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Afro-Seminole Creole
[afs] Coahuila, Nacimiento de los Negros. 200 in Mexico (1990). Ethnic population: 500 (2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afro-Seminol Criollo, Afro-Seminole Dialects: Mexico Afro-Seminole. Reportedly similar to Bahamas Creole [bah]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sea Island Creole [gul]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern Comments: Ethnonym: los mascogos.

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Amuzgo, Guerrero
[amu] Southeast Guerrero, Xochistlahuaca municipality, Zacoalpan, Cochoapa, Huehuetonoc, Tlacoachistlahuaca, Guadalupe Victoria, Cozoyoapan, Huistepec, and Rancho del Cura. Santa Catarina river separates Guerrero variety from Oaxaca varieties. 30,600 (2000 INALI). 19,900 Amuzgo del Norte speakers, 12,700 Amuzgo del Sur speakers (2000 INALI). 10,000 monolinguals (1990 census). L2 users: Learned by Spanish, Nahuatl, and Mixtecs living among them. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nomndaa, Ñomndaa Dialects: Amuzgo del Norte, Amuzgo del Sur. Most towns in Guerrero understand the Amuzgo spoken in Xochistlahuaca (Amuzgo del Norte). Huixtepec is a Guerrero town but has various dialectical differences (Amuzgo del Sur). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Amuzgo Comments: Many youth leave the area to find work. Christian.

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Amuzgo, Ipalapa
[azm] Oaxaca, Putla district, Santa María Ipalapa, northeast of San Pedro Amuzgos, Tlaxiaco to coast, La Ciénaga. 900 (2000 INALI). 20 monolinguals (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amuzgo bajo del este, Jñunda Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other Amuzgo. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Amuzgo Comments: Primary and secondary education available in Spanish [spa].

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Amuzgo, San Pedro Amuzgos
[azg] Southwest Oaxaca, Putla district, San Pedro Amuzgos; outlying settlements. 3,480 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amuzgo bajo del este, Amuzgo de San Pedro Amuzgos, Oaxaca Amuzgo Dialects: None known. 76% comprehension of Guerrero Amuzgo [amu]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Amuzgo

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Chatino, Eastern Highland
[cly] Southeast Oaxaca, Lachao Pueblo Nuevo, Santa María Yolotepec villages. 1,800 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chatino de la Zona Alta Oriental, Chatino Oriental Alto, Lachao-Yolotepec Chatino, Sierra Oriental Chatino Dialects: One dialect. Uses lengthened word forms similar to Zenzontepec Chatino [czn]. Reportedly similar to Zacatepec [ctz], but geographically and socioeconomically separated. 87% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 83% of Nopala [cya], 77% of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 21% of Tataltepec [cta]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino

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Chatino, Nopala
[cya] Southeast Oaxaca, Juquila district, Santos Reyes Nopala, Santa María Texmaxcaltepec, San María Magdalena Tiltepec, Teotepec, Cerro el Aire, Santiago Cuixtla, Atotonilco, San Gabriel Mixtepec. 8,940 (2000 INALI). 2,300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chatino Oriental Bajo Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 73% of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 13% of Tataltepec Chatino [cta]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino

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Chatino, Tataltepec
[cta] Southeast Oaxaca, Juquila district, extreme west lowland Chatino area, Tataltepec de Valdez and San Pedro Tututepec towns; a few in nearby Spanish centers. 2,640 (2000 INALI). 470 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chatino Occidental Bajo, Lowland Chatino Dialects: 38% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 35% of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 33% of Nopala [cya], 27% of Zacatepec [ctz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino

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Chatino, Western Highland
[ctp] Southwest Oaxaca, Juquila district, Panixtlahuaca, San Juan Quiahije, Yaitepec towns; Ixtapan, Tepenixtelahuaca, Ixpantepec, Amialtepec villages; some hamlets. 16,000 (2000 INALI). 6,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cha’t-An, Chatino Central, Chatino de la Zona Alta Occidental, Sierra Occidental Chatino Dialects: Panixtlahuaca Chatino, San Juan Quiahije Chatino, Yaitepec Chatino. 71% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect, 66% of Nopala [cya], 46% of Zacatepec [ctz], 32% of Tataltepec [cta]; Yaitepec dialect has 80% intelligibility of Nopala, 78% of Panixtlahuaca dialect, 20% of Tataltepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino Comments: Some annual migration to work in coastal coffee growing areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chatino, Zacatepec
[ctz] Southeast Oaxaca, San Marcos Zacatepec and Juquila villages. 450 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chatino de San Marcos Zacatepec, Chatino de Zacatepec Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Nopala [cya], 61% of Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 57% of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino, 6% of Tataltepec [cta]. Lengthened word forms are like Zenzontepec Chatino [czn]. Reportedly similar to Eastern Highland Chatino [cly] in some respects, but geographically and socioeconomically separated. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino

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Chatino, Zenzontepec
[czn] Southeast Oaxaca, Juquila district, Santa Cruz Zenzontepec and San Jacinto Tlacotepec municipalities, former Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl municipality. 8,490 (2000 INALI). 2,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chatino Occidental Alto, Northern Chatino Dialects: Some dialect difference in Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl area. One of the most isolated and conservative groups in Oaxaca. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Chatino Comments: Economically marginal.

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Chiapanec
[cip] Chiapas, El Bosque (2), Las Margaritas (2), Ocosingo (4), Palenque (2), Sabanilla (7). No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 32. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chiapaneco Dialects: Chidigo. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapantec-Manguean, Manguean

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Chichimeco-Jonaz
[pei] Guanajuato, San Luís de la Paz, Jonáz village. 1,360 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Meco, Pame de Chichimeca-Jonaz Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean

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Chicomuceltec
[cob] Chiapas, Mazapa de Madero, Amatenango, and Chicomuselo towns. No known L1 speakers in Mexico. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cac’chiquel Mam, Cakchiquel Mam, Chicomulcelteco Classification: Mayan, Huastecan

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Chinantec, Chiltepec
[csa] Oaxaca, San José Chiltepec. Only a few older speakers (2011 J. Williams). Some possible monolinguals. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 20% of Usila [cuc] and Ojitlán [chj], 13% of Valle Nacional [cvn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Comaltepec
[cco] North Oaxaca, Santiago Comaltepec, Soledad Tectitlán, La Esperanza, San Martín Soyolapan, Vista Hermosa (Quiotepec), San Pedro Yolox, Rosario Temextitlán, Maninaltepec. 2,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jmii’ Dialects: None known. 69% intelligibility of Quiotepec [chq] (most similar), 7% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Lalana
[cnl] Oaxaca-Veracruz border, Lalana Minicipality, 25 towns; Jocotepec and Petlapa municipalities. 10,700 (2000 INALI). 2,500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lalana, Chinanteco del sureste bajo Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Tepinapa [cte] (most similar, but less so in outlying areas), 43% of Ozumacín [chz], 24% of Lealao [cle]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Lealao
[cle] Northeast Oaxaca, San Juan Lealao, Latani, Tres Arroyos, and La Hondura. 2,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lealao Dialects: None known. Considered most divergent Chinantec language. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chinantec, Ojitlán
[chj] North Oaxaca, San Lucas Ojitlán, 4 towns and 15 hamlets; Veracruz, Hidalgotitlán and Minatitlán municipalities. Most relocated because a dam flooded their land in 1991. 37,900 (2000 INALI). 2,800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinantec, Comaltepec, Chinanteco del norte Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Sochiapan [cso] (most similar), 43% of Usila [cuc], 39% of Palantla [cpa], 31% of Chiltepec [csa]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Ozumacín
[chz] Northeast Oaxaca, San Pedro Ozumacín, Ayotzintepec, and Santiago Progreso. 3,140 (2000 INALI). 260 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de Ayotzintepec, Chinanteco del sureste alto, Juujmii Dialects: Ayotzintepec. Ozumacín town has slight dialect differences from others. 63% intelligibility of Palantla [cpa] (most similar), 22% of Lalana [cnl] and Valle Nacional [cvn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan Comments: Christian.

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Chinantec, Palantla
[cpa] Oaxaca, San Juan Palantla plus more than 21 towns. 25,000 (2007 SIL). 1,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco de San Pedro Tlatepuzco Dialects: None known. 78% intelligibility of Tepetotutla [cnt] (most similar), 72% of Valle Nacional [cvn], 69% of Usila [cuc], 54% of Ozumacín [chz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Quiotepec
[chq] Oaxaca, Ixtlán district, San Juan Quiotepec, Reforma, Maninaltepec, San Pedro Yolox, and Rosario Temextitlán; Oaxaca, Etla district, San Juan Bautista Atatlah. 8,000 (1998). 1,750 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Highland Chinantec Dialects: Yolox Chinanteco. 87% intelligibility of Comaltepec [cco] (most similar, less similar in outlying areas), 7% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Highland Chinantec languages share a complexity of vowel length and tone extensions that Tepetotutla [cnt] and Palantla [cpa] do not have. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Sochiapam
[cso] North Oaxaca, Cuicatlán, San Pedro Sochiapan, Retumbadero, San Juan Zautla, Santiago Quetzalapa, and San Juan Zapotitlán. 3,590 (2000 INALI). 730 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del oeste, Sochiapan Chinantec Dialects: None known. 66% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 56% of Chiltepec [csa], 45% of Usila [cuc], 11% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan Comments: Self-name is tsá2 há2lí13–people (where) wild flowers (grow). Transients go to Mexico City to work as maids, gardeners, or laborers, but the majority return and settle down in the villages. Christian, traditional religion.

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Chinantec, Tepetotutla
[cnt] North Oaxaca, Santa Cruz Tepetotutla, San Antonio del Barrio, San Pedro Tlatepusco, Santo Tomás Texas, Vega del Sol, and El Naranjal. 1,850 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del oeste central bajo Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Quiotepec [chq], 59% of Palantla [cpa], 48% of Yolox dialect of Quiotepec Chinantec [chq]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Tepinapa
[cte] Oaxaca, Choapan district, Santiago Jocotepec municipality, San Pedro Tepinapa Ejidal, San Pedro Tepinapa Comunal (locally known as Monte de Oro), and Linda Vista; San Juan Petlapa municipality, Santa María Lovani, San Juan Toavela, and Santa Isabel Cajonos. Very remote. 11,800 (2000 INALI). 1,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del sureste medio Dialects: None known. 87%–68% intelligibility of Lalana [cnl], 24% of Lealao [cle], 23% of Ozumacín [chz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan Comments: All villages have less than 6 grades of primary school. Tepinapa Ejidal has 3 years of secondary school.

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Chinantec, Tlacoatzintepec
[ctl] Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Tlacoatzintepec, San Pedro Alianza, Santiago Quetzalapa, San Juan Zapotitlán. 1,720 (2000 INALI). 550 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del noroeste Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Chiltepec [csa] (most similar, lower in outlying areas), 84% of Usila [cuc], 74% of Sochiapan [cso], 15% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Usila
[cuc] Oaxaca, San Felipe Usila plus 12 towns; Veracruz, Pueblo Doce. 7,410 (2000 INALI). 2,200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinanteco del oeste central alto Dialects: None known. 48% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 33% of Palantla [cpa], 32% of Sochiapan [cso], 31% of Ojitlán [chj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chinantec, Valle Nacional
[cvn] North Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional; mainly San Mateo Yetla. 440 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chinanteco central bajo Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility of Chiltepec [csa] (most similar), 70% of Palantla [cpa], 53% of Ozumacín [chz], 40% of Tepetotutla [cnt]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Chinantecan

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Chocholtec
[coz] Oaxaca, Nochixtlán district, Santa María Nativitas, San Juan Bautista Coixtlahuaca, and San Miguel Tulancingo. 540 (2011 INALI). Chocholteco del este: 180 speakers, Chocholteco del oeste: 160 speakers, Chocholteco del sur: 200 speakers (2011 INALI). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chocho, Chocholteco, Chochon, Chochonteco, Chochotec Dialects: Chocholteco del este, Chocholteco del oeste, Chocholteco del sur. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan

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Chol
[ctu] Chiapas, Tila, Vicente Guerrero, Chivalito, and Limar. 145,000 (2000 INALI). 10,000 in Sabanilla. 40,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ch’ol de Sabanilla, Chol de Tila (Ch’ol del noroeste), Chol de Tumbalá (Ch’ol del sureste). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal, Chol Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chontal, Highland Oaxaca
[chd] Southernmost Oaxaca, west of Tehuantepec isthmus, San José Chiltepec, San Lucas Ixcatepec, and 15 towns. 2,420 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca, Tequistlatec Dialects: Chontal de Oaxaca alto, Chontal de Oaxaca bajo. Classification: Tequistlatecan Comments: ‘Tequistlateco’ has been used in publications, but true Tequistlateco was spoken in Tequisistlán town, and is now extinct.

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Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca
[clo] South Oaxaca, Tehuantepec district, San Pedro Huamelula and Santiago Astata. 1,060 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chontal de la Costa de Oaxaca, Chontal de Oaxaca de la costa, Huamelula Chontal, Huamelulteco Classification: Tequistlatecan

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Chontal, Tabasco
[chf] North central and south Tabasco. 21 towns. 36,500 (2000 INALI). Chontal de Tabasco central: 14,400, Chontal de Tabasco del este: 13,200, Chontal de Tabasco del sureste: 4980, Chontal de Tabasco del norte: 3890. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yocot’an Dialects: Buena Vista Chontal, Chontal de Tabasco central, Chontal de Tabasco del este, Chontal de Tabasco del norte, Chontal de Tabasco del sureste, Miramar Chontal, Tamulté de las Sábanas Chontal. Dialect speakers understand San Carlos Macuspana 80%–94%. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal

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Chuj
[cac] Chiapas, Trinitaria municipality, Tziscau and Cuauhtémoc villages; Campeche and Quintana Roo. 1,770 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chapai, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean

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Cochimi
[coj] Baja California Norte, north of Loreto to the northern part of the peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (Adelaar 2007). This may include Kumiai [dih] in La Huerta who call themselves Cochimí. Old Cochimí is extinct (Mixco 1978). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cadegomeño, Cadegomo, Cochetimi, Cochima, Cochimtee, Didiu, Joaquín, Laimon, Laymon-Cochimi, Laymonem, San, San Francesco Saverio Mission, San Francisco Xavier de, San Javier, San Xavier, Viggé-Biaundo Mission Dialects: None known. Troike (1970) regards it as 2 distinct languages. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman

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Cocopa
[coc] Baja California, El Mayor, San Poza de Aroizú (south of Río San Luis Colorado). 200 in Mexico (1998 P. Larson). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 200 (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cocopá, Cocopah, Cucapá, Cucupá, Kikimá, Kwikapá Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California

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Cora, El Nayar
[crn] North central Nayarit. 9,480 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cora de El Nayar Dialects: Cora corapeño, Cora de Dolores, Cora de Rosarito, Jesús María Cora (Cora de Jesús María, El Nayar), La Mesa del Nayar Cora (Cora meseño, Mesa del Nayar), Los Gavilanes Cora, Presidio de los Reyes Cora (Cora presideño), San Francisco Cora (Cora francisqueño). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Cora-Huichol, Cora

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Cora, Santa Teresa
[cok] North central Nayarit, Santa Teresa, Dolores, and San Blasito. 3,880 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Dolores Cora, Rosarito Cora, San Blasito Cora, San Francisco Cora (Cora francisqueño), San Juan Corapan Cora, Santa Teresa Cora. Difficult intelligibility of other Cora varieties. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Cora-Huichol, Cora

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Cuicatec, Tepeuxila
[cux] Northwest Oaxaca. 16 towns. 8,680 (2000 INALI). 850 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuicateco del centro Dialects: Santa María Pápalo. 88% intelligibility of Teutila Cuicatec [cut]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Cuiatec Comments: Santa María Pápalo is a significant sub-dialect.

