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Afro-Seminole Creole
[afs] Coahuila state: Nacimiento de los Negros. 200 in Mexico (1990). Ethnic population: 500 (2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afro-Seminol Criollo, Afro-Seminole, Mascogos. Dialects: Mexico Afro-Seminole. Reportedly similar to Bahamas Creole [bah]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sea Island Creole [gul]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern.

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Amuzgo, Guerrero
[amu] Guerrero state: Xochistlahuaca municipality, Cochoapa, Cozoyoapan, Guadalupe Victoria, Huehuetonoc, Huistepec, Rancho del Cura, Tlacoachistlahuaca, and Zacoalpan. Santa Catarina river separates Guerrero variety from Oaxaca varieties. 30,600 (2000 INALI). 19,900 Amuzgo del Norte speakers, 12,700 Amuzgo del Sur speakers (2000 INALI). 10,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jñom’ndaa, Nomndaa, Ñomndaa, Ñonda. Dialects: Amuzgo del Norte, Amuzgo del Sur. Most towns in Guerrero understand the Amuzgo spoken in Xochistlahuaca (Amuzgo del Norte). Huixtepec is a Guerrero town but has various dialectical differences (Amuzgo del Sur). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Amuzgo. Comments: Many youth leave the area to find work. Christian.

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Amuzgo, Ipalapa
[azm] Oaxaca state: Putla district, La Ciénaga, Santa María Ipalapa northeast of San Pedro Amuzgos, Tlaxiaco to coast. 900 (2000 INALI). 20 monolinguals (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amuzgo Bajo del Este, Jñunda, Ts’unuma. Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other Amuzgo. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Amuzgo. Comments: Primary and secondary education available in Spanish [spa].

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Amuzgo, San Pedro Amuzgos
[azg] Oaxaca state: Putla district, San Pedro Amuzgos and outlying settlements. 3,480 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amuzgo Bajo del Este, Amuzgo de San Pedro Amuzgos, Jñon’ndaa, Ñonda, Oaxaca Amuzgo. Dialects: None known. 76% comprehension of Guerrero Amuzgo [amu]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Amuzgo.

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Chatino, Eastern Highland
[cly] Oaxaca state: Juquila district, Lachao Pueblo Nuevo, and Santa María Yolotepec villages. 1,800 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cha’ jna’a, Chatino de la Zona Alta Oriental, Chatino Oriental Alto, Lachao-Yolotepec Chatino, Sierra Oriental Chatino. Dialects: One dialect. Uses lengthened word forms similar to Zenzontepec Chatino [czn]. Reportedly similar to Zacatepec [ctz], but geographically and socioeconomically separated. 87% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 83% of Nopala [cya], 77% of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 21% of Tataltepec [cta]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino.

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Chatino, Nopala
[cya] Oaxaca state: Juquila district; Atotonilco, Cerro el Aire, San Gabriel Mixtepec, San María Magdalena Tiltepec, Santa María Texmaxcaltepec, Santiago Cuixtla, Santos Reyes Nopala, and Teotepec. 8,940 (2000 INALI). 2,300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cha’ jna’a, Chatino Oriental Bajo. Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 73% of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 13% of Tataltepec Chatino [cta]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino.

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Chatino, Tataltepec
[cta] Oaxaca state: Juquila district, extreme west lowland Chatino area, San Pedro Tututepec and Tataltepec de Valdez towns; a few in nearby Spanish centers. 540 (2015 R. Sullivant). 1 monolinguals (2015 R. Sullivant). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cha’ jna’a, Chatino Occidental Bajo, Lowland Chatino. Dialects: 38% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 35% of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 33% of Nopala [cya], 27% of Zacatepec [ctz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino.

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Chatino, Western Highland
[ctp] Oaxaca state: Juquila district, Panixtlahuaca, San Juan Quiahije, Yaitepec towns; Ixtapan, Tepenixtelahuaca, Ixpantepec, Amialtepec villages; some hamlets. 16,000 (2000 INALI). 6,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cha’ jna’a, Cha’t-An, Chatino Central, Chatino de la Zona Alta Occidental, Sierra Occidental Chatino. Dialects: Panixtlahuaca Chatino, San Juan Quiahije Chatino, Yaitepec Chatino. 71% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect, 66% of Nopala [cya], 46% of Zacatepec [ctz], 32% of Tataltepec [cta]; Yaitepec dialect has 80% intelligibility of Nopala, 78% of Panixtlahuaca dialect, 20% of Tataltepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino. Comments: Some annual migration to work in coastal coffee growing areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chatino, Zacatepec
[ctz] Oaxaca state: Juquila district, San Marcos Zacatepec and Juquila villages. 450 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cha’ jna’a, Chatino de San Marcos Zacatepec, Chatino de Zacatepec. Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Nopala [cya], 61% of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 57% of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino, 6% of Tataltepec [cta]. Lengthened word forms are like Zenzontepec Chatino [czn]. Reportedly similar to Eastern Highland Chatino [cly] in some respects, but geographically and socioeconomically separated. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino.

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Chatino, Zenzontepec
[czn] Oaxaca state: Juquila district, Santa Cruz Zenzontepec and San Jacinto Tlacotepec municipalities, former Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl municipality. 8,490 (2000 INALI). 2,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cha’ jna’a, Chatino Occidental Alto, Northern Chatino. Dialects: Some dialect difference in Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl area. One of the most isolated and conservative groups in Oaxaca. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino. Comments: Economically marginal.

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Chiapanec
[cip] Chiapas state: El Bosque, Las Margaritas, Ocosingo, Alenque, Sabanilla municipalities. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 32. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chiapaneco. Dialects: Chidigo. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Manguean.

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Chichimeco-Jonaz
[pei] Guanajuato state: San Luís de la Paz, Jonáz village. 1,360 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chichimec, Chichimeca, Chichimeco, Meco, Pame de Chichimeca-Jonaz, Uzá’. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean.

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Chicomuceltec
[cob] Chiapas state: Amatenango de la Frontera municipality near Guatemala border. No known L1 speakers in Mexico. Ethnic population: 1,500. Total users in all countries: NaN. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cac’chiquel Mam, Cakchiquel Mam, Chicomukeltec, Chicomulcelteco. Classification: Mayan, Huastecan.

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Chinantec, Chiltepec
[csa] Oaxaca state: San José Chiltepec. Only a few older speakers (2011 J. Williams). Some possible monolinguals. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jajme dzä mii, Jmiih kia’ dzä mii. Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 20% of Usila [cuc] and Ojitlán [chj], 13% of Valle Nacional [cvn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Comaltepec
[cco] Oaxaca state: Santiago Comaltepec, Soledad Tectitlán, La Esperanza, San Martín Soyolapan, Vista Hermosa (Quiotepec), San Pedro Yolox, Rosario Temextitlán, Maninaltepec. 2,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jmii’, juu jmiih. Dialects: None known. 69% intelligibility of Quiotepec [chq] (most similar), 7% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Lalana
[cnl] Oaxaca-Veracruz states: border area, Lalana municipality, 25 towns; Jocotepec and Petlapa municipalities. 10,700 (2000 INALI). 2,500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lalana, Chinanteco del Sureste Bajo, Jujmi. Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Tepinapa [cte] (most similar, but less so in outlying areas), 43% of Ozumacín [chz], 24% of Lealao [cle]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Lealao
[cle] Oaxaca state: La Hondura, Latani, San Juan Lealao, and Tres Arroyos. 2,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lealao. Dialects: None known. Considered most divergent Chinantec language. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chinantec, Ojitlán
[chj] Oaxaca state: San Lucas Ojitlán, 4 towns and 15 hamlets; Hidalgotitlá, Minatitlán and Veracruz municipalities. Most relocated because a dam flooded their land in 1991. 37,900 (2000 INALI). 2,800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinantec, Comaltepec, Chinanteco del Norte, Jmiih kia’ dzä ‘vï ï, Jujmi. Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Sochiapan [cso] (most similar), 43% of Usila [cuc], 39% of Palantla [cpa], 31% of Chiltepec [csa]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Ozumacín
[chz] Oaxaca state: Ayotzintepec, San Pedro Ozumacín and Santiago Progreso. 3,140 (2000 INALI). 260 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de Ayotzintepec, Chinanteco del Sureste Alto, Jumi dsa mojai, Juujmii. Dialects: Ayotzintepec. Ozumacín town has slight dialect differences from others. 63% intelligibility of Palantla [cpa] (most similar), 22% of Lalana [cnl] and Valle Nacional [cvn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan. Comments: Christian.

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Chinantec, Palantla
[cpa] Oaxaca state: San Juan Palantla and more than 21 towns. 25,000 (2007 SIL). 1,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de San Pedro Tlatepuzco, Jajme dzä mii, Jmiih kia’ dzä mii. Dialects: None known. 78% intelligibility of Tepetotutla [cnt] (most similar), 72% of Valle Nacional [cvn], 69% of Usila [cuc], 54% of Ozumacín [chz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Quiotepec
[chq] Oaxaca state: Etla district, San Juan Bautista Atatlah; Ixtlán district, San Juan Quiotepec, Reforma, Maninaltepec, San Pedro Yolox, and Rosario Temextitlán. 8,000 (1998). 1,750 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Highland Chinantec, juu jmiih. Dialects: Yolox Chinanteco. 87% intelligibility of Comaltepec [cco] (most similar, less similar in outlying areas), 7% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Highland Chinantec languages share a complexity of vowel length and tone extensions that Tepetotutla [cnt] and Palantla [cpa] do not have. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Sochiapam
[cso] Oaxaca state: Cuicatlán, Retumbadero, San Juan Zapotitlán, San Juan Zautla, San Pedro Sochiapan and Santiago Quetzalapa. 3,590 (2000 INALI). 730 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del Oeste, Jaú jm_, Jmiih kia’ dzä jii’, Sochiapan Chinantec. Dialects: None known. 66% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 56% of Chiltepec [csa], 45% of Usila [cuc], 11% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan. Comments: Self-name is tsá2 há2lí13–people (where) wild flowers (grow). Transients go to Mexico City to work as maids, gardeners, or laborers, but the majority return and settle down in the villages. Christian, traditional religion.

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Chinantec, Tepetotutla
[cnt] Oaxaca state: El Naranjal, San Antonio del Barrio, San Pedro Tlatepusco, Santa Cruz Tepetotutla, Santo Tomás Texas, and Vega del Sol. 1,850 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del Oeste Central Bajo, Jajmi dzä kï ï’, Jejmei, Jejmi. Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Quiotepec [chq], 59% of Palantla [cpa], 48% of Yolox dialect of Quiotepec Chinantec [chq]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Tepinapa
[cte] Oaxaca state: Choapan district, San Juan Petlapa municipality, San Juan Toavela, Santa Isabel Cajonos and Santa María Lovani; Santiago Jocotepec municipality, Linda Vista, San Pedro Tepinapa Comunal (locally known as Monte de Oro), and San Pedro Tepinapa Ejidal. 11,800 (2000 INALI). 1,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del Sureste Medio, Jujmi. Dialects: None known. 87%–68% intelligibility of Lalana [cnl], 24% of Lealao [cle], 23% of Ozumacín [chz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan. Comments: All villages have less than 6 grades of primary school. Tepinapa Ejidal has 3 years of secondary school.

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Chinantec, Tlacoatzintepec
[ctl] Oaxaca state: San Juan Bautista Tlacoatzintepec, San Juan Zapotitlán, San Pedro Alianza, Santiago Quetzalapa. 1,720 (2000 INALI). 550 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del Noroeste, Jau jmai. Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Chiltepec [csa] (most similar, lower in outlying areas), 84% of Usila [cuc], 74% of Sochiapan [cso], 15% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Usila
[cuc] Oaxaca state: San Felipe Usila plus 12 towns; Pueblo Doce, Veracruz. 7,410 (2000 INALI). 2,200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del Oeste Central Alto, Jaú jm_, Jmiih kia’ dzä jii’. Dialects: None known. 48% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 33% of Palantla [cpa], 32% of Sochiapan [cso], 31% of Ojitlán [chj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chinantec, Valle Nacional
[cvn] Oaxaca state: San Mateo Yetla in San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional. 440 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chinanteco Central Bajo, Jajmi dzä kï ï’, Jejmei, Jejmi. Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility of Chiltepec [csa] (most similar), 70% of Palantla [cpa], 53% of Ozumacín [chz], 40% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan.

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Chocholtec
[coz] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlán district, San Juan Bautista Coixtlahuaca, San Miguel Tulancingo, and Santa María Nativitas. 540 (2011 INALI). Chocholteco del este: 180 speakers, Chocholteco del oeste: 160 speakers, Chocholteco del sur: 200 speakers (2011 INALI). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chocho, Chocholteco, Chochon, Chochonteco, Chochotec, Ngiba, Ngigua, Ngiwa. Dialects: Chocholteco del Este, Chocholteco del Oeste, Chocholteco del Sur. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan.

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Chol
[ctu] Chiapas state: Chivalito, Limar, Tila, and Vicente Guerrero. 145,000 (2000 INALI). 10,000 in Sabanilla. 40,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lakty’añ. Dialects: Ch’ol de Sabanilla, Chol de Tila (Ch’ol del Noroeste), Chol de Tumbalá (Ch’ol del Sureste). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal, Chol. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chontal, Highland Oaxaca
[chd] Oaxaca state: San José Chiltepec, San Lucas Ixcatepec, and 15 towns west of Tehuantepec isthmus. 2,420 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca, Highland Chontal, Tequistlatec, Tsame, Tsome. Dialects: Chontal de Oaxaca alto, Chontal de Oaxaca bajo. Classification: Tequistlatecan. Comments: ‘Tequistlateco’ has been used in publications, but true Tequistlateco was spoken in Tequisistlán town, and is now extinct.

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Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca
[clo] Oaxaca state: Tehuantepec district, San Pedro Huamelula and Santiago Astata. 1,060 (2000 INALI). No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chontal de la Costa de Oaxaca, Chontal de Oaxaca de la costa, Huamelula Chontal, Huamelulteco, Lajltyaygi, Yocot’an. Classification: Tequistlatecan.

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Chontal, Tabasco
[chf] Tabasco state: 21 towns north-central and south. 36,500 (2000 INALI). Chontal de Tabasco central: 14,400, Chontal de Tabasco del este: 13,200, Chontal de Tabasco del sureste: 4980, Chontal de Tabasco del norte: 3890. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chontal Maya, Yocot’an. Dialects: Tamulté de las Sábanas Chontal, Buena Vista Chontal, Miramar Chontal, Chontal de Tabasco central, Chontal de Tabasco del Este, Chontal de Tabasco del Norte, Chontal de Tabasco del Sureste. Dialect speakers understand San Carlos Macuspana 80%–94%. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal.

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Chuj
[cac] Chiapas state: Trinitaria municipality, Cuauhtémoc and Tziscau villages; Campeche and Quintana Roo states. 1,770 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chapai, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán, Koti’. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean.

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Cochimi
[coj] Baja California state: north of Loreto to north peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (Adelaar 2007). This may include Kumiai [dih] in La Huerta who call themselves Cochimí. Old Cochimí is extinct (Mixco 1978). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cadegomeño, Cadegomo, Cochetimi, Cochima, Cochimí, Cochimtee, Didiu, Joaquín, Laimon, Laymon-Cochimi, Laymonem, San, San Francesco Saverio Mission, San Francisco Xavier de, San Javier, San Xavier, Viggé-Biaundo Mission. Dialects: None known. Troike (1970) regards it as 2 distinct languages. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman.

