Laos

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Aheu
[thm] Bolikhamxai Province, Khamkeut district, near Lak Sao. 250 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kha Tong Luang, Phon Soung, Phonsung, So, Thavung Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung Comments: Traditional religion.

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Akeu
[aeu] Phongsali Province, Gnot Ou district. 1,000 in Laos (1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Akui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Akha
[ahk] Phongsali and Loungnamtha provinces. 66,100 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Hka Ko, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alak
[alk] South, mainly Salavan and Xekong provinces. 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Harak, Hrlak Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bahnar [bdq], Tampuan [tpu], and Romam [rmx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric Comments: Traditional religion.

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Arem
[aem] West central, Khammouan Province, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. 20 in Laos. Ethnic population: 500 (1995). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chombrau, Chomrau, Umo Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut

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Bit
[bgk] Near China border, Loungnamtha Province, northeast of Namtha district, and south of Boun Neua; Phongsali Province, Boun-Tai, Mai and Khua districts, 8 villages; Oudomxai Province, Nama district. 1,960 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 2,160. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buxinhua, Khabit, Khbit, Pasing, Phsin, Phsing Dialects: None known. Not Khmuic, but Palaungic (1990 J. Svantesson). Related to Khao [xao] in Viet Nam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bo
[bgl] Central, inland from Mekong and Nhang rivers, Bolikhamxai Province, Lak Sao area; Khammouan Province, Hinboun district, Nape area. 2,950 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bru, Eastern
[bru] East Savannahkhet Province, Sepone district; southeast Khammouan Province, Boulapha district. 26,700 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 82,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bru Tri Dialects: Leun (Kaleu, Leung), Tri (Chali, So Tri, So Trii). Partially intelligible with Western Bru [brv] of Thailand. The Mangkong dialect in Viet Nam and eastern Laos is a dialect of Eastern Bru, different linguistically from the Mangkong that are the same as So [sss] of Thailand. Mangkong is also an ethnic group. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chepya
[ycp] Northwest Phongsali Province. 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Akeu [aeu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Chut
[scb] Khammouan Province, Boualapha district, near Viet Nam border. 200 in Laos (Bradley 2007). 50 May, 150 Ruc (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang Dialects: May, Ruc. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Con
[cno] Bokeo Province, Tonpheung district; Loungnamtha Province, southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic

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Halang Doan
[hld] Xekong Province, Dakcheung district; Attapu Province, Kasseng plateau, Sanxai district, Kamane and Dak Robay rivers’ left banks, near Viet Nam border. 2,350 in Laos (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hani
[hni] Phongsali Province, Yunnan border. 1,120 in Laos (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanhi, Haw Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: An official nationality in China. Traditional religion.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] North, widespread; co-extensive with Hmong Njua [hnj]. 170,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, Meo Kao, White Hmong, White Lum, White Meo, White Miao Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] North, widespread; co-extensive with Hmong Daw [mww]. 100,000 in Laos (Hattaway 2000). Population total all countries: 312,020. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao Dialects: None known. Speakers in Myanmar understand well border speakers in China. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian

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Hung
[hnu] Bolikhamxai Province, Khamkeut district; Toum dialect is northeast of Nape and south of Phong river. 2,000 in Laos (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 2,700. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Phong (Pong, Pong 1, Pong 2, Poong), Toum (Tum). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ir
[irr] Salavan Province, east of Salavan town. 4,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: In, Yiir, Yir Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ong [oog]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Traditional religion.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Loungnamtha, Xiagnabouli, Phongsali, and Bokeo provinces. 20,300 in Laos (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Highland Yao, Man, Mien, Myen, Yao Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Almost all Western refugees came from Laos. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jeh
[jeh] South, Xekong Province, Dakchung district; Attopeu Province, Sanxai district, basin of Poko, Kamane, and Dak Main rivers. 10,600 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Die, Gie, Yeh Dialects: Jeh Bri La, Jeh Mang Ram. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jeng
[jeg] Attapu Province, Samakkhixai and Sanamxai districts, 7 villages north of Attopeu town; Xekong Province, Lamam and Dakcheung districts. 4,540 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cheng, Chiengceng Dialects: None known. Related to Oy [oyb], Sapuan [spu], and Sok [skk]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kaduo
[ktp] On China border, Phongsali Province, north of Mong Ou Tay. 5,000 in Laos (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khatu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Different from Kadu [zkd], Western Katu [kuf].

