Italy

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Albanian, Arbëreshë
[aae] South; Calabria, Apulia, Basilicata, Molise, Sicily. 100,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 260,000 (Stephens 1976). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arbëreshë Dialects: Calabrian Albanian, Campo Marino Albanian, Central Mountain Albanian, Molise Albanian, Sicilian Albanian. Speakers say 4 Italian dialects not mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 45% with Tosk Albanian [als]. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk Comments: Descendants of 15th century mercenaries and refugees from the Ottoman invasion. Christian.

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Arpitan
[frp] Northwest, Aosta Valley Region; Foggia province, Apulia, Faeto and Celle S. Vito. 70,000 in Italy (Salminen 2007). 700 in Faetar dialect (1995 N. Nagy). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Celle San Vito, Faeto (Faetar), Valle D’aosta (Patoé Valdoten, Valdostano, Valdotain). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

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Bavarian
[bar] South Bavarian dialect is in the Bavarian Alps, Tyrol, and Styria; Carinthia, northern Italy, and Gottschee; Central Bavarian is in Alps, Lower Austria and Salzburg; North Bavarian north of Regensburg, to Nuremburg and western Bohemia, Czech Republic. 250,000 in Italy (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bavarian Austrian, Bayerisch Dialects: Central Bavarian, North Bavarian, South Bavarian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Catalan
[cat] Alghero, Sardinia northwest coast. 20,000 in Italy (1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Algherese Catalan Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian

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Cimbrian
[cim] Northeast, Sette and Tredici Comuni (Sieben and Dreizehn Gemeinde) south of Trent, Giazza (Glietzen, Ljetzen), Roana (Rabam), Lusern towns; some in Venezia province. 2,230. 500 in Lusernese Cimbrian in Trentino Alto Oolige 40 km southeast from Trento, plus 1,500 Sette Comuni Cimbrian (40% of Roana (Rowan), 70% of Messaselva di Roana Rotzo) in Veneto around 60 km north of Vicenza (Kloss 1978), and 230 or 65% of Giazza (Ijetzan) Veneto, 43 km northeast of Verona (1992 R. Zamponi). 22,700 were in Sieben Gemeinde and 12,400 in Dreizehn Gemeinde in 1854. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tzimbro, Zimbrisch Dialects: Lusernese Cimbrian, Sette Comuni Cimbrian, Tredici Communi Cimbrian (Tauch). Based on structural and intelligibility differences, the 3 dialects could be considered separate languages. Lusernese Cimbrian is heavily influenced by Italian. Heavily influenced by Bajuwarisch dialects. Sometimes considered a dialect of South Bavarian [bar]. Different from Bavarian [bar], Walser [wae], and Mocheno [mhn]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Corsican
[cos] Maddalena island, Sardinia northeast coast. 1,000 in Italy (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso, Corsu Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican

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Croatian
[hrv] South Molise Region, Campobasso province, Montemitro, San Felice del Molise, Acquaviva-Collecroce villages. 1,000 in Italy (Salminen 2007). 1,000 speakers among 2,300 inhabitants of the 3 villages, plus a number in expatriate communities (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Molise Croatian Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Descendants of 15th and 16th century refugees. Christian.

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Emilian
[egl] Romagna, 6 main towns: Ravenna, Rimini, Forlì, Cesena, Imola, and Faenza. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Parmigiano, Piacentino, Reggiano Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian Comments: Emilian is less and less publicly used. Used in public bars among people who know each other, to tell daily events and jokes. Used also among people who do not know each other to win somebody over. Christian.

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French
[fra] Aosta Valley Region. 100,000 in Italy (Harris 1987). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Valle d’Aoste (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Français Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Friulian
[fur] Friuli-Venezia Giulia Autonomous Region except Trieste province and western and eastern border regions; Venetro Region, Venezia province, Portogruaro area. 300,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Frioulan, Frioulian, Friulano, Furlan, Priulian Dialects: Carnico, East Central Friulian, Western Friulian. Friulian, Ladin [lld] and Romansch [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hal). More similar to Italian than Romansch [roh] (1981 F. Agard). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Comments: Some cultivate Friulian as a literary language.