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Cocopa
[coc] Baja California state; Sonora state: Mexicali and San Luis Río Colorado municipalities. 200 in Mexico (1998 P. Larson). Ethnic population: 200 (1998). Total users in all countries: 350. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cocopá, Cocopah, Cucapá, Cucupá, Kikimá, Kuapá, Kwikapá. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California.

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Cora, El Nayar
[crn] Nayarit state: north-central. 9,480 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cora, Cora de El Nayar, Kora, Kuráàpa, Múxata’ana, Wachí hapwa, Yaúhke’ena. Dialects: Jesús María Cora (Cora de Jesús María, El Nayar), La Mesa del Nayar Cora (Cora meseño, Mesa del Nayar), Presidio de los Reyes Cora (Cora presideño), Cora corapeño, Cora de Rosarito, Cora de Dolores, Los Gavilanes Cora. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Cora-Huichol, Cora.

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Cora, Santa Teresa
[cok] Nayarit state: Dolores, San Blasito and Santa Teresa. 3,880 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwéimarusa’na. Dialects: San Francisco Cora (Cora francisqueño), Santa Teresa Cora, Dolores Cora, San Blasito Cora, San Juan Corapan Cora, Rosarito Cora. Difficult intelligibility of other Cora varieties. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Cora-Huichol, Cora.

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Cuicatec, Tepeuxila
[cux] Oaxaca state: 16 towns in northwest. 8,680 (2000 INALI). 850 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuicateco del centro, Dbaku, Dibaku. Dialects: Santa María Pápalo. 88% intelligibility of Teutila Cuicatec [cut]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Cuiatec. Comments: Santa María Pápalo is a significant sub-dialect.

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Cuicatec, Teutila
[cut] Oaxaca state: San Pedro Teutila; 8 towns. 3,140 (2000 INALI). 260 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dbaku, Duaku, Dubaku. Dialects: Cuicateco del Norte, Cuicateco del oriente. 79% intelligibility of Tepeuxila [cux]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Cuiatec.

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Huarijío
[var] Chihuahua state: Río Chinipas east to Sonora state border; San Bernardo, to headwaters of Río Mayo. 17 or more villages or hamlets. West Sierra Madre mountains. 2,840 (2005 SIL). 1,570 in Chihuahua, 1,210 in Sonora. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guarijío, Maculái, Macurái, Macurawe, Makurawe, Varihío, Varijío, Varohio, Vorijío, Warihó. Dialects: Highland Guarijío, Lowland Huarijío. Intelligibility of Tarahumara languages less than 50%. Maculai (Macurawe, Macuyawe), formerly used by upriver Huarijio to refer to downriver Huarijio. Refer to themselves as Huarijio, Macurawe or Macuyawe. Old ruins of Macoyawi, now under Lake Mocutzari, was presumably a village of theirs. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran.

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Huastec
[hus] Veracruz state: 60 villages; San Luis Potosí state: 12 villages; Cerro Azul on southeast edge, Tepetzintla on south edge, Tantima on north edge, Santa María Ixcatepec on west edge; Amatlán Tuxpan, Galeana y Zaragoza Vieja, San Francisco Chontla, Tamiahua, and Tancoco; east of Huasteco Veracruz-Llave. 131,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Teenek, Tenek, Tének. Dialects: San Luis Potosi Huastec (Potosino Huastec), Southeastern Huastec (Huasteco de San Francisco Chontla), Huasteco de Tantoyuca, Huasteco de Veracruz. Sociological factors require literature in Veracruz variety of Huastec. Classification: Mayan, Huastecan, Huastec.

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Huave, San Dionisio del Mar
[hve] Oaxaca state: Juchitán district, San Dionisio del Mar; southeast coast. 2,550 (2005 census). 1 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huave del Este, Ombeyajts. Dialects: None known. 98% intelligibility of Santa María del Mar Huave [hvv], 88% of San Mateo del Mar Huave [huv]. Classification: Huavean.

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Huave, San Francisco del Mar
[hue] Oaxaca state: Juchitán district, old and new San Francisco del Mar; southeast coast. 620 (2000 census). 1 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,900 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huave del Este, Ombeyajts. Dialects: None known. 38% intelligibility of San Mateo del Mar Huave [huv]. Most divergent variety of Huave. Only fishermen tested, who were familiar with other varieties. Classification: Huavean.

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Huave, San Mateo del Mar
[huv] Oaxaca state: San Mateo del Mar; southeast coast. 11,000 (2005 census). 1,550 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Huave del Oeste, Ombeayiüts. Dialects: None known. Very limited intelligibility of other Huave varieties; 88% of San Dionisio del Mar [hve]. Classification: Huavean. Comments: Legend says they came from Central America.

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Huave, Santa María del Mar
[hvv] Oaxaca state: Santa María del Mar; southeast coast. 500 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huave del Oeste, Ombeayiüts. Dialects: None known. Very limited intelligibility of other Huave, although most similar to San Dionisio [hve]. Classification: Huavean.

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Huichol
[hch] Nayarit and Jalisco states: Cohamiata, Guadalupe Ocotán, Nayarit, San Andrés San Sebastián, Santa Catarina, and Tuxpan de Bolaños; smaller areas, Durango, southernmost tip, and western Zacatecas. 17,800 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vixaritari Vaniuqui, Vizaritari Vaniuki, Wixárika. Dialects: San Andrés Cohamiata (Huichol del Oeste, Western Huichol), San Sebastián-Santa Catarina (Eastern Huichol, Huichol del Este), Coyultita, Huichol del Sur, Huichol del Norte. Lexical similarity: 58% with El Nayar Cora [crn] (most similar) (Miller 1984). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Cora-Huichol. Comments: Go to Pacific coast for temporary labor in the spring. Make their own violins and guitars. Their music is unique. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ixcatec
[ixc] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlan, Santa María Ixcatlán. 21 (2000 INALI). Only a few elderly speakers (M. Swanton). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ixcateco, Xwja. Dialects: None known. Different from San Pedro Ixcatlán Mazatec [mzi]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan.

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Jakalteko
[jac] Chiapas state: Amatenango de la Frontera municipality; Concepción Saravia near Frontera Comalapa municipality. 500 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jakalteko del Oeste, Jakalteko-Popti’. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko.

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Kanjobal, Western
[knj] Campeche, Chiapas and Quintana Roo states: Comalapa, Mazapa de Madero and Trinitaria. 8,340 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Acatec, Acateco, Conob, K’anjob’al, Kanjobal de San Miguel Acatán. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko.

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Kickapoo
[kic] Coahuila state: Nacimiento de Kikapú, 40 km northeast of Muzquiz. 110 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kicapoux, Kicapus, Kikabeeux, Kikapaux, Kikapú, Quicapause. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox. Comments: Most spend part of the year working in the United States.

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Kiliwa
[klb] Baja California state: Agua Escondida, Arroyo León, La Parra southeast of Ensenada, south of the Paipai, Tipai, and Cocopa. 10 (Golla 2007). 29 (2000 INALI). No monolinguals (1993). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiliwi, Ko’lew, Quiligua. Dialects: None known. Linguistically distinct from Paipai [ppi], Kumiai [dih], and Cocopa [coc] (Wares 1965). Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman.

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Kumiai
[dih] Baja California state: Cañon de los Encinos, Ja’áa, La Huerta de los Indios, Rancho Nejí, San Antonio Nécua, and San José de la Zorra; mountains southeast of Tecate, 60 km east of Ensenada. 220 in Mexico (2000 INALI). No monolinguals (1993). Total users in all countries: 370. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Campo, Cochimí, Comeya, Cuchimí, Diegueño, Kamia, Kamiai, Kamiyahi, Kamiyai, Ki-Miai, Ko’al, Ku’ahl, Kumeyaai, Kumeyaay, Kumia, Kw’aal, Quemayá, Tipai’, Tipái, Tipéi. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California. Comments: Different from the extinct Cochimí language.

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Lacandon
[lac] Chiapas state: Betel, Lacanjá San Quintín, Lake Metzaboc, Metzaboc, Najá. 600 (2015 S. Cook). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jach-t’aan, Lacandón, Lakantún. Dialects: Lacanjá, Najá. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon.

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Mam
[mam] Chiapas state: Buenos Aires hills above Motozintla, Cacahuatán, Mazapa, Ojo de Agua near Guadalupe, outside Pacayal near La Mesilla border, and Tapachula. 7,980 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: B’anax Mam, Qyool. Dialects: Tacanec (Mame, Tacana Mam, Tacaneco), Todos Santos Mam, Mam de la Frontera, Mam del Norte, Mam del Sur, Mam de la Sierra, Mam del Soconusco. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam. Comments: 2 colonies of Northern Mam Indians from Guatemala. Most are native of either Cuilco or San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan; widespread seasonal migration to the Pacific coast for labor.

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Matlatzinca, Atzingo
[ocu] México state: Ocuilan Municipality, San Juan Atzingo, Santa Lucía del Progreso. 100 (2011 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Atzinteco, Matlatzinka, Ocuiltec, Ocuilteco, Tlahuica, Tlahura. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Matlatzinca-Ocuilteco.

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Matlatzinca, San Francisco
[mat] México state: San Francisco de los Ranchos. 650 (2000 INALI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bot’una, Matlatzinca, Matlatzinca de San Francisco de los Ranchos. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Matlatzinca-Ocuilteco.

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Maya, Yucatec
[yua] Quintana Roo and Yucatán states; Campeche state: except west of Rio Chompan; Tabasco state. 735,000 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 58,800 monolinguals (2007). Total users in all countries: 762,520. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maaya, Maaya t’aan, Maayáa, Peninsular Maya, Yucatan Maya. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon.

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Mayo
[mfy] Sonora state: Navojoa (Huatabampo) area; Sinaloa state: Guasave, Los Mochis, San José Ríos, north of Guamuchil. 100 villages or more. 32,900 (2000 INALI). 120 monolinguals (1995 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yoreme Nokki. Dialects: None known. 90% intelligibility of Yaqui [yaq]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan. Comments: Mayo people reticent to identify as Mayo. Monolinguals avoid contact with outsiders. Prefer Mayo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazahua, Central
[maz] México state: border area, northwest Michoacán de Ocampo; Queretaro state: southern tip. 74,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jnatrjo, Masawa, Mazahua de oriente. Dialects: Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo, Santa María Citendejé-Banos, San Miguel Tenoxtitlán. The Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo dialect uses different kinship terms, has phonological differences, grammatical variation among towns. 85%–100% intelligibility among dialects. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Mazahua. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazahua, Michoacán
[mmc] Michoacán state: east of Cuidad Hidalgo. 26,600 (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jnatjo, Mazahua de occidente. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Mazahua. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazatec, Ayautla
[vmy] Oaxaca state: Teotitlán district, San Bartolomé Ayautla. 3,700 (2005 census). 2,800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Enre naxinanda nguifi, Mazateco del Sureste. Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Huautla [mau], 79% of San Miguel Hualtepec, 40% of Soyaltepec [vmp], 37% of Jalapa [maj], 24% of Ixcatlán [mzi]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec.

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Mazatec, Chiquihuitlán
[maq] Oaxaca state. 1,500 (2000 INALI). 340 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mazateco de San Juan Chiquihuitlán, Mazateco del Sur, Nne nangui ngaxni. Dialects: None known. 47% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar), 37% of Ayautla [vmy], 29% of Soyaltepec [vmp], 20% of Ixcatlán [mzi]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec.

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Mazatec, Huautla
[mau] Oaxaca state: Huautla northeast to Presa Miguel Aleman, and Puebla. 74,600 (2000 INALI). Over 100,000 Mazatec speakers live outside the Mazatec homeland, mostly in major cities (2005 census). Probably at least half speak L1. 22,400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Enna, Highland Mazatec, Mazateco de Huautla de Jimenez, Mazateco de la Sierra, Mazateco del Centro. Dialects: San Mateo, San Miguel, Mazateco de presa alto, Mazateco del Norte. 90% intelligibility of San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa] (most similar, but less in outlying areas), 60% of Mazatlán, 35% of Jalapa [maj]. Lexical similarity: 94% with San Miguel, 93% with San Mateo, 80% with Soyaltepec, 78% with San Pedro Ixcatlán, 74% with Jalapa de Díaz. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazatec, Ixcatlán
[mzi] Oaxaca state: Chichicazapa, Nuevo Ixcatlán, and San Pedro Ixcatlán. 8,590 (2000 INALI). 1,980 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: En ningotsie, Mazateco de presa bajo, Mazateco de San Pedro Ixcatlán. Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar). Different from Ixcatec [ixc]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Huautla [mau], 86% with San Mateo Eloxochitlán [mau], 85% with San Miguel Hualtepec and Soyaltepec [vmp], 82% with Jalapa de Díaz [maj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec.

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Mazatec, Jalapa de Díaz
[maj] Oaxaca and Veracruz states: 13 towns. 17,500 (2000 INALI). 4,030 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lowland Mazatec, Mazateco de San Felipe Jalapa de Díaz, Mazateco del Este Bajo, Ntaxjo. Dialects: None known. 73% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar), 62% of Ixcatlán [mzi], 51% of Soyaltepec [vmp], 46% of San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa], 35% of Mazatlán [vmz]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Ixcatlán, San Mateo Eloxochitlán [mau] and San Miguel Hualtepec; 80% with Soyaltepec, 74% with Huautla [mau]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec.

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Mazatec, Mazatlán
[vmz] Oaxaca state: Teotitlán district, Mazatlán Villa de Flores in 32 towns and villages; Distrito Federal. 12,000 (2000 INALI). 1,440 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ienra naxinandana nnandia, Mazateco de Mazatlán Villa de Flores, Mazateco del Suroeste. Dialects: San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec (Mazateco de Eloxochitlán), San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, San Pedro Ocopetatillo Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec, San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec. 80% intelligibility of San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa], 78% of Huautla [mau], 16% of Jalapa de Díaz [maj], 8% of Chiquihuitlán [maq]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec. Comments: Every village has primary school; some have secondary schools.

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Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl
[maa] Oaxaca state: San Antonio Eloxochitlán, San Jerónimo Tecóatl, San Lorenzo, San Lucas Zoquiapan, San Pedro Ocopetatillo, Santa Ana, and Santa Cruz Acatepec municipalities; a few in Puebla and San Sebastian Tlacotepec municipalities. 12 towns. 18,900 (2000 INALI). 4,000 in state of Puebla. 3,780 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mazateco de San Antonio Eloxochitlán, Mazateco de San Jerónimo Tecóatl, Mazateco del Oeste, Northern Highland Mazatec. Dialects: San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec, San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, Santa Cruz Acatepec Mazatec, San Pedro Ocopetatillo Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec, San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec. 76% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar), 26% of Jalapa [maj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec.

