Mali

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Since LSAF is not officially recognized as a distinct language, it would be considered a dialect of ASL, with influence from spoken and written French [fra] and local signs. The relationship of ASL and LSAF in Mali to standard ASL in the United States and to LSAF in other francophone African countries has not been systematically assessed.

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Arabic, Hasanya
[mey] Widespread. 123,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Hassani, Hassaniya, Hassaniyya, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka, Suraka, Suraxxé. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

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Bamako Sign Language
[bog] Bamako capital district. Estimated 40,000–70,000 people with moderate to severe hearing loss in Mali (Nyst et al 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des signes bambara, Langue des signes malienne, LaSiMa, Malian Sign Language. Dialects: Lexical variation within Bamako and between Bamako and other parts of Mali, currently being assessed (Nyst et al 2012). Classification: Sign language.

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Bamanankan
[bam] Widespread. Koulikoro, Ségou, northern Sikasso, Watershed, middle Niger river; Kayes region. 4,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin), increasing. 75,000 Ganadugu (Vanderaa 1991), 164,000 Wasulu (2009 census). L2 users: 10,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrine). Total users in all countries: 14,096,380 (as L1: 4,096,380; as L2: 10,000,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bamanakan, Bambara. Dialects: Standard Bambara, Somono (Kombye), Segou, San, Beledugu, Ganadugu, Sikasso, Wasulunkakan (Maninkakan, Eastern, Wassulu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke, Wasulu, Wasuu). Many local dialects. The main division is standard Bambara, influenced heavily by Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and rural dialects. Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the Mali population. In Mali, Wasulunkakan is shared by both Bamanankan and Eastern Maninkakan, but in Guinea it is only a dialect of Eastern Maninkakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Wasulu are former Fulbe. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bangime
[dba] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle. 7 villages. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangana, Bangeri Me, Bangeri Me Dogon, Bangerime, Bangi Me, Dyeni, Elebo, Noumandan, Numadaw. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bankagooma
[bxw] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, 2 enclaves northeast of Sikasso town; Danderesso, 7 other townships. 6,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banka, Bankagoma, Bankagoroma, Bankaje, Samogho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo.

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Bolon
[bof] Ségou region: Tominian circle (7 villages) and San circle (2 villages). 5,920 in Mali (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron. Dialects: Bon, Samalen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bomu
[bmq] Ségou region: San circle, Bani river south bank, San area; Sikasso region: enclave south on Burkina Faso border; Mopti region: Djenne circle. 102,000 in Mali (1976 census). Total users in all countries: 158,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bobo, Bobo Wule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Oule, Western Bwamu, Western Red. Dialects: Dwemu, Dahanmu, Mao. Dwemu subdialects are Terekongo (Terekoungo), Wahu (between Téné and the Bani river), Togo. Dahanmu subvarieties are Koniko, Mandiakuy, Bomborokuy, and Mao (Mahou). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bozo, Jenaama
[bze] Mopti region: Djenné circle, upstream on Niger river, Mopti circle, downstream on Niger river, into Youwarou circle, Tenenkou and Youwarou circles; Ségou region: Niger river, upstream from Mopti. 197,000 in Mali (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boso, Corogaama, Djenaama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorko, Sorogaama, Sorogama, Sorogoye. Dialects: Pondori, Kotya (Kotyaxo), Korondougou, Débo. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama. Comments: Muslim.

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Bozo, Kelengaxo
[bzx] Ségou region: Macina and Ségou circles, Ke-Maacina area upstream to Tamani on both sides of Niger river. 30,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Hain, Hainyaxo Bozo, Hanyaxo, Kelenga, Kelengaxo, Kélinga, Kéllingua, Xan, Xanyaxo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–66% with Tieyaxo Boso [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern. Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

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Bozo, Tiemacèwè
[boo] Mopti region: Youwarou circle, where Niger river leaves Lake Debo. 6 villages. 2,500 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Tié, Tièma Cèwè, Tiema Ciewe, Tièma Cièwè, Tiemacewe, Tièmacèwè. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–79% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern. Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