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Cuicatec, Teutila
[cut] Oaxaca, Teutila. 8 towns. 3,140 (2000 INALI). 260 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Cuicateco del norte, Cuicateco del oriente. 79% intelligibility of Tepeuxila [cux]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Cuiatec

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Huarijío
[var] West central Chihuahua, West Sierra Madre mountains, from Río Chinipas east to Sonora border, from San Bernardo, to headwaters of Río Mayo. 17 or more villages or hamlets. 2,840 (2005 SIL). 1,570 in Chihuahua, 1,210 in Sonora. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guarijío, Maculái, Macurái, Macurawe, Varihío, Varijío, Vorijío Dialects: Highland Guarijío, Lowland Huarijío. Intelligibility of Tarahumara languages less than 50%. Maculai (Macurawe, Macuyawe), formerly used by upriver Huarijio to refer to downriver Huarijio. Refer to themselves as Huarijio, Macurawe or Macuyawe. Old ruins of Macoyawi, now under Lake Mocutzari, was presumably a village of theirs. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran

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Huastec
[hus] Northern Veracruz. 60 villages; San Luís Potosí. 12 villages; east of Huasteco Veracruz, Cerro Azul on southeast edge, Tepetzintla on south edge, Tantima on north edge, Santa María Ixcatepec on west edge, San Francisco Chontla, Tancoco, Amatlán Tuxpan, Galeana y Zaragoza Vieja, and Tamiahua. 131,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Huasteco de Tantoyuca, Huasteco de Veracruz Dialects: San Luis Potosi Huastec (Potosino Huastec), Southeastern Huastec (Huasteco de San Francisco Chontla). Sociological factors require literature in Veracruz variety of Huastec. Classification: Mayan, Huastecan, Huastec

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Huave, San Dionisio del Mar
[hve] Southeast coast, Oaxaca, Juchitán district, San Dionisio del Mar. 2,550 (2005 census). 1 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huave del este Dialects: None known. 98% intelligibility of Santa María del Mar Huave [hvv], 88% of San Mateo del Mar Huave [huv]. Classification: Huavean

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Huave, San Francisco del Mar
[hue] Southeast coast, Oaxaca, Juchitán district, old and new San Francisco del Mar. 620 (2000 census). 1 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,900 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huave del este Dialects: None known. 38% intelligibility of San Mateo del Mar Huave [huv]. Most divergent variety of Huave. Only fishermen tested, who were familiar with other varieties. Classification: Huavean

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Huave, San Mateo del Mar
[huv] Southeast coast, Oaxaca, San Mateo del Mar. 11,000 (2005 census). 1,550 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Huave del oeste Dialects: None known. Very limited intelligibility of other Huave varieties; 88% of San Dionisio del Mar [hve]. Classification: Huavean Comments: Legend says they came from Central America.

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Huave, Santa María del Mar
[hvv] Southeast coast, Oaxaca, Santa María del Mar. 500 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huave del oeste Dialects: None known. Very limited intelligibility of other Huave, although most similar to San Dionisio [hve]. Classification: Huavean

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Huichol
[hch] Northeast Nayarit and northwest Jalisco. Main centers are Guadalupe Ocotán, Nayarit, San Andrés Cohamiata, San Sebastián, Santa Catarina, and Tuxpan de Bolaños. 17,800 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vixaritari Vaniuqui, Vizaritari Vaniuki Dialects: Coyultita, Huichol del norte, Huichol del sur, San Andrés Cohamiata (Huichol del oeste, Western Huichol), San Sebastián-Santa Catarina (Eastern Huichol, Huichol del este). Lexical similarity: 58% with El Nayar Cora [crn], (most similar) (Miller 1984). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Cora-Huichol Comments: Go to Pacific coast for temporary labor in the spring. Make their own violins and guitars. Their music is unique. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ixcatec
[ixc] Oaxaca, Nochixtlan, Santa María Ixcatlán. 21 (2000 INALI). Only a few elderly speakers (M. Swanton). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ixcateco Dialects: None known. Different from San Pedro Ixcatlán Mazatec [mzi]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan

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Jakalteko
[jac] Concepción Saravia near Comalapa de la Frontera municipality and Chiapas, Amatenango de la Frontera municipality. 500 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jakalteko del Oeste Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Kanjobal, Western
[knj] Trinitaria, Comalapa, and Mazapa de Madero, Chiapas, Campeche and Quintana Roo. 8,340 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Acatec, Acateco, Conob, Kanjobal de San Miguel Acatán Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Kickapoo
[kic] Coahuila, Nacimiento de Kikapú, 40 km northeast of Muzquiz. 110 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kicapoux, Kicapus, Kikabeeux, Kikapaux, Kikapú, Quicapause Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox Comments: Most spend part of the year working in the United States.

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Kiliwa
[klb] Baja California Norte, Arroyo León, Agua Escondida, La Parra southeast of Ensenada, south of the Paipai, Tipai, and Cocopa. 10 (Golla 2007). 29 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals (1993). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiliwi, Quiligua Dialects: None known. Linguistically distinct from Paipai [ppi], Kumiai [dih], and Cocopa [coc] (Wares 1965). Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman

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Kumiai
[dih] Baja California, Rancho Nejí, mountains southeast of Tecate, 60 km east of Ensenada in La Huerta de los Indios, San Antonio Nécua, San José de la Zorra, Cañon de los Encinos, and Ja’áa. 220 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Population total all countries: 370. 0 monolinguals (1993). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Campo, Cochimí, Comeya, Cuchimí, Diegueño, Kamia, Kamiai, Kamiyahi, Kamiyai, Ki-Miai, Ko’al, Ku’ahl, Kumeyaai, Kumeyaay, Kumia, Kw’aal, Quemayá, Tipai’, Tipái, Tipéi Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California Comments: Different from the extinct Cochimí language.

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Lacandon
[lac] Southeast Chiapas, Najá, Lacanjá San Quintín, Metzaboc, Betel, Lake Metzaboc. 560 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lacandón Dialects: Lacanjá, Najá. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon

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Mam
[mam] Chiapas, outside Pacayal near La Mesilla border; Ojo de Agua near Guadalupe; Cacahuatán and Tapachula; Buenos Aires, hills above Motozintla, and eastern Chiapas, Mazapa. 7,980 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Mam de la frontera, Mam de la Sierra, Mam del norte, Mam del Soconusco, Mam del sur, Tacanec (Mame, Tacana Mam, Tacaneco), Todos Santos Mam. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam Comments: 2 colonies of Northern Mam Indians from Guatemala. Most are native of either Cuilco or San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan; widespread seasonal migration to the Pacific coast for labor.

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Matlatzinca, Atzingo
[ocu] State of Mexico, Ocuilan Municipality, San Juan Atzingo, Santa Lucía del Progreso. 100 (2011 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Atzinteco, Ocuiltec, Ocuilteco, Tlahuica, Tlahura Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Matlatzinca-Ocuilteco

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Matlatzinca, San Francisco
[mat] State of Mexico. San Francisco de los Ranchos. 650 (2000 INALI). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Matlatzinca, Matlatzinca de San Francisco de los Ranchos Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Matlatzinca-Ocuilteco

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Maya, Yucatec
[yua] Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán. 735,000 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Population total all countries: 766,000. 58,800 monolinguals (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Peninsular Maya, Yucatan Maya Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon

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Mayo
[mfy] South Sonora coast, Navojoa (Huatabampo) Area; north Sinaloa (Los Mochis, Guasave, San José Ríos, north of Guamuchil). 100 villages or more. 32,900 (2000 INALI). 120 monolinguals (1995 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. 90% intelligibility of Yaqui [yaq]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan Comments: Mayo people reticent to identify as Mayo. Monolinguals avoid contact with outsiders. Prefer Mayo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazahua, Central
[maz] West and northwest state of Mexico. 74,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mazahua de oriente Dialects: Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo, San Miguel Tenoxtitlán, Santa María Citendejé-Banos. The Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo dialect uses different kinship terms, has phonological differences, grammatical variation among towns. 85%–100% intelligibility among dialects. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Mazahua Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazahua, Michoacán
[mmc] East Michoacán. 26,600 (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mazahua de occidente Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Mazahua Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazatec, Ayautla
[vmy] Oaxaca, southeast Teotitlán district, San Bartolomé Ayautla. 3,700 (2005 census). 2,800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mazateco del sureste Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Huautla [mau], 79% of San Miguel Hualtepec, 40% of Soyaltepec [vmp], 37% of Jalapa [maj], 24% of Ixcatlán [mzi]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec

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Mazatec, Chiquihuitlán
[maq] Oaxaca. 1,500 (2000 INALI). 340 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mazateco de San Juan Chiquihuitlán, Mazateco del sur Dialects: None known. 47% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar), 37% of Ayautla [vmy], 29% of Soyaltepec [vmp], 20% of Ixcatlán [mzi]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec

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Mazatec, Huautla
[mau] North Oaxaca, Huautla and vicinity. 74,600 (2000 INALI). Over 100,000 Mazatec speakers live outside the Mazatec homeland, mostly in major cities (2005 census). Probably at least half speak L1. 22,400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Highland Mazatec, Mazateco de Huautla de Jimenez, Mazateco de la Sierra, Mazateco del centro Dialects: Mazateco de presa alto, Mazateco del norte, San Mateo, San Miguel. 90% intelligibility of San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa] (most similar, but less in outlying areas), 60% of Mazatlán, 35% of Jalapa [maj]. Lexical similarity: 94% with San Miguel, 93% with San Mateo, 80% with Soyaltepec, 78% with San Pedro Ixcatlán, 74% with Jalapa de Díaz. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mazatec, Ixcatlán
[mzi] Oaxaca, Chichicazapa, Nuevo Ixcatlán, and San Pedro Ixcatlán towns. 8,590 (2000 INALI). 1,980 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mazateco de presa bajo, Mazateco de San Pedro Ixcatlán Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar). Different from Ixcatec [ixc]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Huautla [mau], 86% with San Mateo Eloxochitlán [mau], 85% with San Miguel Hualtepec and Soyaltepec [vmp], 82% with Jalapa de Díaz [maj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec

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Mazatec, Jalapa de Díaz
[maj] North Oaxaca and Veracruz. 13 towns. 17,500 (2000 INALI). 4,030 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lowland Mazatec, Mazateco de San Felipe Jalapa de Díaz, Mazateco del este bajo Dialects: None known. 73% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar), 62% of Ixcatlán [mzi], 51% of Soyaltepec [vmp], 46% of San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa], 35% of Mazatlán [vmz]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Ixcatlán, San Mateo Eloxochitlán [mau] and San Miguel Hualtepec; 80% with Soyaltepec, 74% with Huautla [mau]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec

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Mazatec, Mazatlán
[vmz] Oaxaca, south Teotitlán district, Mazatlán Villa de Flores. 32 towns and villages; Distrito Federal. 12,000 (2000 INALI). 1,440 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mazateco de Mazatlán Villa de Flores, Mazateco del suroeste Dialects: San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec (Mazateco de Eloxochitlán), San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, San Pedro Ocopetatillo Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec. 80% intelligibility of San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa], 78% of Huautla [mau], 16% of Jalapa de Díaz [maj], 8% of Chiquihuitlán [maq]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec Comments: Every village has primary school; some have secondary schools.

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Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl
[maa] Oaxaca, San Jerónimo Tecóatl, San Lucas Zoquiapan, Santa Cruz Acatepec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán, San Pedro Ocopetatillo, San Lorenzo, and Santa Ana municipalities; a few in Puebla and San Sebastian Tlacotepec municipalities. 12 towns. 18,900 (2000 INALI). 4,000 in state of Puebla. 3,780 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mazateco de San Antonio Eloxochitlán, Mazateco de San Jerónimo Tecóatl, Mazateco del oeste, Northern Highland Mazatec Dialects: San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec, San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, San Pedro Ocopetatillo Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec, Santa Cruz Acatepec Mazatec. 76% intelligibility of Huautla [mau] (most similar), 26% of Jalapa [maj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec

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Mazatec, Soyaltepec
[vmp] Oaxaca, northwest Tuxtepec district, Soyaltepec municipality, Santa María Jacatepec and San Miguel Soyaltepec towns, Soyaltepec island. 27,500 (2000 INALI). Original Soyaltepec variety may only be 900, mostly monolingual. 1,930 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mazateco de San Miguel Soyaltepec, Mazateco de Temascal, Mazateco del noreste Dialects: None known. 5% intelligibility of Chiquihuitlán [maq]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Mazatec Comments: Dam built in 1954, resulted in many other Mazatec varieties moving into the municipality. Soyaltepec Island has the least mixture.