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Mazatec, Soyaltepec
[vmp] Oaxaca state: Tuxtepec district, Soyaltepec municipality, San Miguel Soyaltepec, Santa María Jacatepec and Soyaltepec island. 27,500 (2000 INALI). Original Soyaltepec variety may only be 900, mostly monolingual. 1,930 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: En naxijen, Mazateco de San Miguel Soyaltepec, Mazateco de Temascal, Mazateco del Noreste. Dialects: None known. 5% intelligibility of Chiquihuitlán [maq]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec. Comments: Dam built in 1954, resulted in many other Mazatec varieties moving into the municipality. Soyaltepec Island has the least mixture.

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Me’phaa, Acatepec
[tpx] Guerrero state: Acatepec municipality, Acatepec, Apetzuca, Barranca Pobre, Caxitepec, El Fuereño, Escalería ZapataLlano Grande, Mezcaltepec, Tres Cruces, Xilotlancingo; Ayutla municipality, El Camlote, El Salto and Plan de Gatica; Zapotitlán municipality (and dialect), Escalería Lagunas, Huixtlazala, Zapotitlán Tablas; Atlixtac municipality, Huitzapula (and dialect); Atlixtac municipality (Teocuitlapa dialect), Caxitepec, Tonalapa, and Zoquitlán; Quechultenango municipality, El Tojoruco, Nanzintla, and Platanillo. 40,200 (2005 INALI). 15,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Acatepec Tlapanec, Me’pa, Me’pa Wí’ìn, Me’pàà Wí’ììn, Me’phaa, Tlapaneco de Acatepec, Tlapaneco del Suroeste, Western Tlapanec. Dialects: Acatepec, Zapotitlán Tablas (Me’phàà Xìrágáá, Tlapaneco de Zapotitlán, Tlapaneco del Norte), Huitzapula (Me’phàà Àguàà, Tlapaneco de Huitzapula, Tlapaneco del Noroeste Alto), Teocuitlapa (Me’phaa Xma’íín, Tlapaneco de Teocuitlapa, Tlapaneco de Zoquitlán, Tlapaneco del Noroeste Bajo), Nanzintla (Me’phàà Murúxìì, Tlapaneco de Nanzintla, Tlapaneco del Oeste). 83% intelligibility of Malinaltepec [tcf], 79% of Tlacoapa [tpl]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba, Tlapanec. Comments: Primary schools in most towns, secondary and preparatory schools in major centers.

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Me’phaa, Azoyú
[tpc] Guerrero state: Azoyú municipality, Macahuite, Maxmadí, Toxnene, and Zapotitlán de la Fuente. 590 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Azoyú Tlapanec, Me’phaa, Mè’phàà, Mè’pháà Tsìndíì, Tlapaneco de Azoyú, Tlapaneco del Sur. Dialects: None known. Speakers define 9 varieties of Me’phaa, of which Azoya Me’phaa is one. Reportedly most similar to Subtiaba [sut] of Nicaragua (no remaining speakers). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba, Tlapanec. Comments: Speakers are often reluctant to admit they speak Me’phaa.

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Me’phaa, Malinaltepec
[tcf] Guerrero state: Acapulco municipality, San Martín del Jovero; Atlamajalcingo del Monte municipality, Huehuetepec, San Isidro Labrador and Zilacayotitlán; Iliatenco municipality, Alchipáhuac, and Aserradero, Cruztomáhuac, Iliatenco and San José Vista Hermosa; Malinaltepec municipality, Colombia de Guadalupe, El Rincón, El Tejocote, Malinaltepec, Moyotepec, Ojo de Agua, Paraje Montero, Tierra Colorada; San Luís Acatlán municipality, Pascala del Oro and Pueblo Hidalgo; Metlatónoc municipality, Francisco I. Madero, Juanacatlán and San Juan Puerto Montaña; Tlapa municipality, Las Pilas, San Pedro Acatlán and Santa María Tonaya;. 37,500 (2000 INALI). 8,000 monolinguals (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malinaltepec Tlapanec, Me’phaa, Mè’phàà Mañuwìín, Tlapaneco, Tlapaneco Central Bajo, Tlapaneco de Malinaltepec. Dialects: Huehuetepec (Mè’phàà Bátháá, Smájíín, Tlapaneco de Huehuetepec, Tlapaneco de Zilacayotitlán, Tlapaneco del Este, Zilacayotitlán, Zilacayotitlán Tlapanec). Malinaltepec has 50% intelligibility of Tlacoapa [tpl]. Speakers define 9 varieties of Me’phaa, of which 2 are included in Malinaltepec Me’phaa. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba, Tlapanec.

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Me’phaa, Tlacoapa
[tpl] Guerrero state: Tlacoapa municipality, Laguna Seca, Sabana, Tenamazapa, Tlacoapa, Tlacotepec and Totomixtlahuaca. 7,500 (2005 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Me’phaa, Me’phaa de Tlacoapa, Mi’phaa, Mi’phàà Mí’uíí, Tlacoapa Tlapanec, Tlapaneco, Tlapaneco de Tlacoapa, Tlapaneco del Centro. Dialects: Tlacoapa, Tenamazapa. Tlacoapa speakers tested 95% intelligibility of Malinaltepec [tcf] due to acquired bilingualism. Speakers define 9 varieties of Me’phaa, of which Tlacoapa is one. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba, Tlapanec. Comments: Tlacoapa recognized as different from Malinaltepec Me’phaa [tcf]. Tenamazapa dialect is a partial hybrid between malinaltepec [tcf] and Tlacoapa.

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Mexican Sign Language
[mfs] Scattered, except in Yucatan Peninsula (see Yucatec Mayan Sign Language [msd]) and other rural areas. 130,000 (2010 SIL). Population based on 87,000–100,000 mainly monolingual users from 1986 (T. Smith-Stark), adjusted for population growth since 1986 (2011 S. Dufoe). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Mexicana, Lenguaje de las Manos, Lenguaje de Señas de México, Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano, Lenguaje de Signos Mexicano, Lenguaje Manual Mexicana, LSM. Dialects: Influence from Old French Sign Language [fsl] starting in 1867. Monterrey and Torreón both use a subdialect of LSM with a lot of different and newly invented signs. Mazatlan reportedly has more ASL [ase] influence. Both ASL and LSM are used in parts of Baja California Norte, especially in Tijuana and Ensenada. Users of ASL have 14% intelligibility of LSM. Lexical similarity 85%–100% among regional dialects, nearly all above 90% (Bickford 1991). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Most deaf schools use oralist method, but some use signs. 15 deaf churches or agencies for the deaf in the Mexico City area, 4 in Guadalajara, 3 in Mérida, 3 in Puebla, 3 in Cuernavaca, 2 in Los Mochis, 2 in Monterrey, 2 in Tijuana, 2 in Ciudad Juárez, 2 in Torreón, 2 in Aguascalientes, at least one each in Jojutla, Cd. Madero, Cd. Mante, Reynosa, Ensenada, Torreón, Colima, Morelia, Pachuca, Tampico, Toluca, Queretaro, Tlaxcala, San Luis Potosi, Celaya, Hermosillo, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Acanceh, Zaplotanejo. 19 schools for the deaf in Saltillo, Guadalajara (3), Mexico City (6), Morelia, Cuernavaca, Monterrey, Ciudad Obregón, Hermosillo, Villahermosa, Matamoros, Veracruz; athletic clubs, theatre troupes, craft schools, rehabilitation institutions.

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Mixe, Coatlán
[mco] Oaxaca state: Coatlán, Camotlán, Ixcuintepec, San José, and Santa Isabel. 5,000 (1993 SIL). All Mixe languages: 90,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayuk, Southeastern Mixe. Dialects: Coatlán Mixe, Camotlán Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Lowland Mixe.

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Mixe, Isthmus
[mir] Oaxaca state: San Juan Guichicovi municipality, Tehuantepec isthmus near Veracruz state border. 3 towns. 20,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mixe, Guichicovi Mixe, Mixe del Istmo. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Lowland Mixe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixe, Juquila
[mxq] Oaxaca state: Ocotepec municipality, Juquila and Quetzaltepec. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: South Central Mixe. Dialects: Juquila Mixe, Ocotepec Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Midland Mixe.

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Mixe, Mazatlán
[mzl] Oaxaca state: 7 towns in the east. 19,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Central Mixe, Tutla Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Lowland Mixe.

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Mixe, North Central
[neq] Oaxaca state: northeast Mixe district, towns including those listed as dialects. 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 13,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atitlán Mixe, Mixe de Atitlán, Northeastern Mixe. Dialects: Mixe de San Juan Cotzocón, Zacatepec, Puxmetecán, Olotepec, Mixistlan, Cotzocón Mixe, Atitlán Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean.

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Mixe, Quetzaltepec
[pxm] Oaxaca state: northeast Mixe district. 8,090 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Mixe, Chuxnabán Mixe, Midland Mixe, Mixe Alto del Sur. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean.

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Mixe, Tlahuitoltepec
[mxp] Oaxaca state: Albarradas Zapoteco area. 3 towns. 5,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixe Alto del Centro, West Central Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, South Highland Mixe.

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Mixe, Totontepec
[mto] Oaxaca state: north of Zacatepec, 10 towns. 5,470 (2000 INALI). 870 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayuk, Mixe Alto del Norte, Northwestern Mixe. Dialects: Most distinct Mixe variety. 89% intelligibility of Acatepec Me’phaa [tpx], 79% of Olotepec dialect of North Central Mixe [neq], 72% of Tlahuitoltepec [mxp], 70% of Mixistlán dialect of North Central Mixe [neq]. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean. Comments: Christian.

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Mixtec, Alacatlatzala
[mim] Guerrero state: Alacatlatzala, Cahuatache, Cuautipa, Cuba Libre, Jilotepec, Ocuapa, and Potoichan, Quiahuitlatlatzala, San Isidro Labrador, Tenaztalcingo, Tepecocatlán, Tototepec, Xonacatlán, and Zacatipa towns; across western border, into Oaxaca state. 30,000 in Mexico (2011 SIL). 18,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Misteko, Highland Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Alacatlatzala, To’on Savi. Dialects: Potoichan (Ocuapa), Atlamajalcingo del Monte, Cahuatache Tototepec, Cuatzoquitengo, Plan de Guadalupe. 65%–85% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv]. Some had 70% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Not enough land to support everyone, so many leave to find jobs elsewhere. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixtec, Alcozauca
[xta] Guerrero: near Metlatónoc, 14 villages; Oaxaca state: south of San Mateo Neyapan. 10,000 (1994 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Alocozauca, Mixteco de Xochapa. Dialects: Xochapa Mixtec, Petlacalancingo Mixtec. 92% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv]; Metlatónoc has 70% intelligibility of Xochapa dialect. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Amoltepec
[mbz] Oaxaca state: Santiago Amoltepec municipality, Sola de Vega district, Barranca Oscura, Colonia de Jesús, El Armadillo, El Cocal, El Laurel, El Mamey, El Zapote, La Mesilla, La Tortuga, Las Cuevas, Llano Conejo and Llano Tigre. 20 villages. 5,630 (2000 INALI). 500 monolinguals (2005 census). Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Amoltepec, Tnu’u Ñuu Savi, Western Sola de Vega Mixtec. Dialects: None known. 63% intelligibility of Ixtayutla [vmj], 52% of Pinotepa Nacional [mio], 46% of Yosondúa [mpm], 42% of Southwestern Tlaxiaco Mixtec [meh], 32% of Zacatepec [mza], 25% of San Juan Colorado [mjc], 20% of Jamiltepec [mxt], 15% of Chayuco [mih]. People manage to communicate with Ixtayutla, but not Yosondúa, Zacatepec, or Jamiltepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixtec, Apasco-Apoala
[mip] Oaxaca state: Jocotipac, Nduayaco, San Miguel Chicahua, San Miguel Huautla, Santa María Apasco and other towns. 10,000 (1990 SIL). 1,000 monolinguals (1990). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apasco Mixtec, Apoala Mixtec, Mixteco de Santiago Apoala, Northern Nochixtlán Mixtec. Dialects: None known. 26% intelligibility of Southern Puebla Mixtec [mit]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Atatláhuca
[mib] Oaxaca state: San Esteban Atatláhuca and Santa Catarina Yosonotú towns. 8,300 (1995 census). 440 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Esteban Atatláhuca, San Esteban Atatláhuca Mixteco, South Central Tlaxiaco Mixtec. Dialects: None known. 68% intelligibility of Yosondúa [mpm]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Ayutla
[miy] Guerrero state: Ayutla and scattered in about 30 mountain towns. 11,500 (2000 INALI). 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Ayutla, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Metlatónoc [mxv] and Yoloxóchitl [xty]; 5% with San Juan Colorado [mjc], Silacayoapan [mks], and Santa Maria Zacatepec [mza]. Considered a Mixtec isolate with a large number of words unlike other variants. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Cacaloxtepec
[miu] Oaxaca state: Santiago Cacaloxtepec town. 460 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Huajuapan Mixtec, Mixteco de Cacaloxtepec. Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Christian.

