Gurjar, Hindki, Kashmir Gujuri, Parimu, Rajasthani Gujuri Dialects: Ajiri of Hazara. Poonchi [phr] may be understood by others and form the basis for a standard dialect. In Pakistan, Eastern Gujari appears more similar to Northern Hindko [hno] or Pahari-Potwari [phr]. Western Gujari appear to understand the Eastern dialect better than vice versa. Comparison with India varieties is needed. Lexical similarity: 60% between Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan, 76% with Poonchi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim, Hindu.

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Gurung, Western
[gvr] West Bengal, Darjeeling, Sikkim. Possibly in Myanmar. 33,000 in India (2007). Ethnic population: 112,000 of which 77,000 speak Nepali [npi]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gurung Kura Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic

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Hajong
[haj] Meghalaya, West Garo Hills district, western side, West and East Khasi hills; Assam, Goalpara, and Nagaon districts; Arunachal Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Bangladesh. 63,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 71,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haijong, Hazong Dialects: Banai, Dalu. No prestige or standard dialect recognized. Intelligible with Hajong of Bangladesh. Lexical similarity: 82%–91% between Banai dialect of Koch [kdq] and mainstream Hajong varieties, 74%–77% between Dalu dialect and mainstream Hajong varieties, 79% between Banai dialect of Koch [kdq] and Dalu, 54%–64% with Assamese [asm], 63%–67% with Bengali [ben], 74%–85% with Hajong of Bangladesh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Jharua may be an alternate name. Though linguistically different, the Banai affiliate themselves with the Koch. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Halbi
[hlb] Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat district; Chhattisgarh, Bastar district plains; Maharashtra, Gondia district; Odisha, Koraput district; Andhra Pradesh. 593,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bastari, Halabi, Halba, Halvas, Halvi, Mahari, Mehari Dialects: Adkuri, Bastari, Bhunjia, Chandari, Gachikolo, Govari of Balaghat, Kawari, Kunbi, Mahari (Mahara, Mehari), Muri (Muria), Sundi. Bhunjia [bhu] and Kawari dialect considered more divergent dialects. Reportedly a creole language. Grierson and Konow (1901–1929) called it a dialect of Marathi [mar] for convenience, but noted similarities to Bhatri [bgw], a dialect of Oriya [ory]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Haroti
[hoj] Rajasthan, Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, and Baran districts. 2,460,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hadauti, Hadothi, Hadoti, Harauti Dialects: 45% intelligibility with standard Marwari [rwr], 57%–67% with Merwari [wry], 58%–66% with Shekhawati [swv], 44%–67% with Godwari [gdx], 61%–71% with Mewari [mtr], 64%–73% with Dhundari [dhd], 52%–70% with Mewati [wtm], 55%–62% with Bagri [bgq], 83%–99% between dialects including varieties of Mina [myi], 63%–77% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Jain.

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Haryanvi
[bgc] Haryana; Rajasthan; Punjab; Karnataka; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. 8,000,000 (2001 census). Includes 107,000 Haryanvi proper (1997). Ethnic population: 16,000,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangaru, Banger, Bangri, Bangru, Chamarwa, Desari, Hariani, Hariyani, Haryani, Jatu Dialects: Bangaru Proper, Deswali, Khadar. Good intelligibility among dialects, but Haryanvi is not intelligible with Hindi. Most similar to Braj Bhasha [bra]. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Comments: Ethnonym: Bangru, used for speakers in Jind area; Khadar used by speakers in Jind to refer to the speech of Rohtak and Sonipat. Hindu, Muslim.

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Hindi
[hin] Widespread in north India: Delhi; Uttar Pradesh; Uttarakhand; Rajasthan; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; northern Bihar; Himachal Pradesh. Also in Australia, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Canada, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Germany, Guyana, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Sint Maarten, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Yemen, Zambia. 258,000,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 260,302,820. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1950, Constitution, Article 343), also statutory provincial language in Bihar State and 12 other jurisdictions. Alternate Names: Khadi Boli, Khari Boli Dialects: Formal vocabulary borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has 4 varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, standard Hindi); Urdu [urd]; Dakhini; Rekhta. Hindustani, though not listed separately in India, refers here to the unofficial lingua franca of northwest India. Has a lexical mixture in varying proportions of Hindi (vocabulary derived from Sanskrit) and Urdu (vocabulary derived from Persian or Arabic). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Hindi, Hindustani, Urdu could be considered co-dialects, but have important sociolinguistic differences. Hindu.

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Hinduri
[hii] Himachal Pradesh, Solan district, Ramshahr, Nalagarh and surrounding villages. 29,700 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Handuri Dialects: Most similar to Bilaspuri [kfs]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Baghliani dialect of Mahasu Pahari [bfz] spoken in Arki, 60% with Lower Mahasui dialect of Pahari [bfz], 56% with Upper Mahasui dialect of Pahari [bfz] and Sirmauri [srx], 64% with Hindi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Hmar
[hmr] Assam, North Cachar and Cachar districts; Manipur, south, Tipaimukh, Churachandpur, 35 villages; Mizoram, Aizawl, Cachar, and North Cachar districts; Tripura. 83,400 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Hamar, Hmari, Mhar Dialects: Similar to Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnic Hmar living in Mizoram speak Mizo [lus] as L1. Christian.

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Ho
[hoc] Jharkhand, Singhbhum district, Kolhan, Seraikella, Dhalbhum areas; Odisha, Mayurbhanj, and Koenjhar districts; West Bengal. 1,040,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bihar Ho, Lanka Kol Dialects: Chaibasa-Thakurmunda, Lohara. Most understand Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well; 90%–92% comprehend narrative discourse. Kherwari (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is group name for Ho, Mundari [unr], Munda [unx], and Santhali [sat], closely related languages, and other smaller languages or dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% between most dialects, except for 3 on Ho area east and south edges. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Different from Ho (Hani [hni]) of Myanmar, China, Viet Nam, Laos. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Holiya
[hoy] Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Balaghat districts; Maharashtra; Karnataka. 500 (2002 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gohllaru, Golari-Kannada, Holar, Holari, Hole, Holian, Holu Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada Comments: A Scheduled Caste in Madhya Pradesh. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Hrangkhol
[hra] Assam; Tripura; a few in Manipur and Mizoram. 18,700 (2000), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hrangkol, Rangkhol Dialects: Hadem. Most similar to Biete [biu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Christian, Hindu, traditional religion.

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Hruso
[hru] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, Thrizino circle, Jamiri, Husigaon, Gohainthan, Buragaon, Karangonia, Raindogonia, Yayom, Gijiri, Dijungonia, Tulu, Polatari, Raghupam, Tania, Khuppi, Bhalukpong, Balipho, and Palizi villages; East Kameng district, Seppa circle, Pisang village. 3,000 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aka, Angka, Angkae, Gusso, Hrusso, Tenae Dialects: Hruso, Levai (Bangru). No apparent wider affiliation within Tibeto-Burman. Varieties sometimes grouped under Tibeto-Burman as Hruish. Levai is similar to Miji [sjl] and may be a distinct language. Lexical similarity: 9% between Koro [jkr] and the Hruso dialect [hru]. Both are highly dissimilar to neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Hrusish Comments: ’Aka’, painted. Has 2 ethnic groups (Kavatsun and Kutsun) and an additional subdivision called Miri-Akas on the other side of Kaya River (known as Khrome) who speak Mising [mrg], not Hruso. Probably not the same as Plains Miri or Hill Miri (Mising) [mrg] (Sinha 1962). Aka in East Kameng District are called Koro Aka [jkr], distinct from Hruso Aka in West Kameng. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Idu-Mishmi
[clk] Arunachal Pradesh, Dibang Valley district; Assam; West Bengal. Also in China (Yidu Luoba). 11,000 in India (2001 census). 20% monolingual. Population total all countries: 11,080. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Chulikata” (pej.), “Chulikotta” (pej.), Ida, Idu, Midhi, Midu, Sulikota, Yidu Luoba Dialects: Most similar to Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Different from Adi [adi]. May be a dialect of Mising [mrg]. Lexical similarity: 7% with the Miju-Mishmi dialect of Miju-Mishmi [mxj], 25% with Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish Comments: Mishmi Idu is a Scheduled Tribe. May not be in the Tani group, but is related. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Indian Sign Language
[ins] Widespread. Also in Bangladesh, Pakistan. 2,680,000 in India (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, Urban Indian Sign Language Dialects: Bangalore-Chennai-Hyderabad Sign Language, Kolkata Sign Language, Mumbai-Delhi Sign Language. Over 75% of signs from all regions are related. Mumbai-Delhi dialect is most influential. Some influence from British Sign Language [bfi] in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs developed indigenously in India. Related to Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: 2% or less of deaf children attend deaf schools. In 2001, interpretive training courses initiated in Mumbai by the Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for Hearing Handicapped.

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Indo-Portuguese
[idb] Daman and Diu; Maharashtra, Korlai near Mumbai; Kerala, Kannur. Also in Sri Lanka. 4,940 in India (Cardoso 2006). Relatively few monolingual speakers even in Korlai (Cardoso 2006). Population total all countries: 4,970. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Cannanore, Cochin (Kochi), Diu. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based Comments: The term Indo-Portuguese does not stand for 1 language but rather a number of Portuguese-lexified creoles scattered across South Asia (Cardoso 2006). Christian.

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Irula
[iru] Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar districts; Karnataka; Kerala, Palakkad district, Attapady and Walayar panchayats; Andhra Pradesh. 200,000 (2003 E. Udayakumar). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erukala, Irava, Irulan, Irular, Irular Mozhi, Irulavan, Iruliga, Iruligar, Kad Chensu, Korava Dialects: Attapady Irula, Irula Urali, Mele Nadu Irula (Southern Irula), Northern Irula (Kasaba, Kasava, Kasuba), Vette Kada Irula (Irula Pallar), Walayar Irula (Urali Irula). Dialects: Vette Kada 73% intelligibility of Mele Nadu; Northern Irula 83% of Mele Nadu; no intelligibility of Tamil [tam] (1993 Irula survey); Vette Kada 94% of Attapady; Walayar 84% of Attapady. (2004 Palakkad survey). Lexical similarity: 78%–86% between Mele Nadu dialect varieties, 67%–70% with Northern Irula, 64%–66% with Vette Kada, 47%–50% with Tamil [tam]. Attapady has 73%–75% with Mele Nadu and 85%–89% with Vette Kada. Walayar has 74%–79% with Attapady, 76% with Vette Kada, and 69% with Mele Nadu. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some people called Irula speak Tamil as mother tongue. Urali Irula (Periyar) is separate from both Betta Kurumba Urali [xub] and Urali [url] in Idukki District, Kerala. 2 Urali Irula dialects in Periyar and Palakkad. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jad
[jda] Uttarakhand, Uttarkashi district, Harsil subdivision, Jadang and Nilang villages in Jad Ganga gorges. 300 (Breton 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Dzad, Rongba Dialects: Similar to Spiti Bhoti [spt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Western Comments: Some borrowing of vocabulary from Hindi [hin] and Garhwali [gbm]. Buddhist.

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Jangshung
[jna] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur district, Morang Tahsil, Jangi, Lippa, and Asrang villages. 1,990 (1998 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Kinnauri, Jangiam, Jangrami, Thebarskad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Zangram, Zhang-Zhung Dialects: Most similar to Shumcho [scu] and Sunam [ssk]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Shumcho [scu], 65% with Sunam [ssk], 51% with Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], 49% with Pahari Kinnauri [kjo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Jarawa
[anq] Andaman Islands, interior and south central Rutland island, central interior and south interior South Andaman island, Middle Andaman island, west coast, 70 square km reserve. 250 (2006 A. Abbi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different from Önge [oon] and Sentinel [std]. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Jaunsari
[jns] Uttarakhand, Dehra Dun district, Kalsi, Tiuni, and Chakrata tahsils, Jaunsar-Bawar division. 100,000 (2001 USCWM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jansauri, Jaunsauri, Pahari Dialects: Jaunsari, Jaunsari-Bawari. 97% intelligibility between dialects. Perceived by some as a Garhwali [gbm] dialect; but users perceive Garhwali as distinct and report lack of intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 70%–77% between dialects, 63%–70% with Garhwali dialects [gbm], 64% with Kumaoni [kfy], 66% with Hindi [hin], 51%–64% with Sirmauri [srx]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Juang
[jun] Odisha, south Keonjhar, north Angul, east Dhenkanal districts. 23,700 (2001 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juango, Patra-Saara, Patua, Puttooas Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 20%–22% with Kharia [khr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Juray
[juy] Odisha. 801,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Most similar to Sora [srb]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kachari
[xac] Assam, North Cachar district, Cachar hills; Nagaland, Kohima district, Dimapur, Dhansiri administrative circles. 16 villages. 59,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cachari, Plains Kachari Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe.

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Kachchi
[kfr] Gujarat, Rann of Kachchh area; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Assam; Kerala; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Odisha. Also in Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania. 823,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 873,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchhi, Kachi, Katch, Katchi, Kautchy, Kutchchi, Kutchie Dialects: Jadeji. Similar to Sindhi [snd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Kadar
[kej] Kerala, Thrissur district, Palakkad district, Chittoor taluk; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district. 1,960 (2004 survey), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kada Dialects: Phonology related to Tamil [tam] and vocabulary related to Malayalam [mal] (Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 56%–62% with Tamil [tam], 62%–65% with Malayalam [mal], 67% with Mala Malasar [ima], 61%–63 % with Kanikkaran [kev]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. 3 groups named Kadar in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Kadar who use the Kadar language live primarily Palakkad and Thrissur hills, and Coimbatore. A second group lives in Wayanad District and use Malayalam [mal]. A third Kadar (Kadir) group is in Tamil Nadu, Triuchirapalli and Tanjavur districts. They have nothing in common with Western Ghats Kadar. Seen as less developed than other tribes of Chittoor. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kaikadi
[kep] Maharashtra, Jalgaon district; Karnataka. 23,700 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaikadia, Kaikai, Kokadi Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kalanadi
[wkl] Kerala State, Wayanad district, southwest. 750 (2004 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Malayalam [mal], 74% with Paniya [pcg], 72%–75% with Wayanad Kurichiya [kfh], 79%–83% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb], 88% with Pathiya [pty], 81% with Kunduvadi [wku]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: Common cultural origin with Kunduvadiyar and Pathiyar. Hindu.

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Kamar
[keq] Madhya Pradesh, Rewa district; Chhattisgarh, Raipur district; Maharashtra. 40,000 (2003 BI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. No relationship between the Kamar caste of iron workers in Bengal and Chota Nagpur and this ethnic group. May be an Indo-Aryan language. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kamta
[rkt] West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Uttar Dinajpur, Koch Bihar, and Darjeeling districts; Assam, Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts. 5,000,000 in India (2007 M. Toulmin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goalparia, Kamtapuri, Koch Rajbanshi, Rajbangsi, Rajbanshi, Rajbansi, Rajbongshi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Strong language movement and Kamta has been become a symbol of community political aspirations. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kanashi
[xns] Himachal Pradesh, Kullu district, Kullu tahsil, glen of Bios valley, Malana (Malani) village area. 1,400 (Chauhan 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanasi, Malani Dialects: No intelligibility with any Tibeto-Burman languages of Lahul-Spiti and Kinnaur (Chauhan). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Surrounded by Indo-Aryan languages. Malana village has the oldest surviving democracy in the world. They practice their own parliamentary form of government. Hindu.

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Kanauji
[bjj] Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Hardoi, Shahjahanpur, Pilibhit, Mainpuri, and Auraiya districts. 9,500,000 (2001 USCWM). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhakha, Braj, Braj Kanauji, Dehati, Kannauji Dialects: Kanauji Proper, Tirhari, Transitional Kanauji. Transitional Kanauji dialect is between Kanauji and Awadhi [awa]. Grierson and Konow (1901–1929) call it a form of Braj Bhasha [bra]. The variety spoken in Kannauj and Farrukhabad is considered the pure form. Lexical similarity: 84%–97% between all varieties of Kanauji, 72%–76% with Bundeli [bns], 70%–78% with Braj Bhasha [bra], 83%–94% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Comments: Kanauji may be only a name given by scholars. Language not commonly referred to as Kanauji. Very low identity. Regard their language as a variety of Hindi [hin]. However, a small local group is interested in promoting Kanauji before it dies out. Hindu.

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Kangri
[xnr] Himachal Pradesh, Kangra, Hamirpur, and Una districts. 1,700,000 (1996 Survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kangra-Dogri, Pahari, Pahari Kangri Dialects: Hamirpuri, Palampuri. Lexical similarity: Palampuri dialect; 90% with Bilaspuri [kfs] and Chambeali [cdh], 89% with Mandeali [mjl], 83% with Bhattiyali [bht], 80% with the MacLeod Ganj dialect of Gaddi [gbk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Kanikkaran
[kev] Kerala, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Koliam, and Trivandrum districts, Neyyattinkara and Nedumangadu taluks; Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli districts. 19,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 19,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanikkar, Kannikan, Kannikaran, Kannikharan, Malampashi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71%–80% between Kanikkaran varieties in Kerala, 67%–71% between Kanikkaran in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, 66%–75% with Malayalam [mal], 59%–65% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kanjari
[kft] Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Sitapur, and Kheri districts; Rajasthan; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. 91,200 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kagari, Kangar Bhat, Kangri, Kanjri Dialects: Kuchbandhi. May be in the Panjabi group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Sometimes called a language of Gypsies who reportedly use certain linguistic means of disguising their language to make it unintelligible to outsiders. A Scheduled Caste who speak a dialect of Hindi [hin] in Uttar Pradesh, a dialect of Mewari [mtr] in Rajasthan, and Hindi in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (Singh 1995).

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Kannada
[kan] Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra. Also in Canada, United States. 37,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 37,739,040. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in West Bengal (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Banglori, Canarese, Kanarese, Madrassi Dialects: Aine Kuruba, Bellary, Bijapur, Gulbarga, Jeinu Kuruba, Kumta, Nanjangud. About 20 dialects; Badaga may be one. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

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Karbi
[mjw] Assam, Karbi Anglong district, Mikir and Rengma hills, Nagaon, Darrang, Marigaon, Sonitpur, Lakhimpur, and North Cachar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Papumpare district, Balijan circle; Meghalaya, Jaintia district; Nagaland, foothills around Dimapur. 420,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arleng Alam, Karbi Karbak, Manchati, “Mikir” (pej.), “Mikiri” (pej.), Nihang, Puta Dialects: Chingthang (Jynthong), Mirlong, Rong Kethang (Rengkhang, Rongkhang). Lexical similarity: 82%–96% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Karbi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Kashmiri
[kas] Jammu and Kashmir; Punjab; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Kashmir valley. Also in Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States. 5,360,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 5,580,830. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347). Alternate Names: Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshur, Koshur Dialects: Bakawali, Bunjwali, Kishtwari (Kashtawari, Kashtwari, Kathiawari, Kistwali), Miraski, Poguli, Rambani, Riasi, Shah-Mansuri, Siraji of Doda, Siraji-Kashmiri, Standard Kashmiri, Zayoli, Zirak-Boli. Transitional dialects to Panjabi [pan]. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri [dgo]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri Comments: Muslim, Hindu, Sikh.