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Kang
[kyp] Houaphan Province, Xam-Tai district; Xiangkhoang Province, Nonghet district. 47,600 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 81,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Khang Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui

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Kasseng
[kgc] South, Xekong Province near Viet Nam border, Boloven plateau area and between Jeh [jeg], Alak [alk], Laven [lbo], and Tareng [tgr] language areas; into Attapu Province. 1,200 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaseng, Koseng, Kraseng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Kaseng Comments: Also classified as West Bahnaric. Traditional religion.

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Kataang
[kgd] South, Savannahkhet Province, Phin and Nong districts; Salavan Province, centered in Toumlan district;. 118,000 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih

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Katu, Western
[kuf] Xekong Province, upper Xe Kong river, high basin of Song Boung river watershed along the border. 22,800 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. A different language, Eastern Katu [ktv], and orthography from Viet Nam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khlor
[llo] Salavan Province, Laongam district, south of Ir and Ong; into Xekong Province. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Klor, Lor Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ngeq [ngt]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khmu
[kjg] Scattered in the north. 614,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 704,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Kmhmu, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng Dialects: Hat, Khroong (Krong), Luang Prabang, Lyy, Rok, Sayabury, U, Yuan. There are two subgroups of Khmu in China (Damaile and Damailao), which may differ in dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khua
[xhv] Khammouan Province, Bouarapha district, northwest of Boualapha. 2,000 in Laos (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Different from Cua [cua]. Traditional religion.

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Khuen
[khf] Loungnamtha Province, Nale, Sing, and Viangphoukha districts, near the Lamet [lbn] language area. 8,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Population total all countries: 9,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khouen, Khween, Kween Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Distinct from Kuan [uan], Khmu Keun [kjg]. Buddhist.

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Khün
[kkh] Louangphabang Province, sacred temple area. 600 in Laos (Schliessinger 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Kim Mun
[mji] 4,500 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jim Mun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lan-Tien, Mun Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Daoist.

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Kiorr
[xko] Loungnamtha and Oudomxai provinces, 6 villages. 2,360 (1985 F. Proschan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Col, Con, Saamtaav, Samtao, Samtao 2 Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Buddhist.

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Kuan
[uan] Bolikhamxai Province, Viangthong district, near Muang river. 2,500 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not easily classified, possibly due to migration. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kuy
[kdt] South, Savannahkhet, Salavan, and Champasak provinces; both sides of the Mekong. 42,800 in Laos (2005 census). 34,200 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aouei, Cuoi, Dui, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kuoy, Old Khmer, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi Dialects: Antra, Na Nhyang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Bokeo Province, Peung, Tonpheung, and Houayxay districts; Loungnamtha Province, Long district. 8,700 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Loheirn, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Bokeo Province, Kentung. 3,000 in Laos (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lamet
[lbn] Northwest, Oudomxai, Loungnamtha, and Bokeo provinces. 19,800 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 19,932. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Lamet, Khamed, Khamet, Lemet, Rmeet Dialects: Lower Lamet, Upper Lamet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic Comments: Glossonym: Lamet in Laos, Khamet in Thailand. Traditional religion.