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Mixtec, Chayuco
[mih] Oaxaca state: Saint Catarina Mechoacán and San Agustín Chayuco municipalities. 10,000 (1990 SIL). 950 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Jamiltepec-Chayuco Mixtec, Mixteco de Chayucu, Tu’un savi. Dialects: Mechoán. 69% intelligibility of Western Jamiltepec [jmx]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Chazumba
[xtb] Oaxaca state: Santiago Chazumba municipality and town, San Pedro y San Pablo Tequixtepec; Puebla state: Petlalcingo, Santa Gertrudis Cosoltepec, Totoltepec de Guerrero and Zapotitlán villages. 3,790 (2000 INALI). 30 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Da’an davi, Mixteco de Chazumba, Mixteco de la Frontera Puebla-Oaxaca, Northern Oaxaca Mixtec. Dialects: None known. 53% inherent intelligibility of Cacaloxtepec [miu], 24% of Chigmecatitlán [mii], 19% of Cuyamecalco [xtu] (Coatzospan). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Chigmecatitlán
[mii] Puebla state: Santa Catarina Tlaltempan and Santa María Chigmecatitlán south of Puebla City. 1,350 (2010 INEGI). 160 monolinguals (2010 INEGI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Puebla Mixtec, Da’an davi, Mixteco de Santa María Chigmecatitlán. Dialects: None known. 23% intelligibility of Chazumba [mit] (Southern Puebla reportedly most similar). An island of Mixtec surrounded by Popoloca and Nahuatl varieties. Low intelligibility with all Mixtec; very different. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Coatzospan
[miz] Oaxaca state: San Juan Coatzóspan. 2,090 (2000 INALI). 300 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Coatzóspan, Mixteco de San Juan Coatzospan, Teotitlán Mixtec, Tu’un davi. Dialects: None known. 25% intelligibility of Chazumba [xtb]. Cuyamecalco [xtu] reportedly similar, but intelligibility inadequate. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Cuyamecalco
[xtu] Oaxaca state: Cuicatlán district, Cuyamecalco, San Miguel Santa Flor, and Santa Ana Cuauhtémoc. 1,880 (2000 INALI). 70 monolinguals in San Miguel. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cuicatlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Cañada central, Mixteco de Cuyamecalco, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to San Juan Coatzospan [miz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Diuxi-Tilantongo
[xtd] Oaxaca state: Diuxi and Tilantongo areas, 20 towns or villages. Mexico City, Oaxaca City and Puebla City. 3,410 (2000 INALI), decreasing. In rapid decline due to migration to the United States. 150 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Nochistlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Diuxi-Tilantongo, Mixteco del Este Central, Tnu’un dau. Dialects: None known. 37% intelligibility of Peñoles [mil] (Eastern); reportedly more similar to Nuxaá [mxy]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Huitepec
[mxs] Oaxaca state: Huitepec municipality, San Antonio Huitepec, San Francisco Yucucundo and Santiago Huajolotipac. Baja California state: near Ensenada. 2,400 (2000 INALI). 200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Huitepec, Mixteco de San Antonio Huitepec, Mixteco de Zaachila, Tu’un sav. Dialects: None known. 77% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern) [mil], 75% of Chalcatongo [mig], 52% of Peñoles [mil], 20% of Yosondúa [mpm], 8% of Tilantongo [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Itundujia
[mce] Oaxaca state: Putla district, Guerrero and Morelos villages southwest of Yosondúa, southeast of Putla. 850 (2000 INALI). 17 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Putla Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa Cruz Itundujia, Tu’un savi. Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Yosondúa [mpm], 59% of Chalcatongo [mig], 25% of San Martín Peras dialect of Western Juxtlahuaca [jmx], 15% of Amoltepec [mbz], 12% of Zacatepec [mza], 10% of San Esteban Atatláhuca [mib], 10% of Nuyoo dialect of Southwestern Tlaxiaco [meh], 0% of Ixtayutla [vmj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Ixtayutla
[vmj] Oaxaca state: Jamiltepec district, Carasul, El Carasol, El Huamuche, El Mosco, Frutillo, Ixtayutla, La Humedad, Las Limas, Llano Escondido, Llano Verde, Macahuite, Nuyuku, Olintepec, Pueblo Viejo, San Lucas, Santiago Ixtayutla, Xiniyuba, Yomuche, Yucuyá. 6,380 (2000 INALI). 3,800 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santiago Ixtayutla, Northeastern Jamiltepec Mixtec, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 79% intelligibility of Amoltepec [mbz], 59% of Chayuco [mih], 49% of Jamiltepec [mxt], 40% of San Juan Colorado [mjc], 30% of Zacatepec [mza]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: School through 6th grade in Ixtayutla. Some settlements have schools. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mixtec, Jamiltepec
[mxt] Oaxaca state: San Andrés Huaxtaltepec, Santa Elena Comaltepec, Santa María Huazolotitlán, Santiago Jamiltepec, Santiago Tetepec. 9,760 (2000 INALI). 1,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Jamiltepec-San Cristobal Mixtec, Mixteco de Jamiltepec, Mixteco de Oaxaca de Costa Central Baja, Mixteco de Santa María Huazolotitlán. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Juxtlahuaca
[vmc] Oaxaca state: San Martin Duraznos, San Miguel Tlacotepec, San Sebastián Tecomaxtlahuaca, Santa María Tindú, and Santa María Yucunicoco, central Santiago Juxtlahuaca, Santos Reyes Tepejillo; Baja California state: San Quintín valley. 16,000 (1990 census). 5,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de Juxtlahuaca. Dialects: None known. 84% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks], 80% of Yucuane [mvg] and San Miguel Piedras [xtp], 63% of Santa Cruz Mixtepec [mix], 48% of Coicoyán [vmc] (Western Juxtlahuaca), 37% of Tezoatlán [mxb], 18% of Zacatepec [mza], 10% of Ñumí. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Secondary school. Many work in Culiacán or the United States.

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Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco
[xtm] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco district, San Agustín Tlacotepec, San Cristobal Amoltepec, San Mateo Peñasco, and Santa María Magdalena Peñasco municipalities. 7,350 (2005 census). 1,170 monolinguals (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: San Agustín Tlacotepec Mixtec, San Cristóbal Amoltepec Mixtec, San Mateo Peñasco Mixtec. 89% intelligibility of San Cristóbal Amoltepec (not the same as Santiago Amoltepec [mbz], in the District of Sola de Vega), 76% of Tijaltepec [xtl] and Sinicahua [xti], 73% of San Miguel el Grande [mig], 72% of Tlacotepec [xtm], 68% of Ocotepec [mie], 64% of Northern Tlaxiaco (Nduaxico) [xtn], 58% of Yucuañe [mvg]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Metlatónoc
[mxv] Guerrero state: Cochoapa and Tlacoachistlahuaca municipalities, Metlatónoc, San Rafael, and towns south. 46,600 (2000). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. 90% or higher intelligibility of nearby varieties, but only 50% of most Alacatlatzala [mim]. Alcozauca Mixtec [xta] is separate language. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Mitlatongo
[vmm] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlán, Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, and Santiago Mitlatongo. 1,800 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jnu’u lavi, Mixteco de Mitlatongo. Dialects: 70% intelligibility of Yutanduchi [mab], 56% of Peñoles [mil], 54% of Tamazola [vmx], 43% of San Juan Teita [xtj], 10% of Nuxaá dialect of Southwestern Nochixtlan [mxy], 8% of Diuxi [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Secondary school. Some men work outside the area; some in the United States.

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Mixtec, Mixtepec
[mix] Oaxaca state: San Juan Mixtepec, Tlaxiaco (district head); Baja California state: San Quintín valley. 9,170 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 2,500–3,000 located in Tlaxiaco (district head). 2,600 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de Oeste Central, Mixteco de San Juan Mixtepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Northern Tlaxiaco
[xtn] Oaxaca state: Teposcolula district, San Antonino Monte Verde and San Sebastián Nicananduta municipalities; Tlaxiaco district, San Juan Ñumí and Santiago Nundichi municipalities. 12,300 (2000 INALI). 1,600 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Juan Ñumí, Mixteco del Norte de Tlaxiaco, Ñumí Mixtec, Sa’an nda’u, Sa’an savi. Dialects: Yosoñama, San Antonio Nduaxico, San Antonino Monte Verde, San Sebastian Nicananduta, Santiago Nundiche. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Northwest Oaxaca
[mxa] Oaxaca state: Guadalupe Portezuelo, San Simón Zahuatlán, and Santos Reyes Yucuná. 5,430 (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Yucuná, Mixteco del Noroeste, Mixteco del Noroeste de Oaxaca, Tu’un sav. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Ocotepec
[mie] Oaxaca state: west central. 6,170 (2000 INALI). 600 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santo Tomás Ocotepec, Mixteco de Sierra Sur Noroeste, Ocotepec Mixtec, Santo Tomás Ocotepec Mixtec, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Ñumí [xtn] (Northwestern Tlaxiaco). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Peñoles
[mil] Oaxaca state: Santa María Peñoles municipality, Cholula, Huazolotipac, and Monteflor agencies. 5,500 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa María Peñoles, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 14% intelligibility of Chalcatongo. Nuxaá has 30% intelligibility of Peñoles [mil]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Pinotepa Nacional
[mio] Oaxaca state: Jamiltepec district, Pinotepa de Don Luis, San Antonio Tepetlapa, San Francisco Sayultepec, San Juan Atoyac, San Juan Cacahuatepec, San Juan Jicayán, San Miguel Tlacamama, San Pedro Jicayán, San Pedro Tulixtlahuaca, San Sebastian Ixcapa, Santa Cruz Itacuán, Santa María Jicaltepec, Santiago Pinotepa Nacional, and Tulixtlahuaca. 20,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Mixtec, Jicaltepec Mixtec, Lowland Jicaltepec Mixtec, Mixteco de Pinotepa Nacional, Western Jamiltepec Mixtec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, San Juan Colorado
[mjc] Oaxaca state: San Juan Colorado and San Pedro Atoyac in coastal area. 7,820 (2000 INALI). 1,890 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Oaxaca de la Costa Noroeste, Mixteco de San Juan Colorado, Tu’un sav. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, San Juan Teita
[xtj] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco district, San Juan Teita town. 330 (2000 INALI). 35 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dañudavi, Mixteco de San Juan Teita, Teita Mixtec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, San Miguel el Grande
[mig] Oaxaca state: Chalcatongo. 6,000 (2005 census). 330 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chalcatongo Mixtec, Mixteco de San Pedro Molinos, Mixteco del Sur Bajo. Dialects: None known. 86% intelligibility of Yosondúa [mpm] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, San Miguel Piedras
[xtp] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlán district. 460 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 1,120 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Miguel Piedras, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern) [mil], 29% of Soyaltepec [vmq], Yosondúa [mpm], 18% of Peñoles [mil], 15% of Chalcatongo [mig], 13% of Tilantongo [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Santa Lucía Monteverde
[mdv] Oaxaca state: Putla district, mostly Agua del Toro and Ocotlán. 5,430 (2000 INALI). 480 monolinguals. Mostly in Agua del Toro and Ocotlán. Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santa Lucía Monteverde, Mixteco de Yosonotú. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility 83% of San Esteban Atatláhuca [mib]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Santa María Zacatepec
[mza] Oaxaca state: Atotonilco, Las Palmas, Nejapa, Rancho de la Virgen, San Juan Viejo, San Miguel, and Tapanco towns. 2,570 (2005 census). 510 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santa María Zacatepec, Southern Putla Mixtec, “Tacuate” (pej.), Tu’un Va’a, Zacatepec Mixtec. Dialects: None known. 64% intelligibility of Ixtayutla [vmj], 63% of Jicaltepec [mio] (Pinotepa Nacional Mixtec), 40%–50% of Metlatónoc [mxv], 25%–30% of Yoloxochitl [xty]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: About 1,000 working in the United States. Called “Tacuates” by people in the area including Indians, which can be offensive depending on context and other signals. Christian.

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Mixtec, Silacayoapan
[mks] Oaxaca state: San Jorge Nuchita, Santo Domingo Tonala, and Tijuana. 18,700 in Mexico (2000). 1,500 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: 70% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv], 68% of Santa María Peras Cuatzoquitengo dialect of Alacatlatzala [mim]; testing incomplete. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Sindihui
[xts] Oaxaca state: Sindihui municipality. 34 (2005 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Distinct from Yutanduchi [mab]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Sinicahua
[xti] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco district, Sinicahua municipality, San Antonio Sinicahua and Siniyucu. 1,110 (2005 census). 150 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Antonio Sinicahua, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 75% intelligibility of Tijaltepec [xtl], 73% of Ocotepec [mie], 72% of San Miguel el Grande [mig], and 51% of Nduaxico (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec) [xtn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Southeastern Nochixtlán
[mxy] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlán district, El Oro, La Herradura, La Paz, La Unión Zaragoza, Ojo de Agua Nuxaá, Reforma, San Andrés Nuxiño, Santa Inés de Zaragoza, and Santo Domingo Nuxaá. 4,200 (2000 INALI). 180 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santo Domingo Nuxaá, Mixteco del Sureste de Nochixtlán. Dialects: Santo Domingo Nuxaá Mixtec, San Andrés Nuxiño Mixtec, Santa Inés de Zaragoza Mixtec. 60%–70% intelligibility of Peñoles Mixtec [mil]. Understand little of San Miguel Piedras [xtp] or San Pedro Tidaá Mixtec [mtx]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: There are few Mixtec speakers left in Santa Inés Zaragoza.

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Mixtec, Southern Puebla
[mit] Oaxaca state: Zapotitlán Palmas municipality; Puebla state: Acatlán, Petlalcingo, San Jerónimo Xayacatlán, and Xayacatlán de Bravo municipalities. 3,180 (2010 INEGI). 150 monolinguals (2010). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acatlán Mixtec, Da’an davi, Mixteco de la Frontera Puebla-Oaxaca, Mixteco del Sur de Puebla, Xayacatlán de Bravo. Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Chazumba [xtb], 43% intelligibility of Cacaloxtepec [miu], and 21% intelligibility of Chigmecatitlán [mii]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Southwestern Tlaxiaco
[meh] Oaxaca state. 7,340 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santiago Nuyoo, Mixteco del Suroeste de Tlaxiaco, Nuyoo Mixtec, Southeastern Ocotepec Mixtec. Dialects: Nuyoo, Yucuhiti. 54% intelligibility of Atatláhuca [mib] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Soyaltepec
[vmq] Oaxaca state: Teposcolula district, Guadalupe Gabilera and San Bartolo Soyaltepec villages. 220 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 930 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Bartolo Soyaltepec, Mixteco del Noreste Bajo, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 28% intelligibility of Tilantongo [xtd], 25% of Ñumí [xtn], 23% of Apoala [mip]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Tacahua
[xtt] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco district, southeast of San Miguel el Grande, east of Yosondúa. 390 (2005 census). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santa Cruz Tacahua, Mixteco del Sur Medio. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Tamazola
[vmx] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlán and San Juan Tamazola. 1,400 (2000 INALI). 30 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Juan Tamazola. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Tezoatlán
[mxb] Oaxaca state: Tezoatlán area, San Andrés Yutatío, San Isidro de Zaragoza, San Juan Diquiyú, San Marcos de Garzón, San Martín del Río, San Valentín de Gomez, Santa Catarina Yotandú, Yucuñuti de Benito Juárez, and Yucuquimi de Ocampo. 5,080 (2005 census). 670 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Tezoatlán de Segura y Luna, Tu’un nda’i. Dialects: None known. Those in each town speak a bit differently. 70%–80% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mixtec, Tidaá
[mtx] Oaxaca state. 380 (2000 INALI). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pedro Tidaá, Mixteco de Tidaá, North Central Nochixtlán Mixtec, Tnu’un dawi. Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Peñoles [mil] (Eastern) (most similar); Nuxaá is reportedly similar. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Tijaltepec
[xtl] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco district, San Pablo Tijaltepec, and Santa María Yosoyúa towns. 3,250 (2005 census). 420 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pablo Tijaltepec, Mixteco de Santa María Yosoyúa, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 89% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande [mig] and Yosondúa [mpm], 82% of San Mateo Peñasco, 81% of Sinicahua [xti] and 66% of Teita [xtj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Some work outside in Veracruz or the United States.