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Katkari
[kfu] Maharashtra, Raigad and Thane districts, Sahayadri Range foothills; Rajasthan, northwest, Onga, Samicha Parebati, Mubusha, and Jhadol police station areas; Gujarat, Surat, Bharuch, Sabarkantha, and Dang districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Amboli and Dapada Panchayat areas. 12,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 294,000 Kathodi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katakari, Katari, Kathodi, Katvadi Dialects: Central Katkari, Northern Katkari, Southern Katkari. Referred to as a dialect of Marathi [mar]. 89%–96% intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 67%–75% with Marathi [mar], 77%–90% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. L1 in Maharashtra is Marathi [mar], in Dadra and Nagar Haveli is Kukna [kex], in Gujarat is a variety of Marathi [mar], in Rajasthan is Kathodi, a variety of Marathi [mar] (Singh 1994:475–479). Hindu, traditional religion.

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Khaling
[klr] Darjeeling and Sikkim area, scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khael Baat, Khael Bra, Khalinge Rai Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western

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Khamba
[kbg] Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang district, Singa circle, Yang Sang Chu valley, Nyering, Nuykkang, Yortung, Mankota, and Tashigong villages. 1,330 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khamba Khaadi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: Buddhist.

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Khamti
[kht] Assam, Lakimpur district, Barkhamti, Barigaon, Deotola, Tunijan, Sribhuyan, Barpathar, and Tipling villages, Dibrugarh District; Arunachal Pradesh, Siang and Lohit districts, Chakham, Memong, Barpathar, Mime, Kheram, M. Pong, and Man Khao villages in Namsai subdivision, and Ningro, Nanam, Inten, Nathaw, Mamareng, Mahang villages in Lohit. 5,000 in India (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hkamti, Khampti, Kham-Tai, Khamti Shan, Khantis, Tai Kham Ti Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Khamti. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist (Hinayana).

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Khamyang
[ksu] Assam, Tinsukia district, Pawaimukh village. 50 (2003 S. Morey). Ethnic population: Over 800. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Khamiyang, Khamjang, Shyam, Tai Khamyang, Tai Nora Dialects: Similar to Phake [phk] of Assam and Shan [shn] of Myanmar. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Close affinity to the Khampti of Arunachal. Several thousand Assamese may use their ethnic group name. Buddhist.

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Khandesi
[khn] Maharashtra, Dhule district, Sakri tahsil; Nasik district, Satna tahsil; Nandurbar district, Nandurbar, and Shahada tahsils; Gujarat. 21,900 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhed Gujari, Khandeshi, Khandeshi Bhili, Khandish, Maharashtra Bhil Dialects: Dangri, Khandesi, Kotali Bhil, Kunbi (Kunbau), Rangari. All varieties of Khandesi tested at 90% or higher intelligibility with each other. A group of Kukna in Dhule District speak Khandesi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi Comments: See also Dhanki [dhn]. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kharia
[khr] Primarily Jharkhand, Ranchi district, Simdega subdivision, Thethaitangar Anchal and Kolebira Anchal in Khunti subdivision; West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum, Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Jashpur, Durg, Bilaspur, and Raipur districts; Odisha, Sundargarh, Sambalpur, and Mayurbhanj districts; Assam; Tripura; West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Dhelki dialect mainly in Jashpur, northwest Gangpur (Raigarh) and Sundargarh; Dudh dialect is east and south, in southern Ranchi, Gangpur (Raigarh) and western Sambalpur. Also in Nepal. 240,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 241,580. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haria, Khadia, Khariya, Kharvi, Khatria, Kheria Dialects: Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Mirdha-Kharia. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal. A Scheduled Caste in Tripura. Christian, Hindu.

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Kharia Thar
[ksy] West Bengal, Purulia district, Bundwan, Manbazar, Purulia Muffasil, Puncha, Balrampur, Barabazar, and Hura blocks; Bankura district, Raipur, Ranibandh, and Indpur blocks; West Medinipur district, Binpur block; Jharkhand, East Singhbhum district, Potka, Dhalbhumgarh, Ghatsila, Musabani, Dumaria, and Chakulia blocks; a few in West Singhbhum district. Less than 25,000 L1 speakers; many have shifted to Bengali [ben] or Oriya [ori]. Ethnic population: 25,500 (2007 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: A Western subdialect of Bengali [ben] (Grierson and Konow 1901–1929). Lexical similarity: 57%–90% among varieties of Kharia Thar, 53%–63% with Bengali [ben], 51%–67% with Oriya [ory], 57%–75% with Lodhi [lbm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Ethnonym: Kheria, Erenga, or Pahari. Ethnic autonym: Sabar. Traditional religion.

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Khasi
[kha] Meghalaya, East and West Khasi Hills, and Jaintia Hills districts; Assam, Cachar, Nagaon, North Cachar Hills, Lakhimpur, and Kamrup districts; Manipur; West Bengal; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh. 843,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Meghalaya State (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347 inclusive), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Kahasi, Kassi, Khasa, Khashi, Khasiyas, Khuchia Dialects: Bhoi-Khasi, Khasi (Cherrapunji, Sohra), Khynrium, War. Bhoi Khasi in East Khasi Hills, Nongpoh block, and Nonglung in East Khasi Hills, Umksning block are very different from standard Khasi, with different word order. Many varieties have only partial mutual inherent intelligibility. War dialect is separate from War-Jaintia [aml]. Cherrapunji (Sohra) is the standard. Lexical similarity: 75% between War dialect and standard Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, Hindu, Muslim.

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Khirwar
[kwx] Chhattisgarh, Surguja district, at Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh borders. 34,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kherwari, Khirwara Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: Khirwar is a subgroup of the Gonds. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Khowar
[khw] 19,200 in India (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral Comments: Muslim.

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Kinnauri
[kfk] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur, Lahul-Spiti districts, Chauhra to Sangla and north along Satluj river to Morang, upper Ropa river valley villages; Shimla and Rampur area; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Kashmir. 65,100 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanauri, Kanaury Anuskad, Kanawari, Kanawi, Kanoreunu Skad, Kanorin Skad, Kanorug Skadd, Kinnaura Yanuskad, Kinner, Kinori, Koonawure, Kunawari, Kunawur, Lower Kinnauri, Malhesti, Milchan, Milchanang, Milchang, Tibas Skad Dialects: Dialect at Nichar has 79% inherent intelligibility of Sangla. Other varieties have functional intelligibility of each other. Related languages: Kanashi [xns], Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], and Jangshung Tukpa [jna]. Lexical similarity: 76%–90% among varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Kinnauri, Bhoti
[nes] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur district, Morang tahsil, upper Kinnauri Sutlej river basin where it becomes Spiti river, Morang tahsil, Nesang village, Puh tahsil, Puh village. Possibly in Kuno, Charang villages. 6,790 (2000 USCWM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotea of Upper Kinnauri, Bod-Skad, Bud-Kat, Myamkat, Myamskad, Nyamkat, Nyamskad, Puh, Sangs-Rgyas, Sangyas Dialects: May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tukpa [tpq], 63% with Mane village, 59% with Darcha village, 54% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Kinnauri, Chitkuli
[cik] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur district, Nichar subdivision, Sangla valley, Baspa river area, Chitkul and Rakchham villages. 1,060 (1998 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chitkhuli, Chitkuli, Kanauri, Kinnauri, Thebarskad, Tsíhuli, Tsitkhuli Dialects: Lexical similarity: 46% with Kinnauri [kfk], 51% with Jangshung [jna], 43% with Shumcho [scu], 38% with Sunam [ssk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Kinnauri, Pahari
[kjo] Himachal Pradesh, throughout Kinnaur district. 6,330 (1998 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boli, Chamang Boli, “Harija” (pej.), “Harijan Boli” (pej.), “Kinnauri, Harijan” (pej.), Lower Kinnauri, Orasi, Ores, Sonar Boli Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Spoken by Scheduled Castes throughout Kinnaur District.

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Koch
[kdq] Meghalaya, West Garo Hills district; Assam, Goalpara, Nagaon districts; Tripura; West Bengal; Bihar. Also in Bangladesh. 30,000 in India (2007 survey), increasing. Almost no monolinguals. Includes only the Koch of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India. Population total all countries: 36,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koc, Kocch, Koce, Kocha, Kochboli, Konch Dialects: Harigaya, Margan (Dasgaya), Tintekiya, Wanang. Tintekiya in Meghalaya is intelligible with same dialect in Bangladesh; Tintekiya not intelligible with other Koch dialects; Koch-Rabha and Harigaya are mutually intelligible with Wanang; Dasgaya and Harigaya are mutually intelligible; these form a dialect chain (Koch-Rabha-Wanang-Harigaya-Dasgaya-Tintekiya). Lexical similarity: 90% between Tintekiya Koch of India and Bangladesh; Tintekiya: 44%–55% with other Koch dialects; Kock: 31%–39% with Rongdani Rabha [rah], 13%–17% with Garo [grt]. Lexical borrowing is heavier when it comes to high register vocabulary; Koch has borrowed words from Bangla [ben], Assamese [asm] and Hajong [haj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Koch Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Meghalaya. Koch-Rabha belongs to Koch linguistically and ethnically but claims identity with the Rabha for political reasons. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Koda
[cdz] West Bengal, Burdwan, and Bankura. 43,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaora, Kora, Korali, Korati, Kore, Mudi, Mudikora Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari

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Kodaku
[ksz] Chhattisgarh, Surguja district; Jharkhand, Palamau, Garhwa districts; Uttar Pradesh, Sonbhadra district. 15,700 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koraku Dialects: A subgroup of Korwa [kfp] (Parkin 1991). Lexical similarity: 82%–96% between varieties, 50%–70% with Korwa [kfp]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari Comments: Grouped with Korwa on Scheduled Tribes list in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Ethnic autonym: Korwa in Jharkhand, though language used is Kodaku. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kodava
[kfa] Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) district, around Mercara, Malayalam border south. 200,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 100,000 in Kodagu District plus 100,000 in other districts of Karnataka and major cities of India. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Coorge, Kadagi, Khurgi, Kodagu, Kotagu, Kurja, Kurug Dialects: May be more than 1 language. 66% intelligibility of Malappuram [pcg]. Lexical similarity: 72% with Malappuram Paniya [pcg]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu Comments: A symbol of identity. ‘Kodagu’, situated to the west. Northern variety has emerged as standard and is used in Kodava literature (Rajyashree 2001). Hindu, traditional religion.

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Koireng
[nkd] Manipur, Senapati district, Saikul and Kangpokpi subdivisions, 5 villages; Bishnupur district, 3 villages south of Moirang; Chandel district, 2 villages near Palel; Nagaland. 3,000 (2002 BCA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koirng, Kolren, Koren, Kwoireng, Liangmai, Liangmei, Liyang, Liyangmai, Lyengmai, Quoireng Dialects: Not intelligible with any related speech varieties (1991 P. Khasung). Lexical similarity: 62%–68% with Aimol [aim], 60%–66% with Purum [pub], 64% with Kharam Naga [kfw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: Different from Liangmai Naga [njn]. A Scheduled Tribe. Assigned under 3 different Naga groups politically. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kok Borok
[trp] Tripura; Assam. Also in Bangladesh. 778,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 783,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Tripura State (1964, Official Languages Act No. 19 (as amended)), not a Schedule VIII language. Alternate Names: Kakbarak, Kokbarak, Tipura, Tripura, Tripuri, Usipi Mrung Dialects: Debbarma, Jamatia, Noatia (Tipra). Debbarma is spoken by the royal family and is medium of communication with the other dialects; understood by all, but not vice versa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Hindu, Christian.

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Kolami, Northwestern
[kfb] Maharashtra, Yavatmal, Wardha, and Nanded districts; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. 122,000 (2001 census). All Kolami 115,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kolam, Kolamboli, Kolamy, Kolmi, Kulme Dialects: Madka-Kinwat, Maregaon, Pulgaon, Wani. Northwestern [kfb] and Southeastern Kolami [nit] not inherently intelligible. Neither is intelligible of Bodo Parja [bdv], Gadaba [gau], or Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Lexical similarity: 61%–68% with Southeastern Kolami [nit]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki Comments: Kolam is a Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kolami, Southeastern
[nit] Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad district; Maharashtra, Chandrapur, and Nanded districts. 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). 1,500 speakers of Naiki (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Asifabad, Metla-Kinwat, Naiki, Utnur. Not intelligible with Northwestern Kolami [kfb]. Rao (1950) reports another dialect in Chinnoor and Sirpur taluks of Adilabad District. The Naiki dialect is different from Naikri (Zvelebil 1970:13). Lexical similarity: 85%–88% with Naiki and other Southeastern Kolami dialects, 83% with the Metla-Kinwat and Utnur, 86% with Asifabad and Utnur, 60%–74% with Northwestern Kolami [kfb]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki

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Koli, Kachi
[gjk] Gujarat, Rann of Kachchh district, centered around Bhuj. 400,000 in India (1998). 100,000 Kachi Koli, 250,000 Rabari, 50,000 or more Vagri Meghwar, Katai Meghwar, and Zalavaria Koli. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bajania, Kachi, Kachi Gujarati, Katchi, Kohli, Kolhi, Koli, Kori, Kuchi, Kuchikoli, Vagari, Vagaria, Vaghri Dialects: Kachi, Kachi Bhil, Katai Meghwar, Rabari (Rahabari), Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Zalavaria Koli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu.

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Koli, Wadiyara
[kxp] Gujarat, near Wadhyar town. Also in Pakistan. 404,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 579,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaria, Wadhiara Dialects: Tharadari Koli. Mewasi [kxp] and Wadiyara are almost the same linguistically and are converging as a caste. Dialects listed are distinct sociolinguistic endogamous ethnic groups. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati

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Kom
[kmm] East and central Manipur, Churachandpur, Tamenglong, and Senapati districts, 22 villages. 14,700 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kom Rem Dialects: Kolhreng. Kolhreng may be a distinct language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Konda-Dora
[kfc] Konda-Dora in Andhra Pradesh, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, and East Godavari districts; Kubi in Odisha, Koraput district; Assam. 20,000 (2007 WFA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Porja Dialects: Konda-Dora (Konda), Kubi. Konda and Kubi dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 83% between Konda-Dora and Kubi dialect, 28%–36% with Telugu [tel]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Glossonym: Konda-Dora. Ethnonym: Porja. Many ethnic Porja have adopted Telugu as L1. The Porja are well established as two groups: the Pedda Kondalu and Chinna Kondalu. The Pedda Kondalu retain most of their traditional culture; however, the Chinna Kondalu have been heavily influenced by the Telugu. Traditional religion.

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Konkani
[kok] Population total all countries: 6,057,440. Comments: Member languages are: Goan Konkani [gom], Konkani [knn]

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Konkani
[knn] North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra; Karnataka; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Kerala. Also in Canada. 2,420,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 2,423,540. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Goa State (1992, Constitution, 71st Amendment). Alternate Names: Bankoti, Central Konkan, Concorinum, Cugani, Kathodi, Katvadi, Konkan Standard, Konkanese, Konkani Mangalorean, Kunabi, North Konkan Dialects: Agari of Kolaba, Bhandari, Chitapavani, Dhanagari, Ghati (Maoli), Karhadi, Kiristav, Koli, Mahari (Dhed, Holia, Parvari), Parabhi (Damani, Kayasthi), Sangamesvari (Bakoti, Bankoti), Thakuri (Thakari, Thakri, Thakua, Thakura). Dialects closely related; Chitapavani recognized as standard Konkani. Local fishermen use the Koli dialect (Hukkeri). Related to Katkari [kfu] (dialects: Kathodi, Katvadi), Varli [vav], Phudagi [phd], Samvedi [smv], Mangelas. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Konkani, Goan
[gom] South coast strip of Maharashtra, Ratnagari district; Goa; Karnataka; Kerala. Also in Kenya, United Arab Emirates. 3,630,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,633,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goan, Gomataki, Konknni, Southern Kanara Dialects: Bardeskari (Gomantaki), Chitpavani (Konkanasths), Daldi (Nawaits), Kudali (Malvani), Mangalore Standard Konkani (Goan), Sarasvat Brahmin. Daldi and Chitapavani [knn] are intermediate varieties between Goan Konkani [gom] and standard Konkani [knn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani Comments: Christian.

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Koraga, Korra
[kfd] Karnataka, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts; Kerala, Kannur, and Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu. 14,000 (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koragar, Koragara, Korangi, Korra Dialects: Ande, Onti, Tappu. Related to Tulu [tcy], Bellari [brw]. Not intelligible with Mudu Koraga [vmd], Tulu [tcy], or Kannada [kan]. Structural differences in phonology with Mudu Koraga. According to Bhat (1968), there are 4 dialects: Onti (spoken in Udupi), Tappu (in Hebri), Mudu (in Coondapur), Ande (in Mangalore). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga Comments: Koraga is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Koraga, Mudu
[vmd] Kerala. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Muudu Dialects: Distinct from Korra Koraga [kfd], Tulu [tcy], or Kannada [kan]. Structural differences in phonology with Korra Koraga. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga Comments: Koraga is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Korku
[kfq] South Madhya Pradesh, south Betul district, north, and Betul city area, Hoshangabad district, East Nimar (Khandwa) district; north Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts. 574,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bondeya, Bopchi, Korki, Kuri, Kurku, Kurku-Ruma, Ramekhera Dialects: Bondoy, Bouriya, Mawasi (Muasi, Muwasi), Ruma. Dialects in northern Maharashtra and south central Madhya Pradesh constitute one language; 82% to 97% intelligibility among them; Bouriya most widely understood. Lexical similarity: 76%–82% with Laki Bouriya dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Korku Comments: Different from Koraku [ksz]. A Scheduled Tribe in India. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Korlai Creole Portuguese
[vkp] Maharashtra, Korlai, 200 km south of Mumbai, west coast. 750 (1998 J. Clements). 250 families (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Creole Portuguese Dialects: A blend of Portuguese [por] and Marathi [mar]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based Comments: Christian.

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Koro
[jkr] Arunachal Pradesh, East Kameng district. 1,500 (2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aka Koro Dialects: Similar to Hruso [hru]. Lexical similarity: 9% with Hruso [hru]. Both are highly dissimilar to neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: Part of the Aka ethnic group.

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Korwa
[kfp] Jharkhand, Palamau, Garhwa and Gumla districts; Chhattisgarh, Jashpur, Surguja, Raigarh, Korba, Bilaspur and districts; Odisha, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts; Uttar Pradesh, Mirzapur district; West Bengal; Andhra Pradesh; Maharashtra. 34,600 (2001 census). Few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ernga, Singli Dialects: Majhi-Korwa. Lexical similarity: 71%–92% between dialects, 50%–70% with Kodaku [ksz], 26%–36% with local Sadri [sck] spoken by Dihari Korwa. Lexical similarity with Sadri (an Indo-Aryan language) shows noticeable influence of Sadri on Korwa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal. Also a Scheduled Caste in Uttar Pradesh speaking Hindi as mother tongue (Singh 1995). Korwa divided into two groups: Pahadi (hill dwellers) and Dihari (plains dwellers). No intermarriage. Hindu, Muslim.

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Kota
[kfe] Tamil Nadu, Sholur Kokkal, New Kotagiri, Kilkotagiri, Kollimalai, Kundah Kotagiri, Trichicady, and Gudalur settlements; a few in Ooty, Coonoor, Indunagar, Aravankavu, and Wellington; Chennai. 930 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kother-Tamil, Kotta, Kowe-Adiwasi Dialects: Ko Bashai. Lexical similarity: 35% with Badaga [bfq], 38% with Tamil [tam], 36% with Malayalam [mal], 24% with Toda [tcx]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Endogamous within the ethnic group. Hindu.