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Me’phaa, Acatepec
[tpx] Guerrero, southwest of Tlapa de Comonfort, Acatepec municipality, Acatepec, Apetzuca, Barranca Pobre, Llano Grande, Mezcaltepec, Tres Cruces, Caxitepec, Xilotlancingo, El Fuereño, and Escalería Zapata; Ayutla municipality, El Salto, El Camlote, and Plan de Gatica; Zapotitlán municipality( and dialect), Zapotitlán Tablas, Huixtlazala, and Escalería Lagunas; Atlixtac municipality, Huitzapula (and dialect); Atlixtac municipality (Teocuitlapa dialect), Caxitepec, Tonalapa, and Zoquitlán; Quechultenango municipality, El Tojoruco, Nanzintla, and Platanillo. 40,200 (2005 INALI). 15,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Acatepec Tlapanec, Me’pa, Me’pa Wí’ìn, Me’phaa, Tlapaneco de Acatepec, Tlapaneco del suroeste, Western Tlapanec Dialects: Acatepec, Huitzapula (Me’phàà Àguàà, Tlapaneco de Huitzapula, Tlapaneco del noroeste alto), Nanzintla (Me’phàà Murúxìì, Tlapaneco de Nanzintla, Tlapaneco del oeste), Teocuitlapa (Me’phaa Xma’íín, Tlapaneco de Teocuitlapa, Tlapaneco de Zoquitlán, Tlapaneco del noroeste bajo), Zapotitlán Tablas (Me’phàà Xìrágáá, Tlapaneco de Zapotitlán, Tlapaneco del norte). 83% intelligibility of Malinaltepec [tcf], 79% of Tlacoapa [tpl]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapantec-Manguean, Tlapantec-Subtiaba, Tlapantec Comments: Primary schools in most towns, secondary and preparatory schools in major centers.

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Me’phaa, Azoyú
[tpc] Guerrero, west of Ometepec, Azoyú municipality, Macahuite, Maxmadí, Toxnene, and Zapotitlán de la Fuente. 590 (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Azoyú Tlapanec, Me’phaa, Mè’phàà, Tlapaneco de Azoyú, Tlapaneco del Sur Dialects: None known. Speakers define 9 varieties of Me’phaa, of which Azoya Me’phaa is one. Reportedly most similar to Subtiaba [sut] of Nicaragua (no remaining speakers). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapantec-Manguean, Tlapantec-Subtiaba, Tlapantec Comments: Speakers are often reluctant to admit they speak Me’phaa.

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Me’phaa, Malinaltepec
[tcf] East Guerrero, Malinaltepec, south of Tlapa de Comonfort, Malinaltepec municipality, Malinaltepec, El Tejocote, Moyotepec, Ojo de Agua, Paraje Montero, Colombia de Guadalupe, Tierra Colorada, and El Rincón; Iliatenco municipality, Iliatenco, Cruztomáhuac, San José Vista Hermosa, Alchipáhuac, and Aserradero; San Luís Acatlán municipality, Pueblo Hidalgo and Pascala del Oro; Atlamajalcingo del Monte municipality, Huehuetepec, Zilacayotitlán, and San Isidro Labrador; Metlatónoc municipality, San Juan Puerto Montaña, Francisco I. Madero, and Juanacatlán; Tlapa municipality, San Pedro Acatlán, Santa María Tonaya, and Las Pilas; Acapulco municipality, San Martín del Jovero. 37,500 (2000 INALI). 8,000 monolinguals (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malinaltepec Tlapanec, Me’phaa, Tlapaneco, Tlapaneco central bajo, Tlapaneco de Malinaltepec Dialects: Huehuetepec (Mè’phàà Bátháá, Smájíín, Tlapaneco de Huehuetepec, Tlapaneco de Zilacayotitlán, Tlapaneco del este, Zilacayotitlán, Zilacayotitlán Tlapanec). Malinaltepec has 50% intelligibility of Tlacoapa [tpl]. Speakers define 9 varieties of Me’phaa, of which 2 are included in Malinaltepec Me’phaa. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapantec-Manguean, Tlapantec-Subtiaba, Tlapantec

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Me’phaa, Tlacoapa
[tpl] East Guerrero, Tlacoapa, southwest of Tlapa de Comonfort, Tlacoapa municipality, Tlacoapa, Sabana, Tlacotepec, Laguna Seca, Tenamazapa, and Totomixtlahuaca. 7,500 (2005 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Me’phaa, Me’phaa de Tlacoapa, Mi’phaa, Tlacoapa Tlapanec, Tlapaneco, Tlapaneco de Tlacoapa, Tlapaneco del centro Dialects: Tenamazapa, Tlacoapa. Tlacoapa speakers tested 95% intelligibility of Malinaltepec [tcf] due to acquired bilingualism. Speakers define 9 varieties of Me’phaa, of which Tlacoapa is one. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapantec-Manguean, Tlapantec-Subtiaba, Tlapantec Comments: Tlacoapa recognized as different from Malinaltepec Me’phaa [tcf]. Tenamazapa dialect is a partial hybrid between malinaltepec [tcf] and Tlacoapa.

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Mexican Sign Language
[mfs] Widespread, except in portions of the Yucatan Peninsula (see Yucatec Mayan Sign Language [msd]) and some other rural areas. 130,000 (2010 SIL). Population based on 87,000–100,000 mainly monolingual users from 1986 (T. Smith-Stark), adjusted for population growth since 1986 (2011 S. Dufoe). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Mexicana, Lenguaje de las Manos, Lenguaje de Señas de México, Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano, Lenguaje de Signos Mexicano, Lenguaje Manual Mexicana, LSM Dialects: Influence from Old French Sign Language [fsl] in 1867. Monterrey and Torreón both use a subdialect of LSM with a lot of different and newly invented signs. Mazatlan reportedly has more ASL [ase] influence. Both ASL and LSM are used in parts of Baja California Norte, especially in Tijuana and Ensenada. Users of ASL have 14% intelligibility of LSM. Lexical similarity 85%–100% among regional dialects, nearly all above 90% (Bickford 1991). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Most deaf schools use oralist method, but some use signs. 15 deaf churches or agencies for the deaf in the Mexico City area, 4 in Guadalajara, 3 in Mérida, 3 in Puebla, 3 in Cuernavaca, 2 in Los Mochis, 2 in Monterrey, 2 in Tijuana, 2 in Ciudad Juárez, 2 in Torreón, 2 in Aguascalientes, at least one each in Jojutla, Cd. Madero, Cd. Mante, Reynosa, Ensenada, Torreón, Colima, Morelia, Pachuca, Tampico, Toluca, Queretaro, Tlaxcala, San Luis Potosi, Celaya, Hermosillo, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Acanceh, Zaplotanejo. 19 schools for the deaf in Saltillo, Guadalajara (3), Mexico City (6), Morelia, Cuernavaca, Monterrey, Ciudad Obregón, Hermosillo, Villahermosa, Matamoros, Veracruz; athletic clubs, theatre troupes, craft schools, rehabilitation institutions.

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Mixe, Coatlán
[mco] East central Oaxaca, including Coatlán, Camotlán, San José, Santa Isabel, and Ixcuintepec. 5,000 (1993 SIL). All Mixe languages: 90,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Southeastern Mixe Dialects: Camotlán Mixe, Coatlán Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Lowland Mixe

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Mixe, Isthmus
[mir] Northeast Oaxaca, San Juan Guichicovi municipality, near Veracruz border, Tehuantepec isthmus. 3 towns. 20,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mixe, Guichicovi Mixe, Mixe del Istmo Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Lowland Mixe Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixe, Juquila
[mxq] East central Oaxaca, Juquila, Quetzaltepec, Ocotepec municipality. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: South Central Mixe Dialects: Juquila Mixe, Ocotepec Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Midland Mixe

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Mixe, Mazatlán
[mzl] East Oaxaca. 7 towns. 19,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Central Mixe, Tutla Mixe Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, Lowland Mixe

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Mixe, North Central
[neq] Northeast Oaxaca, northeast Mixe district, towns including those listed as dialects. 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 13,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atitlán Mixe, Mixe de Atitlán, Northeastern Mixe Dialects: Atitlán Mixe, Cotzocón Mixe, Mixe de San Juan Cotzocón, Mixistlan, Olotepec, Puxmetecán, Zacatepec. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean

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Mixe, Quetzaltepec
[pxm] Northeast Oaxaca, northeast Mixe district. 8,090 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Mixe, Mixe alto del sur Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean

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Mixe, Tlahuitoltepec
[mxp] Northeast Oaxaca; central Oaxaca, Albarradas Zapoteco area. 3 towns. 5,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixe alto del centro, West Central Mixe Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean, South Highland Mixe

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Mixe, Totontepec
[mto] Northeast Oaxaca, north of Zacatepec. 10 towns. 5,470 (2000 INALI). 870 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayuk, Mixe alto del norte, Northwestern Mixe Dialects: Most distinct Mixe variety. 89% intelligibility of Acatepec Me’phaa [tpx], 79% of Olotepec dialect of North Central Mixe [neq], 72% of Tlahuitoltepec [mxp], 70% of Mixistlán dialect of North Central Mixe [neq]. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean, Oaxaca Mixean Comments: Christian.

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Mixtec, Alacatlatzala
[mim] East Guerrero, southwest to south of Tlapa, Alacatlatzala, Cahuatache, Tenaztalcingo, Jilotepec, Zacatipa, Tototepec, Cuba Libre, San Isidro Labrador, Quiahuitlatlatzala, Xonacatlán, Tepecocatlán, Cuautipa, Ocuapa, and Potoichan towns; Acapulco, Guerrero; Cuautla, Morelos; Culiacán, Sinaloa; San Quintín area, Baja California. 30,000 in Mexico (2011 SIL). 18,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Highland Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Alacatlatzala, To’on Savi Dialects: Atlamajalcingo del Monte, Cahuatache Tototepec, Cuatzoquitengo, Plan de Guadalupe, Potoichan (Ocuapa). 65%–85% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv]. Some had 70% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Not enough land to support everyone, so many leave to find jobs elsewhere. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixtec, Alcozauca
[xta] East Guerrero, near Metlatónoc. 14 villages. 10,000 (1994 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Alocozauca, Mixteco de Xochapa Dialects: Petlacalancingo Mixtec, Xochapa Mixtec. 92% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv]; Metlatónoc has 70% intelligibility of Xochapa dialect. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Amoltepec
[mbz] South Santiago Amoltepec municipality, Oaxaca, Sola de Vega district west edge, Santiago Amoltepec municipality, Las Cuevas, La Mesilla, El Armadillo, El Mamey, El Zapote, Colonia de Jesús, Barranca Oscura, Llano Tigre, Llano Conejo, El Cocal, El Laurel, and La Tortuga. 20 villages. 5,630 (2000 INALI). 500 monolinguals (2005 census). Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Amoltepec, Western Sola de Vega Mixtec Dialects: None known. 63% intelligibility of Ixtayutla [vmj], 52% of Pinotepa Nacional [mio], 46% of Yosondúa [mpm], 42% of Southwestern Tlaxiaco Mixtec [meh], 32% of Zacatepec [mza], 25% of San Juan Colorado [mjc], 20% of Jamiltepec [mxt], 15% of Chayuco [mih]. People manage to communicate with Ixtayutla, but not Yosondúa, Zacatepec, or Jamiltepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixtec, Apasco-Apoala
[mip] Oaxaca, north northwest of Nochixtlán, San Miguel Chicahua, Jocotipac, Santa María Apasco, San Miguel Huautla, Nduayaco, and other towns. 10,000 (1990 SIL). 1,000 monolinguals (1990). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apasco Mixtec, Apoala Mixtec, Mixteco de Santiago Apoala, Northern Nochixtlán Mixtec Dialects: None known. 26% intelligibility of Southern Puebla Mixtec [mit]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Atatláhuca
[mib] West central Oaxaca, San Esteban Atatláhuca, and Santa Catarina Yosonotú towns. 8,300 (1995 census). 440 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Esteban Atatláhuca, South Central Tlaxiaco Mixtec Dialects: None known. 68% intelligibility of Yosondúa [mpm]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Ayutla
[miy] Guerrero, Ayutla, scattered in about 30 mountain towns; also in Ayutla. 11,500 (2000 INALI). 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Ayutla Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Metlatónoc [mxv] and Yoloxóchitl [xty]; 5% with San Juan Colorado [mjc], Silacayoapan [mks], and Santa Maria Zacatepec [mza]. Considered a Mixtec isolate with a large number of words unlike other variants. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Cacaloxtepec
[miu] Oaxaca, Santiago Cacaloxtepec town. 460 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Huajuapan Mixtec, Mixteco de Cacaloxtepec Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Mixtec, Chayuco
[mih] Southwest Oaxaca, San Agustín Chayuco and Saint Catarina Mechoacán municipalities. 10,000 (1990 SIL). 950 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Jamiltepec-Chayuco Mixtec, Mixteco de Chayucu Dialects: Mechoán. 69% intelligibility of Western Jamiltepec [jmx]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Chazumba
[xtb] Oaxaca, Puebla border area, Santiago Chazumba; Oaxaca, San Pedro y San Pablo Tequixtepec; Puebla, Zapotitlán, Santa Gertrudis Cosoltepec, Petlalcingo, and Totoltepec de Guerrero villages. 3,790 (2000 INALI). 30 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Chazumba, Mixteco de la frontera Puebla-Oaxaca, Northern Oaxaca Mixtec Dialects: None known. 53% inherent intelligibility of Cacaloxtepec [miu], 24% of Chigmecatitlán [mii], 19% of Cuyamecalco [xtu] (Coatzospan). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Chigmecatitlán
[mii] Puebla, south of Puebla City, halfway to Oaxaca border, Santa Catarina Tlaltempan. 1,070 (2000 INALI). 280 monolinguals (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Puebla Mixtec, Mixteco de la frontera Puebla-Oaxaca, Mixteco de Santa María Chigmecatitlán Dialects: None known. 23% intelligibility of Chazumba [mit] (Southern Puebla reportedly most similar). An island of Mixtec surrounded by Popoloca and Nahuatl varieties. Low intelligibility with all Mixtec; very different. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Coatzospan
[miz] Oaxaca, San Juan Coatzóspan. 2,090 (2000 INALI). 300 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Coatzóspan, Mixteco de San Juan Coatzospan, Teotitlán Mixtec Dialects: None known. 25% intelligibility of Chazumba [xtb]. Cuyamecalco [xtu] reportedly similar, but intelligibility inadequate. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Cuyamecalco
[xtu] Oaxaca, Cuicatlán district, Cuyamecalco, San Miguel Santa Flor, and Santa Ana Cuauhtémoc. 1,880 (2000 INALI). 70 monolinguals in San Miguel. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cuicatlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Cañada central, Mixteco de Cuyamecalco Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to San Juan Coatzospan [miz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Diuxi-Tilantongo
[xtd] Oaxaca, Diuxi and Tilantongo Area, 20 towns or villages. Oaxaca City, Puebla City, Mexico City. 3,410 (2000 INALI), decreasing. In rapid decline due to migration to the United States. 150 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Nochistlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Diuxi-Tilantongo, Mixteco del este central Dialects: None known. 37% intelligibility of Peñoles [mil] (Eastern); reportedly more similar to Nuxaá [mxy]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Huitepec
[mxs] Oaxaca, Huitepec municipality, west of Zaachila, southwest of Peñoles, San Antonio Huitepec, Santiago Huajolotipac, and San Francisco Yucucundo towns. Some near Ensenada, Baja California. 2,400 (2000 INALI). 200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Huitepec, Mixteco de San Antonio Huitepec, Mixteco de Zaachila Dialects: None known. 77% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern) [mil], 75% of Chalcatongo [mig], 52% of Peñoles [mil], 20% of Yosondúa [mpm], 8% of Tilantongo [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Itundujia
[mce] Oaxaca, Putla district, southwest of Yosondúa, southeast of Putla. Most in Morelos and Guerrero villages. 850 (2000 INALI). 17 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Putla Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa Cruz Itundujia Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Yosondúa [mpm], 59% of Chalcatongo [mig], 25% of San Martín Peras dialect of Western Juxtlahuaca [jmx], 15% of Amoltepec [mbz], 12% of Zacatepec [mza], 10% of San Esteban Atatláhuca [mib], 10% of Nuyoo dialect of Southwestern Tlaxiaco [meh], 0% of Ixtayutla [vmj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Ixtayutla
[vmj] Oaxaca, Jamiltepec district, Santiago Ixtayutla, Ixtayutla, El Carasol, El Huamuche, La Humedad, Llano Escondido, Llano Verde, El Mosco, Pueblo Viejo, San Lucas, Xiniyuba, Yucuyá, Las Limas, Macahuite, Nuyuku, Olintepec, Yomuche, Carasul, and Frutillo. 6,380 (2000 INALI). 3,800 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santiago Ixtayutla, Northeastern Jamiltepec Mixtec Dialects: None known. 79% intelligibility of Amoltepec [mbz], 59% of Chayuco [mih], 49% of Jamiltepec [mxt], 40% of San Juan Colorado [mjc], 30% of Zacatepec [mza]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: School through 6th grade in Ixtayutla. Some settlements have schools. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mixtec, Jamiltepec
[mxt] Southwest Oaxaca, Santiago Jamiltepec, San Andrés Huaxtaltepec, Santa María Huazolotitlán, Santiago Tetepec, and Santa Elena Comaltepec towns. 9,760 (2000 INALI). 1,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Jamiltepec-San Cristobal Mixtec, Mixteco de Jamiltepec, Mixteco de Oaxaca de costa central baja , Mixteco de Santa María Huazolotitlán Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Juxtlahuaca
[vmc] Oaxaca, central Santiago Juxtlahuaca, San Sebastián Tecomaxtlahuaca, San Miguel Tlacotepec, Santos Reyes Tepejillo, Santa María Tindú, San Martin Duraznos, and Santa María Yucunicoco towns; San Quintín valley, Baja California. 16,000 (1990 census). 5,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de Juxtlahuaca Dialects: None known. 84% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks], 80% of Yucuane [mvg] and San Miguel Piedras [xtp], 63% of Santa Cruz Mixtepec [mix], 48% of Coicoyán [vmc] (Western Juxtlahuaca), 37% of Tezoatlán [mxb], 18% of Zacatepec [mza], 10% of Ñumí. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Secondary school. Many work in Culiacán or the United States.

