Malaysia

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Abai Sungai
[abf] Sabah, lower reaches of Kinabatangan river. Ethnic population: 500 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Distinct from other Paitanic languages (Upper Kinabatangan [dmg], Tombonuo [txa]). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic Comments: Muslim.

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Bajau, West Coast
[bdr] West coast of Sabah, Kuala Penyu to Kudat, north, some east areas. Ethnic population: 55,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Land Bajaw, West Coast Bajao, West Coast Bajaw Dialects: Banggi, Kawang, Kota Belud, Papar, Pitas Bajau, Putatan, Sandakan Bajau. More structural diversity than other Borneo languages. Related to but distinct from East Coast Bajau languages of Malaysia and the Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau [bdl] (Pallesen 1977). Less than 65% intelligibility with Southern Sama [ssb]. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than 1 language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw

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Bakati’, Rara
[lra] Sarawak, 1st division, Lundu, Pasir river, 2 small villages. Also in Indonesia. 11,300 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 23,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Luru Dialects: Most closely related to other Bakati’ languages spoken in Kalimantan. Lexical similarity: 46%–50% with Bidayuh languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’

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Balau
[blg] Southwest Sarawak, southeast of Simunjan. 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bala’u Dialects: May be a dialect of Iban [iba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Comments: View themselves as a distinct ethnic group.

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Banjar
[bjn] Sabah, Tawau. 2,300 in Malaysia (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay

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Batek
[btq] Peninsular, North Pahang State, Kelantan, and Terengganu. 1,000 (2006 JHEOA), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,160 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bateg, Bateq, Batok, Kleb, Nong, Tomo Dialects: Batek De’ (Deq), Batek Iga, Batek Nong (Nong), Batek Teq (Teq). Deq and Nong dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

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Belait
[beg] Sarawak. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lemeting, Meting Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A

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Berawan, Central
[zbc] North Sarawak, Batu Belah (Tutoh river) and Long Teru (Baram river) villages. 1,500 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batu Belah, Long Teru Dialects: Batu Belah Berawan, Long Teru Berawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan

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Berawan, East
[zbe] Sarawak, Long Jegan village. 1,100 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Long Jegan Berawan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan

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Berawan, West
[zbw] Sarawak, Long Terawan village, Mulu town. 1,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berawan, Long Terawan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan

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Bidayuh, Bau
[sne] Sarawak, Bau, 1st Division, Sadong, Samarahan, and Lundu rivers. About 50 villages. 29,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bau-Jagoi, Jaggoi, Jagoi, Sarawak Dayak Dialects: Assem, Dongay, Empawa, Grogo (Grogoh), Gumbang, Krokong, Serambau (Serambo, Serambu), Singai (Bisingai, Singgai, Singgi, Singgie, Singhi), Stenggang Jagoi, Suti, Taup (Tahup), Tengoh. Gumbang may be more closely related to Tringgus-Sembaan [trx]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Bukar Sadong [sdo], 53% between Bukar Sadong and Singai dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Western

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Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] Sarawak, 1st Division, Kuching district. 10 villages. Also in Indonesia. 63,900 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 72,380. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bikuab, Kuap, Quop, Sentah Dialects: Siburan, Stang (Bisitaang, Sitaang), Tibia. Not intelligible with Bukar-Sadong Bidayuh [sdo], Salako [knx], or other Bidayuh varieties from Indonesia. Siburan is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 71% with Singai dialect of Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central Comments: ‘Bidayuh’ is a cover term for all Sarawak Land Dayak groups, plus Salako. Ethnic autonym: Siburan.

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Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] Sarawak, Serian 1st division. 30 or more villages. Also in Indonesia. 49,100 in Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sadung, Serian, Tebakang Dialects: Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh, Bideyu), Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayuh, Mentuh Tapuh. Lexical similarity: 57% with Standard Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern

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Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan
[trx] Sarawak, southwest of Kuching, south of the Bau Bidayuh [sne] language area, on Kalimantan border. Also in Indonesia. 850 in Malaysia (2007 Z. Akter). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tringus Dialects: Mbaan (Bimbaan, Sembaan), Tringgus. Each dialect has a few villages. More similar to Biatah Bidayuh [bth] than to Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Gumbang [sne] may be a Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx] dialect rather than a Bau Bidayuh [sne] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Sembaan Comments: A different language from Tring [tgq].