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Koya
[kff] Andhra Pradesh, south of Godavari river, adjoining districts north of the river; Odisha, Koraput district, Malkangiri subdivision; Chhattisgarh, Bastar district; Maharashtra. 362,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kavor, Kaya, Koa, Koi, Koi Gondi, Koitar, Koyato, Koyi, Raj Koya Dialects: Dorli (Chintoor Koya, Dor Koi, Dora, Dora Koi, Dorla Koitur, Dorla Koya, Korla), Jaganathapuram Koya (Godavari Koya, Gommu Koya), Malkangiri Koya, Podia Koya (Gotte Koya). Linguistic center is Chintoor. Malkangiri and Podia are more divergent. Separate from Northern Gondi [gno] and Southern Gondi [ggo]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kudiya
[kfg] Karnataka, Kodagu, Dakshina, and Kannada districts; Kerala, Kannur, and Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu. 2,800 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Male Kudiya Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kudmali
[kyw] Jharkhand, east side; West Bengal, west Purulia, Bankura Malda, Nadia, and Western Midnapur districts; Odisha, Keonjhar, Mayourbhanj, and Sundargargh districts; Assam, Darrang, Sonitpur, Golaghat, and Jorhat districts. 37,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedia, Dharua, Khotta, Kurmali, Kurmali Thar, Kurumali Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58%–89% between varieties, 61%–86% with Panchpargania [tdb], 58%–72% with Khortha, 51%–73% with Sadri [sck], 46%–53% with Oriya [ory], 41%–55% with Bengali [ben], 44%–58% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Kudmali is spoken by the Kurmi people of Assam brought to the tea gardens from Bihar, Odisha, and West Bengal. Hindu.

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Kui
[kxu] Odisha, Phulbani, Koraput, and Ganjam districts; Ganjam, Udayagiri area; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Tamil Nadu. 916,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 410,000 ethnic Kui Khond who speak Kui plus additional ethnic groups. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanda, Kandh, Khond, Khondi, Khondo, Kodu, Kodulu, Kuinga, Kuy Dialects: Gumsai, Khondi. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi Comments: Different from Kuvi [kxv] and Koya [kff] (Koi). Kondh is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Kukna
[kex] Gujarat, Dangs and Valsad districts; Maharashtra, Dhule, Nasik, and Thane districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Karnataka, Dakshina Kannada (Kanara) district; Rajasthan. 111,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanara, Kanara Konkani, Kokna, Kokni Dialects: Dhule District Kukna has 98%–100% intelligibility with Khandesi [khn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani Comments: May be the same as Dhanki [dhn]. Hindu.

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Kulung
[kle] Sikkim, Assam Lingzey, Zoom and many other places; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri district; Uttarakhand, Dehradun; Assam. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kholung, Khulung, Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern

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Kumaoni
[kfy] Uttarakhand, Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, and Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Central Kumaoni dialect is in Almora and north Nainital; Northeastern Kumaoni in Pithoragarh; Southeastern Kumaoni in southeast Nainital; Western Kumaoni is west of Almora and Nainital. 2,360,000 (1998 survey). 20% monolingual (1998 SIL). Scattered in Nepal border area. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kamaoni, Kumau, Kumauni, Kumawani, Kumgoni, Kumman, Kunayaoni Dialects: Central Kumaoni, Northeastern Kumaoni, Southeastern Kumaoni, Western Kumaoni. Reportedly, eastern dialects are different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali [gbm] and Nepali [npi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Central Pahari Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kumarbhag Paharia
[kmj] Jharkhand, central former Santhal Pargana district, Godda district, Sundar Pahardi block, Pakaur district except southernmost block. Reported in West Bengal, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts; Odisha, Mayurbhanj. 12,500 (Bhaskararao 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumar, Mad, Mal, Maler, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Paharia, Pahariya Dialects: Low comprehension of Mal Paharia [mkb]. Related to Kurux [kru]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Mal Paharia [mkb]. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Part of the Malto ethnic group. Traditional religion.

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Kumbaran
[wkb] Kerala, Wayanad, Kozhikode, and Malappuram districts; Palakkad, Trissur, Ernakkulam, and Kannur; all states in peninsular India. 10,000 (2004 NLCI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Reportedly cannot understand Telugu [tel] on Wayanad District radio. Lexical similarity: 48% with Telugu [tel]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: Kumbaran are a subcaste of Chettiars (or Adi Andhra) whose caste occupation is pottery or any work with mud or clay. Ethnonym: Adi Andhra (a Scheduled Caste). Ethnic autonym: Kusavan. Kusavan caste also speaks Kumbaran. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kunduvadi
[wku] Kerala, Wayanad district, Puthadi, Purakkadi, and Pulpalli villages; Kozhikode district, Vythiri taluk, Cheeyambam, Irulambam, Manaluvayal, Pakkam, and Porakady villages. 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Like Malayalam [mal] but with peculiar intonation and dialect virtually unintelligible to others (Shashi 1994; Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 65% with Malayalam [mal], 61% with Aranadan [aaf], 83% with Pathiya [pty], 81% with Kalanadi [wkl]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: Common cultural origin with Kalanadiyar and Pathiyar. Hindu.

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Kupia
[key] Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam and East Godavari districts. 6,600 (2007). Ethnic population: 79,000 Valmiki (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Valmiki Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonym: Valmiki. Ethnic Valmiki not the same as L1 Kupia speakers. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kurichiya
[kfh] Kerala, Wayanad district, Mananthavady and Vythiri tahsils; Kannur and Kozhikode districts. 29,400 (2004 survey). Ethnic population: 32,800 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kowohans, Kurichchan, Kurichchia, Kurichia, Kurichiyars, Kuruchans Dialects: Kunnam, Wayanad. Lexical similarity: 60%–66% between dialects; Wayanad dialect 67%–71% with Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Consider themselves higher caste than Brahmin. An endangered language (CIIL). Further study is being done at Annamalai University. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Kurmukar
[kfv] Assam, Barpeta, Goalpara, and Dhubri districts; Tripura; West Bengal; Bihar; a few in Madhya Pradesh. 3,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamar, Karmakar, Karmokar, Kumbhakar, Kumhar, Umar Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: A dialect of Bengali [ben] which differs a lot from the standard (Singh, Bardoloi, and Athaparia 2003). Hindu.

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Kurumba, Alu
[xua] Tamil Nadu, east Nilgiri Hills. 2,500 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alu Kurumba Nonstandard Kannada, Hal Kurumba, Pal Kurumba Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% between Alu Nonstandard Kannada and Pal. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kurumba, Attapady
[pkr] Kerala State, Palakkad district, Attapady block. 1,370 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kurumba, Pal Kurumba Dialects: Separate from Alu Kurumba [xua] and Kurumba Kannada [kfi]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Muduga [udg]; 61%–70% with Irula [iru], 50% with Alu Kurumba [xua], 52% with Kurumba Kannada, 55% with Malayalam [mal], 58% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: The least developed language group in Attapady. Thudukki variety is reportedly most pure. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kurumba, Betta
[xub] Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri district, Gudalur and Panthalur taluks; Karnataka, Kodagu district, Virarajendrapet and Somvarpet taluks; Mysore district, Heggadadevanakote and Piriyapatna taluks; Chamrajnagar district, Gundlupet taluk; Kerala, Wayanad district, S. Bathery, Mananthavady and Vythiri taluks. 32,000 (2003 NLCI), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kadu Kurumba, Urali Kurumba Dialects: A nonstandard variety of Tamil [tam] or Kannada [kan]. May be same as Betta Kurumba dialect in Coorg District. Lexical similarity: 59%–77% among groups that are called Betta Kurumba. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: ’Kadu Kurumba’, jungle shepherds. ‘Betta Kurumba’, hill shepherds. 3 subdivisions: Ane (elephant) Kurumba, Bevina (neem tree) Kurumba, and Kolli (fire-brand) Kurumba. A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Kurumba, Jennu
[xuj] North Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka border, east of Kerala border, Karnataka, Mysore and Kodagu districts; Kerala, Wayanad district. 35,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jen Kurumba, Jennu Kurumba, Jennu Nudi, Kattu Nayaka, Naik Kurumba, Naikan, Nonstandard Kannada, Shola Nayakan, Ten Kurumba Dialects: May or may not be the same as Jeinu Kuruba dialect of Kannada [kan]. Lexical similarity: 61%–83% among varieties called Jennu Kurumba, less than 60% with Betta Kurumba [xub] dialects. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu Comments: ’Jennu Kurumba’, honey shepherds. A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kurumba, Kannada
[kfi] Tamil Nadu, Teni district, Kambam valley; Dindigul district, Sirumalai, Senkuruchi Hillocks, and Palani; Coimbatore district, Pollachi, Western Fields, and Western Gate Hills; Dharmapuri, Vellore, Chingalpattu, and Salem districts; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. 180,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Canarese, Korambar, Kuramwari, Kuremban, Kuruba, Kuruban, Kurubar, Kurubas Kuruma, Kuruman, Kurumans, Kurumar, Kurumba, Kurumban, Kurumbar, Kurumbas, Kurumvari, Palu Kurumba, Southern Nonstandard Kannada Dialects: Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Pudukottai. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu Comments: Reportedly 3 groups of Gowda: Okkili, Anuppa, and Kurumba, which may be languages or dialects of 1 language. Sometimes referred to as Alu or Palu Kurumba, but is a different language from Alu Kurumba [zua] in the hills. Kurumba and Kuruman are different Scheduled Tribes. Hindu.

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Kurumba, Mullu
[kpb] Kerala, east Wayanad district, Sulthan Bathery and Vythiri tahsils; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri district, west Gudalur tahsil, Erumad and Cherangodu villages, 10 hamlets. 26,000 (2004 survey). 25,000 in Wayanad; 1,000 in Gudalur of Nilgiri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 89%–92% between Mullu Kurumba varieties in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, 73%–77% with Malayalam [mal], 56%–65% with Tamil [tam], 22%–36% with Kannada Kurumba [kfi], 29%–41% with other Kurumba languages. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Mullukuruman and Mullukurumbar are sometimes referred to as different tribes. Kuruman are in Kerala and Kurumbar in Tamil Nadu. Linguistically can be considered one group. Hindu.

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Kurux
[kru] Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, and Surguja districts; Jharkhand Ranchi district; West Bengal, Jalpaigiri district; Bihar; Odisha, Sundargarh and Jharsuguda districts; Assam; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan. 1,890,000 in India (2001 census). 1,750,000 Kurukh or Oraon, 141,000 Kisan. Population total all countries: 1,944,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birhor, Kadukali, Kisan, Koda, Kola, Kora, Kuda, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunna, Kunrukh, Kunuk, Kurka, Kurukh, Morva, Oraon, Urang, Uraon Dialects: Kisan, Oraon. Kisan and Oraon dialects have 73% intelligibility. Oraon becoming standard. Related to Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Different from Nepali Kurux [kxl]. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Kisan and Oraon are Scheduled Tribes. Hindu, Christian.

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Kuvi
[kxv] Odisha, Koraput, Kalahandi, Ganjam, and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, and Srikakulam districts. 158,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jatapu, Khondh, Khondi, Kond, Kuvi Kond, Kuvinga, Kuwi Dialects: Dongria Khond, Laxmipur, Rayagada. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi Comments: Kondh is a Scheduled Tribe. Distinct from Kui [kxu] and Koi (Koya). Hindu.

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Ladakhi
[lbj] Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh district. 250 villages and hamlets. Also in China. 105,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 117,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ladak, Ladakh Skat, Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladwags Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Nubra Ladakhi, Shamma (Lower Ladakhi, Sham, Shamskat). Perhaps 30%–40% intelligibility of Tibetan [bod]. Leh users comprehend 90% of Zangskari [zau] and Changthang [cna]. Nubra and Shamma not adequately intelligible with Leh to use the same educational, literacy, or development materials. Changthang and Zanskar, while understanding Stod Bhoti [sbu] better than Leh dialect, identify more with Leh Ladakhi culture. 58% to 85% intelligibility of Leh by Changthang, 73%–81% by Zanskar. Lexical similarity: 71%–83% with Purik [prx], 53%–60% with Tibetan, 84%–94% among 5 main dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: Written Ladakhi is distinct from spoken forms. Leh dialect is acknowledged as standard spoken Ladakhi. It is the medium of Leh radio broadcasts and standard medium of communication among all Ladakh dialects, including Changthang and Zangskari (Paldan 2002). Buddhist, Muslim.

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Lambadi
[lmn] Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh; Gujarat; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Odisha; West Bengal. 4,150,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: Estimates range up to 40,000,000 for the total group. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangala, Banjara, Banjari, Banjori, Banjuri, Brinjari, Gohar-Herkeri, Goola, Gormati, Gurmarti, Kora, Labhani, Labhani Muka, Lamadi, Lamani, Lambani, Lambara, Lavani, Lemadi, Lumadale, Singali, Sugali, Sukali, Tanda, Vanjari, Wanji Dialects: Andhra Pradesh Lamani (Telugu Lamani), Karnataka Lamani (Mysore Lamani), Maharashtra Lamani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Odisha, a Scheduled Caste in Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh. Ethnic autonym: Gormati. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Lamkang
[lmk] Southeast Manipur, Chandel district, 6 villages to the west, east of Shuganu, 6 villages between Chalong and Mombi New, 18 villages between Palel, Chandel town, Palel and Sibong; Nagaland; Dimapur, Thamlakhuren. 10,000 (1999 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Hiroi-Lamgang” (pej.), “Lamgang” (pej.), Lamkaang, Lamkang Naga Dialects: Most similar to Anal Naga [anm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Lepcha
[lep] Sikkim, Dzongu district; West Bengal, Darjeeling district, Kalimpong. Also in Bhutan, Nepal (Lapcha). 50,600 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 55,430. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lapche, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa Dialects: Ilammu, Rengjongmu, Tamsangmu. Classification uncertain; has been classified both in Himalayan and Naga groups. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Lepcha is both language and name of people. Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Lhomi
[lhm] West Bengal, Darjeeling. 1,320 in India (2000 USCWM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lhoket, Shing Saapa, Syingsaaba Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Limbu
[lif] Sikkim, West district; West Bengal, Darjeeling district; Assam. 37,300 in India (2001 census). Ethnic population: 177,000 (2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Limbo, Limboo, Lumbu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Lish
[lsh] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, Lish, Lish Gompache, Lish Gompalok villages. 2,340. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kishpignag, Lish Monpa, Lishpa, Monpa Dialects: Most similar to Chug [cvg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa Comments: The cover term ‘Monpa’ (Moinba), man of the lower country, used to refer to several ethnically related peoples whose languages may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Lisu
[lis] Arunachal Pradesh, Changlang district, Miao and Vijoynagar circle in 6 villages. Gandhigram is the largest Lisu village. 2,700 in India (Bradley 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: The Lisu people are called Yobin or Yawyin by the Singpho [sgp] people. Christian.

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Lodhi
[lbm] Odisha, Mayurbhanj district, Sadar subdivision, Morada and Suliapada; Balasore district, Sora block; West Bengal, West Medinipur district, Binpur, Kharagpur-I blocks; Jharkhand, along West Bengal border. 25,000 (2007 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lodha, Lodi, Lohi, Lozi Dialects: Related to Sora [srb]. Lexical similarity: 59%–67% with Oriya [ory], 56%–72% with Bangla (Bengali [ben]), 20% with Santhali [sat] and Mundari [unr], 66%–85% between varieties of Lodhi, 57%–75% with Kharia Thar [ksy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Lodha is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Lohar, Gade
[gda] Rajasthan; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Punjab. 1,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagri Lohar, Belani, Bhubaliya Lohar, Chitodi Lohar, Chittoriya Lohar, Dhunkuria, Domba, Dombiali, Gadia Lohar, Gaduliya Lohar, Gara, Kanwar Khati, Lohari, Lohpitta, Panchal Lohar, Rajput Lohar Dialects: No significant dialect differences. May be same as Loarki [lrk] in Pakistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: ‘Gade Lohar’ refers to people who travel in bullock carts and are blacksmiths. Hindu.

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Lohar, Lahul
[lhl] Himachal Pradesh, Lahul valley. 750 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garas, Lohar Dialects: Different from Gade Lohar [gda]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Lohar is a Scheduled Caste in Himachal Pradesh, not all of whom speak Lahul Lohar. Similar name and occupation to ‘Gade Lohar’.

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Lui
[lba] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Loi, Looe Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified

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Lyngngam
[lyg] Meghalaya; Assam, Kamrup district. Also in Bangladesh. 5,000 in India (Singh 1994). Population total all countries: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khasi, Lyngam, Lyngym Dialects: Lexical similarity: 36% with standard Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: Previously listed as dialect of Khasi. Culturally intermediate between the Khasi and the Garo [grt]. Christian.

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Magahi
[mag] Bihar, Gaya, Bhagalpur, eastern Patna districts; Jharkhand, northern Chotanagpur division, Hazaribagh district; West Bengal, Maldah district. 14,000,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bihari, Magadhi, Magaya, Maghai, Maghaya, Maghori, Magi, Magodhi, Megahi Dialects: Central Magahi, Northern Magahi, Southern Magahi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Hindu, traditional religion, Jain.

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Magar, Eastern
[mgp] Sikkim, South district, scattered in East district. 71,700 in India (2006). Ethnic population: 278,000 (2006 FTT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Magari, Magarkura, Mangari, Manggar Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar

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Mahali
[mjx] Jharkhand, Chotanagpur region, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Gumla, Santal Pargana, Lohardaga, West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum, Saraikela Kharsawan, and Dhanbad districts; Odisha, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, and Keonjhar districts; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri and West Medinipur districts; Assam, on tea estates. 33,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 278,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mahili, Mahle, Mahli Dialects: Possible dialect of Santhali [sat]. Lexical similarity: 69%–87% between varieties of Mahali, 78%–93% with Santali [sat], 53%–59% with Mundari [unr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali Comments: Mahli is a Scheduled Tribe, reported to speak Sadri [sck] as L1 in Jharkhand, the Thar dialect of Dhatki [mki] in Odisha, and Bengali in West Bengal. Hindu.

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Maithili
[mai] Bihar, from Muzaffarpur on the west, past Kosi on the east to western Purnia district, to Munger and Bhagalpur districts in the south, and Himalayan foothills north. Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai. Many settled abroad. Cultural and linguistic centers are Madhubani and Darbhanga towns. Janakpur also important culturally and religiously. Also in Nepal. 30,000,000 in India (2000 SIL). 40% monolingual (1998). Population total all countries: 32,800,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bihar State (1992, Constitution, 71st Amendment). Alternate Names: Apabhramsa, Bihari, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Tirahutia, Tirhuti, Tirhutia Dialects: Bajjika, Central Colloquial Maithili (Sotipura), Dehati, Eastern Maithili (Khotta, Kortha, Kortha Bihari), Jolaha, Kisan, Southern Standard Maithili, Standard Maithili, Thetiya, Western Maithili. Caste variation more than geographic variation in dialects. Functional intelligibility among all dialects, including those in Nepal. Most similar to Magahi [mag]. Lexical similarity: 91% between Brahmin and non-Brahmin dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Hindu.