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Bozo, Tieyaxo
[boz] Mopti region: Tenenkou circle, northwest of Kouakourou town on Niger river; confluence of Diaka and Niger rivers; upriver into Ségou region: Machina circle. 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Kelengaxo Bozo [bzx]. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Boso, Tégué, Tie, Tiemaxo, Tiéyakho, Tieyaxo, Tigemaxo, Tiguémakho, Tyeyaxo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Jenaama Bozo [bze] (most similar), 30% with Soninke [snk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Ampari
[aqd] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, Pignari commune. 16 villages. 5,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambeenge, Ampari, Pignari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Mombo Dogon [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Ana Tinga
[dti] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township, Ana village. 500 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Yanda Dom Dogon [dym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Bankan Tey
[dbw] Mopti region: Douentza circle, north Douentza town area, between Debere and Gono; Walo village, other hamlets. 1,320 (1998 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankan Tey, Oualo, Walo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey and Jamsay [djm] on Ben Tey [dbt] have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Ben Tey
[dbt] Mopti region: Douentza circle, south of Douentza town west of road to Bamba. 3 villages. 3,000 (2005 J. Heath). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben Tey. Dialects: None known. The people of Beni and Gamni have contact with Jamsay [djm] speakers, and to a lesser extent with speakers of Nanga [nzz] and Fulfulde. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey [dbw], and that of Jamsay on Ben Tey, have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Bondum Dom
[dbu] Mopti region: Douentza circle, south of Lake Korarou, along Douentza–Tassembe–Sangali road, Borko village. 24,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bondum-Dom, Dogon, Najamba-Kindige. Dialects: Kindjim, Nadjamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Bunoge
[dgb] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, Goundaka township northeast of Mopti city, Boudou, Sangou, and Dakouma villages. 1,000 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Budu-Tagu, Bunoge, Korandabo. Dialects: None known. Nominal plural suffix aligns it with Ampari Dogon [aqd] and Mombo Dogon [dmb], but lexically quite different (Blench 2005). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Dogul Dom
[dbg] Mopti region: northeast of Bandiagara, Nandoli is center, 14 villages. 15,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogul-Dom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Donno So
[dds] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, area upstream on Yame river, both sides of headwaters. 45,300 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamba So. Dialects: Kamma So, Donno So. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] Mopti region: Koro circle; east of Dogon cliffs, near Burkina Faso border; southwest Koro circle, Kiri town, northwest to Douentza circle. 130,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu, Gamsaj, Jamsay. Dialects: Domno, Gono, Bama, Guru, Pomuru. Degree of comprehension between dialects uncertain. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Mombo
[dmb] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, from Mopti to Bandiagara. 27 villages. 19,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolum-so, Kolu-so, Pignari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Ampari Dogon [aqd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Nanga Dama
[nzz] Mopti region: Douentza circle, northeast of Bamba town, southwest of Debere town. 9 villages. 3,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nanga Dogon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bankan Tey [dbw] and Ben Tey [dbt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tebul Ure
[dtu] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township. 3,000 (2005 FEL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oru yille, Tebul Ure. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tene Kan
[dtk] Mopti region: northeast Bankass circle, near Koro circle border; into Bandiagara circle. 127,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tene Kan, Tene Tingi, Tengu Kan, Togo Kan. Dialects: Togo Kan, Giwnri Kan, Woru Kan (Wolu Kan), Tengu Kan, Tene Kan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Dogon, Tiranige Diga
[tde] Mopti region: northeast edge of Dogon plateau, Lowol Gueou, Pignari Bana, and Kendie townships. 4,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duleri, Duleri Dom. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: about 50% with Mombo [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tommo So
[dto] Mopti region: east, Tédié, Diamnati, Kendé, Kendié, Segué Iré, Wadouba, Ondougou, Metoumou, and Kassa townships. 60,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tombo-So, Tommo So. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Donno So [dds] and Toro So [dts]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Mopti region: far southwest, Bankass circle; Ségou region, Tominian circle. 133,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan. Dialects: Bongu, Aa Bara, Aa, Tienwan Ganda, Tie Bara, Nienne, Tanwan Bara, Basara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Toro So
[dts] Mopti region: Koro and Bandiagara circles, Bereli and Madougou town areas. 50,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bomu Tegu, Dogoso. Dialects: Yorno, Youga, Ibi, Sangha, Ireli. Different from Dogoso [dgs], Dogosé [dos] in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Cliff dwellers. Muslim, Christian.