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Bintulu
[bny] Sarawak, northeast coast, Sibuti area, west of Niah; Bintulu area, and 2 enclaves west. 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Could also be classified as a Baram-Tinjar subgroup or as an isolate within the Rejang-Baram Group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Bintulu Comments: Blust classifies it as an isolate with North Sarawakan. Not similar to other languages (Blust 1974).

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Bisaya, Brunei
[bsb] Sarawak, Limbang, and Lawas districts. 20,000 in Malaysia (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bekiau, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Lorang Bukit, Visayak Dialects: Sarawak Bisaya (Bisaya’), Tutong 1. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern

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Bisaya, Sabah
[bsy] Sabah, north Brunei Bay coast area, mainly west Beaufort along Padas river, south of Weston; south Kuala Penyu district to the coast. Ethnic population: 15,800 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Tatana [txx]. Lexical similarity: with dialects of Brunei Bisaya [bsb]: 58% with Sarawak dialect and 57%–59% with Brunei dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

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Bonggi
[bdg] Sabah, Kudat district, Banggi island. 15 villages. Ethnic population: 1,400 (1990 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bangay, Banggi, Banggi Dusun Dialects: Most similar to Molbog [pwm] of the Philippines. Lexical similarity with dialects of Brunei Bisaya [bsb]: 58% with Sarawak dialect and 57%–59% with Brunei dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

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Bookan
[bnb] Sabah, Keningau and Kinabatangan districts, Sook and Kinabatangan rivers’ headwaters area. Ethnic population: 1,700 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baukan, Baukan Murut Dialects: Baukan (Baokan, Bokan, Boken, Bokon, Bokun, Bookan, Bukun, Pingas, Ulun-No-Bokan, Ulun-No-Bokon), Kokoroton Murut, Tengara (Kinabatangan Murut, Tangara’, Tanggaraq, Tenggaraq, Tingara, Tungara). Similar to Keningau Murut [kxi], Timugon [tih], and Tagal [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Northern

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Brunei
[kxd] Sarawak, 4th, 5th divisions, Upper Balait and Tutau rivers, north coast; Beaufort, Kuala Penyu, Labuan, Labuk-Sugut, Papar, Sipitang, Sandakan, and Tenom districts. Ethnic population: 51,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brunei-Kadaian, Orang Bukit Dialects: Brunei, Kadaian (Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Regional, not ethnic, dialect variations.

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Bugis
[bug] Sabah. Ethnic population: 17,800 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buginese Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis

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Bukitan
[bkn] Sarawak, Kapit, 7th division. 290 in Malaysia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

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Cheq Wong
[cwg] Peninsular, Pahang State, just south of Semai. 460 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Beri, Ceq Wong, Che Wong, Che’wong, Chuba, Siwang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Chewong

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Peninsular. 1,090,000 in Malaysia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Peninsular, Sabah, and Sarawak. Recent census figures do not detail the number of Mandarin speakers. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1996, Education Act, No. 550, Articles 2 and 18). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Primarily urban, in commerce.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Sarawak, mostly in Sibu, Sarikei, Bintangor towns. 252,000 in Malaysia (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Foochow (Fuzhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Peninsular. 2,660,000 in Malaysia (2000). 497,000 Teochew, 141,000 Hainanese, 2,020,000 Hokkien (2000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan Dialects: Hainanese, Hokkien (Amoy, Fujianese, Fukienese), Teochew (Chaochow, Teochow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] Peninsular. 24,700 in Malaysia (Salleh 2006). Ethnic population: 24,700 in Peninsular Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Xinghua (Hinghua, Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Peninsular; largest community in Johor State. 1,070,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Johor State. Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh Dialects: Cantonese, Toishanese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Duano
[dup] Peninsular, Johor state west coast, Pontian Kecil area, Muar, Batu Pahat, and Pontian districts, Lenga, Semerah, Minyak Beku, Senggarang, Rengit, Kuala Benut, Pontian Besar, and Sungai Layau settlements. 600 in Malaysia (2007 SIL). Few, if any, monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,010 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Kuala, Orang Laut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay