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Mixtec, Tlazoyaltepec
[mqh] Oaxaca state: Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipality; Baja California state: Maneadero area south of Ensenada. 3,700 (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco Bajo de Valles, Mixteco de Santiago Tlazoyaltepec, Tu’un dau. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Tututepec
[mtu] Oaxaca state: San Pedro Tututepec, Santa Cruz Tututepec, Santa María Acatepec, and other towns. 1,020 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 30,000 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pedro Tututepec, Mixteco de Villa de Tututepec, Tu’un savi. Dialects: Santa María Acatepec. 61% intelligibility of Ixtayutla [vmj] (most similar), 50% of Pinotepa [mio]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Western Juxtlahuaca
[jmx] Oaxaca, San Martín Peras and Río Frijol; Guerrero, Santa Cruz Yucucani, and San José Yoxocaño municipalities, Malvabisco, Rancho Limón, Río Aguacate, Boca de Mamey, Oaxaca-Guerrero border due west of Juxtlahuaca; Baja California, and Mexico (San Quintin valley, Maneadero, Tijuana, San Antonio de las Minas). 20,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Coicoyan Municipality: 6,150 speakers (2005). San Martin Peras Municipality: 10,000 speakers, plus 2,000 in Santa Cruz Yucucani, 2,000 in San José Yoxocaño. 9,000 monolinguals (2005 census). Coicoyan Municipality: 3,520 monolinguals (2005). San Martin Peras Municipality: 4,820 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coicoyán Mixtec, Mixteco del Oeste de Juxtlahuaca, To’on Savi. Dialects: San Martín Peras, Coicoyán, San Juan Piñas. 82% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv], 80% of Silacayoapan [mks], 65% of Juxtlahuaca [vmc], 19% of Cuatzoquitengo, 16% of Zacatepec [mza]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec. Comments: Primary school in San Martín. Many work in Culiacán during cold months. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl
[xty] Guerrero state: San Luís Acatlán municipality, Cuanacastitlán and Yoloxóchitl, south of Tlapa, halfway between the Metlatónoc and Ayutla Mixtec. 10,600 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Yoloxóchitl, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. Metlatónoc [mxv] has 35% intelligibility of Yoloxóchitl, and Ayutla [miy] has 30%. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Yosondúa
[mpm] Oaxaca state. 2,000 (2010 SIL). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santiago Yosondúa, Southern Tlaxiaco Mixtec. Dialects: None known. 70% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande [mig]. San Mateo Sindihui [xts] has 19% intelligibility of Yosondúa. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Yucuañe
[mvg] Oaxaca state: northeast Tlaxiaco district, San Bartolomé Yucuañe. Many work in Mexico City and the United States. 710 (2000 INALI). 90 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Bartolomé Yucuañe, Mixteco del Sureste Central, Tnu’u savi. Dialects: 87% intelligibility of San Cristóbal Amoltepec [xtm], 86% of Tijaltepec [xtl], 85% of Magdalena Peñasco [xtm], 64% of Teita [xtj], 60% of Nduaxico [xtn] (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec), 56% of Tlacotepec [xtm]. 2 dialects in San Agustín Tlacotepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mixtec, Yutanduchi
[mab] Oaxaca state: Nochixtlán district, Yutanduchi de Guerrero. 960 (2000 INALI). 8 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Yutanduchi, Mixteco de Yutanduchi de Guerrero, Southern Nochixtlan Mixtec, Tu’un savi. Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern) [mil], 48% of San Juan Tamazola [vmx], 20% of Yosondúa [mpm] and Soyaltepec [vmq], 18%–36% of Peñoles [mil], 15% of Chalcatongo [mig], 13% of Tilantongo [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec.

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Mocho
[mhc] Chiapas state: Motozintla and Tuzantán on Guatemala-Mexico border. 140 (2000 INALI). No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Motocintleco, Motozintleco, Qato’k. Dialects: Motozintleco, Tuzanteco (Muchu’). Not intelligible of Mam varieties (1973 SIL). Tuzanteco and Mocho are 2 distinct dialects of the same language (1967 T. Kaufman). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan.

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Nahuatl, Central
[nhn] Tlaxcala and Puebla states. 40,000 (1980 census). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. 1,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 63,000 (1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Aztec, Náhuatl del Centro, Nawa, Tlaxcala-Puebla Nahuatl. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Central Huasteca
[nch] Hidalgo state: Platon Sanchez border area west of Cototlan and Veracruz-Llave; possibly San Louis Potosi. 200,000 (2000 census). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Central Puebla
[ncx] Atoyatempan, Huatlathauca, and Huehuetlán near Molcaxac, south of Puebla city, Teopantlán, Tepatlaxco de Hidalgo, Tochimilco. 16,000 (1998 SIL). 1,430 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Puebla Aztec, Náhuatl del Suroeste de Puebla, Southwestern Puebla Nahuatl. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Coatepec
[naz] Mexico state: Acapetlahuaya, Chilacachapa, Coatepec Costales, Guerrero, Los Sabinos, Machito de las Flores, Maxela, Miacacsingo, Texcalco, Tlacultlapa, Tonalapa. 1,400 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coatepec Aztec, Náhuatl de Coatepec. Dialects: None known. 54% intelligibility of Santa Catarina [nhm] (Morelos), 48% of Atliaca [ngu] (Guerrero), 28% of Zongolica [nlv] (Orizaba). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Eastern Durango
[azd] Durango state: Mezquital municipality, Agua Caliente, Agua Fria, La Tinaja, and San Pedro Jicora; Nayarit state: Del Nayer municipality. 400 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Durango Aztec, Meshikan de San Pedro Shikora, Meshikan del Este, Mexicanero del Este, Nahuat del Este de Durango. Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Western Durango Nahuatl [azn], 76% of Michoacan Nahuatl [ncl]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nahuatl, Eastern Huasteca
[nhe] Hidalgo state; Puebla state: Fransico Z. Mena municipality; Veracruz state: interior west of Tuxpan. 1500 villages. 410,000 (1991 SIL). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Huasteca Aztec, Náhuatl de Hidalgo, Náhuatl de la Huasteca Oriental. Dialects: Southeastern Huasteca Nahuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern and Western Huasteca Nahuatl [nhv]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Guerrero
[ngu] Ahuacuotzingo, Alcozauca de Guerrero, Alpoyeca, Atenango del Río, Atlixtac, Ayutla de los Libres, Chiulapa de Álvarez, Comonfort, Copalillo, Cualác, Huamuxtitlán, Huitzuco de los Figueroa, Mártir de Cuilapan, Mochitlán, Olinalá, Quechultenango, Tepecoacuilco de Trujano, Tixtla de Guerrero, Tlapa de Xalpatláhuac, Xochihuehuetlán, Zapotitlan Tablas, and Zitlala municipalities, Balsas river area. 150,000 (1998 SIL). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guerrero Aztec, Náhuatl de Guerrero, Xalitla Nahuatl. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nahuatl, Highland Puebla
[azz] Puebla state: near Jopala; Veracruz state: south of Entabladero. 125,000 (1983). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mejicano de Zacapoaxtla, Náhuat de la Sierra de Puebla, Sierra Aztec, Sierra de Zacapoaxtla Nahuatl, Sierra Puebla Náhuatl, Zacapoaxtla Náhuat. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Huaxcaleca
[nhq] Veracruz state: inland area surrounding Cordoba. 7,000 (1990 census). 55 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huaxcaleca Aztec, Náhuatl de Chichiquila. Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Highland Puebla Nahuatl [azz], 85% of Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Cosoleacaque
[nhk] Veracruz-Llave, from Jáltipan de Morelos southeast to Rio Chiquito, north bank; other communities Cosoleacaque, Oteapan, Hidalgotitlán, and Soconusco. 5,140 (1990 census). 10 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cosoleacaque Aztec, Náhuatl del Istmo-Cosoleacaque. Dialects: None known. 84% intelligibility of Pajapan [nhp], 83% of Mecayapan [nhx], 46% of Xoteapan (Cosoleacaque) [nhk]. No intelligibility of Pipil [ppl] of El Salvador. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Mecayapan
[nhx] Veracruz state: Mecayapan municipality, Mecayapan and Tatahuicapan towns. 20,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Isthmus Aztec-Mecayapan, Isthmus Nahuatl, Mecayapan Isthmus Nahuatl, Náhuat de Mecayapan. Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Pipil [ppl] of El Salvador. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Pajapan
[nhp] Veracruz state: Pajapan municipality on Gulf of Mexico, Jicacal, San Juan Volador, Santanón, and Sayultepec towns. 7,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Náhuat de Pajapan, Pajapan Nahuatl. Dialects: None known. 83% intelligibility of Mecayapan (Isthmus Nahuatl) [nhx], 94% of Oteapan (Cosoleacaque) [nhk]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl. Comments: People leave the area for better jobs or trade.

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Nahuatl, Michoacán
[ncl] Michoacán state: Maruata Pómaro on Pacific ocean coast. 3,000 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gente natural, Mexicano, Michoacan Aztec, Nahual de Michoacán. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Morelos
[nhm] Morelos state: Miacatlán municipality, Coatetelco; Puente de Ixtla municipality, Xoxocotla; Temixco municipality, Cuentepec; Tepoztlán municipality, Santa Catarina; Tetela del Volcán municipality, Hueyapan, Alpanocan; Puebla state: Acteopan municipality, San Marcos Acteopan and San Felipe Toctla. 18,700 (2000 census). 300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de Cuentepec. Dialects: None known. 72% inherent intelligibility of Cuaohueyalta [ncj] (Northern Puebla), 69% of Atliaca [ngu] (Guerrero), 54% of Macuilocatl [nhv] (Western Huasteca), 40% of Yahualica [nhe] (Eastern Huasteca), 36% of Pómaro [ncl] (Michoacán), 34% of Tetelcingo [nhg], 27% of Chilac [npl] (Southeast Puebla), 19% of Tatóscac [azz] (Highland Puebla), 0% of Mecayapan [nhx] (Isthmus). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Northern Oaxaca
[nhy] Oaxaca state: Apixtepec, Cosolapa, El Manzano de Mazatlán, San Antonio Nanahuatipan, San Gabriel Casa Blanca, San Martín Toxpalan, Santa María Teopoxco, Teotitlán del Camino; Ignacio Zaragosa, and Tesonapa (1 of the last 2 towns in Veracruz); Puebla state: Coxcatlán. 9,000 (1990 census). 1,400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Náhuatl del Norte de Oaxaca. Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv], 76% of Southeast Puebla [npl], 75% of North Puebla [ncj], 48% of Tatóscac [azz]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Northern Puebla
[ncj] Puebla state: Naupan. 60,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl del Norte de Puebla, North Puebla Aztec, North Puebla Sierra Nahuatl. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Ometepec
[nht] Guerrero state: Acatepec, Arcelia, El Carmen, Quetzalapa de Azoyú, and Rancho de Cuananchinicha; Oaxaca state: Juxtlahuaca district, Cruz Alta and San Vicente Piñas; Putla district, Concepción Guerrero. 430 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ometepec Aztec. Dialects: None known. May be 3 separate languages. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Orizaba
[nlv] Veracruz state: Orizaba; Puebla state: north of Miguel Aleman reservoir; Oaxaca state: small area northwest of Acatlan. 120,000 (1991 SIL). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de la Sierra de Zongolica, Orizaba Aztec. Dialects: Ixhuatlancillo Nahuatl. 79% intelligibility of Nahuatl [nhm] (Morelos) (most similar). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl. Comments: 1 secondary school.

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Nahuatl, Santa María la Alta
[nhz] Puebla state: Atenayuca, Santa María la Alta; a few northwest of Tehuacán. 2,470 (2000). 9 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de Santa María la Alta. Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Pómaro [ncl] (Michoacán), 53% of Huatlatlauca, Puebla; 50% of Zautla [azz] (Highland Puebla), Chilac [npl] (Southeastern Puebla); 40% of Zongolica [nlv] (Orizaba); 33% of Mecayapan [nhx], Veracruz (Isthmus); 30% of Canoa (Central Nahuatl) [nhn]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Sierra Negra
[nsu] Puebla state: 13 towns in south. 25,000 (2006 SIL). 16,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de la Sierra Negra. Dialects: Coyomeapan, Zoquitlan. Reportedly most similar to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl]; next most similar to Nahuatl [nhm] (Morelos). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Southeastern Puebla
[npl] Puebla state: Tehuacán region, Chilac and San Sebastián Zinacatepec areas. 92,000 (1991 SIL). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Náhuatl del Sureste de Puebla, Tehuacán Náhuatl. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Sierra Negra Nahuatl [nsu]. Approximately 60% intelligibility of Morelos Nahuatl [nhm]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Tabasco
[nhc] Tabasco state: Comalcalco municipality, La Lagartera and Paso de Cupilco. 30 (2014 M. Hansen). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tabasco Aztec. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Temascaltepec
[nhv] México state: La Comunidad, Potrero de San José, San Mateo Almomoloa, and Santa Ana, southwest of Toluca. 310 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Almomoloya Náhuatl, Temascaltepec Aztec. Dialects: None known. 53% intelligibility of Coatepec, Guerrero [ngu]; 45% of Pómaro, Michoacán [ncl]; 40% of Santa Catarina, Morelos [nhm]; 10% of Tlaxpanaloya, Puebla [ncj]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Tetelcingo
[nhg] Morelos state: Tetelcingo. 3,500 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tetelcingo Aztec. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Morelos Nahuatl [nhm]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Tlamacazapa
[nuz] Guerrero state: border area northeast of Taxco; Morelos state: west of Tequesquitengo lake. 1,550 (1990 census). 10 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Different from Morelos Nahuatl [nhm], Guerrero Nahuatl [ngu]. 79% intelligibility of Guerrero. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Western Durango
[azn] Durango state: Mezquital municipality, Alacranes, Curachitos de Buenavista, San Agustin de Buenaventura, San Diego, Tepalcates, and Tepetates II (Berenjenas); Nayarit state: Acaponeta municipality, El Duraznito, La Laguna, Mesa de las Arpas, and Santa Cruz. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meshikan de San Agustin Buenaventura y de Santa Cruz, Meshikan del occidente, Mexicanero del occidente, Nahuat del Occidente en Durango y Nayarit, Western Durango Aztec. Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Eastern Durango Nahuatl [azd], 76% of Michoacan Nahuatl [ncl]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nahuatl, Western Huasteca
[nhw] San Luis Potosí state: Tamazunchale center; Hidalgo state: Chapulhuacan, Lolotla, Pisaflores, portions of San Felipe Orizatlan, Tepehuacan de Gerrero, and Tlanchinol municipalities. 1,500 villages. 400,000 (1991 SIL). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,740,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de la Huasteca Occidental, Náhuatl de Tamazunchale, Western Huasteca Aztec. Dialects: Western Huasteca Náhuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl [nhe] and Western Huasteca Nahuatl. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl.

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Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla
[nhi] Ahuacatlán, Chachayohquila, Cuacuila, Cuacuilco, Cualtepec Ixquihuacán, San Miguel Tenango, Santa Catarina Omitlán, Tenantitla, Tepetzintla, Tetelatzingo, Tlalitzlipa, Xochitlasco, Xonotla, Yehuala, Zacatlán north of Puebla City, Zoquitla. 17,100 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahuacatlán and Tepetzintla, Ahuacatlán y Tepetzintla, Aztec of Zacatlán, Náhuatl de Zacatlán, Tenango Nahuatl. Dialects: Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla Nahuatl, Tlalitzlipa Nahuatl. Reportedly most similar to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl], 50%–60% intelligibility of Sierra Negra Nahuatl [nsu] and Northern Puebla Nahuatl [ncj], 80%–90% of Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl], 80% of Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv]. The Tlalitzlipa dialect 77% inherent intelligibility of Tlaxpanaloya [ncj] (Northern Puebla), 58% of Macuilocatl [nhw] (Western Huasteca Nahuatl), 41% of Tatóscac [azz] (Highland Puebla). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl. Comments: Christian.

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Opata
[opt] Sonora state: Arivechi, Bacanora, Nacori, Onavas, Sahuaripa, Suaqui. Tecoripa is the traditional area. No known L1 speakers. Last speakers previously reportedly died about 1930. Considered extinct but 1990 census lists 12 speakers (Adelaar 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Eudeve. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Opatan.