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Lao
[lao] Mekong river valley, Luang Prabang south to the Cambodia border. Lao-Khrang dialect is in Nakhonsawan and Nakhon Pathom areas. 3,070,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 3,273,180. L2 users: 800,000 in Laos. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 89). Alternate Names: Eastern Thai, Lào, Lao Kao, Lao Wiang, Lao-Lum, Lao-Noi, Lao-Tai, Laotian, Laotian Tai, Lum Lao, Phou Lao, Rong Kong, Tai Lao Dialects: Lao-Kao, Lao-Khrang, Luang Prabang, Pakse, Savannakhet (Suwannakhet), Vientiane (Wiang Jan). Dialect subgroup with Northeastern Tai [tts] of Thailand. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: The Lao Kao migrated to Thailand and are in Nan, Loei, Saraburi, and elsewhere. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Laopang
[lbg] Bokeo Province. 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laopa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified

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Laos Sign Language
[lso] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Possibly more than one language.

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Lave
[brb] Attapu and Champasak provinces, Laos-Cambodia border. 22,800 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 32,235. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brao, Braou, Brau, Brou, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe Dialects: Palau. Reportedly similar to Kru’ng 2 [krr], Kavet [krv], and Sou [sqq]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Glossonym: Lave in Laos. Traditional religion.

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Laven
[lbo] Southwest, Champasak, Salavan, Xekong, and Attapu provinces, Boloven plateau. 28,100 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boloven, Boriwen, Jaru, Jru’, Jruq, Laweenjru, Loven Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven Comments: Different from Brao [brb]. Traditional religion.

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[khb] North, Phongsali, Loungnamtha, Bokeo, Oudomxai, Xiagnabouli, and Louangphabang provinces. 123,000 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mal
[mlf] Xiagnabouli Province, Phiang district, west of the Mekong. 23,200 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 26,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Htin, Khatin, Thin, Tin, T’in Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Lua’ [prb], Prai [prt], or Pray 3 [pry]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mal and Madl; T’in in Thailand. Traditional religion.

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Maleng
[pkt] Khammouan Province, Nakay district, Nam Theun valley, near Theun river banks. 500 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 700. Ethnic population: Less than 1,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malang, Malieng Dialects: Hareme, Malang, Maleng, Pakatan (Kha Pakatan). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mlabri
[mra] Xiagnabouli Province, Phiang district, near Thailand border. 24 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla-Bri, Mrabri, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri Comments: Nomadic. Different from Kha Tong Luang (Phi Tong Luang, Yellow Leaf), which are Western Viet-Muong (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Traditional religion.

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Ngeq
[ngt] Xekong and Salavan provinces, 25 villages. 12,900 (2005 census). 9,030 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kriang, Ngae, Nge’, Ngeh, Nkriang Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Khlor [llo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang Comments: Ethnic autonym: Nkriang. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nung
[nut] A few in Laos. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nong Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Different from Chinese Nung [yue] (Cantonese in Viet Nam).

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Nyaheun
[nev] Champasak Province, east Boloven plateau near Sekong and Paksong. 3,960 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hin, Hoen, Hun, Nha Heun, Nia Hoen, Niahon, Nyah Heuny, Nyahön, Yaheun Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun Comments: Traditional religion.

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O’du
[tyh] Xiangkhoang Province, Khouone district, 2 villages. 650 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Haat” (pej.), “Hat” (pej.), ’Iduh, Oedou, “Tay Hat” (pej.) Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Traditional religion.

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Ong
[oog] Champasak Province; into Salavan Province, north of Salavan town. 10,300 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hantong, Tong Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ir [irr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Traditional religion.

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Oy
[oyb] Attapu Province, at the foot of Bolaven plateau, and near Pakse; Xekong Province, Thateng district. 11,200 (Bradley 2007). 8,960 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Huei, Oi Dialects: Inn Tea, Kranyeu, Riyao, Tamal Euy. Related to Jeng [jeg], Sapuan [spu], Sok [skk], and The [thx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pacoh
[pac] Salavan Province, Samouay district; Xekong Province, Kaleum district. 16,500 in Laos (2005 census). 15,800 in Salavan Province. 11,600 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo River Van Kieu, Pokoh Dialects: Ka’do, Pahi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: ‘Koh’ in Pacoh, mountain. Traditional religion.

