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Aimaq
[aiq] Mazanderan Province. 170,000 in Iran (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Teimuri (Teimurtash). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Barbari and Berberi are also applied to Hazara people in Mashad.

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Alviri-Vidari
[avd] Near Saveh, Markazi Province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Alvir (Alviri), Vidar (Vidari). Related to Gozarkhâni [goz] and Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] South coast and islands; Khamseh nomads in east Fars Province; other Arab nomadic groups in several south central provinces. 200,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gulf Arabic, Khaliji Dialects: Al-Hasâ, Khamseh. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Khuzestan Province, southwest side of Zagros mountains, Shatt al Arab river bank. 1,200,000 in Iran. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arabi, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Armenian
[hye] North, Azerbaijan provinces, Khoi, Shahpur, Ahar, Tabriz, Tehran, Isfahan, and Shiraz areas. 171,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Armani, Armjanski, Erâmani, Ermenice, Haieren, Somekhuri Dialects: Agulis, Astrakhân, Eastern Armenian, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Christian.

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Ashtiani
[atn] Markazi Province, Ashtiyan and Tafresh. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ashtiyani, Astiani Dialects: Ashtiani, Tafresh. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]. Dialects may be separate languages. Reportedly very similar to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Most in Tehran; Reza’iyeh (Rizaiye, Urmia, Urmi). 15,000 in Iran (1994). Ethnic population: 80,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Iranian Koine (General Urmi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Religious separation of Assyrian from Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian (Nestorian).

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Avestan
[ave] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Avesta, Pazend Dialects: Old Avestan (Gathic), Younger Avestan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian

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Azerbaijani
[aze] Population total all languages: 24,237,340. Comments: Includes: North Azerbaijani [azj] (Azerbaijan), South Azerbaijani [azb].

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] East and West Azerbaijan provinces, Ardebil, Zanjan, and part of Markazi provinces; Tehran districts; Fars Province and scattered. 15,500,000 in Iran (2010). Population total all countries: 16,913,280. Ethnic population: 18,700,000. L2 users: Used as L2 in Northwestern Iran. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Torki Dialects: Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Baharlu (Kamesh), Bayat, Karapapakh, Moqaddam, Nafar, Pishagchi, Qajar, Qaragozlu, Shahsavani (Shahseven), Tabriz. A member of macrolanguage Azerbaijani [aze]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Bakhtiâri
[bqi] Southwest, west Chahar-Mahal va Bakhtiâri, east Khuzestan, east Lorestan, and west Isfahan provinces. Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Dorud. 1,000,000 (2001). 350,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Lori-ye Khaveri Dialects: Aligudarz, Chelgerd/Kuhrang, Haftgel, Ize, Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord. Bakhtiâri is on a continuum of related varieties between Northern Luri [lrc] and Southern Luri [luz]. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahâl va Bakhtiâri Province are mutually intelligible with Bakhtiâri. Lexical similarity: 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani) [lrc], 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi) [luz], 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Comments: Little contact with Southern Luri [luz], some contact with Northern Luri [lrc]. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Balochi, Southern
[bcc] Baluchistan Province, South Sistan; west Hormozgan Province coastal areas; Fars Province, scattered communities. 405,000 in Iran. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci Dialects: Koroshi, Makrani (Lotuni). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] North Sistan and Baluchistan Province. Half in cities and villages, half nomadic. 451,000 in Iran (1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. Ethnic group: Yarahmadza. Muslim (Shi’a), Muslim (Sunni).

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Bashkardi
[bsg] East Hormozgan, South Kerman, possibly southwest Sistan va Baluchistan provinces. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bashaka Dialects: Northern Bashaka, Southern Bashaka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Muslim.

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Brahui
[brh] Central Sistan and Baluchistan provinces, including Zahedan. 20,000 in Iran (2007), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barahui, Birahui, Brahudi, Kur Galli Dialects: Jharawan (Jhalawan), Kalat, Sarawan. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Muslim.

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Dari, Zoroastrian
[gbz] Yazd and Kerman areas. 8,000 (1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Gabar” (pej.), “Gabri” (pej.), “Yazdi” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Related to Parsi-Dari [prd] and Nâyini [nyq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Different from Dari dialect of Eastern Farsi [prs] of Afghanistan, though both names refer to Darius, the ancient Persian Emperor (‘dar’ is Classical Persian for court). Many Zoroastrians speak Parsi-Dari and do not know Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Zoroastrian.