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Majhi
[mjz] Jharkhand, Gumla district; Sikkim, south district, Majhigaon near Jorethang; east district, Majhitar near Rangpo; West Bengal; Assam. 20,400 in India (2000). Ethnic population: 121,000 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Manjhi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Distinct from Majhi dialect of Eastern Panjabi [pan] or Bote (Bote-Majhi) [bmj] of Nepal. Hindu.

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Majhwar
[mmj] Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur district, Katghora tahsil, Raigarh and Surguja districts; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirzapur districts; Sikkim. 34,300 (1995). Ethnic population: 174,000 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Majhvar, Manjhi, Manjhia Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Asuri [asr]. Classification: Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Chhattisgarh. Reportedly speak Chhattisgarhi [hne] as L1. Hindu.

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Mal Paharia
[mkb] Jharkhand, south Santal Pargana district, Ramgarh hills; Dumka district, Pakaur; south Godda, and Deoghar districts; some in Sahibganj district, Borio, Depart village; West Benga, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. Possibly in Bangladesh. 51,000 (Bhaskararao 2006). Possibly 40,000 in West Bengal. Ethnic population: 111,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dehri, Mad, Mader, Mal, Mal Pahariya, Maler, Malpaharia, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Manlati, Mar, Marpaharia, Maw, Mawdo, Mawer, Mawer Nondi, Paharia, Parsi Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj], Sauria Paharia [mjt], Bengali [ben], or Hindi [hin]. Part of the Malto ethnic group. Speak a variety similar to Kharia Thar [ksy] of Manbhum (Jharkhand). Lexical similarity: 85% between dialects, 59% with Mal Paharia Barmasiya and 55% with Khorta Babudoha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mala Malasar
[ima] Kerala, Palakkad district, Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, Annamalai hills. 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maha Malasar, Malai Malasar, Malasir Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68%–74% with Malasar [ymr], 70% with Eravallan [era], 70% with Muduga [udg], 65% with Tamil [tam], 61% with Malayalam [mal], 67%–72% with the Attapady dialect of Irula [iru], 75% with the Walayar dialect of Irula. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Mala Malasar means king of the forest. Culturally very distinct from neighboring tribal groups. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Malankuravan
[mjo] Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari district; Kerala, Trivandrum, Kollam, and Kottayam districts, Chittar, Kattachira, and Rajanpara in Ranni Range, Pathanamthitta taluk, Nottakal in Pathanapuram taluk, Pampa river, Neduvanged taluk forest tracks. 18,600 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mala Koravan, Malaikuravan, Malakkuravan, Male Kuravan Dialects: Malayadiars. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reported to speak a dialect of Malayalam [mal] with many borrowed words and phrases from Tamil. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Malapandaram
[mjp] Kerala, Pathanamthitta and Kollam districts, some in Kottayam and Palakkad districts; Tamil Nadu, Villupuram, Coimbatore and Madurai districts. 5,850 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hill Pantaram, Malapantaram, Malepantaram, Pandaram Basha Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83%–94% between varieties in Kerala, 63%–68% with Malayalam [mal], 64%–68% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Malaryan
[mjq] Kerala, Ernakulam, Idukki, Kottayam, and Thrissur districts; Tamil Nadu. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 35,000 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arayans, Karingal, Malai Arayan, Malayarayan, Malayarayar, Male Arayans, Maley Arayan, Vazhiyammar Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Speak a variety of Malayalam [mal] as L1. Malayarayar and Mala Arayan are listed as 2 different communities in the census but are the same group. Though the Kanikkar of Trivandrum District also sometimes call themselves Malayarayar, they are entirely different (Menon 1996:198). Hindu, Christian.

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Malasar
[ymr] Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, Pollachi taluk; Kerala, Palakkad district, Chittoor and Palakkad taluks. 7,760 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malayar Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68%–74% with Tamil [tam], 79%–83% with Walayar Irula [iru], 77%–86% with Eravallan [era], 57%–61% with Malayalam [mal], 68%–75% with Mala Malasar [ima] (2004 survey); 52%–56% with Malaryan [mjq], 77%–82% between Malasar and Kollimalakkar, Kollimalakkar 80% with Malapulaya (2006 survey). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Kollimalakkar call themselves Malasar but are different culturally, belonging to the Malayali tribe of Tamil Nadu. They migrated to Nelliyampathy area in Kerala for work many years ago. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Malavedan
[mjr] Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Kollam, and Trivandrum districts; Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Dindigul, Nilgiris, Salem, and Tirunelveli districts. Total population unknown. 6,190 in Kerala, 6,410 in Tamil Nadu (2001 census). Ethnic population: 12,600 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malai Vedan, Malavetan, Towetan, Veda Bhasha, Vedans, Vettava Bhasha Dialects: Vetan, Vettuvan. Lexical similarity: 64%–68% with Malayalam [mal], 48%–52% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Malayalam
[mal] Kerala, Laccadive Islands, neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia, Qatar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 33,000,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 33,534,600. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kerala State; union territories Lakshadweep and Puducherry (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla Dialects: Central Kerala, Kasargod, Kayavar, Malabar, Malayalam, Moplah (Mapilla), Nagari-Malayalam, Namboodiri, Nasrani, Nayar, North Kerala, Pulaya, South Kerala. Caste and communal dialects: Namboodiri, Nayar, Moplah, Pulaya, Nasrani. Mapilla is among the most divergent dialects, differing considerably from literary Malayalam. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Jewish.

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Maldivian
[div] Laccadive Islands, Minicoy island; Kerala, Trivandrum. 9,500 in India (2012). 9,500 in Minicoy and 5,000 expatriates in Trivandrum. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dhivehi, Dhivehi Bas, Divehi, Mahl, Malikh, Malki Dialects: Maliku Bas (Minicoy Dialect). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian Comments: Muslim (Sunni), traditional religion.

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Malvi
[mup] Madhya Pradesh, Ujjain, Indore, Rathlam, Mandsaur, Rajgarh, Dewas, Shajapur, Nimuch, Sehore, Dhar, and Bhopal districts; Rajasthan, Jhalawar district. Sondwari dialect geographically isolated from the others. 5,560,000 (2001 census). 20% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malavi, Mallow, Malwada, Malwi, Ujjaini Dialects: Rajawadi, Sondwari (Sondhwadi, Soudhwari), Ujjaini (Avanthika, Malvi Proper), Umadwadi. Considered the standard variety, Southeastern Rajasthani Nimadi [noe] is most similar language with 70% intelligibility. 88%–92% intelligibility of Ujjaini dialect by other dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–89% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Manda
[mha] Odisha, Kalahandi district, Thuamul Rampur subdivision. 4,040 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo Comments: Hindu.

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Mandeali
[mjl] Himachal Pradesh, Mandi district. 900,000 (1991 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mandi, Mandiali, Pahari Mandiyali Dialects: Preliminary survey suggests speakers have functional intelligibility of Kangri [xnr]. People in southeast Mandi district may have more difficulty understanding Kangri. Standard Mandeali is spoken throughout the broad valley running north and south from Jogindernagar to Sundarnagar. Mandeali Pahari is spoken north around Barot, east of Uhl River. Intelligible with difficulty to standard Mandeali. May be intermediate variety between Mandeali and Kullui [kfx]. Southeast district contains transition to Mahasui [bfz]. In the west, Sarkaghat is also a bit different from standard Mandeali, perhaps forming a transition towards Hamirpur and Bilaspur areas. Lexical similarity: 89% with Palampuri dialect of Kangri [xnr], 83% with Chambeali [cdh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Manna-Dora
[mju] Andhra Pradesh, East Godavari, West Godavari, Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, and Vizianagaram districts; Tamil Nadu. Population unknown. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reportedly speak Telugu [tel] as L1. Hindu.

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Mannan
[mjv] Kerala, Idukki district, Udumpanchola, Devikulam, and Pirmed tahsils; Tamil Nadu, Madurai district. 7,850 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mannan Pasha, Manne, Mannyod Dialects: Little variation between varieties with 92% intelligibility, 70% intelligibility of Malayalam [mal]. Lexical similarity: 86%–96% between varieties, 57%–61% with Tamil [tam], 56%–64% with Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Not the same as the Scheduled Caste Mannan in Trivandrum and other adjoining districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu who speak Malayalam. Romanized spelling is the same but the Scheduled Caste name is pronounced with retroflex double n. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Marathi
[mar] Maharashtra and adjacent states. Also in Canada, Israel, Mauritius, United States. 71,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 71,780,660. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Maharashtra State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Maharashtra, Maharathi, Malhatee, Marthi, Muruthu Dialects: Gawdi of Goa, Kasargod, Kosti, Kudali, Nagpuri Marathi. 42 dialects. Complex dialect situation. Dialects bordering other major language areas share many features with those languages. Dialects or closely related languages: Konkani [knn], Goan Konkani [gom], Deccan [dcc], Varhadi-Nagpuri [vah], and Gowlan [goj]. There is a dialect in Thanjavur District and elsewhere in Tamil Nadu influenced lexically by Tamil [tam] and Kannada [kan], with at least 100,000 speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone Comments: The Habshi are Muslim, descended from East African slaves brought to western India. Are is a synonym for a Marathi caste name. Are also refers to Marathi-speaking communities in south India. Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Jain, Jewish (Bene Israel).

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Maria
[mrr] Maharashtra, Garhchiroli (Chanda) district, Etapalli, Bhamragad, and Sironcha tahsils; Chhattisgarh, Bastar district, Narayanpur and Bijapur tahsils. In Narayanpur, an administrative block of 200 villages known as ‘Abujhmar block’. 165,000 (2000). 141,000 Maria and 23,700 Hill Maria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hill Maria, Madi, Madia, Madiya, Modh, Modi Dialects: Abujmaria (Abujhmadia, Abujhmaria, Abujmar Maria, Abujmariya, Hill Maria), Adewada, Bhamani Maria (Bhamani), Etapally Maria. Etapally Maria dialect is apparently understood by all. Distinct from Muria, Dandami Maria [daq], Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo], and Koya [kff]. 76%–77% intelligibility of other Gondi varieties. Muria Gondi [mut] is intelligible of Abujmaria around Narainpur area but not elsewhere. Distinct from Maria dialect of Chanda District in Maharashtra (Natarajan 1985). Intelligibility 90%–100% of Bhamragarh dialect by other Maria speakers. Maria is intelligible to the Gatte Maria, an ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 59%–80% among dialects (1991 survey), 65%–98% (1999 survey). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Maria, Dandami
[daq] Chhattisgarh, Bastar and Dantewara districts; Maharashtra, Garhichiroli district. 200,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bastar Koya, Bison Horn Maria, Dandami Madiya, Dhuru, Madiya, Maria Gond Dialects: Those in Geedam and Bailadila have 95%–98% mutual intelligibility, 81% of the Sukma variety, but 18%–21% of Maria [mrr], 18%–45% of Muria in Sukma understood the Geedam variety at 81% or lower; those in Bailadila understood Sukma at 92%. May be more than one language. Distinct from Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo], Maria of Garhchiroli, and Koya [kff]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Marma
[rmz] Mizoram; Tripura. 30,600 in India (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Mogh” (pej.) Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern Comments: Buddhist, Muslim, Christian.

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Marwari
[mwr] Population total all countries: 19,712,600. Comments: Member languages are: Dhundari [dhd], Marwari [mve] (Pakistan), Marwari [rwr], Merwari [wry], Mewari [mtr], Shekhawati [swv]

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Marwari
[rwr] Rajasthan, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Pali, and Jalore districts; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Punjab; Delhi; Haryana; Uttar Pradesh; thoughout India. Also in Nepal. 5,600,000 in India (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 5,622,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Marvadi, Marvari, Marwadi, Rajasthani Dialects: Barmeri, Bikaneri, Jaisalmeri, Standard Marwari (Jodhpuri). The standard form of Marwari. May or may not be different from Marwari of Pakistan [mve]. 67% intelligibility of Shekhawati [swv], 61% of Godwari [gdx], 54% of Mewari [mtr], 54% of Dhundari [dhd], 45% of Haroti [hoj], and 45% of Mewati [wtm]. 53% intelligibility of Shekawati by Marwari. Lexical similarity: 50%–65% with Hindi [hin], 69%–76% with Merwari [wry], 72%–87% between dialects, 62%–74% with Godwari [gdx], 61%–77% with Shekawati [swv]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu, Jain, Muslim.

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Mawchi
[mke] Southeast Gujarat; Maharashtra, Dhule district. 99,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mauchi, Mavchi, Mawachi, Mawchi Bhil, Mowchi Dialects: Mawchi, Padvi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra. Traditional religion.

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Meitei
[mni] Manipur; Assam, Cachar, Karimganji; Nagaland; Tripura, West and North Tripura districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Bangladesh. 1,470,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 1,485,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Manipur State (1992, Constitution, 71st Amendment). Alternate Names: Kathe, Kathi, Manipuri, Meiteilon, Meiteiron, Meithe, Meithei, Menipuri, Mitei, Mithe, Ponna Dialects: Loi (Chakpa), Meitei, Pangal (Manipuri Muslim, Panal, Panan). Intelligibility of Meitei in Bangladesh is difficult. Those in Bangladesh may understand India Meitei better than vice versa possibly due to more language change in Bangladesh over the years. India Meitei is more standard. Intelligibility between dialects in Bangladesh definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 80%–86% between dialects in Bangladesh, 65%–70% between Bangladesh and India varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Meitei Comments: Mainly rural. 6 clans (Ningthonia, Luwang, Angom, Moirang, Khabanaganba, Chonglei). Hindu, traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Merwari
[wry] Rajasthan, Ajmer, Nagaur districts. 3,900,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajmeri Dialects: 82%–97% intelligibility of Marwari [mve]. Lexical similarity: 60%–73% between varieties of Merwari in Ajmer and Nagaur districts; 49%–74% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–80% with Shekhawati [swv], 44%–70% with Godwari [gdx], 54%–72% with Mewari [mtr], 62%–70% with Dhundari [dhd], 57%–67% with Haroti [hoj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari

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Mewari
[mtr] Rajasthan, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittoaurgarh districts; Gujarat; Haryana; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. 5,100,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mewadi Dialects: 54% intelligibility with Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 81%–97% between dialects, 73%–91% with Marwari, 75%–90% with Wagri-Dhevdi, 72%–89% with Malvi [mup], 54%–72% with Merwari [wry], 57%–66% with Shekhawati [swv], 51%–73% with Godwari [gdx], 56%–64% with Dhundari [dhd], 69%–84% with Haroti [hoj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Different from Mewati, dialect of Haryanvi [bgc]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Mewati
[wtm] Rajasthan, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur districts; Uttar Pradesh, Madhura district; Haryana, Gurgaon, Faridabad districts. 645,000 (2001 census). 8% monolinguals (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mewathi Dialects: 45% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]. Over 90% intelligibility of Alwar District dialect throughout Mewati area. Dialect in the Nuh area of Gurgaon is considered purest. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Hindi [hin], 63%–68% with Haryanvi [bgc], 57%–70% with Shekhawati [swv], 62%–67% with Dhundari [dhd], 52%–70% with Haroti [hoj], 68%–71% with Braj Bhasha [bra], 86%–99% between all varieties of Mewati. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: People are called Meo; many Urdu [urd] loanwords. Muslim, Hindu.

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Miji
[sjl] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kemang district, Nafra circle, Bichom and Pakesa river valley, 25 villages including Debbing, Dichik, Rurang, Nachinghom, Upper Dzang, Naku, Khellong, Dibrick, Nizong, Najang, Zangnaching, Chalang, Nafra, and Lower Dzang; East Kameng district, Bameng and Lada circles, Wakke, Nabolong, Kojo, Rojo, Sekong, Panker, Zarkam, Drackchi, Besai, Naschgzang, Sachung, Gerangzing, Kampaa, Salang, Pego, and Dongko villages. 6,500 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dammai, Dhammai, Namrei, Sajalong Dialects: Generally considered in the Mirish subgroup. Completely dissimilar to any surrounding language. Lexical similarity: 54%–65% between varieties of West and East Kameng; 54%–83% between all varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Hrusish Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miju-Mishmi
[mxj] Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit district, 25 villages, high altitudes of east, upper Lohit and Dau valleys, east of Haguliang, Billong, and Tilai valleys; Assam. Also in China (Geman Deng). 18,000 in India (2006 Arunachal Tourism). Population total all countries: 18,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Mishmi, Geman Dend, Geman Deng, Kaman, Miji, Miju, Mishmi Dialects: Conflicting reports about Miju-Mishmi similarity to Idu-Mishmi [clk] and Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Reportedly intelligible but recorded lexical similarity is too low for this to be possible. Ethnically related, but may not be linguistically similar. Related to Kachin, Chin and Lepcha [lep] languages (Chowdhury 1996). Some linguists believe the language is similar to Jingpho [kac]. Lexical similarity: 7% with Idu-Mishmi [clk], 10% with Digaro-Mishmi [mhu] (IICCC). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Mijish Comments: A Scheduled Tribe, subgroup of Mishmi. Different from the Miji [sjl]. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Mina
[myi] Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Guna, and Rajgarh districts, Vidisha district, Sironj subdivision; Rajasthan, Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk, Bundi, and Ajmer districts. 3,800,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reportedly L1 is Dhundari [dhd] in Rajasthjan and Braj Bhasha [bra] in Madhya Pradesh. Not a Bhil tribe, and there is no connection between Mina and Wagdi, who call themselves Mina Bhil. Hindu.

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Mirgan
[zrg] Chhattisgarh, Bastar District; Odisha, Koraput, and Nabarangapur districts. 60,000 (1998 N. Lima). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mirgami, Mirkan, Panika, Panka Dialects: Batasuna, Jagdal Pur, Kosagumuda, Kotpad, Nabarang Pur, Umerkote. Dialects have good intelligibility. Not functionally intelligible of Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Declared a General Caste by the government. Divided into 2 groups, the larger Kabirpanthi and the smaller Sakta. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Mising
[mrg] Assam, North Lakhimpur, Sonitput, Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, and Tinsukia districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Lower Subansiri district, Ziro subdivision, a few villages near Pasighat, both sides of Kamla river; Upper Subansiri district, Daporizo subdivision. Hill Miri are in Arunachal Pradesh; Plains Miri are in Assam. 551,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Miri, Mishing, Takam Dialects: Idu-Mishmi [clk] may be a dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Mizo
[lus] Mizoram; Assam; Manipur, Churachandpur district; Nagaland; Tripura, Jampui Hill range. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar (Mizo Chin). 675,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 687,750. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Mizoram State (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347 inclusive), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Duhlian Twang, Dulien, Hualngo, Lukhai, Lusago, Lusai, Lusei, Lushai, Lushei, Sailau, Whelngo Dialects: Fannai, Mizo, Ngente, Tlau. Related to Hmar [hmr], Pangkhua [pkh], and Falam Chin [cfm] (Zahao dialect). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Mizo is a Scheduled Tribe with subgroups Lushai, Pang, Tlau, and Hualngo. Christian.