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Dumpas
[dmv] Sabah, Labuk-Sugut district, Perancangan village. Ethnic population: 1,100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doompas Dialects: May be Paitanic. Comprehension of Tombonuo [txa] 87%, of Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb] 57%, of Coastal Kadazan [kzj] 44%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified

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Dusun, Central
[dtp] Sabah, Labuk-Sugut district, Perancangan village. 141,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 Ranau (1989 UBS), 70,000 Bundu (1990 UBS), perhaps 500 Kuala Monsok Dusun (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Kadazan, Dusan, Dusum, Dusun, Dusur, Kadasan, Kadayan, Kedayan Dialects: Beaufort, Bundu (Taginambur), Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Kuala Monsok Dusun, Luba, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Pahu’, Ranau, Sokid, Tindal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

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Dusun, Sugut
[kzs] Sabah, Labuk-Sugut district, Sugut river headwaters. Ethnic population: 12,200 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dusun, Kadayan, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau Dialects: Talantang, Tinagas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

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Dusun, Tambunan
[kzt] Sabah, Tambunan district, parts of Keningau. Ethnic population: 15,600 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tambunan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

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Dusun, Tempasuk
[tdu] Sabah, Tempasuk village area, Kota Belud. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kedamaian Dusun, Tampasok, Tampassuk, Tampasuk, Tempasok, Tindal Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

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English
[eng] Peninsular. 380,000 in Malaysia (Crystal 2003), increasing. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1957, Constitution, Articles 152(2) through 152(5)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gana
[gnq] Sabah, Keningau district, Minusut and Kuangoh, along Baiaya river, a tributary of Pegalan river, north of Keningau town. Ethnic population: 1,000–2,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gana’, Ganaq, Keningau Dusun, Minansut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Iban
[iba] Sarawak, Sadong river north to Bintulu, Sibu; Sabah, Tawau district, 1 village. Also in Brunei, Indonesia. 658,000 in Malaysia (2004). Population total all countries: 694,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sea Dayak Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Dau, Lemanak, Skrang, Ulu Ai, Undup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Comments: Largest language group in Sarawak.

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Ida’an
[dbj] East coast of Sabah, Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts. Population includes 1,500 Begak. Ethnic population: 5,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan Dialects: Begak (Bagahak, Begahak), Ida’an, Subpan (Sungai, Supan). Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Ida’an

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Iranun
[ill] Sabah, Lahad Datu and Kota Belud districts, 17 villages; also reportedly in Kudat and Marudu. 15,000 in Malaysia (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Ilanun” (pej.), Illanoan, Illanoon, Illanos, Illanun, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Lanun, Ylanos Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon

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Jah Hut
[jah] Peninsular, Pahang State, just south of main body of Semai [sea] language area and Kuala Krau. Ethnic population: 3,760 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jah Het Dialects: Kerdau, Ketiar Krau (Tengganu), Krau, Kuala Tembeling, Pulau Guai, Ulu Ceres (Cheres), Ulu Tembeling. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Jah Hut

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Jakun
[jak] Peninsular, Pahang and Johor states, Pekan district south along east coast to south of Johor river. Ethnic population: 25,000, (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djakun, Jakoon, Jaku’d, Jakud’n, Orang Hulu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Perhaps better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Javanese
[jav] Sabah. Ethnic population: 300,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jawa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese

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Jehai
[jhi] Peninsular, Northeast Perak and west Kelantan states. Also in Thailand. 1,000 in Malaysia (2006). Ethnic population: 1,660 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jahai, Pangan Dialects: Batek Teh, Jehai. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

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Kadazan, Coastal
[kzj] West coast of Sabah, Penampang, and Papar districts. Ethnic population: 60,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kadazan Tangaa’, Membakut Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Penampang Kadazan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Kadazan, Klias River
[kqt] Sabah, Klias river area, Beaufort district. 1,000 (1984 SIL). Ethnic population: 1000 (1984 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan [kzj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tatana [txx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan
[dtb] Northeast Sabah, Sandakan, Labuk-Sugut, and Kinabatangan districts. 14,000–16,000 Labuk (1987 SIL); 7,000–8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 20,600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Tindakon, Tompulung Dialects: Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei), Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkak, Mangkok), Sukang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern Comments: Cross-cultural marriage and migration.