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Dezfuli
[def] Dezful and Shushtar, north Khuzestan Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dizfuli Dialects: Dezfuli, Shushtari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Unclassified Comments: Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Kurbat and Luti in west; Mehtar and Ghorbat in Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province; Karachi in north. 1,340,000 in Iran (2000). Population total all countries: 3,952,810. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene Dialects: Karachi, Koli, Kurbati (Ghorbati), Luli, Maznoug, Nawar, Qinati, Yürük. Dialects in Iran may be highly divergent from one another. Not intelligible to Romani speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Influenced by Arabic, as well as languages of host ethnic groups with which any Domari group is associated. Muslim.

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Dzhidi
[jpr] Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djudi, Judeo-Persian, Judi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Jewish.

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Eshtehardi
[esh] Markazi Province, Karaj District, Eshtehard area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Takestani [tks]. May be the same language as some dialects spoken southwest of Qazvin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Fars, Northwestern
[faz] Fars Province, scattered pockets. 7,500 (2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sivandi [siy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Distinct from Farsi [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

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Fars, Southwestern
[fay] Central Fars Province: Somghun, Papun, Masarm, Buringun, Kondazi, Davani, and others. 100,000 (2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Tajik” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Related to Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes] and Lari [lrl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars Comments: Distinct from Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

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Gazi
[gzi] Gaz. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Georgian
[kat] Fereydan and Fereydunshahr provinces, Isfahan, Najaf Abad, Shahin Shahr, Yazdanshahr. 60,000 in Iran. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gruzin, Kartuli Dialects: Fereydan (Ferejdan). Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian Comments: Muslim.

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Gilaki
[glk] Gilan region, coastal plain, south of Talish. Galeshi is a mountain dialect. 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. 2,000 Galeshi. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gelaki, Gilani, Guilaki, Guilani Dialects: Bandar Anzali, Fumani, Galeshi, Lahijani, Langerudi, Rashti, Rudbari, Rudsari, Some’e Sarai. Reportedly similar to Mâzanderâni [mzn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian Comments: Heavy influence from Farsi. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Gozarkhani
[goz] Gozarkhan, northwest of Qazvin; Tajrish, north of Tehran; Alamut area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maraghei [vmh] and Semnani [smy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Harzani
[hrz] East Azerbaijan Province, between Marand and Jolfa, northwest of Tabriz; related varieties in Galin Qaya, Babra, and Dizmar. 28,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karingani [kgn] and Talysh [tly]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Hawrami
[hac] West Kurdestan Province, near Iraq border, Hewraman, east of Sanandaj, north of Kermanshah. 200,000 in Iran (Paul 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Awromani, Gorani, Gurani, Hawramani, Hewrami, Howrami Dialects: Gawhara, Gurani (Gorani), Hawraman i Luhon, Hawraman i Taxt, Kakai (Macho), Kandula. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Widespread, especially urban centers. 283,000 in Iran (1993). Population increased significantly due to influx of Hazaragi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hazara, Hezareh, Hezare’i Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Ethnic group names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad. Muslim (Imami Shi’a), Muslim (Ismaili), Muslim (Sunni).

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Jadgali
[jdg] 10,000 in Iran (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine, and Russian Central Asia. Muslim.

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Kabatei
[xkp] Gilan Province, Rudbar district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kabate, Kalas. Reportedly similar to Upper Taromi [tov]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Kajali
[xkj] East Azerbaijan Province, Kaqazkonan district, Kajal. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shahrudi [shm] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Karingani
[kgn] East Azerbaijan Province, Dizmar district, Keringan village; Hasanu district, northeast of Tabriz. 17,600 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keringani Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly very similar to Harzani [hrz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Kashkay
[qxq] Southwest, Fars and South Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad provinces. Shiraz, Gachsaran, and Firuzabad are centers. 1,500,000 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kashkai, Qashqa’i, Qashqay Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Nomadic. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Kazakh
[kaz] Mazanderan Province, Gorgan city. 3,000 in Iran (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gazaqi, Kazak, Kazakhi Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim.

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Khalaj
[kjf] 42,100 in Iran (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern Comments: Pronounced with 2 short or front a’s. Different from Turkic Khalaj [klj] in Iran.