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Monpa, Kalaktang
[kkf] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, Kalaktang administrative center, Khalaktang, Balimu, and Tomko villages. 8,000 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Monpa, Tsangla Monpa Dialects: Most similar to Dirang dialect of Tshangla [tsj], average 55% intelligibility of Dirang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: ’Monpa’ (Moinba), man of the lower country and refers to several ethnically-related peoples which may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Monpa, Tawang
[twm] Arunachal Pradesh, Tawang district. Also in China (Cuona Monba). 8,600 in India. Population total all countries: 9,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brahmi, Cuona Menba, Dwags, Monkit, Northern Monpa, Takpa, Tawan Monba Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish Comments: Glossonym: Tawan Monba in Tibet. Monpa (Moinba), ‘man of the lower country’, refers to several ethnically related peoples, which may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Mru
[mro] West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Nadia, and Hoogly districts. Ethnic population: 2,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mro, Mrung, Murung, Niopheng Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Muduga
[udg] Kerala, Palakkad district, Mannarkad Taluk, Attapady block, Chundakki, Thazhachundakki, Veeranuru, Karuvare, Ommale, Kallamale, Kottamale, Chitturu, Chandakulam, Koravanpady, Ummathupadiga, Molakambi, Thekkumpanna, Abbannuru, Kottiyuru, Pettikkallu, Kakkuppady, and Mukkali hamlets; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris, and Coimbatore. 3,370 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mudugar Dialects: Muduga influenced by Kannada [kan], Tamil [tam], Malayalam [mal], and Tulu [tcy], but not a dialect of any of them. Though it has similarities with Tamil in grammatical structure, it cannot be treated as a dialect of Tamil. It is distinct in the Dravidian family (Menon 1996:274 citing Rajendran). No dialects of Muduga determined on survey. Lexical similarity: 55%–57% with Malayalam [mal], 59% with Muthuvan [muv], 60% with Tamil [tam], 75% with the Attapady dialect of Irula [iru], 82%–83% with Attapady Kurumba [pkr]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: National census population figures combine Muduga of Attapady with Muthuvan, who, despite the similarity of the spelling of their ethnonym, are entirely different and separated by geographic and cultural distance (Menon 1996). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mugom
[muk] Himachal Pradesh, Kullu, Manali; Kinnaur, Dharmshala and Ladakh. 500 in India (2006 SIL). 75 families in India, 60 Mugom and 15 Karmarong. In addition, there are many seasonal workers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Migrate from Nepal temporarily for work, but many stay 20 to 30 years.

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Mukha-Dora
[mmk] Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Srikakulam, and Vizianagaram districts. Also scattered in Adivasi Oriya. 29,700 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Conta-Reddi, Mukha Dhora, Nooka Dora, Nuka-Dora, Reddi, Reddi-Dora, Riddi Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Munda
[unx] Odisha, Jharkhand; possibly Bihar and West Bengal. 469,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Heriki, Killi Dialects: Most similar to Mundari [unr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mundari
[unr] Jharkhand, south and west Ranchi district; Odisha; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal; Himachal Pradesh; Assam; Tripura; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Also in Bangladesh, Nepal. 1,110,000 in India (2001 census). 1,060,000 Mundari, 47,400 Bhumij. Population total all countries: 1,120,280. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Colh, Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari Dialects: Bhumij (Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar, Sadar Bhumij), Hasada’, Kera’, Latar, Naguri. Related to Ho [hoc] and Santhali [sat]. 75% intelligibility of Ho. Lexical similarity: 70%–84% with the Bhumij dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. There is Bhumij literature. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muria, Eastern
[emu] Chhattisgarh, Northeast Bastar district, Keshkal and Kondagaon tahsils; Odisha, Nabarangapur district, Raigarh tahsil. 200,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lanjoda, Raigarh. 95% intelligibility between dialects; 73%–83% of Western Muria [mut]; 19%–34% of Northern Gondi [gno]; 35% of Dandami Maria [daq]. Lexical similarity: 74%–77% with Western Muria [mut], 65%–75% with Far Western Muria [fmu]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muria, Far Western
[fmu] Maharashtra, north Garhchiroli district, Kurkheda, Korchi, Dhanora, and Armori tahsils; Gondia district, Jamdi tahsil; Chhattisgarh, Rajnandgaon district, Manpur and Mahola tahsils. 400,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gondi, Koitor Boli, Koitori Dialects: 79%–88% intelligibility of other Muria languages; 74% of Dandami Maria [daq], 0% to 34% of Northern Gondi [gno], 6%–50% of Southern Gondi [ggo], 2%–70% of Maria [mrr]. Lexical similarity: 72%–80% with Western Muria [mut]; 65%–75% with Eastern Muria [emu]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muria, Western
[mut] Chhattisgarh, north and west Bastar district. 400,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jhoria, Mudia, Muria Gondi Dialects: Banchapai, Dhanora, Sonapal. 80%–96% intelligibility among dialects, 69%–73% of Eastern Muria [emu], 51%–78% of Far Western Muria [fmu]. No intelligibility of Dandami Maria [daq], Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo], or Maria [mrr]. Lexical similarity: 72%–80% with Far Western Muria [fmu]; 74%–77% with Eastern Muria [emu]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muthuvan
[muv] Kerala, Idukki district, Devikulam tahsil, Devikulam and Adimali blocks; Kozhikode, Kannur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Thrissur districts; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, Udumalpet and Valparai tahsils, Anaimalai hills; Madurai district, Cardamom hills; Andhra Pradesh. 16,800 (2006 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mudavan, Muduva, Muduvan, Muduvar, Mutuvar Dialects: Eastern Muthuvan (Pandi Muthuvan, Tamil Muthuvan), Western Muthuvan (Malayalam Muthuvan, Nattu Muthuvan). Intelligibility 82%–87% between dialects, eastern dialect more intelligible to western than vice versa, 80% intelligibility of Malayalam [mal]. Lexical similarity: 77%–88% between dialects, 62%–67% with Tamil [tam], 58%–68% with Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Na
[nbt] Arunachal Pradesh, Upper Subansiri district; Taksing circle, Gumsing, Taying, Esnaya, Lingbing, Tongla, Yeja, Reding, Redi, and Dadu villages. 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Affinity with Tagin [tgj] (Singh 1994). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist (Mahayana), traditional religion.

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Naga Pidgin
[nag] Nagaland, Kohima district, Dimapur subdivision; Arunachal Pradesh border area. 30,000 (Holm 1989). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bodo, Kachari Bengali, Naga Creole Assamese, Naga-Assamese, Nagamese Dialects: A variety least similar to Assamese [asm] is spoken by the Yimchenger Naga, and varieties most similar to Assamese by the Angami Naga, and around Dimapur and Kohima. Classification: Creole, Assamese based

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Naga, Angami
[njm] West Nagaland, Kohima district; Manipur; Maharashtra. 132,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Angamis, Gnamei, Monr, Ngami, Tendydie, Tsanglo, Tsoghami, Tsugumi Dialects: Chakroma (Western Angami), Dzuna, Kehena, Khonoma, Mima, Mozome, Nali, Tengima (Kohima). Tengima (Kohima) dialect is standard. Naga Chokri and Naga Khezha are eastern Angami groups with their own dialects. 2 southern varieties (Viswemal, Jakhama) are not intelligible with dialects listed. Tenyidie is an umbrella term for all the dialects spoken by the Angami people. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Ao
[njo] Northeast Nagaland, central Mokokchung district; Assam. 261,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ao, Aorr, Cholimi, Hatigoria, Nowgong, Paimi, Uri Dialects: Changki, Chongli (Chungli), Dordar (Yacham), Longla, Mongsen Khari. Chongli and Mongsen border on mutual unintelligibility (Burling 2003). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Ao Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Chang
[nbc] East central Nagaland, Tuensang district, 36 villages; Assam. 62,400 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chang, Changyanguh, Machongrr, Mochumi, Mochungrr, Mojung Dialects: Similar to Wancho Naga [nnp]. Tuensang village dialect is central and intelligible to all. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Chokri
[nri] Nagaland, Phek district; Cheswezumi is main village. 83,600 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chakhesang, Chakrima Naga, Chakru, Chokri, Eastern Angami Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: An eastern Angami tribe with its own language. Chokri, Khezha [nkh], and Sangtam-Pochuri [nsa] make up the Chakhesang Naga community (see separate entries). Chakhesang Naga is a Scheduled Tribe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Chothe
[nct] Southeast Manipur, Chandel district, 15 villages; Bishnupur district, Lamlang Hupi village; Nagaland, near Myanmar border. 3,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chawte, Chote, Chothe, Chowte Dialects: Most similar to Tarao Naga [tro]. Reported intelligibility of Aimol [aim]. Lexical similarity: less than 60% with any neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Inpui
[nkf] Manipur, Senapati, Tamenglong, and Imphal districts, 16 villages; Nagaland, Dimapur, New Zaluke, Mahei Namchi, and Peren; Assam. 29,200 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabui, Kabui Naga, Kapwi, Koboi, Kubai Dialects: Considered by some to be the same language as Puimei Naga [npu]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Puimei Naga [npu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: ‘Kabui’ is the government name for Inpui and Rongmei. Kabui recognized as Scheduled Tribe combining Inpui and Rongmei. Christian.

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Naga, Kharam
[kfw] Manipur, Senapati district, Phaijol, Laikot, Thuisenpai, and Kharam Pallen villages. 1,400 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duisalongmei, Thinglong Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71%–73% with Purum [pub], 58%–60% with Kom [kmm], 64% with Koireng [nkd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Khezha
[nkh] East Nagaland, Kohima, Khezhakhonoma, and Phek districts. 40,800 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kezami, Khezha, Khezhama Dialects: An east Angami group with its own language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: Belong to Chakhesang Naga community. Christian.

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Naga, Khiamniungan
[kix] Nagaland, east central Tuensang district. Also in Myanmar. 37,800 in India (2001 census). Main clans are Lam, Thai, Shiu, and Maya. Population total all countries: 47,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aoshedd, Kalyokengnyu, Khiamngan, Khiamniungan, Nokaw, Tukhemmi, Welam Dialects: Noklak. Dialects in Myanmar and India somewhat intelligible but have very limited contact. Lexical similarity: 67% with Gongwang dialect of Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 72%–73% with Ponyo dialect of [npg], 62%–67% with Leinong Naga [lzn], 41% with Lao Naga. Is in Konyak subgroup, but is divergent. They consider Ponyo Naga [npg] a part of Khiamniungan, though lexical similarity is only around 70%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Khoibu
[nkb] Manipur, southeast, Laiching; north border of Chandel district mountainous regions, Khoibu, Narum, Yangkhul, and Saibol villages. 25,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 25,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khoibu, Khoibu Maring, Khoibu Maring Naga Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Tangkhul

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Naga, Konyak
[nbe] Assam, Sibsagar district, Nagagaon and Bortol villages near Simulguri township; northeast Nagaland, Mon and Tuensang districts. Also in Myanmar. 248,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 250,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kanyak, Konyak Dialects: Angphang, Changnyu, Chen, Chingkao, Chinglang, Choha, Gelekidoria, Hopao, Jakphang, Longching, Longkhai (Lungkhai, Lungkhi), Longmein, Longwa, Mon, Mulung, Ngangching, Sang, Shamnyuyanga, Shanlang, Shengha, Shunyuo, Sima, Sowa, Tableng (Angwangku, Kongon, Mohung, Wakching), Tabu, Tamkhungnyuo, Tang, Tobunyuo, Tolamleinyua, Totok. Tableng is standard dialect spoken in Wanching and Wakching. Similar to Phom Naga [nph]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Liangmai
[njn] Nagaland, Kohima district, Jhaluke, Paren, and Medzephima blocks. 34,200 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kacha, Liangmai, Liangmei, Liyang, Lyangmay, Lyengmai Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: Merged ethnically with Zeme [nme] and Rongmei [nbu] Naga to form the Zeliangrong community. Liangmai and Zeme are referred to collectively as Zeliang.

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Naga, Lotha
[njh] Nagaland, west central, Wokha district. 170,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chizima, Choimi, Hlota, Kyong, Lhota, Lotha, Lutha, Miklai, Tsindir, Tsontsii Dialects: Kyo, Kyon, Kyong, Kyou, Live, Ndreng, Tsontsu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Ao Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Makuri
[jmn] Nagaland, Phek and Kiphire districts. 4,000 in India (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makury Naga Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified

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Naga, Mao
[nbi] Northwest Manipur, Senapati district; Nagaland. 81,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Emela, Imemai, Maikel, Mao, Memi, Sopfomo, Sopvoma, Southern Angami, Spowama Dialects: Paomata. Related to Angami Naga [njm]. Paomata dialect and Poumei Naga [pmx] may be the same (Breton 1997). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: Mao is a Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Maram
[nma] North Manipur, Senapati district, 5 villages near Senapati, 26 villages near Maram; Imphal district; Assam. 37,300 (2001). Ethnic population: 25,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Maram Dialects: Maram Khullen Circle, Ngatan, T. Khullen, Willong Circle. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Maring
[nng] Manipur, southeast, Laiching; Chandel District north border mountainous region, Tengnoupal subdivision. 22,300 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maring Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Tangkhul Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Monsang
[nmh] Manipur, Chandel district, Chandel subdivision, Liwchangning, Heibunglok, Liwa Sarei, Japhou, and Monsang Pantha villages; north Nagaland, near Myanmar border. 3,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mawshang, Monshang, Moshang, Mushang Dialects: Most similar to Moyon Naga [nmo] and Anal Naga [anm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Moyon
[nmo] Nagaland, near Myanmar border; Manipur, Chandel district, 14 villages including Moyon Khullen, Khongjom, Mitong, Komlathabi, Penaching, and Heigru Tampak. 3,700 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mayol, Mayon Naga, Moyon Dialects: Related to Monsang Naga [nmh] and Anal Naga [anm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Mzieme
[nme] Southwest Nagaland, Kohima district, Paren area, northeast of Zeme. 29,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mzieme, Northern Zeme Dialects: Different from Zeme Naga [nzm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: Adopted the designation Northern Zeme because Zeme has government recognition while Mzieme does not.

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Naga, Nocte
[njb] Southeast Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap district, Khonsa, Namsang, and Laju circles; Changlang district; Assam, Lakhimpur district, Jaipur; North Nagaland, Mon district, Namsang. 33,000 (2001 census). 60% monolingual (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borduria, Jaipuria, Mohongia, Namsangia, Nocte, Nokte, Paniduria Dialects: Khapa, Laju, Ponthai (Lamlak). Similar to Tase Naga [nst]. Ponthai may be an ethnic group, not a dialect. 50% intelligible with Wancho Naga [nnp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Tutsa, Wancho, Laju, Lamlak considered ethnic subgroups of Nocte although Tutsa consider themselves not related to Nocte. Christian, traditional religion, Hindu.

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Naga, Northern Rengma
[nnl] Nagaland; Kohima district, north Rengma. 13,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Rengma, Ntenyi, Ntenyi Naga, Nthenyi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Phom
[nph] Northeast Nagaland, Tuensang district, Longleng subdivision, 36 villages. 123,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Assiringia, Chingmengu, Phom, Phon, Tamlu, Tamlu Naga Dialects: Yongyasha. Similar to Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Pochuri
[npo] Southeast Nagaland, Phek district, Meluri subdivision, 27 villages. 16,700 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Rengma, Meluri, Pochuri, Pochury Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Meluri is a place-name in this region. Pochury is an amalgamation of 3 place-names: Sapo, Kechuri, Khury. Christian.

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Naga, Poumei
[pmx] Manipur. 51,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paumei, Pomai, Pome, Poumei Dialects: Similar to Mao Naga [nbi]. Not the same as Puimei Naga [npu] (Breton 1997:217). Paomata dialect of Mao Naga [mbi] and Poumei Naga may be the same (Breton 1997). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri

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Naga, Puimei
[npu] Manipur; Assam. 3,000 (2001). Mostly monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Puimei Dialects: Different from Poumei Naga [pmx] (Breton 1997:217). Not functionally intelligible of any related language (Khasung). Lexical similarity: 68% with Inpui Naga [nkf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified Comments: Were assigned as part of Rongmei Naga [nbu]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Purum
[puz] Manipur, Senapati district, Purumlikli, Purumkhulen, Purumkhunou, Waicheiphai, and Moibunglikli villages; Chandel district, Lamlang Huipi, Chandanpokpi, Khongkhang Chothe, Loirang Talsi, Salemthar, Zat’lang, and New Wangparan. 500 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: 95% intelligibility of Kharam Naga [kfw]. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Kom [kmm], 60%–66% with Koireng [nkd], 57%–60% with Aimol [aim], 71%–73% with Kharam Naga [kfw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Rongmei
[nbu] Northwest Manipur; Nagaland; Assam, Cachar district. 35 villages. 61,200 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kabui, Maruongmai, Nruanghmei, Rongmai, Rongmei Dialects: Songbu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: Songbu is principal Division of Rongmei. Merged with Zeme and Liangmai Naga to form the Zeliang community. Inpui and Rongmei ethnonym: Kabui by government. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Naga, Sangtam
[nsa] Southeast Nagaland, Tuensang district, Kiphire subdivision and Chare circle. 84,300 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Isachanure, Lophomi, Sangtam Dialects: Kizare, Phelongre, Photsimi, Pirr (Northern Sangtam), Purr (Southern Sangtam), Thukumi (Central Sangtam). Standard based on Tsadanger village dialect. Kizare north of Meluri, and not known how much it differs from other Sangtam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Ao Comments: Chokri, Khezha, and a small section of Sangtam make up the Chakhesang Naga community. A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Southern Rengma
[nre] West central Nagaland, Kohima district, Tseminyu subdivision; Assam, Karbi-Anglong district, 15 villages; Manipur. 21,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Injang, Moiyui, Mon, Mozhumi, Nzong, Nzonyu, Rengma, Rengma Naga, Southern Rengma, Unza, Western Rengma Dialects: Azonyu (Nzonyu, Southern Rengma), Keteneneyu. Tseminyu principal dialect main center. Southern Rengma and Northern Rengma [nnl] are reportedly inherently unintelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Sumi
[nsm] Central and south Nagaland, Zunheboto, Kohima, Mokokchung, Tuensang districts; Assam, Tinsukia district, 7 villages. Dayang is near Dayang river. 104,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sema, Simi, Sumi Dialects: Dayang (Western Sumi), Lazemi, Zhimomi, Zumomi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Angami-Pochuri Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Tangkhul
[nmf] Manipur, Ukhrul district, 168 villages; Nagaland; Tripura. 142,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Champhung, Luhuppa, Luppa, Tagkhul, Tangkhul, Thangkhulm Dialects: Khangoi, Khunggoi, Kupome, Phadang, Ukhrul. Ukhrul is principal dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Tangkhul Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. The most educated group of Manipur. Christian.

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Naga, Tarao
[tro] Manipur, Chandel district, Palel area, Heikakpokpi, Leishokching, Khuringmul Laiminei villages; Ukhrul district, Sinakeithei village. 870 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tarao, Taraotrong, Tarau Dialects: Most similar to Chothe Naga [nct], 70% intelligibility. Lexical similarity: less than 60% with any neighboring language; 43%–46% with Chothe Naga [nct]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: Not recognized as a separate Scheduled Tribe by the government due to its small size. Christian.