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Kajaman
[kag] Central Sarawak, 7th Division, near Belaga on Balui river. 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kayaman, Kejaman Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

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Kalabakan
[kve] Sabah, Tawau district along Kalabakan river. Ethnic population: 2,230 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalabakan Murut, Tawau Murut, Tidung Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

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Kayan, Baram
[kys] Northern Sarawak, Baram river area. 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baram Kajan Dialects: Long Akahsemuka, Long Atip. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

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Kayan, Rejang
[ree] Sarawak, Rejang, Balui river areas. 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rejang Kajan Dialects: Lemena, Lisum, Long Badan, Long Geng, Long Kehobo (Uma Poh), Long Murun, Ma’aging, Uma Daro, Uma Juman. Limited comprehension of Baram Kayan [kys]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Comments: Different from Rejang [rej] in Sumatra.

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Kelabit
[kzi] North Sarawak, highest and most remote Borneo mountains, Bario highlands. Also in Indonesia. 4,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 4,640. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalabit, Kerabit Dialects: Brung, Lepu Potong, Libbung, Long Lellang, Long Peluan, Pa’ Dalih, Pa’ Umor (spoken in Bario), Tabun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Comments: Strongly independent. Most live outside language area.

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Keningau Murut
[kxi] Sabah, Keningau district, area north of Keningau town, Pegalan river. 1,000 to 1,200 Dusun Murut (1985 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Murut Dialects: Ambual, Dusun Murut, Nabay (Dabai, Dabay, Nabai, Nebee, Rabai, Rabay). Similar to Bookan [bnb] and Timugon [tih]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

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Kensiu
[kns] Peninsular, northeast Kedah State, near Thai border. Also in Thailand. Population total all countries: 300. Ethnic population: 220 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Mendi, Monik, Moniq, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar Dialects: Bong, Ijoh (Ijok), Jarum, Jeher (Sakai Tanjong of Temongoh), Kedah (Quedah), Kensiu Batu (Batuq), Kensiu Siong (Siong), Kentaq Nakil (Nakil), Maniq, Plus, Ulu Selama. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western

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Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] South central Sarawak, near Kalimantan border, villages along Baram and Balui rivers and some tributaries; 1 village on Kakus river; Sungai Asap area. 20,000 in Malaysia (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakong, Bakung, Bakung Kenya, Bakung Kenyah Dialects: Badeng (Madeng), Bakung, Leppo’ Aga, Leppo’ Ga, Leppo’ Jamok, Leppo’ Jengan, Leppo’ Ke’, Leppo’ La’ang, Leppo’ Tau, Leppo’ Teppu’, Sambup, Uma’ Ake, Uma’ Jalan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah

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Kenyah, Wahau
[whk] Sarawak. 1,000 in Malaysia (2007 A. Soriente). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah

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Kimaragang
[kqr] Sabah, Kota Marudu and Pitas districts. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang Dialects: Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon, Tandek (Garo). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Kinabatangan, Upper
[dmg] Sabah, primarily upper reaches of Kinabatangan river; Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts, Maligatan, Minusu, and Tongud. 500 Dusun Segama and 800–900 Sinabu’ (1985 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sungai Milian Dialects: Dusun Segama (Saga-i, Segai, Soghai), Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, Sinabu’ (Sinabu). Dialects have approximately 87% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: over 90% among all dialects, 80% with Makiang and Sinabu’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kintaq
[knq] Peninsular, Kedah-Perak border area, Thai border. Also in Thailand. 110 in Malaysia (2008 JHEOA). Population total all countries: 111. Ethnic population: 240 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bong, Kenta, Kintak, Kintaq Bong Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western

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Kiput
[kyi] Sarawak, south of Marudi, Benawa and Kuala Tutoh villages. 2,460 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Long Kiput, Long Tutoh (Kuala Tutoh). Related to Narom [nrm], Lelak [llk], Tutong [ttg], Belait [beg], and Berawan languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A