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Phana’
[phq] Phongsali Province, east of Moung Ou Tail; Loungnamtha Province, Namtha district, Bopiet and Namtoung villages; Bokeo Province, Houayxay district, 1 village. 350 (1995 census). Ethnic population: Included within the Ahka [ahk] ethnic group (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bana’, Pana’ Dialects: None known. Very similar to Sila [slt] (Bradley 2007). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: A larger population may be in China under Han nationality.

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Phong-Kniang
[pnx] South Houaphan Province, Xieng Khor and Aet districts, near Neun river; north Xiangkhoang Province. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keneng, Kenieng, Khaniang, Lao Phong, Pong 3 Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul Comments: A Phong exonym of Kniang and not to be confused with Kha Phong, a dialect of Maleng [pkt], nor with the autonym Pong as a dialect of Hung [hnu] (Ferlus 1996). Traditional religion.

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Phu Thai
[pht] Mainly in Bolikhamxai, Savannahkhet, and Khammouan provinces; Salavan Province, centered in Toumlan district; Xiangkhoang and Champasak provinces. 187,000 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Putai, Puthay Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phuan
[phu] Xiangkhoang Province, Phookood, Kham, and Pek districts. 106,000 in Laos (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Name also used for Lao in Thailand. Buddhist.

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Phunoi
[pho] North central, Phongsali Province. 35,600 (1995 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi, Sinsali Dialects: Black Khoany, Hwethom, Khaskhong, Mung, White Khoany. Reportedly similar to Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz]. Listed dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid Comments: Glossonym: Phunoi or Phounoy in Laos, Côông in Viet Nam. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Prai
[prt] Xiagnabouli Province, Hongsa, Xaignabouli, Xiang Hon, and Phiang districts. 21,900 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Mai Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf]. Traditional religion.

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Pu Ko
[puk] Xiagnabouli Province, 2 villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Poko Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Puoc
[puo] Northeast, Houaphan Province, Xiangkho district; Xieng Khouang Province, Het river, along Viet Nam border. 8,570 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Niang, Kha Puhoc, Ksing Mul, Lao Muh, Pou Hok, Puhoc, Puok, Xin Mul, Xing Mun, Xingmoun, Xinh Mul Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul Comments: Buddhist.

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Rien
[rie] Viangchan Province. 5,280 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai

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Saek
[skb] Central, near Viet Nam border; Khammouan Province, Upper Nam Noy and Nam Pheo areas; Bolikhamxai Province, Khamkeut district, Na Kadok village. 3,730 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 14,730. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sek, Set, Tai Sek Dialects: Khammouan, Na Kadok. Reportedly similar to Tai Mène [tmp]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: The Saek of Na Kadok claim to have come from Phu Quan, Ban Pho Quang, Duc Tho District, in what is now Ha Tinh Province, Viet Nam. Khammouan dialect speakers are originally from Nakai District, and it is still spoken in Toeng, Nam Meo, Na Moey, and Beuk. Traditional religion.

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Salang
[hal] South, Attapu Province. 4,000 in Laos. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Halang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samtao
[stu] Bokeo Province, Houay Xai district. 3,530 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic

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Sapuan
[spu] South, Xekong and Champasak provinces, Se Kong and Se Kamane rivers’ banks. 2,400 (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sapouan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The Comments: Traditional religion.

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Sila
[slt] Oudomxai Province, Namo district; Phongsali Province, Samphan, Boun Neua, and Ngot Ou. 1,770 in Laos (1995 census). Most members of the ethnic group speak the language (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 2,480. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asong, “Kha Pai” (pej.), Sida Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Traditional religion.

