[dng] Gansu mainly in Prschewalsk and Osh; Shaanxi in Kazakhstan, and Fergana, Uzbekistan. Also in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. 40,000 in Kyrgyzstan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 41,900. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dzhunyan, Kwuizwu, Tungan, Zwn’jan Dialects: Ganzu (Gansu), Shaanxi (Shensi), Yage. Shaanxi and Ganzu varieties have difficult mutual inherent intelligibility. Debate over whether Dungan has 3 tones (a merging of 2 standard Mandarin tones) or 4 tones (with only a partial merging of the 2 standard Mandarin tones). Different from Mandarin [cmn] in phonology and lexicon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Came from China over 100 years ago. Muslim (Sunni).
[kir] Widespread. Also in Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, United States, Uzbekistan. 2,450,000 in Kyrgyzstan (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 2,941,930. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Art 10(1)). Alternate Names: Kara-Kirgiz, Kirghiz, Kirgiz Dialects: Northern Kyrgyz, Southern Kyrgyz. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: The names Eastern Kyrghyz and Western Kyrghyz have been erroneously applied to Kazakh. Increasing education. Muslim (Sunni), Buddhist (Lamaist).