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Dogon, Toro Tegu
[dtt] Mopti region: Douentza circle, Ouro Nguerou town area. 15 villages. 2,900 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tandam. Dialects: None known. Toro Tegu is very different from Jamsay [djm], the other Dogon language widely known by Toro Tegu speakers (2011 J. Heath). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Yanda Dom
[dym] Mopti region: Koro and Bandiagara circles, southwest of Bamba town. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yanda Dom. Dialects: None known. Reporedly similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Duungooma
[dux] Sikasso region: Kadiolo and Sikasso circles; Bafini river, north basin, east of Bananso town. 70,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Du, Duungo, Mali Duun, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro, Western Duun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] 9,000 in Mali (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 2,580,000 in Mali (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 25). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous. Official language for instruction in schools.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Widespread. 1,040,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,045,440. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Fulani, Fulbe, Macina, Peul, Toucouleur. Dialects: Western Macina, Eastern Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Muslim, Christian.

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Jahanka
[jad] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle, 20 km southeast of Kéniebé town, Kofoulabé, a few other villages. 500 in Mali (2001), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Dyakanke, Jahanque, Jahonque, Jakankalou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Non-indigenous. Reportedly originated in Mali. Origins traced to Soninke [snk], but now speak a separate language. Muslim.

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Jalunga
[yal] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle, 3 enclaves. 9,000 in Mali (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialonke, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonke, Jalunga xuwiina’, Jalunganéé, Jalungas, Yalunka, Yalunke. Dialects: Bafing, Yalunka, Jalunga, Fontofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka. Comments: Muslim.

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Jowulu
[jow] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle, Loulouni commune, south of Sikasso town, on Burkina Faso border, 12 villages. 10,000 in Mali (2002 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 12,000. Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jo, Samogho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Ethnonym: Samogho, a cover term including the Dzuungoo [dnn], Matya Samo [stj], and possibly other languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jula
[dyu] Widespread in southeast. 50,000 in Mali (1991). L2 users: 278,000 in Mali (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used for travel, market, and business communication. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Malian government recognizes Jula in Mali as Bambara [bam]. Muslim.

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Kagoro
[xkg] Kayes region: Diema, south Nioro, northeast Kita circles; Koulikoro region: Nara and Kolokani circles; Ségou region: Kadiolo circle. 88 villages. 15,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kakolo. Dialects: Mogola, Kamiko, Sébékoro, Jumara, Diéma, Guissimbiné, Séféto. Similar to Xaasongaxango [kao]. Bambara [bam] have poor comprehension of Kagoro. Western dialects (Séféto, Guissimbiné) are reportedly similar to Maninka-Bagè, a dialect of Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Some lexical influence from Soninke [snk]. Recent heavy Bamanankan [bam] influence. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konabéré
[bbo] Sikasso region: east Yorosso circle, on Burkina Faso border; some in Ségou region. 25,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Da, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing, Boboda, Konakuma. Dialects: San, Yaba, Tankire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koromfé
[kfz] Mopti region: Koro circle, southeast of Dinangourou town, on Burkina Faso border. 11 villages. 6,000 in Mali (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foula, Foulse, Koromba, Kurum-Korey, Tellem. Dialects: Eastern Koromfe, Western Koromfe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe.

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Maninkakan, Eastern
[emk] Koulikoro region: Kati circle, south of Bamako capital district, west of Niger river, into Kangaba circle, 5 communes; Sikasso region: Yanfolila circle. 390,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding.