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Khalaj, Turkic
[klj] Central Province, northeast of Arak. 42,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khalaj Dialects: Not a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb], as previously supposed. Distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer et al 1971). Different from Indo-Iranian Khalaj [kjf]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Kho’ini
[xkc] Zanjan Province, Kho’in district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Kabatei [xkp] and Takestani [tks]. Closely related varieties spoken in nearby villages of Balbavin, Sefidkamar, Halab, and Sa’dabad. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Khorasani Turkish
[kmz] Northeast, north Khorasan Province, northwest of Mashhad. West dialect in Bojnurd area; north in Quchan area (probably largest), south in Soltanabad area near Sabzevar. 400,000 (1977 G. Doerfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Quchani Dialects: North Quchani (Northeast Quchani), South Quchani, West Quchani (Northwest Quchani). Midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen [tuk], but not a dialect of either. The Oghuz-Uzbek dialect of Uzbek, Northern [uzn] in Uzbekistan is reportedly a dialect. Different from Khorasani, a local Persian dialect in Khorasan. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.

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Khunsari
[kfm] Isfahan Province, Kashan and Isfahan areas. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: May be one of a large complex of dialects in Esfahan Province. Other Northwestern closely related dialects include Vonishun, Qohrud, Keshe, Zefre, Sedeh, Gaz, Kafran, Mahallat, So, Mejme, and Djaushaqan. Distinct from Kumzari [zum] of Oman. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Koresh-e Rostam
[okh] East Azerbaijan Province, Koresh-e Rostam district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Koroshi
[ktl] Fars Province. 160. 40–50 families. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Appears to be Baluchi with some features of Farsi. They work for the Qashqa’i people.

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Kumzari
[zum] Hormozgan Province, Larak island. 600 in Iran (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri

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Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Northwest, primarily Kurdestan and west Azerbaijani provinces, areas north of Kermanshah. Mukri dialect: Mahabad area; Sineyi (Sine’i) dialect: Sanandaj (Sine) area. 3,250,000 in Iran. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto provincial working language in northwest. Alternate Names: Kordi, Korkora, Kurdi, Kurdy, Mokri, Mukri, Sine’i, Sorani, Wawa Dialects: Mukri (Kordi, Mokri), Pijdari, Sanandaji (Sina’i, Sine’i, Sineyi), Southern Jafi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: 90% in cities or villages, 10% nomadic. Kordi may also refer to Northern Kurdish varieties (such as in Khorasan Province), and Southern Kurdish [sdh] varieties, such as Kermanshahi [sdh]. Muslim (Sunni).

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] North and west of Lake Urmia. Some in Kalardast region, Mazandaran Province. Northern Kurdish variety of Khorasani Kurmanji is east of the Caspian Sea, in north Khorassan Province, Quchan and Bojnurd towns. 350,000 in Iran (Stanzer 1988). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Kurmanji, Kordi, Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Dialects: Khorassani Kurmanji, Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Muslim (Sunni).

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Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] West, Kermanshah and Ilam provinces; Eastern Iraq border provinces, including Xanaqin. 3,000,000 in Iran (Fattah 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bayray, Feyli, Garrusi (Bijari), Kalhori, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kolyai, Kordali, Luri, Malekshahi (Maleksh ay), Sanjabi. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Laki
[lki] Ilam Province, western Lorestan, Aleshtar, Kuhdasht, Nurabad-e Dolfan, and Khorramabad. 1,000,000 (Fattah 2000). 150,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alaki, Leki Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Luristani (Khorramabadi), 69% with Northern Luri [lrc] (central rural dialects). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Ahl-e Haqq.

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Lari
[lrl] South Fars Province, Lar district; Shiraz; some in United Arab Emirates. 80,000, increasing. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Larestani Dialects: Lari. Verbal system distinct from Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Lasgerdi
[lsa] Semnan Province, southwest of Semnan, Lasjerd. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Läsgerdi, Lasjerdi, Läsjerdi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim.