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Kota Marudu Talantang
[grm] Sabah, Kota Marudu district, Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Kota Marudu Tinagas
[ktr] Sabah, south Kota Marudu and Parong, and a migrant village in north Kota Marudu. Ethnic population: 1,250 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

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Kuijau
[dkr] Sabah, Keningau district, Keningau town area north and west. Ethnic population: 7,910 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hill Dusun, Kijau, Koijoe, Kuiyow, Kujau, Kuliow, Kuriyo, Kwijau, Menindal, Menindaq, Minansut, Tidung, Tindal Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Lahanan
[lhn] Central Sarawak, east of Belaga, southwest of Long Murum. 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lanan, Lanun Dialects: Most similar to Kajaman [kag]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Comments: Different from Iranun [ill] of Sabah or Iranun (Maguindanao) [mdh] of the Philippines.

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Lanoh
[lnh] Peninsular, north central Perak State. Ethnic population: 240 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jengjeng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic Comments: Lanoh includes Sabüm and Semnam as subgroups (Burenhult and Wegener 2009).

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Lelak
[llk] Sarawak, Long Teru and Sungai Bunen at Loagan Bunut lake, on Tinjar river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Related to Narom [nrm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B

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Lobu, Lanas
[ruu] Sabah, Keningau district, Lobu near Lanas, Rumanau in Masaum, Mangkawagu, Minusu, and Kinabatangan District. 2,000 in Lobu, 800 in Rumanau. Ethnic population: 2,800 (1986 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keningau Lobu Dialects: Lobu, Rumanau (Romanau, Roomarrows, Rumanau Alab). May be a dialect of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

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Lobu, Tampias
[low] Saba, Tampias area, Ranau. 3 villages. Ethnic population: 1,800 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Lanas Lobu [ruu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

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Long Wat
[ttw] Northeast Sarawak, Tutoh river. 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutoh Kenya, Tutoh Kenyah Dialects: Long Labid, Long Wat, Lugat. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah

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Lotud
[dtr] Sabah State, Tuaran District, just north of Kota Kinabalu, Tuaran town area. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dusun Lotud, Suang Lotud Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Lun Bawang
[lnd] Southwest border of Sabah and Sarawak. 24,000 in Malaysia (1982 SIL). Sarawak 21,000, Sabah 3,000–4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lun Lod, Lun-Bawang, Lundaya, Lundayeh, Southern Murut Dialects: Kolur, Lepu Potong, Lun Bawang (Sarawak Murut), Lun Dayah, Padas, Trusan (Lawas, Limbang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Comments: Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut.

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Mah Meri
[mhe] Peninsular, Islands in straits south of Johor to Selangor coast. 2,990 (2003 COAC). Ethnic population: 3,680 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Besisi, Cellate Dialects: Betise’ (Betisek), Kuala Langot Besisi, Malakka Besisi, Selangor Sakai, Sisi, Ulu Langat Orang Bukit. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

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Malaccan Creole Malay
[ccm] Peninsular, Malacca straits, Kampung Tujung, Gajah Berang, and Melaka. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chitties Creole Malay Dialects: May be historically related to Sri Lankan Creole Malay [sci]. Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Spoken since the 16th century by descendants of Tamil merchants who intermarried with other groups. Speakers are called Chitties (Lim 1981; Holm 1989).

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Malaccan Creole Portuguese
[mcm] Peninsular, Straits of Malacca,Trankera and Hilir, Melaka. Related varieties in parts of Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. 2,150 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bahasa Geragau, Bahasa Serani, Kristang, Luso-Malay, Malaccan, Malaqueiro, Malaquenho, Malaquense, Malaquês, Malayo-Portuguese, Malaysian Creole Portuguese, Papia Cristao, Papia Kristang, Português de Malaca, Portuguese Patois, Serani Classification: Creole, Portuguese based Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kristang (or Papia Cristao), also name for religion. Variety in Pulau Tikus spoken more in 1997 than in 1987.