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Naga, Tase
[nst] Southeast Arunachal Pradesh, Changlang district, East hills, Tirap river valley and Namchik area; Assam. 40,100 in India (2001 census). 1% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cham Chang, Rangpan, Tangsa, Tangshang, Tasey Dialects: Have (Havoy), Higsho, Higtsii, Kimsing (Chamchang, Khemsing, Sanke, Sechu, Shangge, Shechu), Longphi (Longkhi), Lungchang, Lungri, Miti, Moklum, Mosang (Hewa), Mungray (Morang), Ngemu, Ponthai, Rongrang, Ronrang (Poerah), Sangche, Sangwal, Taipi, Tikhak, Tonglim (Tangrim), Tutsa, Yogli (Jugli), Yongkuk (Yukok). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: ’Tangsa’, hill people. A Scheduled Tribe. May be up to 36 subtribes of Tangsa. Kimsing dialect speakers can understand all dialects well. Kimsing is similar to Tutsa. Higsho is similar to Nocte. Kimsing has most speakers and is most influential. Traditional religion, Christian, Buddhist.

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Naga, Thangal
[nki] North Manipur, Senapati district, East and West Sadar hills subdivisions, Mapao Thangal, Thangal Surung, Makeng Thangal, Tumnoupokpi, Yaikangpou, Tikhulen, Ningthoubam, Mayangkhang, and Gailongde. Most are east of Barak valley. 23,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khoirao, Khoirao Naga, Koirao, Kolya, Mayangkhang, Miyang-Khang, Ngari, Thangal, Thanggal, Tukaimi Dialects: Similar to Maram Naga [nma]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Tutsa
[tvt] Arunachal Pradesh, south Changlang and east Tirap districts. 25,000 (2001). 50% monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Totcha, Tutsa Dialects: Similar to Nocte Naga [njb] and Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: Consider themselves separate from Nocte [njb] and Tase Naga [nst]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Naga, Wancho
[nnp] Southeast Arunachal Pradesh, southwest Tirap district, 36 villages; Assam; Nagaland. 49,100 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banpara Naga, Joboka, Jokoba, Wancho Dialects: Bor Muthun (Bor Mutonia), Changnoi, Horu Muthun, Kulung Muthun (Mithan). Significant variation between spoken language in upper and lower regions. Similar to Chang Naga [nbc] and Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Yimchungru
[yim] North Nagaland, Tuensang district, between Namchik and Patkoi. 92,100 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tozhuma, Yachumi, Yanchunger, Yimchunger, Yimchungre, Yimchungru Dialects: Chirr, Minir, Pherrongre, Tikhir, Wai, Yimchungru. The last 3 dialects listed are in the south. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Ao Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Zeme
[nzm] Assam, North Cachar district, upper Barak valley; Manipur, Tamenglong district; Nagaland, Kohima district, Jhaluke, Paren, Medzephima blocks. 34,100 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arung, Empui, Jeme, Kacha, Kachcha, Kutcha, Mezama, Sangrima, Sengima, Zemi Dialects: Njauna, Paren. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Zeme Comments: Ethnonym: Zeliang, with both Liangmai or Zeliangrong, including Rongmei. A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, Hindu.

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Nagarchal
[nbg] Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Mandla, and Seoni districts; Chhattisgarh, Durg district; Maharashtra, Bhandara district; Rajasthan. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nagar, Nagarchi Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: ‘Nagarchi’ is a people group living in Seoni, Jabalpur, and Mandla districts of Madhya Pradesh who speak Hindi [hin] (Singh 1998).

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Nahali
[nlx] Maharashtra, Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon tahsil, 12 villages near Toranmal; Jalgaon district, Chopda tahsil, north of Amalwadi. 15,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalto, Nahal, Nahale, Nahalia Dialects: 96% intelligibility of Bareli Pauri [bfb]. This may be acquired rather than inherent (1988 S. Watters). Lexical similarity: 58%–68% with Noiri [noi] varieties, 60%–61% with Dungra Bhil [duh], 69%–73% with Bareli Pauri [bfb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reported to speak Nimadi [noe] as L1. (Singh 1994). Nihali [nll] and Nahali are different languages.

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Nahari
[nhh] Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Odisha, Sambalpur district. 20,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nahali Dialects: A more divergent variety, related to Halbi [hlb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Hindu.

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Nefamese
[nef] Arunachal Pradesh. Population unknown. May be replaced by Hindi (2006 Y. Modi). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arunamese Dialects: Most closely related to Adi Galo [adl]. Classification: Pidgin, Assamese based

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Nepali
[npi] West Bengal, Darjeeling area; Sikkim; Assam; Arunachal Pradesh; Bihar; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Uttarakhand; Manipur; Mizoram; Nagaland; Meghalaya, Tripura. 2,870,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sikkim, West Bengal state (1992, Constitution, 71st Amendment). Alternate Names: Eastern Pahari, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbatiya Dialects: Gorkhali, Nepali, Palpa. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Newar
[new] Sikkim; West Bengal; Some in Bettiah, Bihar; Andamans. 14,000 in India (2007). Ethnic population: 166,000 (2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Newari” (pej.) Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Newar

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Nicobarese, Car
[caq] North Nicobar Islands, Car island. 37,000 (2005). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Car, Pu Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Car Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Lingua franca for Nicobar Islands. Christian.

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Nicobarese, Central
[ncb] Nicobar Islands, Katchal, Camorta, Nancowry, and Trinket islands. 10,100 (2001 census). 5,310 on Katchal, 3,410 on Kamorta, 930 on Nancowry, 430 on Trinket. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nicobar Dialects: Camorta (Kamorta), Katchal (Kachel, Tehnu), Nancowry (Nancoury), Trinkut (Trinkat). Related to Car [caq], Chaura [crv], Shom Peng [sii], Southern Nicobarese [nik], and Teressa [tef]. Central Nicobar once regarded as one language but no longer generally accepted. Dialects now regarded as mutually unintelligible with the exception of Trinket and Katchal. (Parkin 1991). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Nancowry Comments: Christian.

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Nicobarese, Southern
[nik] Nicobar Islands, Little Nicobar and outer Great Nicobar islands. 7,500 (2001 census). 350 on Little Nicobar Island, 7,570 total on Great Nicobar, about 400 of these are Shompen. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nicobara Dialects: Condul (Kondul), Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Milo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Great Nicobar Comments: Hindu, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nihali
[nll] Maharashtra, Buldana district, Jamod Jalgaon tahsil. 2,000 (Parkin 1991). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nihal Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% between Nihal in Chikaldara taluk and Akola District and Korku [kfq] (Munda). Classification: Language isolate Comments: They live in or near Korku villages in a position of subordination to the Korku people. Possibly belonged to a now extinct speech family of India. Influenced significantly by Munda and Dravidian languages. 60%–70% of vocabulary borrowed. Nihali and Nahali [nlx] are different languages.

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Nimadi
[noe] Madhya Pradesh, Khandwa, Khargone, Barwani, and south Dhar districts; Uttar Pradesh; Maharashtra. 2,150,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nemadi, Nimari, Nimiadi Dialects: Bhuani. Dialects have 90%–100% mutual inherent intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 74%–94% among dialects, 64%–75% with Malvi [mup], 62%–77% with Hindi [hin], 56%–64% with Gujarati [guj], 49%–58% with Marathi [mar]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Noiri
[noi] Maharashtra, Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon, Akkalkua, and Shahada tahsils; Dhule district, Shirpur tahsil; Jalgaon district, Chopda tahsil; Madhya Pradesh, Badwani district, Pansemal tahsil. 100,000 (2003 IICCC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Barutiya. Highly intelligible with Dungra Bhili [duh]. Barutiya people have high acquired intelligibility of Vasavi [vas] and Bareli Pauri [bfb]. Lexical similarity: 77%–87% with Dungra Bhili [duh], 60%-71% with different Vasavi [vas] varieties, 58%–68% with Nahali [nlx] of Toranmal, 47%–54% with the Kotali dialect of Bhili [bhb]; the Barutiya dialect of Noiri, 64%–70% with Bareli Pauri [bfb]. Noiri-Barutiya variety falls between Vasavi and Bareli Pauri on a dialect continuum. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. A Bhil subgroup. ‘Noira’ means people who speak through the nose. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Nora
[nrr] Northeast, near Tibet. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Norra, Noza, Nurra Dialects: Byabe, Kizolo, Nora. Classification: Tai-Kadai

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Nyishi
[njz] Arunachal Pradesh, lower Subansiri district. 230,000 (2001 census). 23,000 speakers of Bangni dialect (Van Driem 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangni, Dafla, Daphla, Lel, Nil, Nishi, Nisi, Nissi, Nyishi, Nyising Dialects: Aka Lel, Bangni, Nishang. Similar to Tagin [tgj]. Related to Apatani [apt], Adi [adi], and possibly Lepcha [lep]. Apatani [apt] may be a dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: Nisi is a Scheduled Tribe. Nisi has been used as a cover term for western Tani languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Oko-Juwoi
[okj] Andaman Islands, west central and southwest interior Middle Andaman island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Junoi, Juwoi, Oku-Juwoi Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central

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Öñge
[oon] South Andaman Islands, Dugong Creek and South Bay islands. 94 (Abbi 2006). Mainly monolingual. Ethnic population: 110 (1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ong Dialects: Distinct from Sentinel [std]. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reserved toward outsiders. Traditional religion.

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Oriya
[ori] Population total all countries: 50,137,290. Comments: Member languages are: Oriya [ory], Sambalpuri [spv]

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Oriya
[ory] Odisha, Jharkhand, Singhbhum, and Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Raipur, and Bastar districts; West Bengal, Medinipur (Midnapore) district; Assam; Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam district. Also in Bangladesh, United States. 32,100,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 32,137,290. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Odisha State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Odisha, Odri, Odrum, Oliya, Uriya, Utkali, Vadiya, Yudhia Dialects: Halbi, Midnapore Oriya, Mughalbandi (Oriya Proper, Standard Oriya), North Balasore Oriya, Northwestern Oriya, Southern Oriya, Western Oriya (Sambalpuri). Similar to Sambalpuri [spv]. Sundargh is highly similar to standard Oriya. Lexical similarity: 75%–76% with Sambalpuri [spv]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: Hindu.

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Oriya, Adivasi
[ort] Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam district, Araku valley. 200,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adiwasi Oriya, Kotia Oriya, Kotiya, Tribal Oriya Dialects: Lexical similarity: 38%–42% with standard Oriya [ory], 80%–85% with Desiya [dso] in Odisha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: Adivasi Oriya is a Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonyms: Kotia in Andra Pradesh, Adivasi, and Desiya in Odisha. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Pahari, Kullu
[kfx] Himachal Pradesh, Kullu district, Banjar, Balichowk, and Sainj tahsils. 109,000 (1997). All Pahari 2,170,000 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kauli, Kullui, Kulu Boli, Kulu Pahari, Kului, Kulvi, Kulwali, Pahari, Pahari Kullu, Phari Kulu Dialects: Inner Siragi (Inner Seraji, Saraji, Siragi, Siraji), Kullui, Outer Seraji. Inner Siragi is apparently different from the Siraji-Kashmiri dialect of Kashmiri [kas]. Lexical similarity: 85% or higher among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Pahari, Mahasu
[bfz] Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. 1,000,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahasui Dialects: Lower Mahasu Pahari (Baghati, Baghliani, Kiunthali), Upper Mahasu Pahari (Rampuri, Rohruri, Shimla Siraji, Sodochi). The Kiunthali variety appears to be understood by others, and their attitude toward it is favorable. Rampuri is also called Kochi; Rohruri is also called Soracholi. Intelligibility among dialects above 85%. Lexical similarity: 74%–82% with upper dialects, 74%–95% with lower dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Hindu.

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Pali
[pli] Also in Myanmar. No known L1 speakers in India. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Buddhist.

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Paliyan
[pcf] Kerala, Idukki district, Pirmed tahsil, Kumily, Vandanmedu, and Chakkupallam panchayats; Ernakulam and Kottayam districts; Tamil Nadu, Dindigul, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore districts; Karnataka. 9,520 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makkal, Malai Paliyar, Palani, Palaya, Palayan, Paliyar, Palleyan, Palliyar, Poliyar, Seramar, Tamil Dialects: Mala Pulayan (Hill Pulaya, Karavazhi). Lexical similarity: 71%–75% with Tamil [tam], 62%–65% with Malayalam [mal], 79%–85% with Mala Pulayan [pcf]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Paliya and Mala Pulaya refer to L1 as Tamil [tam], though it differs from standard Tamil. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Panchpargania
[tdb] Jharkhand, Ranchi and Singhbhum districts; Odisha; West Bengal; upper Assam tea gardens. 194,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bedia, Chik Barik, Pan, Pan Sawasi, Tair, Tamara, Tamaria, Tanti, Temoral, Tumariya Dialects: Sonahatu variety considered most pure. Lexical similarity: 77%–94% between dialects, 61%–86% with Kudmali, 68%–76% with Khortha, 61%–70% with Sadri [sck], 48%–52% with Oriya [ory], 45%–58% with Bengali [ben], 50%–60% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Panchpargania means 5 districts, namely Silli, Bundu, Rahe, Baranda, and Tamar parganas of Ranchi (Singh 1995). Hindu, traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Pangwali
[pgg] Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Pangi tahsil, Lahul-Spiti district, Udaipur on Chenab (Chandra-Bhaga) river to Chamba border at Purthi. Possibly from Tandi to Sach Pass. 17,000 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pahari, Pangi, Pangwali Pahari Dialects: 64% inherent intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 52% of Kangri [xnr], 44% of Chambeali [cdh], 50% of Bhadrawahi [bhd]; some dialect variation throughout the valley in Chamba District; Purthi reportedly most divergent. Lexical similarity: 55% with Hindi [hin], 77% with Kullu Pahari [kfx]; 45% with Bhadrawahi [bhd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Paniya
[pcg] Kerala, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Kannur, and Malappuram districts; Tamil Nadu, west of Nilgiris hills; Karnataka, Kodagu district. 94,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nil, Pania, Paniyan, Panyah Dialects: Intelligibility of Malappura Paniya by Kodava [kfa] is 66%. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects and Malappuram Paniya, 71% with Kodaku [ksz] and Kodava [kfa]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian.

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Panjabi, Eastern
[pan] Punjab, south Firozpur district, Bhatyiana; Rajasthan, north Ganganagar district, Bhatyiana; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir. Majhi dialect in Punjab, Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts. Also in Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 28,200,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 29,518,600. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Eastern Punjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi Dialects: Bathi, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Doab, Majhi, Malwa, Panjabi Proper, Powadhi. Western Panjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Panjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Panjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1901–1929). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi Comments: Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim (Bhatneri).

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Panjabi, Mirpur
[pmu] Kashmir, Mirpur area, near Pakistan border. Possibly in Pakistan. Also in United Kingdom. 1,020,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 1,040,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mirpur, Mirpuri Dialects: Distinct from Western Panjabi [pnb], though closely related. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Hindu, Sikh.

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Panjabi, Western
[pnb] Jammu and Kashmir; Delhi; Haryana. 1,910,000 in India (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hindki, Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Western Punjabi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Pankhu
[pkh] Mizoram, Chhimtuipui and Lunglei districts, 12 villages. Current population unknown. Ethnic population: 230 in India (1971). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Paang, Pang, Pang Khua, Pangkhu, Pankho, Pankhua, Panko, Pankua Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central Comments: Scheduled Tribe. A subgroup of the Mizo [lus]. Christian.

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Pao
[ppa] Madhya Pradesh, Satna, Chhatarpur, Datia, Panna, Rewa, Shahdol, Sidhi, and Tikamgarh districts. 53,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pabra Dialects: May not be Tibeto-Burman. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reported to speak Bagheli [bfy] as L1 (Singh 1994). Hindu.

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Pardhan
[pch] Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Betul, Balaghat, and Jabalpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur, and Surguja districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Garhchiroli, Nagpur, Wardha, and Yavatmal districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilbad district. 135,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 347,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pradhan, Pradhani Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi Comments: L1 is Gondi [gon] (Singh 1994). Hindu.

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Pardhi
[pcl] Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Gujarat; widely scattered. 49,300 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bahelia, Chita Pardhi, Lango Pardhi, Paidia, Paradi, Paria, Phans Pardhi, Takankar, Takia Dialects: Haran Shikari, Neelishikari, Pittala Bhasha, Takari. Probably more than 1 language (Lango). Possibly a dialect of Bhili [bhb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, and a Scheduled Caste in Madhya Pradesh. Different than Paradhi, who speak Kachchi [kfr]. Traditional religion.

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Parenga
[pcj] Odisha, Koraput district; Andhra Pradesh. Ethnic population: 12,600 in Odisha (2001 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gorum, Gorum Sama, Pareng, Parenga Parja, Parengi, Parenji, Poroja Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Gorum Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonym: Gadaba, erroneously.

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Parsi
[prp] Gujarat; Maharashtra. Also in China, Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States. 151,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 326,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parsee Dialects: Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi-Dari [prd], from whom they separated 600–700 years ago. Other reports say they came to India 1,300 years ago. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz] in Iran. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Ethnic autonym: Parsee. Distinct from Parsi, a dialect of Gujarati [guj]. Zoroastrian.

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Pathiya
[pty] Kerala, Wayanad district, Mathamangalam, Thelampatta, Thekkumpatta, Cheramkolli, and Kazhambu villages. 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: According to Menon (1996:313) and Shashi (1994 Vol.11), they speak Malayalam [mal] mixed with Kannada [kan] words. Lexical similarity: 88% with Kalanadi [wkl], 83% with Kunduvadi [wku], 72% with Malayalam [mal], 79% with Paniya [pcg], 76%–80% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb], 70%–74% with Wayanad Kurichiya. Classification: Dravidian, Southern Comments: Common cultural origin with Kunduvadiyar and Kalanadikal. Not related to the washerman caste of the same name in Travancore area. (Menon 1996). Jain.

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Pattani
[lae] Himachal Pradesh, Lahul, Pattan, Chamba-Lahul, and lower Mayar valleys. Some in Kullu, Manali cities. 11,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chamba, Chamba Lahuli, Changsapa Boli, Lahuli, Manchad, Manchati, Patni, Swangla Dialects: Central Pattani, Chamba-Lahuli (Western Pattani), Eastern Pattani. 3 caste dialects exist (Pandit-Rajput, Harijan and Lohar). The lower castes understand Pandit-Rajput, but not vice versa. Lexical similarity: 55%–63% between Western Pattani dialect and Tinani [lbf], 26%–39% with Bunan [bfu], 37% with Shumcho [scu], 35% with Jangshung [jna], 33% with Sunam [ssk], 31% with Chitkuli [cik] and Kinnauri [kfk], 25% with Puh and Kinnaur District varieties (Kinnaur Bhoti [nes]) of Tibetan, 22% with Nesang [tpq], 18% with Tibetan [bod], 14%–15% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of Tibetan. Average of 80% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Lahaula and Swangla are both Scheduled Tribes. Hindu.