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Luri, Northern
[lrc] West: central and south Lorestan, north Khuzestan, and south Hamadan provinces, southern edge of Markazi Province, some regions of Ilam Province; Khorramabad, Borujerd, and Andimeshk; possibly eastern Iraq. 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Luristani Dialects: Andimeshki, Bala-Gariva’i, Borujerdi, Cagani, Khorramabadi, Mahali (Rural Mahali), Nahavandi. Major Northern Luri dialects (Khorramabadi, Borujerdi) are found in Lorestan and Khuzestan. Some areas in Ilam Province (Posht-e Kuh) reportedly speak Northern Luri dialects. A few villages in Iraq, using a dialect of Northern Luri (Fattah 2000). Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: Mahali dialect: 80% with Iranian Persian [pes], 69% with Laki [lki], and 73% with Bakhtiâri [bqi] (Haflang); Khorramabadi dialect: 85% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Laki, and 75% with Bakhtiâri (Haflang). Similarity to Iranian Persian [pes] is due to lexical borrowing and language shift. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Comments: Ethnic groups: Pish-e Kuh, some parts of Posht-e Kuh. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Luri, Southern
[luz] Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Boyerahmadi dialect: Yasuji. Kohgiluyeh dialect: east Khuzestan Province, Dehdasht; northwest Fars Province. Mamasani dialect: Nurabad. Shuli dialect: Shul, Shiraz. 875,000 (1999), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lor, Lori, Lori-ye Jonubi, Lur Dialects: Boyerahmadi, Kohgiluyeh, Mamasani, Shuli, Yasuji (Yasichi). Southern Luri is on a continuum between Bakhtiari [bqi] and Iranian Persian [pes] dialects such as Bushehri and Southwestern Fars [fay]. A non-Lur tribe in Fars Province called Kurdshuli reportedly speaks a Southern Luri dialect. Their winter quarters are at Qasr-e Dasht near Sivand, 70 km from Sharaz on Shiraz-Esfahan road. Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Iranian Persian [pes], 80% with Bushehri dialect of Iranian Persian; Mamasani dialect 75% with Bakhtiâri [bqi], Boyerahmadi dialect 86% with Bakhtiâri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Mandaic
[mid] Khuzestan, Hoveiseh, other towns. 500 in Iran (2001). Ethnic population: 23,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabean, Sabe’in, Subbi Dialects: Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Iraqi Neo-Mandaic, Shushtar (Shustar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Comments: Ethnic Mandaeans in Iraq now speak Arabic (1994 H. Mutzafi). Assyrians in the United States report Mandaic speakers there, whom they call Yokhananaye. Mandaean.

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Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Also used liturgically in Iraq (Basrah) and small communities in the United States (New York) and Australia (300 Mandaeans in Sydney in 1995). No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Classical Mandaean Dialects: None known. Appears to be the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic [mid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic

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Maraghei
[vmh] Upper Rudbar area (Rudbar-e Alamut). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dikini. Various other dialects. Reportedly similar to Gozarkhani [goz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Mazanderani
[mzn] North near Caspian Sea, south half of Mazanderan Province. 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. Some monolinguals in rural areas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gilaki, Mazandarani, Tabri Dialects: Gorgani, Mazanderani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Natanzi
[ntz] Isfahan Province, Natanz, on Isfahan-Kashan road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Farizandi, Natanzi, Yarani (Yarandi). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Nayini
[nyq] Isfahan Province, Nayin and Anarak, east of Isfahan; Khuri dialect in Khur (Khvor) and Mehrjan, northeast of Isfahan. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyabanak Dialects: Anarak, Khuri, Nayini. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Khuri distinct from other dialects. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Parsi-Dari
[prd] 350,000 (1999). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parsee, Parsee-Dari, Parsi Dialects: None known. Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi [prp] of India, Pakistan, and other countries, but linguistically and ethnically related. They diverged 600 to 700 years ago or more. Related to Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: ‘Parsee’ is ethnic group name. Zoroastrian.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Khorasan on Afghanistan border east of Qa’en. 113,000 in Iran (1993). Population does not include refugees. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: “Afghani” (pej.), Paktu, Pashtu Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Different from Northern Pashto [pbu] of Pakistan and India. Muslim (Sunni).

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Persian
[fas] Population total all languages: 56,645,100. Comments: Includes: Dari [prs] (Afghanistan), Iranian Persian [pes].