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Maninkakan, Kita
[mwk] Kayes region: Kita circle except far east; Koulikoro region: west of Bamako; Ségou region: Baroueli circle, and Bamako capital district. 434,000 (2014 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 28 December). Alternate Names: Central Malinke, Kita Maninka, Malinke. Dialects: Bagè, Kita, Biriko (Birgo), Sagabari. Kita have 64% intelligibility of Bamanankan [bam]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Kayes region: north Kéniéba circle, west of Bafing river and Lake Manantali; Bafoulabé circle and Baking-Baloy drainage area; Kayes circle north to Kayes. 433,000 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinké, Northwestern Maninka, Western Malinke. Dialects: Kouroudougou, Konkodougou, Djébé, Niagala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Marka
[rkm] Mopti region: Bankass circle, south of Dialassagou town; Ségou region: northeast Tominian circle, along Burkina Faso border. 50,800 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dafing, Marka-Dafin, Meka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin. Comments: Used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka name for Soninke [snk], and Marka-Jalan who speak the San dialect of Bamanankan [bam]. Muslim.

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Pana
[pnq] Mopti region: Bankass circle, Baye township, on Mali-Burkina Faso border east of Sourou river. 2,800 in Mali (1982 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama. Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Kayes region: northwest Kayes, Yelimané, Nioro, and Diema circles; Koulikoro region: Nara, northern Kolokani, and Banamba circles. 175,000 in Mali (1995). 40,000 Fulbe Jeeri. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Peuhl, Peul, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Halpulaar, Pulaar, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle. 50,000 in Mali (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Foula Fouta, Fouta Dyalon, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Muslim.

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Samo, Matya
[stj] Mopti region: Bankass circle, southeast Baye township, Dissa village and 12 other villages. 1,000 in Mali (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sã, Samogho, San, Sànán. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo.

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Sàmòmá
[knz] Mopti region: Koro circle, Dougoutene and Koro townships, about 12 villages, including Sougou, Zon, Ponghon, Gako, and Soyema. 2,500 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalamsé, Kalemsé, Kalenga, Sàmó. Dialects: Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Distinct from other languages called Samo. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Mamara
[myk] Sikasso region: Koutiala and Yorosso circles; northeast Ségou region: Bla circle, scattered. 738,000 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bamaraga, Mamara, Mianka, Minianka, Miniyanka, Minya, Minyanka, Tupiire. Dialects: Sõghoo, Bàjii, Nafãã, Mìjuu, Kle Noehmõ, Nejuu, Koloo, Kujaa, Suõõ. Reportedly similar to Supyire Senoufo [spp], but intercomprehension difficult. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle, Bagoe river west bank to Cote d’Ivoire border, and Bafini river south bank. 14,800 in Mali (2009 T. Requadt). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbajere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: The language is called Gbajere by Syenara [shz] speakers.

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Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, east of Sikasso town, on Burkina Faso border. 4 villages. 3,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sìcijuungé, Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Supyire
[spp] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, north from Sikasso city. 350,000 (2007 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sup’ide, Suppire, Supyire. Dialects: Kampwo, Kadi, Nyana Nyuni, Fanywohoshin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Syenara
[shz] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle. 155,000 (2010 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Senare, Senari, Shenara, Syenara. Dialects: Sangaar, Kuleele, Loakloho, Tuvunro, Pomporo, Tagbaar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Songhay, Humburi Senni
[hmb] Mopti region: Douentza circle, between Gao and Mopti cities; Tombouctou region: Gourma-Rharous circle. 15,000 in Mali (1999 J. Heath). Total users in all countries: 25,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Hombori Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai. Dialects: Hombori, Maransé. Maransé dialect is 77% intelligible of Songhay of Falangountou. Lexical similarity: Maransé is 65% with Songhay of Falangoutou, 35% with Songhay of Gao. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Songhay, Koyra Chiini
[khq] Tombouctou region: Niger river, both banks; Mopti region: Youvarou and Douentza circles; northeast Ségou region: Niono circle, northeast to Niger river. 200,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Songai, Songay, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai, Timbuktu Songhoy, West Songhoy. Dialects: Koyra Chiini, Djenné Chiini. Main dialect division between Timbuktu and the upriver towns from Diré to Niafunké. Very distinct in Djenné City. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects, 50% lexical similarity with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Songhay, Koyraboro Senni
[ses] Gao region, along Niger river, Gao town area; Tombouctou region, from Niafunké to Niger border. 430,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 850,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: East Songhay, Gao Songhay, Koroboro Senni, Koyra Senni, Koyra Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai. Dialects: Gao, Fulan Kirya. Intelligibility good among all dialects on Niger River. Fulan Kirya dialect has more limited intelligibility through heavy lexical borrowing from Fulfulde [ffm] and Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb]. The Gao dialect is dominant in all respects. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects; 50% with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Soninke
[snk] Kayes region: Kayes, Yélimané, and Nioro circles; Koulikoro region: Nara, Kolokani, Banamba, and Koulikoro circles; Ségou region: Ségou and Baraouéli circles. 6 principal towns, 163 villages. 1,280,000 in Mali (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 2,017,110. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Aswanek, Aswanik, Azer, Ceddo, Cheddo, Gangara, Genger, Kwara, Maraka, Marka, Markaajo, Markakan, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkole, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Sebbe, Serahule, Serecole, Sooninkanxanne, Sooninke, Wakkore, Wankara. Dialects: Kinbakka, Kinxenna, Geriga (Giriga). Giriga dialect heavily influenced by Hassaniya Arabic [mey]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke. Comments: Different from Marka [rkm]. Muslim.