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Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco
[xtm] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco district, Santa María Magdalena Peñasco, San Cristobal Amoltepec, San Mateo Peñasco, and San Agustín Tlacotepec municipalities. 7,350 (2005 census). 1,170 monolinguals (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: San Agustín Tlacotepec Mixtec, San Cristóbal Amoltepec Mixtec, San Mateo Peñasco Mixtec. 89% intelligibility of San Cristóbal Amoltepec (not the same as Santiago Amoltepec [mbz], in the District of Sola de Vega), 76% of Tijaltepec [xtl] and Sinicahua [xti], 73% of San Miguel el Grande [mig], 72% of Tlacotepec [xtm], 68% of Ocotepec [mie], 64% of Northern Tlaxiaco (Nduaxico) [xtn], 58% of Yucuañe [mvg]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Metlatónoc
[mxv] Tlacoachistlahuaca and Cochoapa municipalities, East Guerrero, Metlatónoc, San Rafael, and towns south. 46,600 (2000). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. 90% or higher intelligibility of nearby varieties, but only 50% of most Alacatlatzala [mim]. Alcozauca Mixtec [xta] is separate language. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Mitlatongo
[vmm] Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, Santiago Mitlatongo, and Santa Cruz Mitlatongo. 1,800 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Mitlatongo Dialects: 70% intelligibility of Yutanduchi [mab], 56% of Peñoles [mil], 54% of Tamazola [vmx], 43% of San Juan Teita [xtj], 10% of Nuxaá dialect of Southwestern Nochixtlan [mxy], 8% of Diuxi [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Secondary school. Some men work outside the area; some in the United States.

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Mixtec, Mixtepec
[mix] Oaxaca, San Juan Mixtepec, Tlaxiaco (district head); San Quintín valley, Baja California. 9,170 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 2,500–3,000 located in Tlaxiaco (district head). 2,600 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de oeste central, Mixteco de San Juan Mixtepec Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Northern Tlaxiaco
[xtn] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco district, San Juan Ñumí and Santiago Nundichi municipalities; Teposcolula district, San Antonino Monte Verde and San Sebastián Nicananduta municipalities. 12,300 (2000 INALI). 1,600 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Juan Ñumí, Mixteco del norte de Tlaxiaco, Ñumí Mixtec Dialects: San Antonio Monte Verde, San Antonio Nduaxico, San Sebastian Nicananduta, Santiago Nundiche, Yosoñama. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Northwest Oaxaca
[mxa] Northwest Oaxaca, Santos Reyes Yucuná, Guadalupe Portezuelo, and San Simón Zahuatlán towns. 5,430 (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Yucuná, Mixteco del noroeste, Mixteco del Noroeste de Oaxaca Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Ocotepec
[mie] West central Oaxaca. 6,170 (2000 INALI). 600 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santo Tomás Ocotepec, Mixteco de Sierra sur noroeste, Ocotepec Mixtec Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Ñumí [xtn] (Northwestern Tlaxiaco). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Peñoles
[mil] West central Oaxaca; Santa María Peñoles municipalities, Monteflor and Cholula agencias; Huazolotipac agencia. 5,500 in Mexico (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa María Peñoles Dialects: None known. 14% intelligibility of Chalcatongo. Nuxaá has 30% intelligibility of Peñoles [mil]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Pinotepa Nacional
[mio] Oaxaca, Jamiltepec district, Pinotepa de Don Luis, San Antonio Tepetlapa, San Francisco Sayultepec, San Juan Atoyac, San Juan Atoyac, San Juan Jicayán, San Pedro Tulixtlahuaca, Santa Cruz Itacuán, Santa María Jicaltepec, San Antonio Tepetlapa, San Juan Cacahuatepec, San Miguel Tlacamama, San Pedro Jicayán, San Sebastian Ixcapa, Santiago Pinotepa Nacional, and Tulixtlahuaca. 20,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Mixtec, Lowland Jicaltepec Mixtec, Mixteco de Pinotepa Nacional, Western Jamiltepec Mixtec Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, San Juan Colorado
[mjc] Coastal area of Oaxaca, San Juan Colorado and San Pedro Atoyac. 7,820 (2000 INALI). 1,890 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Oaxaca de la costa noroeste, Mixteco de San Juan Colorado Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, San Juan Teita
[xtj] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco district, southeast of Tlaxiaco, San Juan Teita town. 330 (2000 INALI). 35 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Juan Teita, Teita Mixtec Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, San Miguel el Grande
[mig] West central Oaxaca, Chalcatongo. 6,000 (2005 census). 330 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pedro Molinos, Mixteco del sur bajo Dialects: None known. 86% intelligibility of Yosondúa [mpm] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, San Miguel Piedras
[xtp] Oaxaca, Nochixtlán district. 460 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 1,120 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Miguel Piedras Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern) [mil], 29% of Soyaltepec [vmq], Yosondúa [mpm], 18% of Peñoles [mil], 15% of Chalcatongo [mig], 13% of Tilantongo [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Santa Lucía Monteverde
[mdv] West central Oaxaca, northeast Putla district, mostly in Agua del Toro and Ocotlán. 5,430 (2000 INALI). 480 monolinguals. Mostly in Agua del Toro and Ocotlán. Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santa Lucía Monteverde, Mixteco de Yosonotú Dialects: None known. Intelligibility 83% of San Esteban Atatláhuca [mib]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Santa María Zacatepec
[mza] Oaxaca, south of Putla, Tapanco, Nejapa, Atotonilco, San Miguel, San Juan Viejo, Rancho de la Virgen, and Las Palmas towns. 2,570 (2005 census). 510 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santa María Zacatepec, Southern Putla Mixtec, “Tacuate” (pej.), Tu’un Va’a, Zacatepec Mixtec Dialects: None known. 64% intelligibility of Ixtayutla [vmj], 63% of Jicaltepec [mio] (Pinotepa Nacional Mixtec), 40%–50% of Metlatónoc [mxv], 25%–30% of Yoloxochitl [xty]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: About 1,000 working in the United States. Called “Tacuates” by people in the area including Indians, which can be offensive depending on context and other signals. Christian.

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Mixtec, Silacayoapan
[mks] Oaxaca, Santo Domingo Tonala, San Jorge Nuchita, and Tijuana towns. 18,700 in Mexico (2000). 1,500 monolinguals (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: 70% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv], 68% of Santa María Peras Cuatzoquitengo dialect of Alacatlatzala [mim]; testing incomplete. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Sindihui
[xts] West central Oaxaca, Sindihui municipality. 34 (2005 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Distinct from Yutanduchi [mab]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Sinicahua
[xti] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco district, Sinicahua municipality, San Antonio Sinicahua and Siniyucu. 1,110 (2005 census). 150 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Antonio Sinicahua Dialects: None known. 75% intelligibility of Tijaltepec [xtl], 73% of Ocotepec [mie], 72% of San Miguel el Grande [mig], and 51% of Nduaxico (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec) [xtn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Southeastern Nochixtlán
[mxy] Oaxaca, Nochixtlán district, southeast of Nochixtlán, Santo Domingo Nuxaá, San Andrés Nuxiño, Santa Inés de Zaragoza, Ojo de Agua Nuxaá, El Oro, La Herradura, La Unión Zaragoza, Reforma, and La Paz. 4,200 (2000 INALI). 180 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santo Domingo Nuxaá, Mixteco del Sureste de Nochixtlán Dialects: San Andrés Nuxiño Mixtec, Santa Inés de Zaragoza Mixtec, Santo Domingo Nuxaá Mixtec. 60%–70% intelligibility of Peñoles Mixtec [mil]. Understand little of San Miguel Piedras [xtp] or San Pedro Tidaá Mixtec [mtx]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: There are few Mixtec speakers left in Santa Inés Zaragoza.

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Mixtec, Southern Puebla
[mit] Puebla, Acatlán, Xayacatlán de Bravo, San Jerónimo Xayacatlán, and Petlalcingo municipalities; Oaxaca, Zapotitlán Palmas municipality. 3,180 (2010 INEGI). 150 monolinguals (2010). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acatlán Mixtec, Mixteco de la frontera Puebla-Oaxaca, Mixteco del Sur de Puebla Dialects: None known. 53% intelligibility of Cacaloxtepec [miu] (Huajuapan reportedly most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Southwestern Tlaxiaco
[meh] Oaxaca. 7,340 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santiago Nuyoo, Mixteco del suroeste de Tlaxiaco, Nuyoo Mixtec, Southeastern Ocotepec Mixtec Dialects: Nuyoo, Yucuhiti. 54% intelligibility of Atatláhuca [mib] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Soyaltepec
[vmq] Oaxaca, Teposcolula district, San Bartolo Soyaltepec and Guadalupe Gabilera villages. 220 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 930 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Bartolo Soyaltepec, Mixteco del noreste bajo Dialects: None known. 28% intelligibility of Tilantongo [xtd], 25% of Ñumí [xtn], 23% of Apoala [mip]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Tacahua
[xtt] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco district, east of Yosondúa, southeast of San Miguel el Grande. 390 (2005 census). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santa Cruz Tacahua, Mixteco del sur medio Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Tamazola
[vmx] Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, San Juan Tamazola. 1,400 (2000 INALI). 30 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Juan Tamazola Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Tezoatlán
[mxb] Oaxaca, Tezoatlán area, southwest of Huajuapan, south of Cacaloxtepec, Yucuquimi de Ocampo, San Andrés Yutatío, Yucuñuti de Benito Juárez, San Juan Diquiyú, San Marcos de Garzón, San Martín del Río, Santa Catarina Yotandú, San Isidro de Zaragoza, and San Valentín de Gomez towns. 5,080 (2005 census). 670 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Tezoatlán de Segura y Luna Dialects: None known. Those in each town speak a bit differently. 70%–80% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mixtec, Tidaá
[mtx] Oaxaca. 380 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pedro Tidaá, Mixteco de Tidaá, North Central Nochixtlán Mixtec Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Peñoles [mil] (Eastern) (most similar); Nuxaá is reportedly similar. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Tijaltepec
[xtl] Oaxaca, southeast Tlaxiaco district, San Pablo Tijaltepec, and Santa María Yosoyúa towns. 3,250 (2005 census). 420 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pablo Tijaltepec, Mixteco de Santa María Yosoyúa Dialects: None known. 89% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande [mig] and Yosondúa [mpm], 82% of San Mateo Peñasco, 81% of Sinicahua [xti] and 66% of Teita [xtj]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Some work outside in Veracruz or the United States.