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Persian Sign Language
[psc] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Widespread. Most concentrated in central, south central, and northeast. 45,000,000 in Iran (2011), increasing. 800,000 Eastern Farsi in Khorasan speak dialects which are transitional with Iranian Persian. Population total all countries: 47,045,100. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1979, Constitution, Article 15). Alternate Names: New Persian, Parsi, Persian, West Persian Dialects: Abadani, Araki, Bandari, Basseri, Esfahani, Kashani, Kermani, Ketabi, Mahalhamadani, Mashadi (Meshed), Old Shirazi, Qazvini, Sedehi, Shahrudi Kazeruni, Shirazi, Shirazjahromi, Tehrani, Yazdi. Literary language virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, with very minor lexical differences. Dialect shading into Dari [prs] in Afghanistan and Tajiki [tgk] in Tajikistan. Many dialects may be separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Persian [fas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Baha’i, Christian.

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Razajerdi
[rat] Qazvin and Kuhpayeh area, Razajerd. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Takestani [tks]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Muslim.

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Rudbari
[rdb] Sefid Rud valley. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional to Caspian languages. Related to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Salchuq
[slq] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani

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Sangisari
[sgr] Semnan Province. Shahmirzadi dialect: Shamirzad north of Mehdi. 36,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahdi Shahri, Mehdishahri, Sangesari, Sängesäri, Sangsari, Sängsari, Sängsäri, Sengiseri, Sengsari Dialects: Shahmirzadi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim, Baha’i.

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Semnani
[smy] Semnan Province. 60,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simnani Dialects: Biyabunaki might be a dialect of Semnani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim.

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Senaya
[syn] Tehran and Qazvin. Originally in Kurdestan Province, Sanandaj. 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 460. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Christian Neo-Aramaic, Lshan Sray, Senaaya, Shan Gyanan, Shan Sray, Soray, Sray Dialects: None known. Qazvin variety slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Chaldean).

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Shahmirzadi
[srz] Semnan Province, Shahmirzad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mazanderani [mzn] and Gilaki [glk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian

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Shahrudi
[shm] East Azerbaijan Province, Khalkhal district, Shahrud district, Shal, Kolur, Lerd. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kajali [kjf] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Different from Sharudi, an Iranian Persian [pes] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Sivandi
[siy] Fars Province, Sivand, northwest of Shiraz on Shiraz-Isfahan Road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Soi
[soj] 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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Sorkhei
[sqo] Semnan Province, Sorkheh, southwest of Semnan. 10,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Aftari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani Comments: Muslim.

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Takestani
[tks] Zanjan, Qazvin, and Markazi provinces, from Khalkhal to Saveh, Takestan, south and southeast. 220000 Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takistani Dialects: Khalkhal, Kharaqan, Ramand (Takestan), Tarom, Zanjan. Khalkhal dialect is reportedly similar to Talysh [tly]. Transitional between Talysh and Semnani [smy] languages. Similar to Eshtehardi [esh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Different from Tat [ttt] of the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, and Iran. Muslim.

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Talysh
[tly] Northwest Gilan Province, Caspian coastal plain and mountain areas from Masuleh, Masal, and Kapur-Chal (Kepri-Chal) to Azerbaijan border. Northern Talyshi dialect: Azerbaijan, Astara and the Caspian littoral areas. Central Talyshi dialect: Gilan Province, Asalem-Hashtpar area along Caspian littoral. Southern Talyshi dialect: Gilan Province, Shandermen, Masal, Masuleh, and surrounding mountainous areas. 112,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Talesh, Taleshi, Talish, Talishi, Talyshi Dialects: Central Talyshi, Northern Talyshi, Southern Talyshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Taromi, Upper
[tov] Zanjan Province, upper Tarom, Hazarrud, Siavarud. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly similar to Kabatei [xkp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh Comments: Muslim.

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] 8,000 in Iran. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat Comments: Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Turkmen
[tuk] Northeast, Mazanderan Province, Turkmenistan border area, Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh. 2,000,000 in Iran (1997). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Torkomani Dialects: Anauli, Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Trukmen, Yomud (Yomut). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian Comments: Not a literary language in Iran. Many are seminomadic. Ethnic groups: Yomut, Goklan. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Vafsi
[vaf] Markazi Province, Arak district, Vafs, near Tafresh. 18,000 (2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]; reportedly very similar to Ashtiani [atn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran Comments: Muslim.

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