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Otomi, Eastern Highland
[otm] Hidalgo state: Huehuetla, Otomi de la Sierra Baja, Otomi-Tepehua, and San Bartolo Tutotepec municipalities; Puebla state: Pahuatlan, Pantepec, Tlacuilotepec, Tlaxco municipalities; Veracruz state: Ixhuatlan de Madero and Tlachichilco municipalities. 49,300 (2007). 4,700 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Otomi, Otomí de Huehuetla, Otomí de la Sierra, Otomí de la Sierra Madre Oriental, Otomí de la Sierra Oriental, Otomí del Oriente, Sierra Oriental Otomi, Sierra Otomi, Yuhu. Dialects: None known. 81% intelligibility of Tenango [otn] (most similar), 51% of Mezquital [ote], 70%–79% of Texcatepec [otx]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomí, Estado de México
[ots] México state: Chapa de Mota, San Bartolo Morelos, San Felipe Santiago, and Santa Clara de Juarez. 20,000 (2010 SIL). 440 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hñatho, Otomí de San Felipe Santiago, Otomí del Estado de México, State of Mexico Otomi. Dialects: San Felipe Santiago Otomí. 73% intelligibility of Mezquital Otomi [ote] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Ixtenco
[otz] Tlaxcala state: El Carmen Tequexquitla municipality, dialect San Juan Bautista Ixtenco; Puebla state: Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza, Tepeaca, and Teptlaxco municipalities. 460 (2000 INALI). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,360 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Otomí de Ixtenco, Southeastern Otomí, Yühmu. Dialects: None known. 41% intelligibility of Estado De México Otomi [ots] (most similar), 23% of Mezquital [ote] and Eastern Highland Otomi [otm], 22% of Tenango Otomi [otn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi.

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Otomi, Mezquital
[ote] Hidalgo state: Mezquital valley; México state: north border. 100,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hñahñu, Otomí del Valle del Mezquital. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Querétaro
[otq] Queretaro de Arteaga, Amealco municipalilty, San Ildefonso and Santiago Mexquititlán; Michoacán de Ocampo, Las Delores area; México, Acambay municipality; southeast Guanajuato, small border area. 33,000 (1990 census). 1,900 monolinguals (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hñohño, Northwestern Otomi, Otomí de Querétaro, Santiago Mexquititlan Otomi, Western Otomi. Dialects: None known. 78% intelligibility of Mezquital [ote] (most similar), lower in outlying areas. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Temoaya
[ott] México state: Temoyaya municipality, Enthavi, Jiquipilco el Viejo, San Pedro Abajo, San Pedro Arriba, Solalpan. 16 communities. 37,000 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi. Comments: Christian.

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Otomi, Tenango
[otn] Hidalgo, Puebla, and San Nicolás. 10,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Otomí de Tenango. Dialects: None known. 53% intelligibility of Eastern Highland Otomi [otm] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi.

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Otomi, Texcatepec
[otx] Veracruz state: Texcatepec municipality, Ayotuxtla, Texcatepec, Tzicatlán; Zontecomatlán municipality, Amajac and Hueytepec. 12,000 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. 25% of monolinguals are 5 to 9 years old. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Otomi, Otomí de Texcatepec. Dialects: None known. 70%–79% intelligibility of Eastern Otomi [otm], 57% of Ixmiquilpan, 44% of Tolimán (Queretaro) [otq], 40% of San Felipe [pow], 20% of Ixtenco [otz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Otomi, Tilapa
[otl] México state: Santiago Tilapa, between Mexico City and Toluca. 400 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi.

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Paipai
[ppi] Baja California state: Ensenada, south of Diegueño [dih] language area; Estado Valle de la Trinidad, La Palmita, Los Pocitos in Valle de la Trinidad, Rancho Aguascalientes, and Santa Catarina. 100 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akwa’ala, Jaspuy pai. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Pai.

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Pame, Central
[pbs] El Madrono area, Queretaro de Arteaga; San Luis Potosí state: Lagunillas, Santa Catarina, and Santa María Acapulco. 4,350 (1990 census). There are monolingual Pame speaking children in about 30 villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chichimeca, Pame de Santa María Acapulco, Pame del Centro, Southern Pame, Xi’oi. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Pame.

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Pame, Northern
[pmq] San Luis Potosí state: Alaquines, Ciudad del Maíz, Rayón, Tamasopo municipalities. 5,620 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pame del Norte, Xi’iuy. Dialects: 10%–15% intelligibility of Santa María Acapulco (Central Pame) [pbs]. Subdialects include Agua Puerca and Cuesta Blanca. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Pame.

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Pame, Southern
[pmz] México state: Jiliapan area; possibly Hidalgo state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Pame.

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Pima Bajo
[pia] Sonora-Chihuahua states border, scattered. 650 (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Piman, Mountain Pima, Névome, Oob No’ok. Dialects: Chihuahua Pima Bajo (Lower Piman), Sonora Pima Bajo, Pima del Este, Pima del Norte, Pima del Sur. Lexical similarity: 85% with Pima [ood] (Tohono O’odham) of the United States and Northern Tepehuan [ntp]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Campeche state: Chávez, Progreso, Yalnon; Chihuahua state: Buenos Aires, Capulín, Cuauhtemoc, Virginias; Durango state: Canatlán, Nuevo Ideal; Zacatecas state: La Batea, La Honda. 40,000 in Mexico (1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Popoloca, Coyotepec
[pbf] Puebla state: Coyotepec and San Mateo west of Tehuacán City, east of Ahuatempan. 500 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ngiba, Ngigua, Ngiwa. Dialects: San Vicente Coyotepec Popoloca, San Mateo Zoyamazalco Popoloca. 41% intelligibility of Otlaltepec [pow], 23% of Atzingo [poe], 15% of Tlacoyalco Northern Popoloca [pls]. San Mateo dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca.

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Popoloca, Mezontla
[pbe] Puebla state: southwest of Tehuacan city, 1 town; Oaxaca state: border area. 2,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Los Reyes Metzontla Popoloca, Ngiba, Ngigua, Ngiwa, Southern Popoloca. Dialects: None known. 52% intelligibility of Atzingo Popoloca [poe], 35% of Tlacoyalco (Northern Popoloca) [pls], 11% of Otlaltepec [pow]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca.

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Popoloca, San Felipe Otlaltepec
[pow] Puebla state: Huejonapan, San Felipe Otlaltepec, Santa María Nativitas. 3,000 (2000 SIL). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,590. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ngiba, Popoloca de San Felipe Otlaltepec, Popoloca del Poniente, Western Popoloca. Dialects: Santa María Nativitas, Huejonapan. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca. Comments: People leave the area for schooling and jobs.

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Popoloca, San Juan Atzingo
[poe] Puebla state: San Juan Atzingo. 5,000 (1991 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Most women over 60 functionally monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atzingo Popoloca, Eastern Popoloca, Ngiba, Ngigua, Ngiwa, Popoloca de San Juan Atzingo, Popoloca del Oriente, Southern Popoloca. Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Metzontla Popoloca [pbe] (most simlar), 26% of San Felipe Popoloca [pow]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca.

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Popoloca, San Luís Temalacayuca
[pps] Puebla state: San Luís Temalacayuca. 4,730 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngiba, Ngigua, Ngiwa, Popoloca de San Luis Temalacayuca. Dialects: None known. San Luís has 84% intelligibility of San Marcos [pls], 22% of Atzingo [poe], 8% of Otlaltepec [pow]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca. Comments: About 25% of men work part of the year in the Distrito Federal or the United States.

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Popoloca, San Marcos Tlacoyalco
[pls] Puebla state: San Francisco Esperilla, San José Buenavista, San Juan Sacavasco, San Marcos Tlacoyalco, and San Martin Esperilla. 8,440 (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngigua, Ngiwa, Northern Popoloca, Popoloca de San Marcos Tlalcoyalco, Popoluca del Norte, San Marcos Tlalcoyalco Popoloca. Dialects: None known. San Luis [pps] has 90% intelligibility of San Marcos. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca.

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Popoloca, Santa Inés Ahuatempan
[pca] Puebla state: Santa Inés Ahuatempan and Todos Santos Almolonga west of Coyotepec and Tehuacán. 4,000 (2000 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ngiba, Ngigua, Popoloca de Santa Inés Ahuatempan, Popoloca del Poniente. Dialects: Ahuatempan Popoloca, Todos Santos Almolonga Popoloca. 75% intelligibility of San Felipe Popoloca [pow] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca. Comments: Many leave the area to find jobs. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Popoluca, Highland
[poi] Veracruz state: Amamaloya, Barosa, Buena Vista, Col Benito Juárez, Cuilonia, El Aguacate, Estrivera, Guadalupe Victoria, Horno de Cal, Kilómetro Diez, La Florida, La Magdalena, Las Palmas, Soteapan; Bay of Campeche, area inland between Lake Catemaco and San Juan point, towards Hueyapan and Acayucan. 30,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Popoluca de la Sierra. Dialects: None known. More similar to Zoque than to Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Gulf Zoquean.

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Popoluca, Oluta
[plo] Veracruz state: Oluta, inland, west of Texistepec, south of Acayucan, east of Sayula. 120 (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Oluta, Oluta Mijean, Olutec, Popoluca de Oluta. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean.

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Popoluca, Sayula
[pos] Veracruz state: south of Sayula. 3,030 (Adelaar 2007). 15 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean.

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Popoluca, Texistepec
[poq] Veracruz state: Texistepec area east of Oluta. 100 (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 15,800 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Texistepec. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Gulf Zoquean.

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Purepecha
[tsz] Michoacán state: Lake Pátzcuaro area, Cuanajo southeast edge, San Francisco Pichataro west edge, and Zipiajo north edge. 40,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 55,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Lake Purepecha, P’orhe, P’orhépecha, P’urhe, P’urhépecha, Phorhépecha, Porhé, P’orhepecha, Purépecha de la Zona Lacustre, P’urhepecha, Tarascan, Tarasco. Dialects: Cuanajo, Ihuatzio, Isla Janitzio, San Jeronimo, Puacuaro, Cienega de Zacapu. All Purépecha varieties have functional intelligibility of other Purépecha varieties; Eastern varieties have 60%–80% intelligibility of the Western. A standard variety is emerging through radio and literature. Classification: Tarascan.

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Purepecha, Western Highland
[pua] Michoacán state: Comachuén east, Cañada de los Once Pueblos north, Nuevo Parangaricutiro south; Tarecuato west; Jalisco state: Jilotlan de los Dolores municipality, small border aea. 135,000 in Mexico (2005 census). 120,000 in Michoacán, 15,000 elsewhere in Mexico (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 180,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: P’orhe, P’orhépecha, P’urhe, P’urhépecha, Purépecha de la Meseta, Purépecha de las Sierras, Purépecha del Oeste de Sierra Occidental, Tarascan, Tarasco. Dialects: Cañada de los Once Pueblos, Cantera, Pamatacuaro, Angahuán, Nurío, Arantepacua, Cheran. All Purépecha varieties have functional intelligibility of other Purépecha varieties: the Western varieties have 60%–80% intelligibility of the Eastern. A standard variety is emerging through radio and literature. Classification: Tarascan.

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Seri
[sei] Sonora state: coast. 2 villages. 900 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cmiique Iitom, Comcáac. Dialects: None known. A few linguists posited a relationship to Hokan [ppi]. Classification: Language isolate.

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Spanish
[spa] 109,000,000 in Mexico (2013). L2 users: 7,460,000 in Mexico (2013). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tarahumara, Central
[tar] Chihuahua state: Balleza north, Chinantu southeast, Cuautemoc southwest to Creel down Urique river, east up Sinforosa canyon. 30,000 (2000 INALI). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alta Tarahumara, Ralámuli de la Tarahumara Alta, Ralámuli raicha, Samachique Tarahumara, Tarahumara de Cumbres, Tarahumara del Centro. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara. Comments: Many migrated to Chihuahua city for jobs. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tarahumara, Northern
[thh] Chihuahua state: Agua Caliente Ariseachi, Bilaguchi, La Nopalera, Santa Rosa Ariseachi, Tomochi. 1 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arisiachi Tarahumara, Tarahumara del Norte. Dialects: None known. 45% intelligibility of Central Tarahumara [tar], 25% of Western Tarahumara [tac]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara.

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Tarahumara, Southeastern
[tcu] Chihuahua state: Chinatú. 5,410 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Balleza, Chinatú, Rarámari raicha, Tarahumara de Chinatú, Tarahumara del Sur, Tarahumara del Sureste, Turuachi. Dialects: Chinatú Tarahumara. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara.

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Tarahumara, Southwestern
[twr] Chihuahua state: Tubare. 100 (1983 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tarahumara del Suroeste, Tubare. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara. Comments: Area where extinct Tubare [tbu] language was spoken.

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Tarahumara, Western
[tac] Chihuahua state: Guazapares, Urique, and Uruachi. 10,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baja Tarahumara, Lowland Tarahumara, Ralámuli de la Baja Tarahumara, Rarámuri, Rarómari raicha, Rocoroibo, Tarahumara del Oeste, Tarahumara del Poniente. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara.

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Tectitec
[ttc] Chiapas state: Amatenango de la Frontera, Mazapa de Madero, and Motozintla. 70 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: B’a’aj, K’onti’l, Qyool, Teco, Tectitán Mame, Tujqyol. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam.

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Tepecano
[tep] Jalisco state: San Martin de Bolaños area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic.

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Tepehua, Huehuetla
[tee] Hidalgo state: Huehuetla; Puebla state: half of Mecapalapa town; Veracruz state: northwest. 3,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tepehua de Hidalgo, Tepehua de Huehuetla. Dialects: None known. 70% intelligibility of Pisa Flores [tpp] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua.

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Tepehua, Pisaflores
[tpp] Veracruz state: Ixhuatlán de Madero, Pisaflores, 1 other town. 4,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Huehuetla [tee] (repmost similar), 40% or less of Tlachichilco [tpt]. Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua.

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Tepehua, Tlachichilco
[tpt] Veracruz state: Tlachichilco, west of La Jabonera. 3,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. 37% intelligibility of Pisa Flores [tpp] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua.

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Tepehuan, Northern
[ntp] Chihuahua state: Baborigame area; Sinaloa state: Choix municipality, border area. 6,200 (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tepehuán del Norte. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic, Tepehuan.

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Tepehuan, Southeastern
[stp] Durango state: Mezquital municipality, Santa María Ocotán; Nayarit state: some in northeast. 10,600 (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: O’dam, Tepehuán del Sureste, Tepehuano. Dialects: None known. 78% intelligibility of Southwestern Tepehuan [tla]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic, Tepehuan. Comments: Santa María Ocotán is cultural and religious center. Migrate to the Pacific coast for temporary labor in the spring. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tepehuan, Southwestern
[tla] Durango state: Lajas, Taxicaringa, and Teneraca; Nayarit state: Huajicori municipality. 8,700 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tepehuán del Suroeste. Dialects: None known. 55% intelligibility of Southeastern Tepehuan [stp]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic, Tepehuan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tojolabal
[toj] Chiapas state: Altamirano and Margaritas. 34,300 (2000 INALI). 7,700 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chañabal, Comiteco, Tojol-ab’al. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean. Comments: Christian.

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Totonac, Coyutla
[toc] Puebla state: foot of mountains north of Sierra Totonaca and Olintla river; Veracruz state: border areas noth and south. 48,100 (2000). All Totonac languages: 196,000 (1980 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Totonaco de Coyutla. Dialects: Cerro Grande Totonac. Reportedly most similar to Highland Totonac [tos] with many similarities to Papantla [top]. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac.