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Mixtec, Tlazoyaltepec
[mqh] West central Oaxaca, Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipality, Maneadero area of Baja California (south of Ensenada). 3,700 (2000 INALI). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco bajo de Valles, Mixteco de Santiago Tlazoyaltepec Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Tututepec
[mtu] Oaxaca. San Pedro Tututepec, Santa María Acatepec, Santa Cruz Tututepec, and other towns. 1,020 (2000 INALI). Ethnic population: 30,000 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Pedro Tututepec, Mixteco de Villa de Tututepec Dialects: Santa María Acatepec. 61% intelligibility of Ixtayutla [vmj] (most similar), 50% of Pinotepa [mio]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Western Juxtlahuaca
[jmx] Oaxaca, San Martín Peras and Río Frijol; Guerrero, Santa Cruz Yucucani, and San José Yoxocaño municipalities, Malvabisco, Rancho Limón, Río Aguacate, Boca de Mamey, Oaxaca-Guerrero border due west of Juxtlahuaca; Baja California, and Mexico (San Quintin valley, Maneadero, Tijuana, San Antonio de las Minas). 20,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Coicoyan Municipality: 6,150 speakers (2005). San Martin Peras Municipality: 10,000 speakers, plus 2,000 in Santa Cruz Yucucani, 2,000 in San José Yoxocaño. 9,000 monolinguals (2005 census). Coicoyan Municipality: 3,520 monolinguals (2005). San Martin Peras Municipality: 4,820 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coicoyán Mixtec, Mixteco del Oeste de Juxtlahuaca Dialects: Coicoyán, San Juan Piñas, San Martín Peras. 82% intelligibility of Metlatónoc [mxv], 80% of Silacayoapan [mks], 65% of Juxtlahuaca [vmc], 19% of Cuatzoquitengo, 16% of Zacatepec [mza]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec Comments: Primary school in San Martín. Many work in Culiacán during cold months. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl
[xty] Southeast Guerrero, San Luís Acatlán municipality, south of Tlapa, halfway between Metlatónoc and Ayutla Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl, and Cuanacastitlán. 10,600 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Yoloxóchitl Dialects: None known. Metlatónoc [mxv] has 35% intelligibility of Yoloxóchitl, and Ayutla [miy] has 30%. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Yosondúa
[mpm] Oaxaca. 2,000 (2010 SIL). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Santiago Yosondúa, Southern Tlaxiaco Mixtec Dialects: None known. 70% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande [mig]. San Mateo Sindihui [xts] has 19% intelligibility of Yosondúa. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Yucuañe
[mvg] Oaxaca, northeast Tlaxiaco district, San Bartolomé Yucuañe. Many work in Mexico City and the United States. 710 (2000 INALI). 90 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mixteco de San Bartolomé Yucuañe, Mixteco del sureste central Dialects: 87% intelligibility of San Cristóbal Amoltepec [xtm], 86% of Tijaltepec [xtl], 85% of Magdalena Peñasco [xtm], 64% of Teita [xtj], 60% of Nduaxico [xtn] (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec), 56% of Tlacotepec [xtm]. 2 dialects in San Agustín Tlacotepec. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mixtec, Yutanduchi
[mab] Oaxaca, Nochixtlán district, Yutanduchi de Guerrero. 960 (2000 INALI). 8 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mixteco de Yutanduchi, Mixteco de Yutanduchi de Guerrero, Southern Nochixtlan Mixtec Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern) [mil], 48% of San Juan Tamazola [vmx], 20% of Yosondúa [mpm] and Soyaltepec [vmq], 18%–36% of Peñoles [mil], 15% of Chalcatongo [mig], 13% of Tilantongo [xtd]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Mixtec

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Mocho
[mhc] Chiapas, on Guatemala-Mexico border, Tuzantán and Motozintla. 140 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Motocintleco, Motozintleco, Qato’k Dialects: Motozintleco, Tuzanteco (Muchu’). Not intelligible of Mam varieties (1973 SIL). Tuzanteco and Mocho are 2 distinct dialects of the same language (1967 T. Kaufman). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan

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Nahuatl, Central
[nhn] Tlaxcala and Puebla. 40,000 (1980 census). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,380,000. 1,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 63,000 (1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Aztec, Náhuatl del Centro, Tlaxcala-Puebla Nahuatl Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Central Huasteca
[nch] Hidalgo, Veracruz, and San Louis Potosi. 200,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Central Puebla
[ncx] Teopantlán, Tepatlaxco de Hidalgo, Tochimilco, Atoyatempan, Huatlathauca, and Huehuetlán near Molcaxac, south of Puebla city. 16,000 (1998 SIL). 1,430 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Puebla Aztec, Náhuatl del Suroeste de Puebla, Southwestern Puebla Nahuatl Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Coatepec
[naz] Mexico State, Coatepec Costales, Tlacultlapa, Texcalco, Tonalapa, Maxela, Machito de las Flores, Chilacachapa, Miacacsingo, Los Sabinos, and Acapetlahuaya, all west of Iguala, and Guerrero. Strongest usage in Coatepec Costales and Chilacachapa. 1,400 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coatepec Aztec, Náhuatl de Coatepec Dialects: None known. 54% intelligibility of Santa Catarina [nhm] (Morelos), 48% of Atliaca [ngu] (Guerrero), 28% of Zongolica [nlv] (Orizaba). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Eastern Durango
[azd] Durango state, Mezquital municipality, San Pedro Jicora, Agua Caliente, Agua Fria, and La Tinaja. 400 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Durango Aztec, Meshikan del este, Mexicanero del este, Nahuat del Este de Durango Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Western Durango Nahuatl [azn], 76% of Michoacan Nahuatl [ncl]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nahuatl, Eastern Huasteca
[nhe] Huautla, Hidalgo; Puebla, Veracruz. 1,500 villages. 410,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Huasteca Aztec, Náhuatl de Hidalgo, Náhuatl de la Huasteca Oriental Dialects: Southeastern Huasteca Nahuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern and Western Huasteca Nahuatl [nhv]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Guerrero
[ngu] Tepecoacuilco de Trujano, Huitzuco de los Figueroa, Atenango del Río, Copalillo, Mártir de Cuilapan, Zitlala, Tixtla de Guerrero, Mochitlán, Quechultenango, Chiulapa de Álvarez, Ahuacuotzingo, Olinalá, Atlixtac, Zapotitlan Tablas, Ayutla de los Libres, Cualác, Huamuxtitlán, Xochihuehuetlán, Tlapa de Comonfort, Alpoyeca, Xalpatláhuac, and Alcozauca de Guerrero municipalities, Balsas river area. 150,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guerrero Aztec, Náhuatl de Guerrero Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nahuatl, Highland Puebla
[azz] Northeast Puebla. 125,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mejicano de Zacapoaxtla, Náhuat de la Sierra de Puebla, Sierra Aztec, Sierra Puebla Náhuatl, Zacapoaxtla Náhuat Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Huaxcaleca
[nhq] Puebla, Chichiquila and Chilchotla towns. 7,000 (1990 census). 55 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huaxcaleca Aztec, Náhuatl de Chichiquila Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Highland Puebla Nahuatl [azz], 85% of Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Cosoleacaque
[nhk] Veracruz, Cosoleacaque, Oteapan, Jáltipan de Morelos, Hidalgotitlán, and Soconusco. 5,140 (1990 census). 10 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cosoleacaque Aztec, Náhuatl del Istmo-Cosoleacaque Dialects: None known. 84% intelligibility of Pajapan [nhp], 83% of Mecayapan [nhx], 46% of Xoteapan (Cosoleacaque) [nhk]. No intelligibility of Pipil [ppl] of El Salvador. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Mecayapan
[nhx] South Veracruz, Mecayapan municipality, Mecayapan and Tatahuicapan towns. 20,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Isthmus Aztec-Mecayapan, Náhuat de Mecayapan Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Pipil [ppl] of El Salvador. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Pajapan
[nhp] Veracruz, Pajapan, San Juan Volador, Santanón, Sayultepec, and Jicacal towns. 7,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Náhuat de Pajapan Dialects: None known. 83% intelligibility of Mecayapan (Isthmus Nahuatl) [nhx], 94% of Oteapan (Cosoleacaque) [nhk]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl Comments: People leave the area for better jobs or trade.

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Nahuatl, Michoacán
[ncl] Michoacán, Maruata Pómaro coastal settlement. 3,000 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mexicano, Michoacan Aztec, Nahual de Michoacán Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Morelos
[nhm] Morelos, Temixco municipality, Cuentepec; Miacatlán municipality, Coatetelco; Tepoztlán municipality, Santa Catarina; Tetela del Volcán municipality, Hueyapan, Alpanocan; Puente de Ixtla municipality, Xoxocotla; Puebla, Acteopan municipality, San Marcos Acteopan and San Felipe Toctla. 18,700 (2000 census). 300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de Cuentepec Dialects: None known. 72% inherent intelligibility of Cuaohueyalta [ncj] (Northern Puebla), 69% of Atliaca [ngu] (Guerrero), 54% of Macuilocatl [nhv] (Western Huasteca), 40% of Yahualica [nhe] (Eastern Huasteca), 36% of Pómaro [ncl] (Michoacán), 34% of Tetelcingo [nhg], 27% of Chilac [npl] (Southeast Puebla), 19% of Tatóscac [azz] (Highland Puebla), 0% of Mecayapan [nhx] (Isthmus). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Northern Oaxaca
[nhy] Northwest Oaxaca, near southeast Puebla Náhuatl, Santa María Teopoxco, San Antonio Nanahuatipan, San Gabriel Casa Blanca, Teotitlán del Camino, San Martín Toxpalan, Ignacio Zaragosa, Apixtepec, El Manzano de Mazatlán, Cosolapa, and Tesonapa (1 of the last 2 towns in Veracruz); Puebla, Coxcatlán. 9,000 (1990 census). 1,400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Náhuatl del Norte de Oaxaca Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv], 76% of Southeast Puebla [npl], 75% of North Puebla [ncj], 48% of Tatóscac [azz]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Northern Puebla
[ncj] North Puebla, Naupan. 60,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl del Norte de Puebla, North Puebla Aztec Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Ometepec
[nht] South Guerrero, Arcelia, Acatepec, Quetzalapa de Azoyú, Rancho de Cuananchinicha, and El Carmen; Oaxaca, Juxtlahuaca district, Cruz Alta and San Vicente Piñas; Putla district, Concepción Guerrero. 430 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ometepec Aztec Dialects: None known. May be 3 separate languages. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Orizaba
[nlv] Veracruz, Orizaba area. 120,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de la Sierra de Zongolica, Orizaba Aztec Dialects: Ixhuatlancillo Nahuatl. 79% intelligibility of Nahuatl [nhm] (Morelos) (most similar). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl Comments: 1 secondary school.

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Nahuatl, Santa María la Alta
[nhz] Puebla, Santa María la Alta, Atenayuca; a few northwest of Tehuacán. 2,470 (2000). 9 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de Santa María la Alta Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Pómaro [ncl] (Michoacán), 53% of Huatlatlauca, Puebla; 50% of Zautla [azz] (Highland Puebla), Chilac [npl] (Southeastern Puebla); 40% of Zongolica [nlv] (Orizaba); 33% of Mecayapan [nhx], Veracruz (Isthmus); 30% of Canoa (Central Nahuatl) [nhn]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Sierra Negra
[nsu] South Puebla. 13 towns. 25,000 (2006 SIL). 16,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de la Sierra Negra Dialects: Coyomeapan, Zoquitlan. Reportedly most similar to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl]; next most similar to Nahuatl [nhm] (Morelos). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Southeastern Puebla
[npl] Southeast Puebla, Tehuacán region, Chilac and San Sebastián Zinacatepec areas. 92,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Náhuatl del Sureste de Puebla, Tehuacán Náhuatl Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Sierra Negra Nahuatl [nsu]. Approximately 60% intelligibility of Morelos Nahuatl [nhm]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Tabasco
[nhc] Tabasco, Cupilco and Tecominoacan. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tabasco Aztec Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Temascaltepec
[nhv] Mexico State, San Mateo Almomoloa, Santa Ana, La Comunidad, and Potrero de San José, southwest of Toluca. 310 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Almomoloya Náhuatl, Temascaltepec Aztec Dialects: None known. 53% intelligibility of Coatepec, Guerrero [ngu]; 45% of Pómaro, Michoacán [ncl]; 40% of Santa Catarina, Morelos [nhm]; 10% of Tlaxpanaloya, Puebla [ncj]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Tetelcingo
[nhg] Morelos, Tetelcingo. 3,500 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tetelcingo Aztec Dialects: None known. Distinct from Morelos Nahuatl [nhm]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Tlamacazapa
[nuz] Tlamacazapa, 1 hour from Taxco. 1,550 (1990 census). 10 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Different from Morelos Nahuatl [nhm], Guerrero Nahuatl [ngu]. 79% intelligibility of Guerrero. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Western Durango
[azn] Durango, Mezquital municipality, San Agustin de Buenaventura, Curachitos de Buenavista, San Diego, Tepetates II, (Berenjenas), Alacranes, and Tepalcates; Nayarit, Acaponeta municipality, Santa Cruz, La Laguna, Mesa de las Arpas, and El Duraznito. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meshikan del occidente, Mexicanero del occidente, Nahuat del Occidente en Durango y Nayarit, Western Durango Aztec Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Eastern Durango Nahuatl [azd], 76% of Michoacan Nahuatl [ncl]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nahuatl, Western Huasteca
[nhw] Tamazunchale, San Luis Potosí is center; Hidalgo. 1,500 villages. 400,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Náhuatl de la Huasteca Occidental, Náhuatl de Tamazunchale, Western Huasteca Aztec Dialects: Western Huasteca Náhuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl [nhe] and Western Huasteca Nahuatl. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl

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Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla
[nhi] Zacatlán north of Puebla City, San Miguel Tenango, Xonotla, Zoquitla, Yehuala, Cuacuilco, Cuacuila, Tetelatzingo, and Tlalitzlipa; Ahuacatlán, Cualtepec and Ixquihuacán; Tepetzintla, Xochitlasco, Tenantitla, Chachayohquila, and Santa Catarina Omitlán. 17,100 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahuacatlán and Tepetzintla, Ahuacatlán y Tepetzintla, Aztec of Zacatlán, Náhuatl de Zacatlán, Tenango Nahuatl Dialects: Tlalitzlipa Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla Nahuatl. Reportedly most similar to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl], 50%–60% intelligibility of Sierra Negra Nahuatl [nsu] and Northern Puebla Nahuatl [ncj], 80%–90% of Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl], 80% of Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv]. The Tlalitzlipa dialect 77% inherent intelligibility of Tlaxpanaloya [ncj] (Northern Puebla), 58% of Macuilocatl [nhw] (Western Huasteca Nahuatl), 41% of Tatóscac [azz] (Highland Puebla). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Corachol-Aztecan, Core Nahua, Nahuatl Comments: Christian.