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Pengo
[peg] Odisha, Koraput district, Dasamantapur and Nandapur tahsils; Rayagada district, Kashipur tahsil; Nabarangapur district, Pappadahandi tahsil; Kalahandi district. Ethnic population: 350,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hengo, Pengu Dialects: Awe, Indi. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo Comments: They consider themselves separate from Jhodia Poraja. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Phake
[phk] Assam, Dibrugarh district, Bor-phake, Nam-phake, Tipam-phake, Man-long, Man-po-mung, Pha-neng, Ning-gam, Nong-lai, and Mung-lang villages along Dihing river; Arunachal Pradesh. 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Faake, Phakey, Phakial Dialects: Similar to Aiton [aio]. Similar to Shan [shn] of Myanmar. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Phudagi
[phd] Maharashtra, Thane district. 1,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vadval Dialects: A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani [knn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani

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Pnar
[pbv] Meghalaya, Khasi and Jaintia hills, north of War Jaintia; Mizoram, north Aizawl district; Assam, North Cachar hills, Jatinga, Borolokha, and Dibruchera; Karbi Anglong district, Ulukunchi. Also in Bangladesh. 243,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 247,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Jaintia (Synteng), Nongtung. Formerly considered a dialect of Khasi [kha]. Jaintia dialect has 12 spoken forms: Jowai, Shangpung, Batau, Raliang, Sutnga, Sumer, Nartiang, Barato, Rymbai, Lakadong, Mynso, and Nongtalang. All are intelligible, except for Nongtalang, which is akin to Central Khmer [khm]. Jowai is standard spoken form. Lexical similarity: 68% with standard Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli. 250,000 in India. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

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Powari
[pwr] Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Seoni, Chindwara, and Betul districts; Maharashtra, Wardha, Bhandara, and Gondia districts. 426,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1986 All India Powar Council). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Bhoyar Powari (Bhomiyari, Bhoyari, Bhoyaroo, Bhuiyar, Bhuria, Bohoyeri), Govari of Seoni, Khalari, Koshti, Kumbhari, Lodhi, Marari, Vyneganga Powari. Reported intelligibility between Bhoyar and Vyneganga. Balaghat District dialect considered central among Bhoyar and Vyneganga varieties. Lexical similarity: 60%–87% among dialects; 80%–83% with Koshti, Kumbhari, and Khalari sub-groups; 49%–65% with Bagheli [bfy], 46%–64% with Bundeli [bns]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone Comments: Younger generation is getting education. Hindu.

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Purik
[prx] North Kashmir, Kargil district, mainly Suru valley; Dras valley, some in western Himalayas. 37,700 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Burig, Burigskat, Purig, Purigskad, Purik Bhotia, Purki Dialects: Similar to Balti [bft]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: Ethnonym: Purig-pa. ‘Purig’, of Tibetan origin. People prefer to be culturally and linguistically identified with Tibet, although religiously with Islam. A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Puroik
[suv] Arunachal Pradesh, East Kameng, Papumpare, Kurung Kumey, and Lower Subansiri districts, along Par river, 53 villages. Possibly in China. 20,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Sulung” (pej.) Dialects: A divergent language which may not be Sino-Tibetan but possibly Austro-Asiatic. Intelligible of Bugun [bgg] (Chowdhury 1996). Burling (2003) groups it with Sherdukpen [sdp] and Bugun; possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: 54%–67% between varieties; 57%–68% with Chug [cvg]; less than 15% with Bugun [bgg] and Nyishi [njz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa Comments: A satellite relationship to Nyishi and Bangni peoples, bonded economically. A Scheduled Tribe in India. Claim kinship with the Khoa or Bugun. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Purum
[pub] Manipur, Sempati, and Chandel. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Puram Dialects: Related to Chiru [cdf], Aimol [aim], and Langrong [aim]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern

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Rabha
[rah] West Assam, Darrang, Goalpara, and Kamrup districts; Nagaland; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri and Alipurduar subdivisions; Koch Bihar district, Tafangunj subdivision; Meghalaya, East and West Garo hills districts. 165,000 (2001 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 374,000 (1993). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Rava Dialects: Maitaria (Maitoria, Maituri), Rangdania (Rongdani). Rongdani is the standard dialect. Lexical similarity: 73% between Maituri and Rongdani. 31%–39% with Koch [kdq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Koch Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Rajasthani
[raj] Population total all countries: 12,370,010. Comments: Member languages are: Bagri [bgq], Gade Lohar [gda], Gujari [gju], Haroti [hoj], Malvi [mup], Wagdi [wbr]

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Ralte
[ral] Mizoram, mainly Aizawl district, scattered in Lunglei and Chhimtuipui districts; Manipur; Tripura, a few in Jampui hills. 900 (2007). Ethnic population: 34,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Related to Tedim Chin [ctd], Paite Chin [pck], Thado Chin [tcz], and Zo [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. A subgroup of the Mizo [lus]. Spoken only in northern Mizoram villages (Singh 1995). Christian.

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Rangkas
[rgk] Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh district, Johar valley, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, facing Nepal border along Mahakali valley. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,010 in India, 1,420 all countries (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Canpa, Chyanam, Johari, Kyonam, Saukas, Saukiya Khun, Shaukas Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora Comments: Identity merged with the dominant Kumaoni people. Rangkas sometimes refers to the whole group of Darmiya, Chaudangsi, Byangsi, and the now extinct Johari.

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Ranglong
[rnl] Tripura, Joitang village; Assam; Mizoram. 8,000 (2003 BI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ronglong Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Rathawi
[rtw] Gujarat, Vadodara district, Chhota Udaipur and Kavant taluks, and Panchmahals district; Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua district, Alirajpur taluk. 451,000 (2006 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bal-La, Kohelia, Rathwi Dialects: 76% intelligibility of Bhilali [bhi]. A chain of related varieties from Bhilali to Rathawa; extremes have limited mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83% with Bhilali [bhi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Distinct from Rathwi Bareli [bgd] in Madhya Pradesh. Hindu.

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Ravula
[yea] Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) district; Kerala, Wayanad district, Mananthavadi tahsil, Kannur district. 26,900 (2007). Ethnic population: 47,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adiya, Adiyan, Iryavula, Panjiri Yerava, Yerava, Yoruba Dialects: Adiya, Pani Yerava, Panjiri Yerava. 93%–94% dialect intelligibility between Yerava and Adiya dialects. Pani Yerava may be a dialect of Ravula or of Paniya [pcg]. Lexical similarity: 83%–98% among Yerava and Adiya varieties, 53%–61% with standard Malayalam [mal], 35%–40% with Badaga [bfq], 32%–42% with colloquial Kannada [kan], 66%–74% Pani Yerava dialect with the Adiya and Yerava dialects. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: Glossonym: Ravula or Panjiri Yerava in Karnataka; Ravula or Adiya in Kerala. They prefer Ravula in both places. Adiyan is a Scheduled Tribe in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Yerava is a Scheduled Tribe in Karnataka. Pani Yeravas are not the same as the Paniya of Wayanad District. Hindu.

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Rawang
[raw] Kunlang dialect is in Arunachal Pradesh, near the Myanmar and Tibet border. 1,000 in India (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiutse, Ch’opa, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Kiutze, Krangku, Taron Dialects: Kunlang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish Comments: Glossonym: Kiutze or Qiuze by Chinese, Ch’opa by Lisu.

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Rawat
[jnl] Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh district, north of Askot Maila, 9 villages. 670 (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ban Manus, Ban Rauts, Bhulla, Dzanggali, Jangali, Janggali, Jhangar, Raji, Raut Dialects: Extensive borrowing from areal Indo-Aryan (Kumaoni, Nepali) languages (2011 J. Fortier). Very similar to Raute [rau] and Raji [rji]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Government-given ethnonym: Raji now accepted by the people. Many Indo-Aryan loans. Raute are found in Kumaon where they are known as Raji (Gurung 1997). Traditional religion.

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Reli
[rei] Andhra Pradesh, near Adivasi Oriya [ort] language area; Odisha, Koraput district. 22,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Relli Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Oriya [ory]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Hindu.

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Riang
[ria] North and central Tripura; Mizoram, Aizawl, Lunglei, and Chhimtuipui districts, Karnafuli river bank area, 30 villages; Assam, Karimganj district. Also in Bangladesh. 76,500 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 77,000. Ethnic population: 144,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kau Bru, Reang, Tipra Dialects: Considered dialect of Kok Borok [trp] called Polong-O (Muanthanga). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Different from Riang [ril] of Myanmar, a Mon-Khmer language. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Rongpo
[rnp] Uttarakhand, Chamoli district, Joshimath tahsil, Niti valley, Niti, Gamshali, Bampa, and Malari villages; Mana valley, Mana, Indradhara, Gajkoti, Pathiya-Dhantoli, Hanuman Chatti, Benakuli, and Aut. Marchha dialect in Mana and Niti valleys, a few Tolchha in Niti valley. 7,500 (2001 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Manchhi Bhassa” (pej.), “Marchha” (pej.), “Marchha Pahari” (pej.), Rang Po Bhasa, Rangkas, Rangpa, “Tolchha” (pej.) Dialects: Marchha, Tolchha. A Himalayan language distinct from Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Many Indo-Aryan loanwords. Grierson and Konow (1901–1929) referred to this as the Garhwal dialect of Tibetan. Ranglo or Rang often used as a cover term for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darma, and Rongpo. Hindu.

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Ruga
[ruh] Meghalaya, near the Garo [grt] language area. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Most closely related to A’tong [aot], Koch [kdq], and Rabha [rah]. Not inherently intelligible of Garo [grt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Koch

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Sadri
[sck] Jharkhand, Ranchi and Palamau districts; West Bengal; Odisha; Assam; Madhya Pradesh; Andaman Islands; Nagaland. Also in Nepal (Kisan). 3,290,000 in India (2001 census). 2,050,000 Sadani, 1,243,000 Nagpuria. Population total all countries: 3,290,490. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Ganwari, Gauuari, Gawari, Goari, Jharkhandhi, Nagpuri, Nagpuria, Sadan, Sadana, Sadani, Sadari, Sadati, Sadhan, Sadhari, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri Dialects: 77% of Sadri [sdr], Oraon of Bangladesh. Speakers name 3 registers of Sadri: Sadani (finer, respectful, formal), Common Sadri (Nagpuri), and Lower Sadri (rough). Lexical similarity: 77%–96% between dialects, 58%–71% with Hindi [hin], 47%–54% with Oriya [ory], 45%–61% with Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Trade language among tribal groups in Assam. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sakachep
[sch] Assam, Karbi Anglong, N. Cachar Hills and Cachar Hills districts; Nagaland, Kohima district, Khelma village; Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills district, Saithsma, Rumphung, and Mongor villages; Tripura; Mizoram; Manipur. 25,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khelma, Sankechep Dialects: Khelma, Sakachep, Thangkachep. Dialects may be simply alternate names for Sakechep depending on the region. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Sambalpuri
[spv] Odisha, Sambalpur, Jharsuguda, Sundargarh, Deogarh, Bargarh, Balangir, Boudh, Sonpur, Nuvapada, and Kalhandi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Raigarh and Jagdalpur districts. 18,000,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dom, Kosali, Koshal, Koshali, Western Oriya Dialects: Similar to Oriya [ory]. Lexical similarity: 75%–76% with Oriya [ory]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya

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Samvedi
[smv] Maharashtra. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: A divergent dialect of, or closely related language to Konkani [knn]. Shares many features with Gujarati [guj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani

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Sansi
[ssi] Rajasthan; Punjab; Haryana; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka; Uttar Pradesh. Also in Pakistan. 60,000 in India (Gusain 2002). Population total all countries: 76,200. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bhilki, Sansiboli Dialects: Intermediate between Eastern Panjabi [pan] and Hindustani (see Hindi [hin]). Sometimes identify themselves as Marwari [rwr]. Related to Rajasthani [mwr], Sindhi [snd], Eastern Panjabi. Lexical similarity: 71% with Urdu [urd], 83% with the Sochi dialect of Sansi [ssi](1998). Numerous phonological and morphological borrowings from Eastern Panjabi [pan], Hindi [hin], and Gujarati [guj] (Gusain 2002). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi Comments: Bhils by caste. Called a Gypsy language. They have an argot called Farsi. Gusain (2002) classifies this as a Rajasthani dialect. Socially separate from surrounding groups. Governed by their own social norms and economy. Losing some tribal characteristics but are not yet integrated into the national mainstream (Gusain 2002). Hindu.

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Sanskrit
[san] Also in Nepal. 14,100 in India (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Comments: Classical language of learning and liturgical language.

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Santhali
[sat] Bihar, Bhagalpur and Munger districts; Jharkhand, Manbhum and Hazaribagh districts; Odisha, Balasore district; West Bengal, Birbhum and Bankura districts; Assam; Mizoram; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal. 5,940,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 6,218,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jharkhand State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII), amended 2003. Alternate Names: Har, Hor, Samtali, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Santhiali, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal Dialects: Kamari-Santali, Karmali (Khole), Lohari-Santali, Manjhi, Paharia. Similar to Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], and Munda [unx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Language of Santhal tribals of Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh). Hindu, traditional religion.

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Sartang
[onp] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, Nafra and Dirang circles, Jerigaon, Sellary, Khoitam, Rahung, Darbu and Khoina villages. 1,000 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bootpa, But Monpa, But Pa, Matchopa Dialects: Most similar to Sherdukpen [sdp]. Lexical similarity: 49%–60% with Sherdukpen [sdp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa Comments: Buddhist.

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Saurashtra
[saz] Tamil Nadu, Madurai, Thanjavur, Dindugul Quaid-E. Milleth, Ramanathapuram, Chengai-Annai, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, and North Arcot districts; Chennai, Deccan, Madurai, Thanjavur, and Salem cities; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. 185,000 (2001 census). Each listed district has communities of at least 5,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Patnuli, Saurashtri, Sourashtra, Sowrashtra Dialects: Northern Saurashtra, Southern Saurashtra. Indo-Aryan elements reveal Gujarati [guj] relationship; some structure from Dravidian, lexicon from Telugu [tel] and Tamil [tam]. An Indo-European island surrounded by Dravidian languages. The 3 main populations in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities had between 67% and 97% inherent intelligibility among themselves. Lexical similarity: 77%–96% between all varieties. The 3 main populations: 84%–96%. Southern dialects have 83% or higher lexical similarity with Thanjavur variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Most are weavers; nonweavers are generally better educated. System of exogamous clans. Hindu.

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Sauria Paharia
[mjt] Jharkhand, north former Santhal Pargana district, Rajmahal hills; Sahibganj and Godda districts, Pakaur district, Litipara block; West Bengal, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. Also in Bangladesh. 54,000 in India (Bhaskararao 2006). Population total all countries: 61,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malatri, Maler, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Sawriya Malto Dialects: Godda, Hiranpur, Litipara (Chatgam), Sahibganj. Some inherent intelligibility of Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Related to Kurux [kru]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Part of Malto ethnic group. A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Savara
[svr] Andhra Pradesh; Odisha. 253,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu Comments: Distinct from Sora [srb] (Savara).

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Sentinel
[std] Southeast Andaman Islands, Sentinel island. 150 (Abbi 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sentinelese Dialects: Similar to Önge [oon]. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reserved toward outsiders. Traditional religion.

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Seraiki
[skr] Punjab; Rajasthan; Delhi; Gujarat; Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. 68,000 in India (2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahawalpuri, Multani, Mutani, Reasati, Riasati, Saraiki, Siraiki, Southern Panjabi Dialects: Bahawalpuri (Bhawalpuri, Reasati, Riasati), Jafri, Jatki, Siraiki Hindki, Thali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: A new literary language based on south Lahnda dialects, especially Multani and Bahawalpuri. Hindu, Sikh.

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Shekhawati
[swv] Rajasthan, Sikar, Jhunjhunun, and Churu districts. 3,000,000 (2002 L. Gusain). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shekhawati-Marwari Dialects: Jhunjhunu-Churu, Sikar. 78% comprehension of Marwari [rwr], 72% intelligibility of Dhundari [dhd]. Lexical similarity: 74%–77% between dialects; 51%–68% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–80% with Merwari [wry], 45%–69% with Godwari [gdx], 57%–66% with Mewari [mtr], 66%–73% with Dhundari [dhd], 58%–66% with Haroti [hoj], 57%–70% with Mewati [wtm], 69%–76% with Bagri [gda], 61%–73% with Haryanvi [bgc], 55%–69% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu.

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Shendu
[shl] Mizoram. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khieng, Khyen, Sandu, Shandu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern

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Sherdukpen
[sdp] Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng district, south of Bomdi La Range and Tengapani river valleys, Rupa (Kupa), Shargang (Shergaon), Jigang (Jigaon), and Thungrao villages; Assam. 3,100 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngnok Dialects: Most similar to Sartang [onp], but sufficiently intelligible with it. Lexical similarity: 49%-60% with Sartang. Burling (2003) groups it with Puroik [suv] and Bugun [bgg] and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Separated from the Sartang by war. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Sherpa
[xsr] West Bengal, Darjeeling district; Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh. 18,300 in India (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Xarba, Xiaerba Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. ‘Sharpa’, easterner, so the term used in different countries may not always refer to Sherpa. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Shina
[scl] North Kashmir, Dras and Kishenganga valleys, Gurais area. 34,400 in India (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shinaki, Sina Dialects: Drasi, Gurezi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Open to education and jobs outside the area. Distinct from Brokskat [bkk]. Buddhist, traditional religion, Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Sholaga
[sle] Karnataka, Mysore district, Biligiri Rangana hills; Tamil Nadu. 24,000 (2006 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadu Sholigar, Sholanayika, Sholiga, Sholigar, Solaga, Solanayakkans, Soliga, Soligar Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Kannada [kan]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. May be in the Kannada group. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Shom Peng
[sii] Nicobar Islands, interior Great Nicobar island. 400 (2004). Mainly monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shobang, Shom Pen, Shompen, Shompeng Dialects: Distinct from other Nicobarese languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Shom Peng Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Shumcho
[scu] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur district, Puh tahsil, Kanam, Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso, Taling, and Rushkaling villages. 2,170 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Kinnauri, Shumcu, Sumcho, Sumchu, Sumtsu, Thebarskad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Jangshung [jna], 67% with Sunam [ssk], 45% with Pahari Kinnauri [kjo], 43% with Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Sikkimese
[sip] Sikkim, all districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling. Possibly in Tibet. 70,300 (2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dandzongka, Danjongka, Danyouka, Denjong, Denjongkha, Denjongpa, Denjonka, Denjonke, Lachengpa, Lachungpa, Sikami, Sikkim Bhotia, Sikkim Bhutia Dialects: Partially intelligible of Dzongkha [dzo] of Bhutan. Lexical similarity: 65% with Dzongkha [dzo] of Bhutan, 42% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Buddhist.

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Simte
[smt] Southwest Manipur, Churachandpur district, Mingjang, Tubuong, Simveng, New Bazar, Thanlon, Leikangpai, Zouthang, Shumtuk, Monjon, Pamjal, Sasinoujang, Tallian, Dumsao, Khungung, Lungthul, Singhat, Moijin, Maokot, Suangdai, and Suangpuhmun. 10,200 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Related to Chin Thado [tcz] and Zou [zom]. An alternate name for Paite [pck] (Singh 1994). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Sindhi
[snd] Gujarat; Rajasthan; Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Bihar; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Odisha; Tamil Nadu; Uttar Pradesh. 1,700,000 in India (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,000,000 to 5,000,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Rajasthan State (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347), Schedule VIII addition, 1961. Dialects: Bhatia, Jadeji, Kayasthi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Thari, Viccholi, Visholi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Official language of the Sindhi community. Hindu.