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Totonac, Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán
[tlp] Veracruz state: Acatlán municipality, highlands; possibly in Puebla state. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santo Domingo Totonac, Totonaco de Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán. Dialects: None known. 93% intelligibility of Nonacatlán. Linguistically between Highland Totonac [tos] and Northern Totonac [too]. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac.

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Totonac, Highland
[tos] Veracruz state: Acatlán municipality, southwest of Pozo Rico; Puebla state: Francisco Z. Mena municipaliy. 120,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sierra Totonac, Totonaco de la Sierra. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac.

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Totonac, Papantla
[top] Veracruz state: Gulf of Mexico, Cazonas river mouth, along coast to La Guadalupe; inland south past Paso del Correro; inland north past Tihuatlan; Puebla state: border area west of Pozo Rico. 80,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lowland Totonaca, Totonaco de Papantla. Dialects: None known. 40% intelligibility of Highland Totonac [tos] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Totonac, Tecpatlán
[tcw] Puebla state: Tecpatlán village, 2 communities northwest on Necaxa river tributary. 540 (2000 census). 110 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Totonaca. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Upper Necaxa Totonac [tku]. The 600-member community of Tecpatlán has 540 who identify themselves as local-language speakers. High levels of bilingualism in Nahuatl. Many may be primarily Nahuatl speakers. Northern Totonac [too] materials are reportedly difficult to understand. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac. Comments: Young people must leave to find jobs.

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Totonac, Upper Necaxa
[tku] Puebla state: Cacahuatlán, Chicontla, Patla, and San Pedro Tlalontongo in Necaxa river valley. 3,400 (2000 INEGI). 680 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Totonaca. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tecpatlan Totonac [tcw]. Northern Totonac [too] materials are difficult to understand. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac. Comments: Young people must leave to find jobs.

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Totonac, Xicotepec de Juárez
[too] Puebla state: Xicotepec de Juárez; Veracruz state. 30 towns. 3,000 (2000 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,700. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Totonac, Totonaco de Villa Juárez. Dialects: Zihuateutla Totonac. 87% intelligibility of Ozumatlán [tqt] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac. Comments: Young people must leave area for jobs.

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Totonac, Yecuatla
[tlc] Veracruz state: San Rafael area on lower Naulta river; possibly in Misantla and Yecuatla south. 500 (1994 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac.

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Totonaco del cerro Xinolatépetl
[tqt] Puebla state: Ozomatlán, Tepetzintla de Galeana, and Cuahueyatla. 1,610 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Totonac, Ozumatlán, Totonac, Xinolatépetl, Totonaco de Ozomatlán, Totonaco Norte de Huauchinango, Western Totonac, Xinolatépetl Totonac, Xinulajgsípij Totonaco. Dialects: 79% intelligibility of Highland Totonac [tos], 75% of Northern Totonac (Xicotepec de Juarez) [too], 67% of Zihuateutla dialect of Xicotepec de Juarez Totonac [too], 43% of Papantla [top]. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac.

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Triqui, Chicahuaxtla
[trs] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco district, San José Xochistlán; Putla district, Santo Domingo del Estado. 4,060 (Adelaar 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicahuaxtla Trique, Triqui Alto, Triqui de San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. Dialects: Laguna, San José Xochistlá, Santo Domingo del Estado. 74% intelligibility of Copala [trc]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Itunyoso [trq], 78% with San Juan Copala [trc]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Trique.

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Triqui, Copala
[trc] Oaxaca state: Juxtlahuaca, Miguel Alemán, San Juan Copala, Sonora (1,000 users); Baja California state: San Quintín valley; Mexico City. Groups in most tourist centers. 25,000 in Mexico (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Copala Trique, Triqui Bajo, Triqui de San Juan Copala. Dialects: 56% intelligibility of Chicahuaxtla [trs]. Considerable internal linguistic variation, though not well-defined subdialects. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Trique.

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Triqui, San Martín Itunyoso
[trq] Oaxaca state: Tlaxiaco. 2,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: San Martín Itunyoso Trique, Triqui Alto, Triqui de San Martín Itunyoso. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% with Laguna dialect of Chicahuaxtla [trs]; 84% with San Juan Copala [trc]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Trique.

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Tubar
[tbu] Chihuahua state: Sinaloa and Sonora states’ border area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tubare. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic. Comments: As many as 100 in 1970.

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Tzeltal
[tzh] Chiapas: Oxchuc area. 372,000 (2000 INALI). 50,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bats’il k’op, Cancuc, Chanal, Highland Tzeltal, Oxchuc Tzeltal, Tenango, Tenejapa, Tseltal. Dialects: Amatenango del Valle, Bachajon Tzeltal (Lowland Tzeltal, Tzeltal de Ocosingo), Chanal Cancuc, Tenango, Tzeltal del Norte, Tzeltal del occidente, Tzeltal del oriente, Tzeltal del Sur. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan, Tzeltal. Comments: Christian.

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Tzotzil
[tzo] Central Chiapas, Venustiano Carranza municipality, Venustiano Carranza, El Puerto, and El Paraiso de Grijalva towns; West central Chiapas, San Juan Chamula, Huitiupan, Simojovel, San Juan del Bosque, San Cristóbal Las Casas, Bochil, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, Ocozocoautla, Ixtapa (Nibak), Jitotol, Teopisca, Amatan, and Ishuatan; Chiapas, Chenalhó and Huixtán regions. 235,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bats’i k’op, San Bartolomé Venustiano Carranza Tzotzil, Tsotsil. Dialects: Chamula Tzotzil, Chenalho Tzotzil (San Miguel Mitontic, San Pablo Chalchihuitan, San Pedro Chenalhó, Santa Catarina Pantelho), San Andrés Larrainzar Tzotzil, Huixtán Tzotzil (Angel Albino Corzo, Huixtán, La Concordia, Villa Corzo), Zinacantán Tzotzil. 66% intelligibility of Chenalhó Tzotzil, 65% of Zinacantán, 57% of Chamula, 56% of Huixtán; Chenalho variety partial intelligibility of San Andrés Larrainzar. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan, Tzotzil.

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Venetian
[vec] Puebla state: Chipilo. 2,500 in Mexico (2011 H. Barnes). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chipileño, Veneto. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Community was founded adjacent to Puebla city by 19th century settlers who have maintained community, customs, and language.

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Yaqui
[yaq] Sonora state. 11,800 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Total users in all countries: 12,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hiak-nooki, Yoeme. Dialects: None known. Partial intelligibility of Mayo [mfy]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yucatec Maya Sign Language
[msd] Quintana Roo and Yucatán states: Carillo Puerto, Chican, Oxkutzcab, Tixméhuac, Xyatil. (1999 H. Smith, Zeshan et al 2013). 17 (Escobedo Delgado 2012). Chican, the only location for which information is available (Escobedo Delgado 2012, Zeshan et al 2013). Numbers elsewhere unknown. L2 users: 400 (1999 H. Smith). 100% monolingual in deaf population. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chican Sign Language, Lengua de Señas Chicana, “Lengua Mímica Maya” (pej.), Lenguaje Manual Maya, LSChicana, Mayan Sign Language, Nohya Sign Language. Dialects: Dialect variation in the Yucatán outside of Chican has not been assessed. Part of a larger complex of dialects or related languages (called Meemul Tziij), used among indigenous populations in Guatemala and other parts of Mexico, which may have originated in precolonial times (Fox Tree 2009). Distinct from Mexican Sign Language [mfs] (1998 R. Johnson, Fox Tree 2009, Zeshan et al 2013). 68% potential cognates with Meemul Tziij of Nahualá, Sololá, Guatemala (Fox Tree 2009). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Hereditary deafness. Chican, Yucatán was formerly called ‘Nohya’ in some publications, a pseudonym thought necessary at first to protect the deaf population..

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Zapotec
[zap] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 441,769 Status: Comments: Includes: Aloápam Zapotec [zaq], Amatlán Zapotec [zpo], Asunción Mixtepec Zapotec [zoo], Ayoquesco Zapotec [zaf], Cajonos Zapotec [zad], Chichicapan Zapotec [zpv], Choapan Zapotec [zpc], Coatecas Altas Zapotec [zca], Coatlán Zapotec [zps], El Alto Zapotec [zpp], Elotepec Zapotec [zte], Guevea de Humboldt Zapotec [zpg], Güilá Zapotec [ztu], Isthmus Zapotec [zai], Lachiguiri Zapotec [zpa], Lachixío Zapotec [zpl], Lapaguía-Guivini Zapotec [ztl], Loxicha Zapotec [ztp], Mazaltepec Zapotec [zpy], Miahuatlán Zapotec [zam], Mitla Zapotec [zaw], Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm], Ocotlán Zapotec [zac], Ozolotepec Zapotec [zao], Petapa Zapotec [zpe], Quiavicuzas Zapotec [zpj], Quioquitani-Quierí Zapotec [ztq], Rincón Zapotec [zar], San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec [ztm], San Baltazar Loxicha Zapotec [zpx], San Pedro Quiatoni Zapotec [zpf], San Vicente Coatlán Zapotec [zpt], Santa Catarina Albarradas Zapotec [ztn], Santa Inés Yatzechi Zapotec [zpn], Santa María Quiegolani Zapotec [zpi], Santiago Xanica Zapotec [zpr], Santo Domingo Albarradas Zapotec [zas], Sierra de Juárez Zapotec [zaa], Southeastern Ixtlán Zapotec [zpd], Southern Rincon Zapotec [zsr], Tabaa Zapotec [zat], Tejalapan Zapotec [ztt], Texmelucan Zapotec [zpz], Tilquiapan Zapotec [zts], Tlacolulita Zapotec [zpk], Totomachapan Zapotec [zph], Western Tlacolula Valley Zapotec [zab], Xadani Zapotec [zax], Xanaguía Zapotec [ztg], Yalálag Zapotec [zpu], Yareni Zapotec [zae], Yatee Zapotec [zty], Yatzachi Zapotec [zav], Yautepec Zapotec [zpb], Zaachila Zapotec [ztx], Zaniza Zapotec [zpw], Zoogocho Zapotec [zpq].

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Zapotec, Aloápam
[zaq] Oaxaca state: San Isidro Aloápam and San Miguel Aloápam. 3,400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Aloápam. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Teococuilco Zapotec [zae]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Amatlán
[zpo] Oaxaca state: east of Miahuatlán. 2 towns. 10,000 (2000 SIL). 2,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dizhze, Zapoteco de San Cristóbal Amatlán, Zapoteco del Noreste de Miahuatlán. Dialects: San Cristóbal Amatlán, San Francisco Logueche. Reportedly most similar to Loxicha [ztp]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Some leave the area to find work; some return. Self name, Dizhze, also sometimes used for all languages except Spanish [spa].

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Zapotec, Asunción Mixtepec
[zoo] Oaxaca state: Asunción Mixtepec, 1 other town southwest of Oaxaca City. 100 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,480 (1990 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: North Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Mixtepec. Dialects: None known. 22% intelligibility of Ayoquesco [zaf] (most similar), 3% of El Alto [zpp]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Ayoquesco
[zaf] Oaxaca state: San Andrés Zabache, San Martín Lachila, Santa Cruz Nexila, Santa María Ayoquesco. 880 (1990 census). 9 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Western Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Ayoquesco. Dialects: None known. 23% intelligibility of Ocotlán Zapotec [zac] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Cajonos
[zad] Oaxaca state: San Francisco Cajonos, San Mateo Cajonos, San Miguel Cajonos, San Pablo Yaganiza, San Pedro Cajonos, and Xagacía. 5,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Southern Villa Alta Zapotec, Yaganiza Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Cajonos. Dialects: Cajonos Zapotec, Yaganiza, Xagacía Zapotec, San Mateo Zapotec. Yaganiza and Xagacía dialects are similar. Major differences between those and the other 4 towns; adaptation of literature probably needed. San Pedro Cajonos dialect has 73% intelligibility of Zoogocho [zpq] (most similar other Zapotec). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Chichicapan
[zpv] Oaxaca state. 2,720 (2005 INEGI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Ocotlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltazar Chichicapan. Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Ocotlán Zapotec [zac] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Choapan
[zpc] Oaxaca state: from Comaltepec northeast; Veracruz state: Arena and Playa Vincente border area. 12,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Choapan, Zapoteco de San Juan Comaltepec. Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Zoogocho [zpq] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Coatecas Altas
[zca] Oaxaca state: Ejutla. 4,880 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Juan Coatecas Altas. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to San Gregorio Ozolotepec (83% intelligibility) and Miahuatlán [zam] (Cuitla). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Coatlán
[zps] Oaxaca state: Santo Domingo Coatlán, 7 towns near Chatino region. 500 (1992 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: San Miguel Zapotec, Western Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Coatlán. Dialects: None known. 54% intelligibility of Loxicha [ztp] (most similar), 51% of San Gregorio Ozolotepec [zao], 44% of Cuixtla (Miahuatlam Zapotec) [zam], 29% of Logueche (Amatlan Zapotec) [zpo], 16% of Mixtepec [zpm], 1% of Quiquitani-Quierí [ztq]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, El Alto
[zpp] Oaxaca state: San Andrés el Alto, San Antonino el Alto, San Pedro el Alto. 900 (1990 census). 30 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: South Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro el Alto. Dialects: None known. 20% intelligibility of Totomachapan (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Elotepec
[zte] Oaxaca state: 1 village west of Zimatlán. 200 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Papabuco, Zapoteco de San Juan Elotepec. Dialects: None known. 68% intelligibility of Santa María Zaniza [zpw] (most similar), 10% of Texmelucan [zpz]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Guevea de Humboldt
[zpg] Oaxaca state. 4,720 (2000 INEGI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Isthmus Zapotec, Zapoteco de Guevea de Humboldt. Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Lachiguiri [zpa] (Northwestern Tehuantepec; most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Güilá
[ztu] Oaxaca state: San Dionisio Ocotepec municipality, Matatlan and San Pablo Güilá agencies. 9,500 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Dionisio Ocotepec, Zapoteco de San Pablo Güilá. Dialects: San Dionisio dialect has 80% inherent intelligibility of Mitla [zaw]. Güilá has 83% of Western Tlacolula Valley [zab], 80% of Chichicapan [zpv], 69% of Tilquiapan [zts], 41% of Mitla [zaw], 35% of Ocotlán [zac], 5% of Santa María Albarradas [ztn]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Isthmus
[zai] Oaxaca state: Juchitán and Tehuantepec. 85,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: diidxazá, Zapoteco del Istmo. Dialects: None known. 18% intelligibility of Santa María Petapa [zpe] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Lachiguiri
[zpa] Oaxaca state: Jalapa, Magdalena, and Santa María Totolapilla, north of Isthmus, southwest of Guevea de Humboldt in neighboring municipalities. 5,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Northwestern Tehuantepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santiago Lachiguiri. Dialects: None known. 62% intelligibility in Quiavicuzas [zpj] and Isthmus [zai] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Lachixío
[zpl] Oaxaca state: Sola de Vega municipality, San Mateo Mixtepec, San Vicente Lachixío, and Santa María Lachixío. 6,500 (1990 census). 3,250 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialu, Eastern Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lachixío. Dialects: San Miguel Mixtepec, San Mateo Mixtepec. Southwestern Zimatlán dialect most distinct. 73% intelligibility of San Pedro el Alto [zpp], 80% of San Miguel Mixtepec, 89% of San Mateo Mixtepec, and 99% of San Vicente Lachixío dialect. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Some go to the city looking for work. Christian.