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Opata
[opt] Sonora, Nacori, Bacanora, Suaqui, Sahuaripa, Arivechi, and Onavas. Tecoripa is the traditional area. No known L1 speakers. Last speakers previously reportedly died about 1930. Considered extinct but 1990 census lists 12 speakers (Adelaar 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Eudeve Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Opatan

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Otomi, Eastern Highland
[otm] Otomi-Tepehua, Otomi de la Sierra Baja, Veracruz municipalities, Ixhuatlan de Madero and Tlachichilco; Hidalgo municipalities, Huehuetla and San Bartolo Tutotepec; Puebla municipalities, Pantepec, Tlaxco, Tlacuilotepec and Pahuatlan. 49,300 (2007). 4,700 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Otomi, Otomí de Huehuetla, Otomí de la Sierra, Otomi de la Sierra Madre Oriental, Otomi de la Sierra Oriental, Otomí del Oriente, Sierra Oriental Otomi, Yuhu Dialects: None known. 81% intelligibility of Tenango [otn] (most similar), 51% of Mezquital [ote], 70%–79% of Texcatepec [otx]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Estado de México
[ots] Mexico State, Chapa de Mota, San Bartolo Morelos, San Felipe Santiago, and Santa Clara de Juarez. 20,000 (2010 SIL). 440 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hñatho, Otomí de San Felipe Santiago, Otomí del Estado de México, State of Mexico Otomi Dialects: San Felipe Santiago Otomí. 73% intelligibility of Mezquital Otomi [ote] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Ixtenco
[otz] Tlaxcala, San Juan Bautista Ixtenco. 460 (2000 INALI). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,360 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Otomí de Ixtenco, Southeastern Otomí Dialects: None known. 41% intelligibility of Estado De México Otomi [ots] (most similar), 23% of Mezquital [ote] and Eastern Highland Otomi [otm], 22% of Tenango Otomi [otn]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi

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Otomi, Mezquital
[ote] Hidalgo, Mezquital valley. 100,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hñahñu, Otomí del Valle del Mezquital Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Querétaro
[otq] Amealco municipalilty, San Ildefonso and Santiago Mexquititlán; Acambay municipality; Tolimán municipality. 33,000 (1990 census). 1,900 monolinguals (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hñohño, Northwestern Otomi, Otomí de Querétaro, Western Otomi Dialects: None known. 78% intelligibility of Mezquital [ote] (most similar), lower in outlying areas. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Otomi, Temoaya
[ott] Mexico State, Temoyaya municipality, San Pedro Arriba, San Pedro Abajo, Enthavi, Solalpan, and Jiquipilco el Viejo. 16 communities. 37,000 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi Comments: Christian.

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Otomi, Tenango
[otn] Hidalgo, Puebla, and San Nicolás. 10,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Otomí de Tenango Dialects: None known. 53% intelligibility of Eastern Highland Otomi [otm] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi

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Otomi, Texcatepec
[otx] Northwest Veracruz, Texcatepec municipality, Texcatepec, Ayotuxtla, and Tzicatlán; Zontecomatlán municipality, Hueytepec and Amajac. 12,000 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. 25% of monolinguals are 5 to 9 years old. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Otomí, Otomí de Texcatepec Dialects: None known. 70%–79% intelligibility of Eastern Otomi [otm], 57% of Ixmiquilpan, 44% of Tolimán (Queretaro) [otq], 40% of San Felipe [pow], 20% of Ixtenco [otz]. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Otomi, Tilapa
[otl] Mexico State, Santiago Tilapa, between Mexico City and Toluca. 400 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Otomi

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Paipai
[ppi] Santa Catarina, Los Pocitos in Valle de la Trinidad, Estado Valle de la Trinidad, Rancho Aguascalientes and La Palmita; Baja California Norte, Ensenada, south of the Diegueño [dih] language area. 100 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akwa’ala Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Pai

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Pame, Central
[pbs] San Luis Potosí, Santa María Acapulco, Lagunillas, and Santa Catarina. 4,350 (1990 census). There are monolingual Pame speaking children in about 30 villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chichimeca, Pame de Santa María Acapulco, Pame del Centro, Southern Pame, Xi’oi Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Pame

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Pame, Northern
[pmq] San Luis Potosí, Ciudad del Maíz, Alaquines, Tamasopo, and Rayón municipalities. 5,620 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pame del Norte, Xi’iuy Dialects: 10%–15% intelligibility of Santa María Acapulco (Central Pame) [pbs]. Subdialects include Agua Puerca and Cuesta Blanca. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Pame

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Pame, Southern
[pmz] Jiliapan. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Oto-Pame-Chinantecan, Oto-Pamean, Pame

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Pima Bajo
[pia] Central Sonora-Chihuahua border, scattered. 650 (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Piman, Mountain Pima, Névome Dialects: Chihuahua Pima Bajo (Lower Piman), Pima del este, Pima del norte, Pima del sur, Sonora Pima Bajo. Lexical similarity: 85% with Pima [ood] (Tohono O’odham) of the United States and Northern Tepehuan [ntp]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Chihuahua, Cuauhtemoc, Virginias, Buenos Aires, and Capulín; Durango, Nuevo Ideal and Canatlán; Campeche, Chávez, Progreso, and Yalnon; Zacatecas, La Honda and La Batea. 40,000 in Mexico (1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Popoloca, Coyotepec
[pbf] Puebla, west of Tehuacán City, east of Ahuatempan, Coyotepec, and San Mateo. 500 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: San Mateo Zoyamazalco Popoloca, San Vicente Coyotepec Popoloca. 41% intelligibility of Otlaltepec [pow], 23% of Atzingo [poe], 15% of Tlacoyalco Northern Popoloca [pls]. San Mateo dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca

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Popoloca, Mezontla
[pbe] Puebla. 1 town. 2,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Los Reyes Metzontla Popoloca, Southern Popoloca Dialects: None known. 52% intelligibility of Atzingo Popoloca [poe], 35% of Tlacoyalco (Northern Popoloca) [pls], 11% of Otlaltepec [pow]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca

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Popoloca, San Felipe Otlaltepec
[pow] Puebla, San Felipe Otlaltepec, Santa María Nativitas, and Huejonapan towns. 3,000 (2000 SIL). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,590. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Popoloca de San Felipe Otlaltepec, Popoloca del Poniente, Western Popoloca Dialects: Huejonapan, Santa María Nativitas. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca Comments: People leave the area for schooling and jobs.

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Popoloca, San Juan Atzingo
[poe] Puebla, San Juan Atzingo. 5,000 (1991 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Most women over 60 functionally monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atzingo Popoloca, Eastern Popoloca, Ngigua, Popoloca de San Juan Atzingo, Popoloca del Oriente, Southern Popoloca Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Metzontla Popoloca [pbe] (most simlar), 26% of San Felipe Popoloca [pow]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca

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Popoloca, San Luís Temalacayuca
[pps] Puebla, San Luís Temalacayuca. 4,730 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Popoloca de San Luis Temalacayuca Dialects: None known. San Luís has 84% intelligibility of San Marcos [pls], 22% of Atzingo [poe], 8% of Otlaltepec [pow]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca Comments: About 25% of men work part of the year in the Distrito Federal or the United States.

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Popoloca, San Marcos Tlalcoyalco
[pls] Puebla, San Marcos Tlacoyalco, San Francisco Esperilla, San José Buenavista, San Juan Sacavasco, and San Martin Esperilla. 8,440 (2000 INALI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northern Popoloca, Popoloca de San Marcos Tlalcoyalco, Popoluca del norte Dialects: None known. San Luis [pps] has 90% intelligibility of San Marcos. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca

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Popoloca, Santa Inés Ahuatempan
[pca] Puebla, west of Coyotepec and Tehuacán, Santa Inés Ahuatempan and Todos Santos Almolonga towns. 4,000 (2000 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Popoloca de Santa Inés Ahuatempan, Popoloca del Poniente Dialects: Ahuatempan Popoloca, Todos Santos Almolonga Popoloca. 75% intelligibility of San Felipe Popoloca [pow] (most similar). Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Popolocan, Popoloca Comments: Many leave the area to find jobs. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Popoluca, Highland
[poi] Veracruz, Soteapan, Amamaloya, Barosa, Buena Vista, Col Benito Juárez, Cuilonia, El Aguacate, Estrivera, Guadalupe Victoria, Horno de Cal, Kilómetro Diez, La Florida, La Magdalena, and Las Palmas. 30,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Popoluca de la Sierra Dialects: None known. More similar to Zoque than to Mixe. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Gulf Zoquean

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Popoluca, Oluta
[plo] Southeast Veracruz, Oluta, inland, west of Texistepec. 120 (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean

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Popoluca, Sayula
[pos] Veracruz, Sayula. 3,030 (Adelaar 2007). 15 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Mixean

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Popoluca, Texistepec
[poq] Southeast Veracruz, Texistepec, east of Oluta. 100 (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 15,800 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Texistepec Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Gulf Zoquean

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Purepecha
[tsz] Michoacán, Lake Pátzcuaro area, Cuanajo southeast edge, San Francisco Pichataro west edge, and Zipiajo north edge. 40,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Population total all countries: 55,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Lake Purepecha, P’orhe, P’orhépecha, P’urhe, P’urhépecha, Phorhépecha, Porhé, Purépecha de la Zona Lacustre, Tarascan, Tarasco Dialects: Cienega de Zacapu, Cuanajo, Ihuatzio, Isla Janitzio, Puacuaro, San Jeronimo. All Purépecha varieties have functional intelligibility of other Purépecha varieties; Eastern varieties have 60%–80% intelligibility of the Western. A standard variety is emerging through radio and literature. Classification: Tarascan

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Purepecha, Western Highland
[pua] Michoacán, Tarecuato west edge, Cañada de los Once Pueblos north edge, Comachuén east edge, and Nuevo Parangaricutiro south edge. 135,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Population total all countries: 180,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: P’orhe, P’orhépecha, P’urhe, P’urhépecha, Purépecha de la Meseta, Purépecha de las Sierras, Purépecha del Oeste de Sierra Occidental, Tarascan, Tarasco Dialects: Angahuán, Arantepacua, Cañada de los Once Pueblos, Cantera, Cheran, Nurío, Pamatacuaro. All Purépecha varieties have functional intelligibility of other Purépecha varieties: the Western varieties have 60%–80% intelligibility of the Eastern. A standard variety is emerging through radio and literature. Classification: Tarascan

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Seri
[sei] Sonora coast. 2 villages. 900 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. A few linguists posited a relationship to Hokan [ppi]. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ethnic autonym: Comcáac.

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Spanish
[spa] 104,000,000 in Mexico (2011). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tarahumara, Central
[tar] Southwest Chihuahua, from Cuautemoc, southwest to Creel down Urique river, east up Sinforosa canyon, southeast to Chinantu, north to Balleza. 30,000 (2000 INALI). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alta Tarahumara, Ralámuli de la Tarahumara Alta, Samachique Tarahumara, Tarahumara de Cumbres, Tarahumara del Centro Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara Comments: Many migrated to Chihuahua city for jobs. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tarahumara, Northern
[thh] Chihuahua, Santa Rosa Ariseachi, Agua Caliente Ariseachi, Bilaguchi, Tomochi, and La Nopalera towns. 1 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arisiachi Tarahumara, Tarahumara del Norte Dialects: None known. 45% intelligibility of Central Tarahumara [tar], 25% of Western Tarahumara [tac]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara

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Tarahumara, Southeastern
[tcu] Chihuahua, Chinatú. 5,410 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Balleza, Chinatú, Tarahumara de Chinatú, Tarahumara del sur, Tarahumara del Sureste, Turuachi Dialects: Chinatú Tarahumara. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara

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Tarahumara, Southwestern
[twr] Chihuahua, Tubare. 100 (1983 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tarahumara del Suroeste, Tubare Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara Comments: Area where extinct Tubare [tbu] language was spoken.

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Tarahumara, Western
[tac] Chihuahua, Guazapares, Urique, and Uruachi towns. 10,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baja Tarahumara, Lowland Tarahumara, Ralámuli de la Baja Tarahumara, Rarámuri, Rocoroibo, Tarahumara del oeste, Tarahumara del Poniente Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara

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Tectitec
[ttc] Chiapas, Amatenango de la Frontera, Mazapa de Madero, and Motozintla. 70 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Teco, Tectitán Mame Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam

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Tepecano
[tep] Northwest Jalisco near Bolaños. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic

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Tepehua, Huehuetla
[tee] Northeast Hidalgo, Huehuetla; Puebla, half of Mecapalapa town. 3,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tepehua de Hidalgo, Tepehua de Huehuetla Dialects: None known. 70% intelligibility of Pisa Flores [tpp] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua

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Tepehua, Pisaflores
[tpp] Veracruz, Pisaflores, Ixhuatlán de Madero, 1 other town. 4,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Huehuetla [tee] (repmost similar), 40% or less of Tlachichilco [tpt]. Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua

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Tepehua, Tlachichilco
[tpt] Veracruz, Tlachichilco. 3,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. 37% intelligibility of Pisa Flores [tpp] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua

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Tepehuan, Northern
[ntp] South Chihuahua, Baborigame area. 6,200 (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tepehuán del Norte Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic, Tepehuan

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Tepehuan, Southeastern
[stp] Southeast Durango, Mezquital municipality. Santa María Ocotán is cultural and religious center. 10,600 (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tepehuán del Sureste, Tepehuano Dialects: None known. 78% intelligibility of Southwestern Tepehuan [tla]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic, Tepehuan Comments: Migrate to the Pacific coast for temporary labor in the spring. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tepehuan, Southwestern
[tla] Southwest Durango, Lajas, Taxicaringa, and Teneraca. 8,700 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tepehuán del Suroeste Dialects: None known. 55% intelligibility of Southeastern Tepehuan [stp]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic, Tepehuan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tojolabal
[toj] Chiapas, Margaritas and Altamirano. 34,300 (2000 INALI). 7,700 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chañabal, Comiteco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean Comments: Christian.