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German, Standard
[deu] North, Trentino-Alto Adige, South Tyrol, Bolzano province. 225,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Trentino-Alto Adige region (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Tedesco Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Greek
[ell] South, east of Reggio; Salento (Colimera, Sternatía, Zollino) and Aspromonte (Bova, Condofuri, Palizzi, Roccoforte, Roghudi). 20,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Greco, Griko Dialects: Aspromonte, Salento. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic

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International Sign
[ils] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gestuno, International Sign Language Dialects: Distinct lexically from all specific sign languages, as it incorporates elements from a variety of different (mostly European) sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Italian
[ita] Also in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Egypt, Eritrea, France, Germany, Israel, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Paraguay, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Romania, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Switzerland, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vatican State. 55,000,000 in Italy. Population includes native bilinguals of Italian and regional varieties, who may use Italian as L2. Population total all countries: 61,068,677. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Law No. 482, Article 1.1). Alternate Names: Italiano Dialects: Abruzzese, Central Marchigiano, Cicolano-Reatino-Aquilano, Laziale, Molisano, Pugliese, Tuscan, Umbrian. Regional varieties coexist with the standard language; some are inherently unintelligible. Aquilano, Molisano, and Pugliese are very different from other Italian varieties. Piemontese [pms] and Sicilian [scn] are distinct enough to be separate languages (1982 F. Agard). Venetian [vec] and Lombard [lmo] are also very different (1981 P. Cousson). The Napoletano dialect of Napoletano-Calabrese [nap] is reportedly unintelligible to standard Italian. Northern varieties are more similar to French and Occitan [oci] than to standard or southern varieties (1982 F. Agard; Vincent 1987). Lexical similarity: 89% with French [fra], 87% with Catalan [cat], 85% with Sardinian [srd], 82% with Spanish [spa], 78% with Ladin [lld], 77% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Italian Sign Language
[ise] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lingua Italiana Dei Segni, LIS Dialects: Partially intelligible with French Sign Language [fsl]. Not intelligible with American Sign Language [ase]. Regional differences, but signers from different regions seem to communicate fluently. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Judeo-Italian
[itk] Mainly in urban areas in the central and north, Rome. Also in Greece. 200 in Italy. Very few speakers are fluent (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 250. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Italkian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian Comments: Jewish.

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Ladin
[lld] South Tyrol (German Südtirol, Italian Alto Adige), Bolzano autonomous province, Gherdëina Valley, (Italian Val Gardena, German Grödnertal); Badia Valley (Italian Val Badia, German Gadertal); Trento (Trient) autonomous province, Trentino, in Fascia Valley (Italian Val di Fassa, German Fassatal); Belluno province, Fodom (Italian Livinallongo, German Buchenstein); Anpezo (Italian Ampezzo, Cortina d’Ampezzo area). Also in United States. 20,000 in Italy (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 38,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dolomite, Rhaeto-Romance Dialects: Ampezzano, Atesino, Badiotto (Gadertalisch), Cadorino, Fassano, Gardenese (Grödnerisch, Grüdno), Livinallese, Marebbano (Ennebergisch), Nones (Nones Blot, Nonese, Nonesh, Parlata Trentina). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Comments: Written since 1800 in Italy. Dialects of Gardenese, Badiotto, and Fassano taught in school. Distinct from Ladino [lad], Judeo-Spanish.

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Ligurian
[lij] North, Liguria, east and west of Genoa along the Riviera and mountain hinterland; Saint Pietro and Saint Antioch islands off Sardinia southwest coast; Sardinia, Carloforte and Calasetta cities. Also in France, Monaco. 500,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 505,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ligure, Zenéize Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Ligurian is more similar to Piemontese [pms], Lombard [lmo], and French [fra] than to standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian Comments: Ligurian has had a literature since the 1200s and the Genoese variant was widely used alongside the Mediterranean because of the commercial and nautical importance of the Republic of Genoa. That is why Zenéize (meaning Genoese) is one of its alternate names.