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Singpho
[sgp] Assam, Tinsukia district, Margherita subdivision; Dibrugarh, Sibsagar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit, and Changlang districts. 2,500 (Morey 2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jingphaw, Kachin, Sing-Fo Dialects: Turung. Lexical similarity: 50% with Jingpho [kac] of Myanmar. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho Comments: Many loans from Khamti [kht]. Kachin refers to a cultural, rather than a linguistic group. A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Sirmauri
[srx] Himachal Pradesh, Sirmaur district, Shimla district, southeast section. 400,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Himachali, Pahari, Sirmouri, Sirmuri Dialects: Dharthi (Giriwari), Giripari. Difficult intelligibility between Dharthi and Giripari; and between Upper Mahasui and Giripar. Dharthi dialect more influenced by Hindi. In south Shimla District, Kiunthali and Sirmauri are used interchangeably. Reportedly a different variety of Sirmauri in Sirmaur District. Lexical similarity: 56%–70% with Dharthi and Giripari, with considerable variation within each dialect; Giripari 67% with Lower Mahasui, 65% with Upper Mahasui, 61% with Jaunsari [jns]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari Comments: Dharthi is spoken in Giriwar area, Giripari in Giripar area. Hindu.

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Sora
[srb] South Odisha, Ganjam, Koraput, and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Srikakulam district; Madhya Pradesh; Bihar; Tamil Nadu; West Bengal; Assam, Plains division. 253,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sabar, Sabara, Saonras, Saora, Saura, Savara, Sawaria, Shabari, Soura, Swara Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Spiti Bhoti
[spt] Himachal Pradesh, Lahul-Spiti district, Spiti subdistrict. 10,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyam, Piti Bhoti Dialects: Not intelligible of Ladakhi [lbj]; low intelligibility of Stod Bhoti [sbu]. All areas of Spiti understand each other. Lexical similarity: 41% with the Lhasa Tibetan dialect of Central Tibetan [bod], 57% with Ladakhi (Leh) [lbj], 57% with Stod Bhoti [sbu] from Darcha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Western Comments: Buddhist.

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Stod Bhoti
[sbu] Himachal Pradesh, Lahul region, Stod, Khoksar, and upper Mayar valleys. 2,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lahul Bhoti, Stod, Stod-Kad, Tod, Tod-Kad Dialects: Khoksar (Khoksar Bhoti), Mayar (Mayar Bhoti, Mayari), Stod (Kolong). 85% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti by Khoksar, 75% by Mayar, 62% of Khoksar by Mayar, 95% of Khoksar by Stod Bhoti. Lexical similarity: 74% with Spiti Bhoti [spt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Western Comments: Buddhist.

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Sunam
[ssk] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur district, Puh tahsil, Sunam village. 560 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Kinnauri, Sangnaur, Sungam, Sungnam, Sunnam, Thebarshad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Shumcho [scu], 65% with Jangshung [jna], 38% with Pahari Kinnauri [kjo] and Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Surgujia
[sgj] Chhattigarh, Surguja, Jashpur, and Korea districts; Raigarh and Korba districts’ border areas. 1,460,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Suraji, Surguja, Surgujia-Chhattisgarhi, Surjugia Dialects: Similar to Chhattisgarhi [hne]. Lexical similarity: 71%–76% with Chhattisgarhi [hne]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone

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Surjapuri
[sjp] Bihar, Purnia, Kishanganj, Katihar, and Araria districts; West Bengal, Uttar Dinajpur district. 1,220,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sura Dialects: Preliminary survey results show intelligibility of Nepali Rajbanshi [rjs]. Lexical similarity: 70%–74% with Hindi [hin], 67%–71% with the western variety of Kamta [rkt] spoken near Dinajpur, 77%–86% with varieties of Surjapuri [sjp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Possible alternate names are Chaupal, Choupal, and Suraji, but surveyors did not find these terms used. Historically more closely related to Kamta [rkt] and Rajbanshi [rjs] than Hindi [hin], a relationship borne out by greater morphological similarity. (2006 M. Toulmin).

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Sylheti
[syl] South Assam, Barak valley region; Karimganj, Cachar and Hailakandi districts; Nagaland, Kolkata. 3,000,000 in India (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bengali of Cachar, Sileti, Siloti, Srihattia, Sylheti Bangla, Sylheti Bengali, Sylhetti, Syloti, Syloty Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Muslim, Hindu.

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Tagin
[tgj] Arunachal Pradesh, upper Subansiri district. 38,200 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nil Dialects: Similar to Nyishi [njz]. Related to Apatani [apt], Adi [adi], and possibly Lepcha [lep]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Tamang, Eastern
[taj] Sikkim, lower Teesta valley, Rangit valley; West Bengal, Darjeeling; Arunachal Pradesh. 17,500 in India (2001 census). Ethnic population: 272,000 (2006 FTT). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Migrate from Nepal.

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Tamil
[tam] Tamil Nadu and neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Belize, Canada, Denmark, Fiji, Germany, Malaysia, Mauritius, Netherlands, Qatar, Réunion, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 60,700,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 68,763,360. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tamil Nadu State; union territories Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Damulian, Tamal, Tamalsan, Tambul, Tamili Dialects: Adi Dravida, Aiyangar, Aiyar, Arava, Burgandi, Burma Tamil, Harijan, Hebbar, Kongar, Madrasi, Madurai, Malaya Tamil, Mandyam Brahmin, Pattapu Bhasha, Sanketi, Secunderabad Brahmin, South Africa Tamil, Sri Lanka Tamil, Tamil, Tigalu. Burgandi are nomadic. Aiyar and Aiyangar are Brahmin dialects. Southern dialect around Madurai is literary standard. Eastern dialect is colloquial standard (Zvelebil 1998). Sanketi dialect in Karnataka used by immigrants from Madurai and Shenkotta in Tamil Nadu. Lexicon greatly influenced by Kannada. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Officially recognized language. Hindu, Muslim.

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Telugu
[tel] Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United States. 73,800,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 74,049,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Andhra Pradesh State; Puducherry Union Territory, Andaman and Nicobar islands (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Andhra, Gentoo, Tailangi, Telangire, Telegu, Telgi, Tengu, Terangi, Tolangan Dialects: Berad, Dasari, Dommara, East Godaveri, Golari, Guntur, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Nellore, Rayalseema, Salewari, Srikakula, Telangana, Telugu, Vadaga, Vadari, Vishakhapatnam, Yanadi (Yenadi). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu

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Teressa
[tef] Teressa, Bompoka, and Nicobar islands. 2,080 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taih-Long Dialects: Bompoka (Bompaka, Pauhut). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa

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Thachanadan
[thn] Kerala, Wayanad district, Kalpetta, Meppadi, Muttil and Ambalavayal panchayats; Malappuram district, Nilambur area. 3,000 (2004 survey). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moopan, Thacchanadens, Thachanad Muppans Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60%–64% with Malayalam [mal], 50%–54% with Tamil [tam], 66%–72% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Thangmi
[thf] Sikkim, East district, Aritar Sunua; West Bengal, Darjeeling. 500 in India. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Thami Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu

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Tharu, Chitwania
[the] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified

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Tharu, Dangaura
[thl] Uttar Pradesh, Kheri district, Nighasan tahsil border; Gonda district, Tulsipur tahsil; Bahraich district. 174,000 in India (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaudary, Chaudhari, Chaudhuri, Dang, Dangali, Dangora, Dangura Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Tharu, Kathariya
[tkt] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kathoriya Tharu, Khatima Tharu Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified

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Tharu, Kochila
[thq] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saptari Dialects: Morangia. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tharu, Rana
[thr] Nepal border, Uttar Pradesh, Lakhimpur Kheri district, Paliakalan tahsil, Chandan Chauki block; Uttarakhand, Udham Singh Nagar district, Khatima tahsil. 150,000 in India (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rana Thakur Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Thulung
[tdh] Sikkim; West Bengal, Darjeeling district; Uttar Pradesh. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Thulunge Rai Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Hindu.

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Tibetan
[bod] Himachal Pradesh, Tibet border; Uttarakhand; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Delhi; Sikkim. 85,300 in India (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Bod, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Pohbetian, Poke, Skad, Tebilian, Tibate Dialects: Aba (Batang), Dartsemdo (Tatsienlu), Dru, Gtsang, Hanniu, Kongbo, Nganshuenkuan (Anshuenkuan Nyarong), Panakha-Panags, Paurong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. In Himalayan countries, ‘Bhotiya’, people of Tibetan origin, and is applied to various languages. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Tinani
[lbf] Himachal Pradesh, Lahul and Spiti subdivisions, lower Chandra, Tinan, and Rangloi valleys. Gondhla is main village. Also in China. 22,600 in India (2001). Population total all countries: 23,050. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gondhla, Gondla, Lahauli, Lahouli, Lahuli, Rangloi, Teenan, Tinan Lahuli Dialects: Similar to Pattani [lae]. Lexical similarity: 63%–56% with Pattani [lae], 32%–37% with Bunan [bfu], 21% with the Spiti [spt] and Stod [sbu] varieties of central Tibetan [bod], 62% with Tandi village, 34% with Shumcho [scu], 32% with Jangshung [jna], 31% with Kanauri and Sunam [ssk], 13% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Lahuli applies to Lahul inhabitants; Spiti refers primarily to a place. Not a tight linguistic designation. Well educated. Buddhist, Hindu.

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Tiwa
[lax] Assam, Nagaon, Karbi Anglong, Kamrup, Sibsagar, and Lakhimpur districts; Meghalaya, Khasi Hills district. 27,100 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 171,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dowyan, Lalung Dialects: Datiyali, Hajowali. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Toda
[tcx] Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri hills, Kunda hills. 1,560 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Todi, Tuda Dialects: Lexical similarity: 24% with Kota [kfe], the most similar language. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Toto
[txo] West Bengal, Jalpaiguri district, Subhapara, Dhunchipara, and Panchayatpara hillocks on Indo-Bhutan border, Totopara village. 20,000 (King 1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not inherently intelligible of Dhimal [dhi] of Nepal. Lexical similarity: low with Dhimal [dhi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tshangla
[tsj] West Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng district, Dirang area, Namsu, Tempang, Sangti, and Bishing villages; West Siang district, former Padma-bkod region, Tuting and Mechuka circles, Mechuka, Opu, Bona, Galling, Korfu, Dorgling Halung, and Tuting villages. 11,200 in India (2007). 8,200 in Kameng District; 3,000 in West Siang. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cangluo Menba, Central Monpa, Dirang, Memba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo, Sangla, Sharchopkha, Tsangla Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Chowdhury (1996) separates Memba (Tshangla) and Khamba as different tribes in Siang District, both separate from Monpa, in Kameng District. Buddhist.

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Tukpa
[tpq] Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur district, Nesang, Charang, and Kunnu villages. 610 (2000). 800 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nesang, Nyam-kat Dialects: Related to Bhoti Kinnauri [nes], Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], and Kanashi [xns]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri Comments: Buddhist.

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Tulu
[tcy] Karnataka, South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada) and Udupi districts; Kerala, Kasargod district; scattered in other states. 1,720,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tal, Tallu, Thalu, Thulu, Tilu, Tullu, Tuluva Bhasa Dialects: Brahmin Tulu, Common Tulu, Northeast Tulu (Belthangadi, Kerala), Northwest Tulu (Mangalore, Udipi), South Central Tulu (Bantwal, Puttur), Southeast Tulu (Sullia Subrahmanya), Southwest Tulu (Kasaragod, Manjeswara). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Turi
[trd] Jharkhand, Ranchi, Gumla, and Lohardaga districts, Chotanagpur area; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh district; Odisha, Sambalpur and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal, Birbhum, Nadia, Murshidabad, and Bankura districts. 2,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 354,000 (2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Speak Sadri [sck] as L1 in Jharkhand, Mundari [unr] in West Bengal, Oriya [ory] in Odisha (Singh and Manoharan 1993). Turi spoken only in Chotanagpur (Breton 1997). A Turi caste in Gujarat is not related linguistically.

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Turung
[try] Assam, Golaghat district, Titabar and Karbi Anglong. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tai Turung, Tailung, Tairong Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho Comments: Shifted to a dialect of Singpho [sgp] with borrowed Tai words.

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Ullatan
[ull] Kerala, Palakkad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Idukki, Koliam, Pathanamthitta, Alleppey, and Trivandrum districts. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 16,700 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Katan, Kattalan, Kochuvelan, Ulladan Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified Comments: Prefer to be considered Malayalis rather than Ullatan. Ulladan and Kochu Velan are both Scheduled Tribes. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Urali
[url] Kerala, Idukki district, Upputhara, Kanchiyar, Vannappuram, Velliyamattom, and Ayyappankovil panchayats. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,440 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Oorazhi, Uraly, Urli Dialects: Shares features with Tamil [tam], Irula [iru], and Kannada [kan] (Lal 1991). Lexical similarity: 60%–71% with Malayalam [mal], 54%–58% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Irali Urali is a dialect of Irula [iru] in Tamil Nadu. Urali Kurumba is an alternate name for Betta Kurumba [xub] in Wayanad District, Kerala. Traditional religion.

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Urdu
[urd] Jammu and Kashmir; widespread use by Muslims; Dakhini around Hyderabad, Maharashtra. 51,500,000 in India (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory provincial language in Andra Pradesh State; Delhi Union Territory (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Statutory provincial working language in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh states (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII), limited to official correspondence, notices and other communication. Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir State (1957, State constitution, Article 145). Alternate Names: Islami, Undri, Urudu Dialects: Dakhini (Dakani, Dakkhini, Deccan, Desia, Mirgan), Pinjari, Rekhta (Rekhti). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Muslim.

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Vaagri Booli
[vaa] Tamil Nadu, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Cuddalore, and Villupuram districts; Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. 9,300 (2007). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guvvalollu, Haki Piki, Hakkipikkaru, Karikkorava, Kuruvikkaran, Marattiyan, Narakureavar, Narikkorava, Rattiyan, Shikarijanam, Wagri Vel, Wogri Boli Dialects: Lexical similarity: 36% with Marathi [mar], 40% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Hakkipikki is a Scheduled Tribe. The people are called by various names meaning bird catchers. Semi-nomadic. Hindu, Christian.

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Vaiphei
[vap] South Manipur, Churachandpur district, 30+ villages; Assam; Meghalaya; Tripura. 40,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bhaipei, Vaipei, Veiphei Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnic Autonym: Zomi is a collective name by which Tedim Chins of Myanmar, Paite and Vaiphei of Manipur generally identify themselves. Christian.

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Varhadi-Nagpuri
[vah] Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, and Akola districts; Madhya Pradesh, Chhindwara and Balaghat districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad and Nizamabad districts. 6,970,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berar Marathi, Berari, Dhanagari, Kumbhari, Madhya Pradesh Marathi Dialects: Brahmani, Govari, Jhadpi, Kosti (Rangari), Kunban (Kohli), Kunbi, Mahari (Dhedi), Raipur. Regarded by some as a dialect of Marathi [mar]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified

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Varli
[vav] Maharashtra, north Thane district, Dahanu and Talasari taluks; Nasik and Dhule districts; Gujarat, Valsad district, Dharampur taluk; Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Davari dialect is in far north Thane district and south Gujarat. 600,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Warli Dialects: Davari, Eastern Nihiri, Western Nihiri. Sometimes classified as a dialect of Gujarati [guj] or Bhili [bhb]. Lexical similarity: 61%–93% among dialects, 60% with Marathi [mar], 65% with Kukna [kex]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani Comments: Each dialect group is endogamous. Patrilocal. A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Vasavi
[vas] Maharashtra, Nandurbar district, Tapti river area; Gujarat, Surat and Bharuch districts, southern areas of Akkalkuwa and Akrani (Dhadgaon) tahsils, north of Tapti river; Satpudas; central and north Nandurbar and Nawapur tahsils south of Tapti. 1,200,000 (2002 FMPB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adiwasi Bhil, Ambodia Bhil, Bhilori, Dhogri Bhil, Keski Bhil, Padwi Bhilori, Vasava, Vasava Bhil, Vasave Dialects: Ambodi (Ambodia), Dehvali (Kolche), Dogri (Dhogri, Dungri), Khatalia, Kot. Not intelligible of Pauri Bareli [bfb] or Bhili [bhb]. 77%–93% intelligibility between Dogri, Khatali, Dehwali, Dubli, and Kotni varieties. Vasavi Dungri 79% intelligible of Dungra Bhil. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Subgroup of Bhil ethnic group. Vasava is the people name. Traditional religion.

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Vishavan
[vis] Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Thrissur districts, Parana and Perumuzhi on Idamala river, Idyara range, Moovatupuzha taluk; Chalakudi river near Ittyani. 150 (Shashi and Shri 1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malankudi, Malarkuti Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion.

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Waddar
[wbq] Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Maharashtra, Jalgaon district. 172,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: In India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka is about 3 million (2003 IMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Od, Orh, Vadari, Vadda Beldar, Werders, Wodde Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu Comments: Glossonym: Od in North India and Pakistan. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Wagdi
[wbr] Rajasthan, south Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha and Panchmahals; Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. 2,510,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bhili, Bhilodi, Mina Bhil, Vagadi, Vagari, Vagdi, Vaged, Vageri, Vagi, Wagadi, Wagari, Waghari, Wagholi, Wagri Dialects: Adivasi Wagdi, Kherwara, Rewadi, Sagwara. Dialect intelligibility above 95%. Intelligible of Adivasi Garasia [gas] of Bhiloda. Wagdi Banswara highly intelligible of Bhilodi of Gujarat. Wagdi highly intelligible of Patelia [bhb] of Gujarat. Lexical similarity: 84% with Patelia dialects; 75%–80% with Marwari [rwr] dialects; 79%–93% with Adiwasi Garasia dialects; 79%–87% with Rajput Garasia dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil Comments: Vagri is a Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat. Traditional religion.

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War-Jaintia
[aml] Meghalaya, Khasi and Jaintia Hills area; Assam. 25,900 in India (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amwi, Khasi, War Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian Comments: Separate from War dialect of Khasi [kha]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yakkha
[ybh] West Bengal, Darjeeling district; Sikkim. 810 in India (2000). Ethnic population: 6,300 in India (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yakha, Yakkhaba Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Buddhist, Hindu.

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Yerukula
[yeu] Andhra Pradesh, Rayalseema, Telengana and Andhra regions; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, and Chengai Anna; Karnataka; Kerala; Maharashtra. 69,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erukala, Eruku Bhasha, Korava, Korchi, Kurru Bhasha, Kurutha, Yarukula, Yerkula, Yerukala, Yerukala-Korava, Yerukla, Yerukula-Bhasha Dialects: Parikala, Sankara-Yerukala. Similar to Ravula [yea] and Irula [iru]. Lexical similarity: among varieties ranges from 53%–81%, 33%–38% with Irula [iru], 28%–45% with Ravula [yea], 27%–45% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Some people called Yerukula speak Telugu [tel] as L1. Traditionally nomadic. A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Zakhring
[zkr] Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit district, Walong and Kibithoo, Lohit river area. 300 in India (2002). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Mishmi, Meyor, Zaiwa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Keman Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Zangskari
[zau] Jammu and Kashmir, Zaskar mountains; south end of Kargil district, between the Himalayas and Indus river valley, next to Leh-Ladakhi and Kargil-Purik areas. 12,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zanskari, Zaskari Dialects: 73%–81% intelligibility of Leh Ladakhi [lbj] with high standard deviation indicating some acquired intelligibility; 90% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti [sbu] of Darcha village. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: Buddhist.

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Zou
[zom] Manipur, Chandel district, Singngat subdivision, Sugnu area; Churachandpur district; Assam. 20,900 in India (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jou, Zo, Zohâm, Zokam, Zoukamz Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Zomi is a collective name by which Tedim Chins [ctd] of Myanmar, Paite [pck] and Vaiphei [vap] of Manipur generally identify themselves. People are known as Zome or Zomi. Christian.

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