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Totonac, Coyutla
[toc] Puebla, foot of mountains north of Sierra Totonaca and Olintla river. 48,100 (2000). All Totonac languages: 196,000 (1980 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Totonaco de Coyutla Dialects: Cerro Grande Totonac. Reportedly most similar to Highland Totonac [tos] with many similarities to Papantla [top]. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac

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Totonac, Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán
[tlp] Veracruz, highlands. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santo Domingo Totonac, Totonaco de Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán Dialects: None known. 93% intelligibility of Nonacatlán. Linguistically between Highland Totonac [tos] and Northern Totonac [too]. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac

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Totonac, Highland
[tos] Zacatlán, Puebla, and Veracruz. 120,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sierra Totonac, Totonaco de la Sierra Classification: Totonacan, Totonac

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Totonac, Ozumatlán
[tqt] Puebla, Ozomatlán, Tepetzintla de Galeana, and Cuahueyatla. 1,610 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Totonaco de Ozomatlán, Totonaco del cerro Xinolate´petl, Totonaco norte de Huauchinango, Western Totonac, Xinolate´petl Totonac, Xinulajgsipij tutunaku Dialects: 79% intelligibility of Highland Totonac [tos], 75% of Northern Totonac (Xicotepec de Juarez) [too], 67% of Zihuateutla dialect of Xicotepec de Juarez Totonac [too], 43% of Papantla [top]. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac

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Totonac, Papantla
[top] Veracruz. 80,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lowland Totonaca, Totonaco de Papantla Dialects: None known. 40% intelligibility of Highland Totonac [tos] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Totonac, Tecpatlán
[tcw] Northeast Puebla, Tecpatlán village, 2 communities northwest on Necaxa river tributary. 540 (2000 census). 110 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Most similar to Upper Necaxa Totonac [tku]. The 600-member community of Tecpatlán has 540 who identify themselves as local-language speakers. High levels of bilingualism in Nahuatl. Many may be primarily Nahuatl speakers. Northern Totonac [too] materials are reportedly difficult to understand. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac Comments: Young people must leave to find jobs.

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Totonac, Upper Necaxa
[tku] Northeast Puebla, Necaxa river valley, Chicontla, Patla, Cacahuatlán, and San Pedro Tlalontongo towns. 3,400 (2000 INEGI). 680 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tecpatlan Totonac [tcw]. Northern Totonac [too] materials are difficult to understand. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac Comments: Young people must leave to find jobs.

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Totonac, Xicotepec de Juárez
[too] Northeast Puebla, Xicotepec de Juárez, and Veracruz. 30 towns. 3,000 (2000 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,700. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Totonac, Totonaco de Villa Juárez Dialects: Zihuateutla Totonac. 87% intelligibility of Ozumatlán [tqt] (most similar). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac Comments: Young people must leave area for jobs.

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Totonac, Yecuatla
[tlc] Near south coast, Veracruz, Yecuatla and Misantla. 500 (1994 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac

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Triqui, Chicahuaxtla
[trs] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco district, San José Xochistlán; Putla district, Santo Domingo del Estado. 4,060 (Adelaar 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicahuaxtla Trique, Triqui Alto, Triqui de San Andrés Chicahuaxtla Dialects: Laguna, San José Xochistlá, Santo Domingo del Estado. 74% intelligibility of Copala [trc]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Itunyoso [trq], 78% with San Juan Copala [trc]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Trique

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Triqui, Copala
[trc] Oaxaca, Juxtlahuaca, San Juan Copala, Sonora (1,000 users), including Miguel Alemán (settled and seasonal); Baja California, San Quintín valley (mostly settled); Coastal California, including Greenfield; Mexico City. Groups in most tourist centers. 25,000 in Mexico (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Copala Trique, Triqui Bajo, Triqui de San Juan Copala Dialects: 56% intelligibility of Chicahuaxtla [trs]. Considerable internal linguistic variation, though not well-defined subdialects. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Trique

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Triqui, San Martín Itunyoso
[trq] Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco. 2,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: San Martín Itunyoso Trique, Triqui Alto, Triqui de San Martín Itunyoso Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% with Laguna dialect of Chicahuaxtla [trs]; 84% with San Juan Copala [trc]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Amuzgo-Mixtecan, Mixtecan, Trique

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Tubar
[tbu] Chihuahua, where Río San Ignacio (Verde) and Río Urique meet southwest near Sinaloa and Sonora borders. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tubare Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic Comments: As many as 100 in 1970.

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Tzeltal
[tzh] East central Chiapas, Oxchuc area. 372,000 (2000 INALI). 50,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cancuc, Chanal, Highland Tzeltal, Oxchuc Tzeltal, Tenango, Tenejapa, Tseltal Dialects: Amatenango del Valle, Bachajon Tzeltal (Lowland Tzeltal, Tzeltal de Ocosingo), Chanal Cancuc, Tenango, Tzeltal del norte, Tzeltal del occidente, Tzeltal del oriente, Tzeltal del sur. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan, Tzeltal Comments: Christian.

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Tzotzil
[tzo] Central Chiapas, Venustiano Carranza municipality, Venustiano Carranza, El Puerto, and El Paraiso de Grijalva towns; West central Chiapas, San Juan Chamula, Huitiupan, Simojovel, San Juan del Bosque, San Cristóbal Las Casas, Bochil, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, Ocozocoautla, Ixtapa (Nibak), Jitotol, Teopisca, Amatan, and Ishuatan; Chiapas, Chenalhó and Huixtán regions. 235,000 (2000 INALI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: San Bartolomé Venustiano Carranza Tzotzil, Tsotsil Dialects: Chamula Tzotzil, Chenalho Tzotzil (San Miguel Mitontic, San Pablo Chalchihuitan, San Pedro Chenalhó, Santa Catarina Pantelho), Huixtán Tzotzil (Angel Albino Corzo, Huixtán, La Concordia, Villa Corzo), San Andrés Larrainzar Tzotzil, Zinacantán Tzotzil. 66% intelligibility of Chenalhó Tzotzil, 65% of Zinacantán, 57% of Chamula, 56% of Huixtán; Chenalho variety partial intelligibility of San Andrés Larrainzar. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan, Tzotzil

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Venetian
[vec] Puebla, Chipilo. 2,500 in Mexico (2011 H. Barnes). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chipileño, Veneto Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Yaqui
[yaq] Sonora. 11,800 in Mexico (2000 INALI). Population total all countries: 12,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Partial intelligibility of Mayo [mfy]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yucatec Maya Sign Language
[msd] South central Yucatán, many in north Quintana Roo; signing is widespread throughout Yucatán peninsula but degree of variation has not been assessed. The primary village, Chican, Tixméhuac, Yucatán was formerly called ‘Nohya’ in some publications (a pseudonym thought necessary at first to protect the deaf population). Also in other isolated villages, at least 2 in Oxkutzcab, 4 in Xyatil, and 1 in Carillo Puerto. (1999 H. Smith, Zeshan et al. 2013). 100% monolingual in deaf population. L2 users: 400 (1999 H. Smith). 17 deaf people out of a village of 720 (approximately 2.4%) in Chican, the primary location for which information is available. (Escobedo and Ernesto 2012, Zeshan et al 2013) Numbers elsewhere unknown. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chican Sign Language, Lengua de Señas Chicana, LSChicana, Nohya Sign Language Dialects: Dialect variation outside of Chican has not been assessed. Distinct from Mexican Sign Language [mfs] used elsewhere in Mexico (1998 R. Johnson, Zeshan et al 2013). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Hereditary deafness.

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Zapotec
[zap] Population total all languages: 441,769. Comments: Includes: Alo?­pam Zapotec [zaq], Amatl?­n Zapotec [zpo], Asunci??n Mixtepec Zapotec [zoo], Ayoquesco Zapotec [zaf], Cajonos Zapotec [zad], Chichicapan Zapotec [zpv], Choapan Zapotec [zpc], Coatecas Altas Zapotec [zca], Coatl?­n Zapotec [zps], El Alto Zapotec [zpp], Elotepec Zapotec [zte], Guevea de Humboldt Zapotec [zpg], G?¬il?­ Zapotec [ztu], Isthmus Zapotec [zai], Lachiguiri Zapotec [zpa], Lachix??o Zapotec [zpl], Lapagu??a-Guivini Zapotec [ztl], Loxicha Zapotec [ztp], Mazaltepec Zapotec [zpy], Miahuatl?­n Zapotec [zam], Mitla Zapotec [zaw], Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm], Ocotl?­n Zapotec [zac], Ozolotepec Zapotec [zao], Petapa Zapotec [zpe], Quiavicuzas Zapotec [zpj], Quioquitani-Quier?? Zapotec [ztq], Rinc??n Zapotec [zar], San Agust??n Mixtepec Zapotec [ztm], San Baltazar Loxicha Zapotec [zpx], San Juan Guelav??a Zapotec [zab], San Pedro Quiatoni Zapotec [zpf], San Vicente Coatl?­n Zapotec [zpt], Santa Catarina Albarradas Zapotec [ztn], Santa In??s Yatzechi Zapotec [zpn], Santa Mar??a Quiegolani Zapotec [zpi], Santiago Xanica Zapotec [zpr], Santo Domingo Albarradas Zapotec [zas], Sierra de Ju?­rez Zapotec [zaa], Southeastern Ixtl?­n Zapotec [zpd], Southern Rincon Zapotec [zsr], Tabaa Zapotec [zat], Tejalapan Zapotec [ztt], Texmelucan Zapotec [zpz], Tilquiapan Zapotec [zts], Tlacolulita Zapotec [zpk], Totomachapan Zapotec [zph], Xadani Zapotec [zax], Xanagu??a Zapotec [ztg], Yal?­lag Zapotec [zpu], Yareni Zapotec [zae], Yatee Zapotec [zty], Yatzachi Zapotec [zav], Yautepec Zapotec [zpb], Zaachila Zapotec [ztx], Zaniza Zapotec [zpw], Zoogocho Zapotec [zpq].

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Zapotec, Aloápam
[zaq] North Oaxaca, San Miguel Aloápam, San Isidro Aloápam. 3,400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Aloápam Dialects: None known. Distinct from Teococuilco Zapotec [zae]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Amatlán
[zpo] South Oaxaca, east of Miahuatlán. 2 towns. 10,000 (2000 SIL). 2,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dizhze, Zapoteco de San Cristóbal Amatlán, Zapoteco del Noreste de Miahuatlán Dialects: San Cristóbal Amatlán, San Francisco Logueche. Reportedly most similar to Loxicha [ztp]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Some leave the area to find work; some return. Self name, Dizhze, also sometimes used for all languages except Spanish [spa].

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Zapotec, Asunción Mixtepec
[zoo] Central Oaxaca, southwest of Oaxaca City, Asunción Mixtepec, 1 other town. 100 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,480 (1990 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: North Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Mixtepec Dialects: None known. 22% intelligibility of Ayoquesco [zaf] (most similar), 3% of El Alto [zpp]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Ayoquesco
[zaf] Oaxaca, Santa María Ayoquesco, Santa Cruz Nexila, San Andrés Zabache, and San Martín Lachila. 880 (1990 census). 9 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Western Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Ayoquesco Dialects: None known. 23% intelligibility of Ocotlán Zapotec [zac] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Cajonos
[zad] North Oaxaca, San Pedro Cajonos, San Francisco Cajonos, San Mateo Cajonos, San Miguel Cajonos, San Pablo Yaganiza, and Xagacía towns. 5,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Southern Villa Alta Zapotec, Yaganiza Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Cajonos Dialects: Cajonos Zapotec, San Mateo Zapotec, Xagacía Zapotec, Yaganiza. Yaganiza and Xagacía dialects are similar. Major differences between those and the other 4 towns; adaptation of literature probably needed. San Pedro Cajonos dialect has 73% intelligibility of Zoogocho [zpq] (most similar other Zapotec). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Chichicapan
[zpv] Central Oaxaca. 2,720 (2005 INEGI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Ocotlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltazar Chichicapan Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Ocotlán Zapotec [zac] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Choapan
[zpc] North central Oaxaca and Veracruz, Comaltepec. 12,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Choapan, Zapoteco de San Juan Comaltepec Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Zoogocho [zpq] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Coatecas Altas
[zca] Oaxaca, Ejutla. 4,880 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Juan Coatecas Altas Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to San Gregorio Ozolotepec (83% intelligibility) and Miahuatlán [zam] (Cuitla). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Coatlán
[zps] Southern Oaxaca near Chatino region, about 7 towns, but mainly Santo Domingo Coatlán. 500 (1992 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: San Miguel Zapotec, Western Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Coatlán Dialects: None known. 54% intelligibility of Loxicha [ztp] (most similar), 51% of San Gregorio Ozolotepec [zao], 44% of Cuixtla (Miahuatlam Zapotec) [zam], 29% of Logueche (Amatlan Zapotec) [zpo], 16% of Mixtepec [zpm], 1% of Quiquitani-Quierí [ztq]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, El Alto
[zpp] West Oaxaca, San Pedro el Alto, San Antonino el Alto, and San Andrés el Alto. 900 (1990 census). 30 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: South Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro el Alto Dialects: None known. 20% intelligibility of Totomachapan (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Elotepec
[zte] West Oaxaca, 1 village west of Zimatlán. 200 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Papabuco, Zapoteco de San Juan Elotepec Dialects: None known. 68% intelligibility of Santa María Zaniza [zpw] (most similar), 10% of Texmelucan [zpz]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Guevea de Humboldt
[zpg] East Oaxaca. 4,720 (2000 INEGI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Isthmus Zapotec, Zapoteco de Guevea de Humboldt Dialects: None known. 49% intelligibility of Lachiguiri [zpa] (Northwestern Tehuantepec; most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Güilá
[ztu] Oaxaca, San Dionisio Ocotepec municipality, San Pablo Güilá and Matatlan agencia. 9,500 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Dionisio Ocotepec, Zapoteco de San Pablo Güilá Dialects: San Dionisio dialect has 80% inherent intelligibility of Mitla [zaw]. Güilá has 83% of San Juan Guelavía [zab], 80% of Chichicapan [zpv], 69% of Tilquiapan [zts], 41% of Mitla [zaw], 35% of Ocotlán [zac], 5% of Santa María Albarradas [ztn]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Isthmus
[zai] Oaxaca, Tehuantepec, and Juchitán. 85,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco del Istmo Dialects: None known. 18% intelligibility of Santa María Petapa [zpe] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Lachiguiri
[zpa] Oaxaca, north of Isthmus, southwest of Guevea de Humboldt in neighboring municipalities, Santa María Totolapilla, Jalapa, and Magdalena towns. 5,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Northwestern Tehuantepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santiago Lachiguiri Dialects: None known. 62% intelligibility in Quiavicuzas [zpj] and Isthmus [zai] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Lachixío
[zpl] West Oaxaca, east Sola de Vega, Santa Marma María Lachixío and San Vicente Lachixío towns. 6,500 (1990 census). 3,250 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialu, Eastern Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lachixío Dialects: Southwestern Zimatlán dialect most distinct. 73% intelligibility of San Pedro el Alto [zpp], 80% of San Miguel Mixtepec [zpm], 99% of San Vicente Lachixío dialect. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Some go to the city looking for work. Christian.