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Malay
[msa] Population total all countries: 59,418,886. Comments: Member languages are: Bacanese Malay [btj] (Indonesia), Bangka [mfb] (Indonesia), Banjar [bjn] (Indonesia), Berau Malay [bve] (Indonesia), Brunei [kxd] (Brunei), Bukit Malay [bvu] (Indonesia), Central Malay [pse] (Indonesia), Cocos Islands Malay [coa], Col [liw] (Indonesia), Duano [dup] (Indonesia), Haji [hji] (Indonesia), Indonesian [ind] (Indonesia), Jakun [jak], Jambi Malay [jax] (Indonesia), Kaur [vkk] (Indonesia), Kedah Malay [meo], Kerinci [kvr] (Indonesia), Kota Bangun Kutai Malay [mqg] (Indonesia), Kubu [kvb] (Indonesia), Lubu [lcf] (Indonesia), Malay [zlm], Manado Malay [xmm] (Indonesia), Minangkabau [min] (Indonesia), Musi [mui] (Indonesia), Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], North Moluccan Malay [max] (Indonesia), Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Pattani Malay [mfa] (Thailand), Pekal [pel] (Indonesia), Sabah Malay [msi], Sekak [lce] (Indonesia), Standard Malay [zsm], Temuan [tmw], Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt] (Indonesia), Urak Lawoi’ [urk] (Thailand)

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Malay
[zlm] Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, parts of Sarawak. Also in Canada, Indonesia, Singapore, Sint Maarten, United Arab Emirates, United States. 10,500,000 in Malaysia (2004 census). 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 506,000 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. Population total all countries: 15,848,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malayu, Colloquial Malay, Informal Malay, Local Malay, Malayu Dialects: Akit, Belitung, coastal Jambi, Coastal Terengganu, Deli, Inland Terengganu, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Kelantan, Lubu, Northwestern Kalimantan, Orang Hulu, Orang Kuala, Pahang, Riau islands, Riau Mainland, Sakai, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Southeast Island, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan, Tamiang, Upstream Western Kalimantan. Kedah Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Brunei [kxd], are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay [zlm]. Coastal Terengganu, inland Terengganu, Kelantan most aberrant but evidently mutually intelligible with Patani [ptn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: This entry refers to, local or vernacular, Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, and other varieties for which further research is needed to clarify differentiation from mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Indonesian [ind] or Standard Malay [zsm] by sociolinguistic status as vernaculars, and other linguistic features.

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Malay, Baba
[mbf] Peninsular, Malacca Straits, Melaka Tengah. 2,000 in Malaysia (Salleh 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chinese Malay, Straits Malay Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Developed since the 15th century from Low Malay with many Hokkien Chinese borrowings. Lim (1981) and Holm (1989) treat it as a Malay-based creole.

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Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] Sabah, Tawau and Lahad Datu districts; 1 village northwest of Beluran. Also in Australia. Population total all countries: 1,000. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: From the Cocos Islands (Keeling Islands), an Australian territory.

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Malay, Kedah
[meo] Peninsular, Kedah, Penang, Perlis, and north Perak states. Also in Thailand (Satun Malay). 2,600,000 in Malaysia (2004). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Satun Malay Dialects: Distinct from Pattani Malay [mfa] and Standard Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: More use Thai [tha] than Pattani Malay. Most outside contacts are with Thai population centers in Songkhla, Phattalung, and Haad Yai; with west coast Malay states of Perlis and Kedah. Culturally Malay. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Malay, Sabah
[msi] Sabah. Mostly second-language speakers, but growing number of L1 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: May be a dialect of Brunei [kxd]. Bazaar Malay, refers to many regional nonstandard Malay varieties.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Also in Brunei, Singapore. Few L1 speakers. L2 includes most Malaysian population. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malayu, Formal Malay, Informal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku Dialects: Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Indonesian [ind]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: On Peninsular Malaysia, Standard Malay [zsm] exists in a diglossic relationship with Local Malay [zlm]. Standard Malay (derived from court Malay), both in terms of its linguistic structure as well as its sociolinguistic function, has its closest counterpart not in a particular Local Malay dialect but in Standard Indonesian [ind].