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Lombard
[lmo] North, Milan, Lombardy, 3 valleys of Graubünden (Val Mesolcina, Val Bregaglia, Val Poschiavo). Western Lombard varieties also in Sicily. Also in Switzerland, United States. 3,600,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 3,903,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lombardo Dialects: Alpine Lombard, Bergamasco, Eastern Lombard, Latin Anaunico, Latin Fiamazzo, Milanese, Novarese Lombard, Ticinese (Ticino), Trentino Western, Western Lombard (Nicosia, Novara, Piazza Armerina, San Fratello). A group of varieties, some of which may be separate languages. Western Lombard dialects (of Ticino and Graubünden) inherently intelligible. Speakers in more conservative valleys may have to use some kind of standard dialect to communicate with those of other dialects of Lombard. Very different from standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Mócheno
[mhn] Trentino Region, Valle del Fersina. 1,900 (1992 R. Zamponi). 400 Fierozzo, 1,000 Palú, 460 Gereut. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Fierozzo (Florutz), Frassilongo (Gereut), Palú (Palai). Can partially understand Bavarian [bar], Cimbrian [cim], or Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian

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Napoletano-Calabrese
[nap] South, Campania and Calabria regions. 5,700,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Neapolitan-Calabrese Dialects: Napoletano (Neapolitan, Tirrenic), Northern Calabrese-Lucano (Basilicatan, Lucanian). Limited inherent intelligibility of standard Italian [ita]. Neapolitan and Calabrese dialects are reportedly very different from each other. Southern Calabrian is reportedly a dialect of Sicilian [scn]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Occitan
[oci] Italian Piedmont upper valleys (Val Mairo, Val Varacho, Val d’Esturo, Entraigas, Limoun, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriero); Calabria, Guardia Piemontese. 100,000 in Italy (1990 P. Blanchet). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Provençal, Provenzale Dialects: Provençal. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Piemontese
[pms] Northwest, Piedmont, except Provençal- and Arpitan-speaking Alpine valleys. Also in United States. 1,600,000 in Italy (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Piedmontese, Piemontèis Dialects: High Piemontese (Alto Piemontese), Low Piemontese (Basso Piemontese). Distinct enough from standard Italian [ita] to be considered a separate language. Considerable French [fra] influence. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Romagnol
[rgn] Romagna, 6 main towns: Ravenna, Rimini, Forlì, Cesena, Imola and Faenza. Also in San Marino. No known L1 speakers in Italy. Ethnic population: 1,100,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian Comments: Romagnol less and less publicly used. Used in public bars among people who know each other, to tell daily events and jokes. Used also among people who do not know each other to win somebody over. Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] 5,000 in Italy (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Arlija (Erli). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Muslim.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] North. 14,000 in Italy (1980). 10,000 Manouche, 4,000 Slovenian-Croatian. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Manouche, Piedmont Sintí, Slovenian-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 4,000 in Italy. 1,000 to 3,000 Kalderash, 1,000 Lovari. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Sardinian
[srd] Population total all countries: 1,200,000. Comments: Member languages are: Campidanese Sardinian [sro], Gallurese Sardinian [sdn], Logudorese Sardinian [src], Sassarese Sardinian [sdc]

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Sardinian, Campidanese
[sro] South Sardinia. 500,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in south Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Campidanese, Campidese, Sardu, South Sardinian Dialects: Arborense, Cagliare (Cagliari, Cagliaritan), Central Campidanese, Meridionale, Ogliastrino, Sarrabense, Sub-Barbaricino, Sulcitano, Western Campidenese. Cagliaritan is Cagliari dialect. Campidanese is distinct from other Sardinian languages. Lexical similarity: 62% between the Cagliare dialect and standard Italian [ita], 73% with Logudorese [src], 66% with Gallurese [sdn]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian