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Zapotec, Lapaguía-Guivini
[ztl] Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán, Lapaguía, San Felipe Lachillo, La Merced del Potrero, and San Juan Guivini towns. 4,200 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santiago Lapaguia Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lapaguía-Guivini, Zapoteco de Santiago Lapaguía Dialects: Guivini, Lapaguía. 43% intelligibility of San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]; Lapaguía Dialect 90% intelligibility of Guivini Dialect. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Loxicha
[ztp] South Oaxaca, between Miahuatlán, Pochutla, and Puerto Escondido: San Andrés Paxtlán, San Miguel Suchixtepec, San Pedro el Alto, San Agustín Loxicha, San Bartolomé Loxicha, Candelaria Loxicha, San Pedro Pochutla, Santa María Colotepec, San Francisco Cozoaltepec, Santo Domingo Morelos and Santa María Tonameca. 75,000 (2000 census). 22,500 monolinguals (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diste, Western Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Loxicha Dialects: and San Miguel Suchixtepec, San Agustín Loxicha, San Andrés Paxtlán, San Bartolomé Loxicha. Distinct from San Baltázar Loxicha [zpx] and Santa Catarina Loxicha. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Mazaltepec
[zpy] West Oaxaca valley, Etla district, northwest of Oaxaca city, Santo Tomás Mazaltepec, San Pedro y San Pablo Etla, and San Andrés Zautla. 2,200 (1990 census). 25 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Etla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santo Tomás Mazaltepec Dialects: None known. 10% intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía [zab], none of other Zapotec varieties. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Miahuatlán
[zam] South central Oaxaca, Cuixtla. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Miahuatlán Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Mitla
[zaw] Oaxaca, Mitla valley. 19,500 (1983 SIL). 4,500 in Matatlán (1983 SIL). 190 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Didxsaj, East Central Tlacolula Zapotec, East Valley Zapotec Dialects: Santiago Matatlán Zapotec (Matatlán Zapotec). 75% intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía [zab] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zapotec, Mixtepec
[zpm] South Oaxaca. 7,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan Mixtepec Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Santiago Lapaguía [ztl] (most similar), but that is probably learned bilingualism (it is more likely to be 50%). A separate language from San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec [ztm]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Ocotlán
[zac] Central Oaxaca around Santiago Apóstol and Ocotlán. 15,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ocotlán Oeste Zapotec, Zapoteco del Poniente de Ocotlán Dialects: None known. 67% intelligibility of Tilquiapan [zts] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Ozolotepec
[zao] Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán, halfway between Miahuatlán and coast. Most towns with ‘Ozolotepec’ in the name included, but not San Francisco Ozolotepec. 6,500 (1990 census). People in San Marcial, San Gregorio, San Esteban, and Santo Domingo are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Ozolotepec Dialects: San Gregorio Ozolotepec Zapotec, San Marcial Ozolotepec Zapotec. 87% intelligibility of Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán), 84% of Loxicha [ztp]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Petapa
[zpe] Oaxaca, north of the isthmus, Juchitán district, Santa María Petapa and Santo Domingo Petapa. 8,000 (1990 census). 220 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Santa María Petapa Dialects: None known. 55% intelligibility of Guevea [zpg] (most similar), 34% of Lachiguiri [zpa]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Quiavicuzas
[zpj] Oaxaca, northeast corner of Yautepec district, northeast of Pan American highway, east of Mitla, San Carlos Yautepec municipality, Santiago Quiavicuzas; Nejapa de Madero municipality, San Juan Lachixila, Corral de Piedra, and Carrizal; Guevea de Humboldt municipality, Guadalupe Guevea. 4,000 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Quiavicuzas, Zapoteco de San Juan Lachixila O Dialects: None known. 59% intelligibility of Lachiguiri [zpa] (Northwestern Tehuantepec; most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Quioquitani-Quierí
[ztq] Oaxaca, Yautepec: Santa Catarina Quioquitani, Santa Catalina Quierí, Santo Tomás Quierí, Santo Domingo Lachivitó, San Pedro Leapi, and Santiago Lachivía. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Quioquitani y Quierí Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Rincón
[zar] North Oaxaca. 29,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Yagallo, Zapoteco del Rincón Dialects: None known. 64% intelligibility of Choapan [zpc] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, San Agustín Mixtepec
[ztm] Oaxaca, Miahuatlán, San Agustín Mixtepec. 59 (1994 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Distinct from San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, San Baltazar Loxicha
[zpx] Oaxaca, south of Oaxaca City, San Baltázar Loxicha, Santa Catarina Loxicha. 1,500 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Northwestern Pochutla Zapotec, San Baltázar Loxicha Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltázar Loxicha Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility of Santa María Coatlán [zps] (most similar), 63% of Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán), 47% of San Vicente Coatlán [zpt]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, San Juan Guelavía
[zab] Central Oaxaca. 28,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 28,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guelavía, Western Tlacolula Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan Dialects: Jalieza Zapotec, San Lucas Quiavini Zapotec, San Martín Tilcajete Zapotec, Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec. 20% intelligibility of Zegache (most similar); Jalieza 99% of San Juan Guelavía; Teotitlán del Valle 100% of San Juan Guelavía, but San Juan Guelavía only 59% of Teotitlán del Valle. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, San Pedro Quiatoni
[zpf] Central Oaxaca, San Pedro Quiatoni, Salinas, and Unión Juárez, and about 20 nearby settlements. From low (hot) country to mountains. 14,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Tlacolula Zapotec, Quiatoni Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Quiatoni Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Mitla [zaw] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zapotec, San Vicente Coatlán
[zpt] Oaxaca, Ejutla district, south of Oaxaca City, San Vicente Coatlán, a municipality town. 3,380 (2005 census). 340 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coatlán Zapotec, Southern Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Vicente Coatlán Dialects: None known. 75% intelligibility of San Baltázar Loxicha [ztp] (Northwestern Pochutla, most similar), 45% of Santa María Coatlán [zps]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Santa Catarina Albarradas
[ztn] Oaxaca, Santa Catarina Albarradas (also known as San Antonio Albarradas). 1,000 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Albarradas Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Santo Domingo Albarradas [zas]; Santo Domingo 52% of Santa Catarina. Differences in phonology and grammar. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Santa Inés Yatzechi
[zpn] Central Oaxaca, Zimatlán district, south of Oaxaca City, west of Ocotlán de Morelos. 2,240 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southeastern Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa Inés Yatzechi, Zapoteco de Zegache Dialects: Zaachila. 75% intelligibility of Ocotlán [zac] (most similar). San Miguel Tilquiapan [zts] may be a dialect. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Santa María Quiegolani
[zpi] Central Oaxaca. 2,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Quiegolani Zapotec, Western Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Quiegolani Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of San Juan Mixtepec [zpm] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zapotec, Santiago Xanica
[zpr] Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán, Santiago Xanica, Santa María Coixtepec, San Andrés Lovene, and San Antonio Ozolotepec. 2,500 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Xanica Zapotec Dialects: None known. 72% intelligibility of San Gregorio Ozolotepec [zao], 70% of Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Santo Domingo Albarradas
[zas] Central Oaxaca, Santa María Albarradas, Santo Domingo Albarradas, and San Miguel Albarradas. 5,500 (1980 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Albarradas Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santo Domingo Albarradas Dialects: None known. 39% intelligibility of Mitla [zaw] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Sierra de Juárez
[zaa] North Oaxaca. 4,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ixtlán Zapoteco, Zapoteco de Atepec Dialects: Atepec, Macuiltianguis Zapotec. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Whistle speech reported.

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Zapotec, Southeastern Ixtlán
[zpd] North Oaxaca, Santa María Yavesía (center), Carrizal, Latuvi, Benito Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez, Santa Catarina Lachatao, Llano Grande, La Trinidad, Nevería, San Miguel Amatlán, Capulalpan de Morelos, Santiago Xiacui, Natividad, and Guelatao de Juárez. 6,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Latuvi Zapotec, Yavesía Zapotec, Zapoteco del Sureste de Ixtlán Dialects: None known. 63% intelligibility of Atepec [zaa] (Sierra de Juárez), 43% of Teococuilco [zae]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Southern Rincon
[zsr] Oaxaca. 12,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Rincón Sur Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Tabaa
[zat] Oaxaca. 2,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Tabaa Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Tejalapan
[ztt] Oaxaca, Etla district, San Felipe Tejalapan. 120 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,660. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Felipe Tejalapan, Zapoteco de Tejalápam Dialects: None known. Distinct from Santo Tomás Mazaltepec Zapotec [zpy]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Texmelucan
[zpz] West Oaxaca. 4,100 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Sola de Vega Zapotec, Papabuco, Zapoteco de San Lorenzo Texmelucan Dialects: None known. Most similar to Western Sola de Vega [zpw] (Zaniza). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Zaniza [zpw] and Elotepec Zapotec [zte] glossonym: Papabuco.

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Zapotec, Tilquiapan
[zts] Central Oaxaca, Ocotlán and San Miguel Tilquiapan. 5,000 (2007 SIL). 900 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiapan Dialects: None known. 87% intelligibility of Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn], 65% of Chichicapan [zpv], 59% of Ocotlán [zac], 45% of San Juan Guelavía [zab]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Tlacolulita
[zpk] East Oaxaca, Asunción Tlacolulita and San Juan Alotepec. 140 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Tlacolulita Dialects: None known. 15% intelligibility of Quiavicuzas [zpj] (most similar), 10% of Mitla [zaw] and San Juan Guelavía [zab], 0% of Lachiguiri [zpa], Juchitán (Isthmus) [zai], Guevea de Humboldt [zpg], Petapa [zpe], San Juan Mixtepec [zpm], and Quiegolani [zpi]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Totomachapan
[zph] West Oaxaca. 2 towns. 260 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,010 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Western Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Totomachapan Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of other Zapotec. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Xadani
[zax] Oaxaca, Pochutla district, San Miguel del Puerto municipality, Santa María Xadani. 16 towns. 340 (1990 census). 1 monolinguals (1990). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Xadani Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Xanaguía
[ztg] Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán, Santa Catarina Xanaguía, San Francisco Ozolotepec, and San José Ozolotepec. 2,500 (1990 census). 880 monolinguals. Mainly older women. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diidz Zë, Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Xanaguía Dialects: None known. A few phonological and lexical differences between San Francisco and San José areas. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Many women over 40 and some men have no education. People leave the area for jobs. Christian, traditional religion.

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Zapotec, Yalálag
[zpu] Oaxaca, Yalálag; Mexico City; Oaxaca City; Veracruz. 3,500 in Mexico (2005). 2,000 are in Yalálag. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Yalálag Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Yareni
[zae] North Oaxaca. 2,900 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Etla Zapotec, Western Ixtlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa Ana Yareni, Zapoteco de Teococuilco de Marcos Pérez Dialects: None known. 80% intelligibility of Sierra de Juárez Zapotec [zaa]. Different from Aloapam Zapotec [zaq]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Yatee
[zty] Oaxaca, San Francisco Yatee (4 towns), San Cristóbal Lachiruáj. 5,000 (2004 SIL). 3,000 for Yatee and 2,000 for Lachirioag. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de Yatee Dialects: Lachirioag Zapotec (Lachiruaj Zapotec, San Cristóbal Lachiruaj Zapotec), Yatee Zapotec (Zapoteco de Yatee). Most similar to Villa Alta Zapotec [zav] and Yalálag Zapotec [zpu]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Yatzachi
[zav] North central Oaxaca, Yatzachi el Bajo, Yatzachi el Alto, Xoochixtepec, Yohueche, Zoochina, Zoochila, and Yalina. 2,500 in Mexico (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Yatzachi Dialects: None known. 90% intelligibility of Zoogocho [zpq] on narrative, 85% of Cajonos [zad] (Southern Villa Alta) and Yalálag [zpu]; somewhat of Tabaa [zat]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Yautepec
[zpb] East Oaxaca, San Bartolo Yautepec. 310 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals (1990). All over 50. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northwestern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Bartolo Yautepec Dialects: None known. 10% intelligibility of Tlacolulita [zpk] (most similar), none of other Zapotec. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Zaachila
[ztx] Oaxaca, south Oaxaca City, past Xoxo, Zaachila, San Raymundo Jalpan, San Bartolo Coyotepec, San Pablo Cuatro Venados, and Santa María Coyotepec. 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: San Raymundo Jalpan Zapotec Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn], 75% of Tilquiapan [zts], 72% of San Juan Guelavía [zab], 10% of Ocotlán [zac]. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec

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Zapotec, Zaniza
[zpw] West Oaxaca, Santa María Zaniza, Santiago Textitlán, Santiago Xochiltepec, El Frijol, and Buenavista. 770 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Papabuco, Western Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Zaniza Dialects: None known. 10% intelligibility of Texmelucan [zpz] (most similar). A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Texmelucan ethnonym: Papabuco.

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Zapotec, Zoogocho
[zpq] Oaxaca, Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua, and Oaxaca City; Mexico City. 1,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho Dialects: Tabehua, Yalina, Zoogocho. A member of macrolanguage Zapotec [zap]. Classification: Otomanguean, Eastern Otomanguean, Popolocan-Zapotecan, Zapotecan, Zapotec Comments: Local economy largely supported by those working outside the area.

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Zoque, Chimalapa
[zoh] Oaxaca, Santa María Chimalapa and San Miguel Chimalapa. 4,500 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean

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Zoque, Copainalá
[zoc] Chiapas, Copainalá. 10,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zoque de Copainalá Dialects: Ocotepec, Ostuacán. 83% intelligibility of Francisco León [zos] (most similar). Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Chiapas Zoquean

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Zoque, Francisco León
[zos] Chiapas, Mezcalapa. 20,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santa Magdalena Zoque, Zoque de Francisco León Dialects: Chapultenango, San Pedro Yaspac. Reportedly similar to Copainalá [zoc]. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Chiapas Zoquean Comments: Relocated after El Chicón volcano eruption in 1982; Francisco León, the original town, is buried.

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Zoque, Rayón
[zor] Northwest Chiapas, Rayón and Tapilula. 2,100 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,400 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Zoque de Rayón Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Zoque. Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Chiapas Zoquean, Northeast Zoque

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Zoque, Tabasco
[zoq] Tabasco, Jalapa de Méndez municipality, Ayapa. 2 (2011 The Guardian). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ayapanec, Zoque de Ayapanec, Zoque de Tabasco Classification: Mixe-Zoquean, Zoquean, Gulf Zoquean

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