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Malaysian Sign Language
[xml] Peninsular. 24,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia Dialects: Variations found in every state, but are mutually intelligible with the possible exception of some places in Terengganu state. The status of the sign language in Terengganu is not yet clear. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Mapun
[sjm] East coast of Sabah, Sandakan; west coast of Sabah, Banggi, Marudu, Kudat, and Kota Kinabalu. 9 villages. 15,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Sama Mapun Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw

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Melanau, Central
[mel] Sarawak, 3rd division, Rejang delta coastal area to Balingian river. Also in Brunei. 113,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 113,280. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Belana’u, Milanau, Milano Dialects: Balingian, Bruit, Dalat (Dalad), Igan, Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’), Prehan, Sarikei, Segahan, Segalang, Siteng. Balingian dialect is linguistically quite distinct from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

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Melanau, Daro-Matu
[dro] Sarawak, Matu river from north channel of Rejang river to the sea, Daro and Matu areas. 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Daro, Matu (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

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Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong
[kxn] Sarawak, 3rd Division, middle stretch Rejang River. Kanowit dialect downstream from Tanjong dialect. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kanowit, Tanjong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

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Melanau, Sibu
[sdx] Sarawak, Sibu, 3rd division, Rejang river. 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Seduan-Banyok, Sibu, Siduan, Siduani Dialects: Banyok, Seduan. May be intelligible with Central Melanau [mel]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

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Minokok
[mqq] Sabah, Kinabatangan river headwaters. 1,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Most similar to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], Kimaragang [kqr] and Tobilung [tgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

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Minriq
[mnq] Peninsular, Southeast Kelantan State; 2 villages. Ethnic population: 270 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mendriq, Menraq, Menrik, Menriq Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

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Mintil
[mzt] Peninsular, Pahang State, Tamun river, 3 villages. 180 (2005 Lye Tuck-Po). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mitil Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern Comments: May have no remaining speakers.

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Molbog
[pwm] Sabah, Banggi island. Ethnic population: 6,680 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic

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Murik
[mxr] Sarawak, below Long Miri (Banyok) and below Lio Mato (Semiang) on Baram river. 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Long Banyok (Banyok), Long Semiang (Semiang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Murik Kayan

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Narom
[nrm] Sarawak, south of Baram river mouth, Miri area and south; Bakong dialect is near Beluru and Bekenu, in Kuala Nusah and Tanjung Beliput Niah area; Dali’ dialect is in Bekenu, Rancha-Rancha, Benkenu Asli, Rambai Asli, Menjelin, and Jengalas villages; Miri dialect is in Miri City, Bakam, Pengkalan, Pujut, and Lopeng villages. Population includes about 1,000 Bakong, 1,000 Dali’, and 1,000 Miri’ (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Narum Dialects: Bakong, Dali’, Miri’, Narom. Bakong, Dali’, and Miri’ may be distinct languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B

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Negeri Sembilan Malay
[zmi] Peninsular, Southeast of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan State, Ulu Muar district. Used as L1 by many inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan State (2011 K. Anderbeck). Ethnic population: 507,500 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malaysian Minangkabau, Ulu Muar Malay Dialects: Related to Minangkabau [min] in Sumatra, but shifting to Malay [zlm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: People call Minangkabau immigrants, who have come during the last 60 to 80 years, Minang. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Okolod
[kqv] Sarawak; Kalimantan; Sabah, southwest of Tenom and Sipitang districts on plantation estates; Padas river headwater area. 1,580 in Malaysia (2000). 1,000 in Sarawak, 100 to 200 in Sabah. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

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Orang Kanaq
[orn] Peninsular, eastern Johor State, northeast of Mawai (Kota Tinggi). Ethnic population: 160 (JHEOA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kanaq Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm]. Originally from Sumatra, previously a sea tribe which settled on the land in the mid-19th century (Musa 2011).

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Orang Seletar
[ors] Peninsular, Johor State, southeast coast around Kukuo, Johore Bahru, east and north. Also in Singapore. Population total all countries: 880. Ethnic population: 1,250 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Orang Laut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm]. Named after Seletar Island in Singapore from which they were removed in 1986.