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Tadaksahak
[dsq] Gao region: Menaka circle; west into Ansongo circle. Menaka is principal town. 100,000 in Mali (2007 M. Almaki), increasing. 70,000 youth are monolingual. Total users in all countries: 101,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daosahaq, Daoussahaq, Daoussak, Dausahaq, Dawsahaq, Idaksahak. Dialects: No major dialects. Closely related to Tagdal [tda] (Niger), Tasawaq [twq] (Niger), and Korandje [kcy] (Algeria). Northern Songhay Languages share features from Songhay languages and Tamasheq [taq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern. Comments: Shares culture with Tamasheq [taq].

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Tamajaq
[ttq] Gao region: Menaka circle. 190,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tahoua, Tajag, Tamajeq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, “Tourage” (pej.), “Tuareg” (pej.). Dialects: Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamashek
[tmh] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,467,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Tahaggart Tamahaq [thv] (Algeria), Tamasheq [taq], Tawallammat Tamajaq [ttq] (Niger), Tayart Tamajeq [thz] (Niger).

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Tamasheq
[taq] Widespread northeast: Tombouctou, Kidal, and Gao regions; some in Mopti region: Youvarou circle. 378,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 500,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Kidal, Kidal Tamasheq, Tamachen, Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, “Tuareg” (pej.). Dialects: Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou), Tadhaq (Kidal). May be 2 separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: The Bellah were formerly under the Tamasheq economically. Muslim.

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Tebul Sign Language
[tsy] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township, Uluban village area. 500 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: There are also several communities in neighboring Douentza circle with a relatively high incidence of deafness and use of sign language (Nyst et al 2012); relationship of the signing in Douentza to that in Tebul has not been determined.

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Tondi Songway Kiini
[tst] Mopti region: Douentza circle, northeast of Douentza town, Kikara village northeast. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Songway Kiini, TSK. Dialects: None known. Clearly distinct from other Songhay languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Xaasongaxango
[kao] Kayes region: Bafoulabé, Kayes, and Kéniéba circles. 700,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin). Total users in all countries: 711,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Khassonka, Khassonké, Malinke, Maninka, Xaasonga, Xasonga, Xasongo, Xasonke. Dialects: Xaasonga, Kéniéba Maninka. High intelligibility of Western Maninkakan [mlq], less of Bamanankan [bam], but for sociolinguistic reasons they are considered separate languages. 90% inherent intelligibility of Loma [loi]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mandinka [mnk] of Gambia and Senegal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: French spelling is Khassonké. Muslim.

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Zarmaci
[dje] Gao region: Ansongo circle, south of Menaka at Niger border. 2 villages. 1,700 in Mali (2012 G. Davis). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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