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Zapotec, Lapaguía-Guivini
[ztl] Oaxaca state: La Merced del Potrero, Lapaguía, southeast Miahuatlán, San Felipe Lachillo, and San Juan Guivini. 4,200 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santiago Lapaguia Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lapaguía-Guivini, Zapoteco de Santiago Lapaguía. Dialects: Lapaguía, Guivini. 43% intelligibility of San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]; Lapaguía Dialect 90% intelligibility of Guivini Dialect. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Loxicha
[ztp] Oaxaca state: Candelaria Loxicha, San Agustín Loxicha, San Andrés Paxtlán, San Bartolomé Loxicha, San Francisco Cozoaltepec, San Miguel Suchixtepec, San Pedro el Alto, San Pedro Pochutla, Santa María Colotepec, Santa María Tonameca, Santo Domingo Morelos between Miahuatlán, Pochutla, and Puerto Escondido. 75,000 (2000 census). 22,500 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diste, Western Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Loxicha. Dialects: San Agustín Loxicha, San Bartolomé Loxicha, San Andrés Paxtlán, San Miguel Suchixtepec. Distinct from San Baltázar Loxicha [zpx] and Santa Catarina Loxicha. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Mazaltepec
[zpy] Oaxaca state: Etla district, San Andrés Zautla, San Pedro y San Pablo Etla, Santo Tomás Mazaltepec in Oaxaca valley northwest of Oaxaca city. 2,200 (1990 census). 25 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Etla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santo Tomás Mazaltepec. Dialects: None known. 10% intelligibility of Western Tlacolula Valley Zapotec [zab], none of other Zapotec varieties. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Miahuatlán
[zam] Oaxaca state: Cuixtla. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Miahuatlán. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Mitla
[zaw] Oaxaca state: Mitla valley. 19,500 (1983 SIL). 4,500 in Matatlán (1983 SIL). 190 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Didxsaj, East Central Tlacolula Zapotec, East Valley Zapotec. Dialects: Santiago Matatlán Zapotec (Matatlán Zapotec). 75% intelligibility of Western Tlacolula Valley [zab] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zapotec, Mixtepec
[zpm] Oaxaca state. 7,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan Mixtepec. Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Santiago Lapaguía [ztl] (most similar), but that is probably learned bilingualism (it is more likely to be 50%). A separate language from San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec [ztm]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Ocotlán
[zac] Oaxaca state: Ocotlán and Santiago Apóstol areas. 15,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ocotlán Oeste Zapotec, Zapoteco del Poniente de Ocotlán. Dialects: None known. 67% intelligibility of Tilquiapan [zts] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Ozolotepec
[zao] Oaxaca state: southeast Miahuatlán, halfway to the coast. Most towns with ‘Ozolotepec’ in the name included, but not San Francisco Ozolotepec. 6,500 (1990 census). People in San Marcial, San Gregorio, San Esteban, and Santo Domingo are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Ozolotepec. Dialects: San Marcial Ozolotepec Zapotec, San Gregorio Ozolotepec Zapotec. 87% intelligibility of Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán), 84% of Loxicha [ztp]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Petapa
[zpe] Oaxaca state: Juchitán district, Santa María Petapa and Santo Domingo Petapa north of the isthmus. 8,000 (1990 census). 220 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Santa María Petapa. Dialects: None known. 55% intelligibility of Guevea [zpg] (most similar), 34% of Lachiguiri [zpa]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Quiavicuzas
[zpj] Oaxaca state: Yautepec district, Guevea de Humboldt municipality, Guadalupe Guevea; Nejapa de Madero municipality, Carrizal, Corral de Piedra, San Juan Lachixila; San Carlos Yautepec municipality, Santiago Quiavicuzas; northeast of Pan American highway. 4,000 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Quiavicuzas, Zapoteco de San Juan Lachixila. Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Lachiguiri [zpa] (Northwestern Tehuantepec; most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Quioquitani-Quierí
[ztq] Oaxaca state: Yautepec municipality, San Pedro Leapi, Santa Catalina Quierí, Santa Catarina Quioquitani, Santiago Lachivía, Santo Domingo Lachivitó, Santo Tomás Quierí. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Quioquitani y Quierí. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Rincón
[zar] Oaxaca state: north. 29,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Villa Alta Zapotec, San Juan Yaee Zapotec, Zapoteco de Yagallo, Zapoteco del Rincón. Dialects: None known. 64% intelligibility of Choapan [zpc] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, San Agustín Mixtepec
[ztm] Oaxaca state: Miahuatlán and San Agustín Mixtepec. 59 (1994 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Distinct from San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, San Baltazar Loxicha
[zpx] Oaxaca state: San Baltázar Loxicha and Santa Catarina Loxicha south of Oaxaca City. 1,500 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Northwestern Pochutla Zapotec, San Baltázar Loxicha Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltázar Loxicha. Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility of Santa María Coatlán [zps] (most similar), 63% of Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán), 47% of San Vicente Coatlán [zpt]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, San Pedro Quiatoni
[zpf] Oaxaca state: Salinas, San Pedro Quiatoni, Unión Juárez, and 20 nearby settlements. 14,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Tlacolula Zapotec, Quiatoni Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Quiatoni. Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Mitla [zaw] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zapotec, San Vicente Coatlán
[zpt] Oaxaca state: Ejutla district, San Vicente Coatlán, a municipality town south of Oaxaca City. 3,380 (2005 census). 340 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coatlán Zapotec, Southern Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Vicente Coatlán. Dialects: None known. 75% intelligibility of San Baltázar Loxicha [ztp] (Northwestern Pochutla, most similar), 45% of Santa María Coatlán [zps]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Santa Catarina Albarradas
[ztn] Oaxaca state: Santa Catarina Albarradas (also known as San Antonio Albarradas). 1,000 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Albarradas. Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Santo Domingo Albarradas [zas]; Santo Domingo 52% of Santa Catarina. Differences in phonology and grammar. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Santa Inés Yatzechi
[zpn] Oaxaca state: Zimatlán district. 2,240 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southeastern Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa Inés Yatzechi, Zapoteco de Zegache. Dialects: Zaachila. 75% intelligibility of Ocotlán [zac] (most similar). San Miguel Tilquiapan [zts] may be a dialect. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Santa María Quiegolani
[zpi] Oaxaca state: central. 2,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Quiegolani Zapotec, Western Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Quiegolani. Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of San Juan Mixtepec [zpm] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zapotec, Santiago Xanica
[zpr] Oaxaca state: southeast Miahuatlán, San Andrés Lovene, San Antonio Ozolotepec, Santa María Coixtepec, Santiago Xanica. 2,500 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Xanica Zapotec. Dialects: None known. 72% intelligibility of San Gregorio Ozolotepec [zao], 70% of Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Santo Domingo Albarradas
[zas] Oaxaca state: San Miguel Albarradas, Santa María Albarradas, Santo Domingo Albarradas. 5,500 (1980 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Albarradas Zapotec, Dihidx Bilyáhab, Zapoteco de Santo Domingo Albarradas. Dialects: None known. 39% intelligibility of Mitla [zaw] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Sierra de Juárez
[zaa] Oaxaca state: north. 4,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ixtlán Zapoteco, Zapoteco de Atepec. Dialects: Atepec, Macuiltianguis Zapotec. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Whistle speech reported.

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Zapotec, Southeastern Ixtlán
[zpd] Oaxaca state: Benito Juárez, Capulalpan de Morelos, Carrizal, Guelatao de Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez, La Trinidad, Latuvi, Llano Grande, Natividad, Nevería, San Miguel Amatlán, Santa Catarina Lachatao, Santa María Yavesía (center), Santiago Xiacui. 6,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Latuvi Zapotec, Yavesía Zapotec, Zapoteco del Sureste de Ixtlán. Dialects: None known. 63% intelligibility of Atepec [zaa] (Sierra de Juárez), 43% of Teococuilco [zae]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Southern Rincon
[zsr] Oaxaca state. 12,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Rincón Sur. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Tabaa
[zat] Oaxaca state. 2,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Tabaa. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Tejalapan
[ztt] Oaxaca state: Etla district, San Felipe Tejalapan. 120 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,660. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Felipe Tejalapan, Zapoteco de Tejalápam. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Santo Tomás Mazaltepec Zapotec [zpy]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Texmelucan
[zpz] Oaxaca state: west. 4,100 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Sola de Vega Zapotec, Papabuco, Zapoteco de San Lorenzo Texmelucan. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Western Sola de Vega [zpw] (Zaniza). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Tilquiapan
[zts] Oaxaca state: Ocotlán and San Miguel Tilquiapan. 5,000 (2007 SIL). 900 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiapan. Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn], 65% of Chichicapan [zpv], 59% of Ocotlán [zac], 45% of Western Tlacolula Valley Zapotec [zab]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Tlacolulita
[zpk] Oaxaca state: Asunción Tlacolulita and San Juan Alotepec. 140 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Tlacolulita. Dialects: None known. 15% intelligibility of Quiavicuzas [zpj] (most similar), 10% of Mitla [zaw] and Western Tlacolula Valley [zab], 0% of Lachiguiri [zpa], Juchitán (Isthmus) [zai], Guevea de Humboldt [zpg], Petapa [zpe], San Juan Mixtepec [zpm], and Quiegolani [zpi]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Totomachapan
[zph] Oaxaca state: west; 2 towns. 260 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,010 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Western Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Totomachapan. Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of other Zapotec. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Western Tlacolula Valley
[zab] Oaxaca state: central. 28,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Total users in all countries: 28,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guelavía, San Juan Guelavía Zapotec, Western Tlacolula Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan, Zapoteco de Tlacolula occidental. Dialects: Jalieza Zapotec, Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec (San Marcos Tlapazola Zapotec, Tlacolula Valley Zapotec), San Lucas Quiavini Zapotec, San Martín Tilcajete Zapotec, Santa Ana del Valle Zapotec. 20% intelligibility of Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn] (most similar); Jalieza 99% of Western Tlacolula Valley; Teotitlán del Valle 100% of Western Tlacolula Valley, but Western Tlacolula Valley only 59% of Teotitlán del Valle. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Xadani
[zax] Oaxaca state: Pochutla district, San Miguel del Puerto municipality, Santa María Xadani. 16 towns. 340 (1990 census). 1 monolinguals (1990). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Xadani. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Xanaguía
[ztg] Oaxaca state: southeast Miahuatlán, San Francisco Ozolotepec, and San José Ozolotepec, Santa Catarina Xanaguía. 2,500 (1990 census). 880 monolinguals. Mainly older women. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diidz Zë, Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Xanaguía. Dialects: None known. A few phonological and lexical differences between San Francisco and San José areas. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Many women over 40 and some men have no education. People leave the area for jobs. Christian, traditional religion.

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Zapotec, Yalálag
[zpu] Mexico D.F.; Oaxaca state: Oaxaca city; Veracruz state: Yalálag. 3,500 in Mexico (2005). 2,000 are in Yalálag. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Yalálag. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Yareni
[zae] Oaxaca state. 2,900 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Etla Zapotec, Western Ixtlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa Ana Yareni, Zapoteco de Teococuilco de Marcos Pérez. Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Sierra de Juárez Zapotec [zaa]. Different from Aloapam Zapotec [zaq]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Yatee
[zty] Oaxaca state: San Cristóbal Lachiruáj, San Francisco Yatee, 4 towns. 5,000 (2004 SIL). 3,000 for Yatee and 2,000 for Lachirioag. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Yatee. Dialects: Yatee Zapotec (Zapoteco de Yatee), Lachirioag Zapotec (Lachiruaj Zapotec, San Cristóbal Lachiruaj Zapotec). Most similar to Villa Alta Zapotec [zav] and Yalálag Zapotec [zpu]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Yatzachi
[zav] Oaxaca state: Xoochixtepec, Yalina, Yatzachi el Alto, Yatzachi el Bajo, Yohueche, Zoochila, Zoochina. 2,500 in Mexico (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Yatzachi. Dialects: None known. 90% intelligibility of Zoogocho [zpq] on narrative, 85% of Cajonos [zad] (Southern Villa Alta) and Yalálag [zpu]; somewhat of Tabaa [zat]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Yautepec
[zpb] Oaxaca state: San Bartolo Yautepec. 310 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals (1990). All over 50. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northwestern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Bartolo Yautepec. Dialects: None known. 10% intelligibility of Tlacolulita [zpk] (most similar), none of other Zapotec. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Zaachila
[ztx] Oaxaca state; south Oaxaca City, San Bartolo Coyotepec, San Pablo Cuatro Venados, San Raymundo Jalpan, Santa María Coyotepec, Zaachila. 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: San Raymundo Jalpan Zapotec. Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn], 75% of Tilquiapan [zts], 72% of Western Tlacolula Valley [zab], 10% of Ocotlán [zac]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Zaniza
[zpw] Oaxaca state: Buenavista, El Frijol, Santa María Zaniza, Santiago Textitlán, Santiago Xochiltepec. 770 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Papabuco, Western Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Zaniza. Dialects: None known. 10% intelligibility of Texmelucan [zpz] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec.

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Zapotec, Zoogocho
[zpq] Mexico City; Oaxaca state: Oaxaca city, Tabehua, Yalina, Zoogocho. 1,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho. Dialects: Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec. Comments: Local economy largely supported by those working outside the area.

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Zoque, Chimalapa
[zoh] Oaxaca state: San Miguel Chimalapa and Santa María Chimalapa. 4,500 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean.

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Zoque, Copainalá
[zoc] Chiapas state: Copainalá. 10,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zoque de Copainalá. Dialects: Ocotepec, Ostuacán. 83% intelligibility of Francisco León [zos] (most similar). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Chiapas Zoquean.

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Zoque, Francisco León
[zos] Four separate enclaves in 4 states; largest, northwest Mezcalapa Chiapas, into Tabasco, Veracruz-Llave, and Oaxaca, mainly near Grijalve river, Sayula area; second area, southern Mezcalapa Chiapas, Grijalve river near Argostura reservoir; third, eastern Mezcalapa Chiapas and Tabasco states, area surrounding northwest Guatemala tip, west bank, San Antonio river and Laguna de Naja; fourth, west central Mezcalapa Chiapas, upper reaches, Grijalve river. 20,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santa Magdalena Zoque, Zoque de Francisco León. Dialects: Chapultenango, San Pedro Yaspac. Reportedly similar to Copainalá [zoc]. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Chiapas Zoquean. Comments: Relocated after El Chicón volcano eruption in 1982; Francisco León, the original town, is buried.

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Zoque, Rayón
[zor] Chiapas state: Rayón and Tapilula. 2,100 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,400 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Zoque de Rayón. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Zoque. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Chiapas Zoquean, Northeast Zoque.

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Zoque, Tabasco
[zoq] Tabasco state: Jalapa de Méndez municipality, Ayapa. 2 (2011 The Guardian). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ayapanec, Zoque de Ayapanec, Zoque de Tabasco. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Gulf Zoquean.

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