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Ainu
[ain] Kuril islands (Tsishima), Hokkaido. 10 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ainu Itak Dialects: Hokkaido (Ezo, Yezo), Kuril (Shikotan, Tsishima), Sakhalin (Saghilin), Taraika. There were at least 19 dialects. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ainu [aib] in China is a different, unrelated language.

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Amami-Oshima, Northern
[ryn] Northwest Okinawa; north Amami-Oshima island. 10,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Amami-Osima, Oosima, Oshima, Osima Dialects: Naze, Sani. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Amami-Oshima, Southern
[ams] North Okinawa; south Amami-Oshima, Kakeroma, Yoro, and Uke islands. 1,800 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Southern Amami-Osima Dialects: None known. Inherent intelligibility low with other Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Japanese
[jpn] Widespread. 121,000,000 in Japan (1985). Population figure may include other ethnic groups. Population total all countries: 122,056,940. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Japan. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Eastern Japanese, Western Japanese, Zu-zu-ben. Possibly related to Korean [kor]. Kagoshima dialect is 84% cognate with Tokyo dialect. Zu-zu-ben dialects unintelligible to other Japanese, and dying out as standard Tokyo Japanese takes over. Classification: Japonic Comments: Buddhist, Shintoist.

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Japanese Sign Language
[jsl] 317,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shuwa, Temane Dialects: None known. Related to Taiwanese [tss] and Korean [kvk] sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: ‘Temane’ is the former name. Pidgin Signed Japanese is distinct, and used often in formal situations, lectures, speeches, and for interaction with hearing people. 80% of the deaf understand finger spelling.

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Kikai
[kzg] Northeast Okinawa; Kikai island. Ethnic population: 13,100 (2000). Those under 20 are mainly monolingual in Japanese (1989 T. Fukuda). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Onotsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible or very difficult with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Korean
[kor] 905,000 in Japan (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Kunigami
[xug] Central Okinawa, central and north Okinawa island; Iheya, Izena, Ie-jima, Sesoko islands. 5,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Nago. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Ryukyuan languages are 62%-70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Lexical similarity: Ryukyu languages: 62%–70% with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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Miyako
[mvi] Southern Okinawa; Miyako, Ogami, Ikema, Kurima, Irabu, Tarama, Minna islands. Ethnic population: 67,700 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Irabu-Jima, Miyako-Jima (Hirara, Ogami), Tarama-Minna. Not intelligible of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Dialects listed have noticeable differences, but communication is not impossible. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima

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Oki-No-Erabu
[okn] North central Okinawa; Oki-no-erabu island. 3,200 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: East Oki-No-Erabu, West Oki-No-Erabu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Dialect differences noticeable, but communication not impossible. Ryukyuan languages are 62%-70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Ryukyu languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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Okinawan, Central
[ryu] Central Okinawa; southern Okinawa island, Kerama Islands, Kume-jima, Tonaki, Aguna islands, islands east of Okinawa island. 984,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,200,000 (2000 Yukio Uemura). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Luchu, Okinawan Dialects: Kudaka, Naha, Shuri, Torishima. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Ryukyu languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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Toku-No-Shima
[tkn] Northern Okinawa; Toku-no-shima island. 5,100 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kametsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Yaeyama
[rys] Southern Okinawa; Ishigaki, Iriomote, Hatoma, Kohama, Taketomi, Kuroshima, Hateruma, Aregusuku islands. Ethnic population: 47,600 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yayeyama Dialects: Hateruma, Hatoma, Ishigaki, Kabira, Kohama, Kuroshima, Shiraho, Sonai, Taketomi. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima

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Yonaguni
[yoi] Southern Okinawa; Yonaguni island. 800 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima

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Yoron
[yox] North central Okinawa; Yoron island. 950 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Lexical similarity: Ryukyu languages 62%–70% with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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