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[sss] Savannahkhet, Khammouan, and Bolikhamxai provinces. 118,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 188,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bru, Kah So, Makong, Mang Cong, Mangkong, Mang-Koong, Mankoong, So Makon, Thro Dialects: So Phong, So Slouy, So Trong. Reportedly similar to Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Glossonym: Mangkong and Bru in Laos. Traditional religion.

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Sok
[skk] Xekong, Champasak, and Attapu provinces. 1,600 (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sawk, Sork Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The

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Sou
[sqq] South, Attapu Province, Phouvong and Sanamxai districts. 2,360 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sawk, Souk, Su, Su’, Suq Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Daeng
[tyr] Northeast, Houaphan Province, near Viet Nam border. 25,000 in Laos (1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daeng, Red Thai, Tai Deng, Thai Dang, Thai Do Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of the official Thai ethnic community in Viet Nam. Traditional religion.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Scattered across northern Laos to Khammouan Province. 50,000 in Laos (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Tai Noir, Thai Den Dialects: Tai Muoi (Meuay, Tai Muei, Tay Mueai). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tai Dón
[twh] Northeast, Houaphan Province; also in Phongsali Province. 200,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Thái Tráng, White Tai Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] Loungnamtha Province, Long district; possibly in China. 500 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loi, Monglwe, Tailoi, Wakut Dialects: Doi, Tai Loi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Long
[thi] Louangphabang Province. 4,800 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tai Mène
[tmp] Bolikhamxai Province, Vieng Thong district; Khamkeut district, Lak Xao, Khamkeut, Na Heuang, Nam Sak, Sop Chat, Ka’ane, Phon Thoen, Sop Pone, and Tha Veng. 7,200 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Maen, Tai Man, Tai Men, Tai Mene, Tai-Maen, Tay Mènè Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Saek [skb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: They claim to have come from Xieng Lip and Ban Pot in Nghe An, Viet Nam.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Northwest, Xiangkhoang, Viangchan, Houaphan, and Bolikhamxai provinces. 35,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Nuea Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Glossonym: Dehong Dai or Shan in China. A different dialect from that in China. Traditional religion.

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Tai Pao
[tpo] Bolikhamxai Province, Viangthong, Khamkeut, and Pakkading districts. 3,300 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai Comments: Classification unclear, possibly due to migration. Traditional religion.

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Talieng
[tdf] Savannahkhet Province, Phine district. 29,100 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taliang, Tariang, Triang Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Trieng [stg]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West Comments: Apparently different from Tareng [tgr], which is East Katuic. ‘Tariang’, headhunters. Traditional religion.

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Ta’oih, Lower
[tto] Xekong Province, Kaleum district; Salavan Province, northwest of Saravan town. 15,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tong Dialects: Hantong’, Tong. Not intelligible of Upper Ta’oih [tth]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih

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Ta’oih, Upper
[tth] Salavan Province, Ta-Oy district; also in Xekong and Savannahkhet provinces. 30,900 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 49,900. 21,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kantua, Ta Hoi, Ta-Oi, Ta-Oy, Tau Oi Dialects: Ha’aang (Sa’ang), Kamuan’, Leem, Palee’n, Pasoom. Not inherently intelligible of Lower Ta’oih [tto]. Intelligibility can be acquired after at least 2 weeks’ contact. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tareng
[tgr] Xekong Province, west of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tariang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Distinct from Talieng [tdf], which is North Bahnaric.

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Tay Khang
[tnu] Bolikhamxai Province. 200 Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai Comments: Some problem in classification and confusion with Kháng [kjm] of Viet Nam.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Oudomxai and Xiagnabouli provinces. 29,500 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Lannatai, Muang, Myang, “Youanne” (pej.), “Youon” (pej.), “Yuan” (pej.) Dialects: Nan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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The
[thx] Attapu Province. 2,920 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thae Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The

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Yoy
[yoy] Khammouan Province. 1,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: May be same as Tai Yo of Khammouan Province, a Northern Tai language. Buddhist.

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