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Sardinian, Gallurese
[sdn] Northeast Sardinia, Gallurese. 100,000 (Salminen 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in northeast Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Gallurese, Northeastern Sardinian Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with standard Italian [ita], 81% with Sassarese [sdc], 70% with Logudorese [src], 66% with Cagliare dialect of Campidanese Sardinian [sro]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian Comments: Influenced by Corsican [cos] and Tuscan varieties of Italian [ita]. Campidanese [sro] and Logudorese [src] glossonym: Sard, ethnonym: Sards, but do not include themselves or their language in those terms.

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Sardinian, Logudorese
[src] Central Sardinia. 500,000 (Salminen 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in central Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Central Sardinian, Logudorese, Sard, Sardarese Dialects: Barbaricino, Northern Logudorese, Nuorese, Southwestern Logudorese. No one form of Sardinian is selected as standard for literary purposes. Logudorese is different from other Sardinian varieties. Lexical similarity: 68% with standard Italian [ita], 73% with Sassarese [sdc] and Cagliare dialect of Sardinian, Campidanese [sro], 70% with Gallurese [sdn]. Sardinian has 85% lexical similarity with Italian, 80% with French [fra], 78% with Portuguese [por], 76% with Spanish [spa], 74% with Romanian [ron] and Ladin [lld]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian Comments: Christian.

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Sardinian, Sassarese
[sdc] Northwest Sardinia. 100,000 (Salminen 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Sardinia (1999, Linguistic Minority Defense Act No. 482, Article 2). Alternate Names: Northwestern Sardinian, Sassarese Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Gallurese [sdn], 76% with standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian Comments: Influenced by Ligurian [lij] and Pisan (Pisa, northwest coast of Italy). They call Campidanese [sro] and Logudorese [src] Sard, and the people Sards, but do not include themselves or their language in those terms.

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Sicilian
[scn] Sicily. 4,700,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Calabro-Sicilian, Sicilianu, Siculu Dialects: Central Metafonetica, Eastern Nonmetafonetica, Isole Eolie, Messinese, Pantesco, Southeast Metafonetica, Southern Calabro, Western Sicilian (Central-Western Agrigentino, Palermo, Trapani). Distinct enough from standard Italian [ita] to be considered a separate language. The Pugliese dialect of Italian and Southern Calabrese are reportedly dialects of Sicilian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian Comments: Christian.

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Slavomolisano
[svm] Molise Region, Campobasso province. 1,000 (2012 W. Breu). Ethnic population: Less than 2,000 (W. Breu). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Croato molisano, Molise Slavic, Naš jezik, Slavic of Molise Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western

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Slovene
[slv] Northeast, Trieste and Gorizia provinces near Slovenia border. 100,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Trieste and Gorizia provinces (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Slovenian Dialects: Cividale, Primorski, Resia. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western

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Venetian
[vec] North, Venice, Tre Venezie area; Venezia Eugànea west to Verona, south to the Po, east to the border of the Fruili; Trentino-Alto Adige (Suedtirol); Venezia Giulia, east of the Friuli including Trieste. Bisiacco is in Gorizia province. Also in Brazil (Talian), Croatia, Mexico, Slovenia. 3,800,000 in Italy (2002). Population total all countries: 3,852,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Talian, Venet Dialects: Bisiacco, Istrian, Triestino, Venetian Proper. Distinct from standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Walser
[wae] Valle d’Aosta, Val Lesa (Val del Lys) (Gressoney, Issime, Gaby); Piemonte, Valsesia (Alagna, Rima S. Giuseppe, Rimella); Novara, Valle Anzasca (Macugnaga); Val Formazza (Formazza, Pomatt). 10 communities. 3,400 in Italy (Fazzini Giovannucci 1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher Dialects: Titsch, Töitschu. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic Comments: In Valle d’Aosta influenced by Arpitan [frp] and Piemontese [pms]; elsewhere in Italy by Italian [ita].

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