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Paluan
[plz] Sabah, Tenom, Keningau, and Pensiangan districts, Padas river tributaries; Dalit, Keramatoi, Nabawan, Pamentarian, and Mesopo rivers; lower Sook river valley; Talankai and Sapulut rivers’ headwaters. 55,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dalit Murut, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Paluan (Peluan), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut), Sook Murut, Takapan. Most similar to Tagal Murut [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

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Papar
[dpp] Sabah, Kuala Penyu district. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bajau Bukit Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Penan, Bah-Biau
[pna] Central Sarawak, 7th division, Merit and Rejang rivers areas. 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bah-Biau, Punan Dialects: Punan Bah (Punan Ba), Punan Biau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Comments: Nomadic. They get salt from the Kayan.

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Penan, Eastern
[pez] Sarawak, Apoh river district, east of Baram river. Also in Brunei. 10,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 10,055. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Punan” (pej.) Dialects: Penan Apoh. Related to Western Penan [pne] and Uma Lasan [xky], but not intelligible. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan

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Penan, Western
[pne] Sarawak, 4th to 7th divisions, upper Baram and Balui rivers, Mount Dulit area, 3 villages; Nibong branch of Lobong river, a tributary of Tinjar river. 3,400 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nibon, Nibong, “Punan” (pej.) Dialects: Bok Penan (Bok), Jelalong Penan, Nibong, Penan Apo, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lanying, Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Silat, Sipeng (Speng). Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan Comments: Traditionalists are nomadic and seminomadic.

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Penang Sign Language
[psg] Peninsular, Penang. 1,000, decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf school established 1954, with only oral method. Sign language evolved outside the classroom. Use declined late 1970s due to spread of other sign languages.

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Punan Batu 1
[pnm] Central Sarawak, west of Long Geng, southeast of Belaga. 30 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Comments: Different from Punan Batu 2, a dialect of Sajau Basap [sjb] in Kalimantan. Nomadic. They get salt from the Kayan.

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Remun
[lkj] Sarawak, Serian district, Kuching division, southeast of Serian to Balai Ringin. 13 villages. 3,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Milikin, Millikin Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Comments: Ethnic autonym: Remun Iban.

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Rungus
[drg] Sabah, Kudat and Bengkoka peninsulas surrounding Marudu bay; Marudu district south of Marudu bay; Labuk-Sugut district southeast of Marudu bay. 55,000 (2009 PCS). Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dusun Dayak, Melobong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Momogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun Dialects: Gandahon, Gonsomon, Nuluw, Pilapazan (Central Rungus, Rungus Tanga). Gonsomon and Nuluw most distinctive dialects. Gandahon is less distinct. Lexical similarity among dialects within 86%–96%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Comments: Reside on 2 peninsulas surrounding a bay and identify themselves by which side of the bay they come from. Self-identify as Momogun and have complex internal social and ethnic relationships (Appell 1965). There is a strong sense of Rungus ethnic identity across all dialect groups.

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Sa’ban
[snv] Northeast Sarawak on Kalimantan border, 4th Division, south of Ramudu, Upper Baram, Long Banga’, Long Puak, Long Peluan. Also in Indonesia. 1,110 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 1,960. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Merau Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

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Sabüm
[sbo] Peninsular, North central Perak State. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Most similar to Lanoh [lnh] and Semnam [ssm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

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Salako
[knx] Sarawak, 1st division, Saak and Lundu. 22 villages. 10,700 in Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenayatn, Kendayan, Salakau, Selakau, Selako, Silakau Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Comments: Sarawak census data for Lundu Bidayuhs; Salako are not linguistically Bidayuh, but are referred to as Bidayuh.

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Sama, Balangingih
[sse] East coast of Sabah. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baangingi’, Balagnini, Balangingi, Balangingi Bajau, Balanian, Balanini, Balignini, Banadan, Bangingih Sama, Binadan, Northern Sinama, Sama, Sama Bangingih Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama

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Sama, Southern
[ssb] Sabah, east, north, and west coasts; Banggi, Kota Belud, Gaya Island, Kuala Penyu; Semporna district, Sandakan, Kota Kinabalu. 15,000 in Malaysia (2005 C. Soderberg). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 119,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 Sikubung, 15,000 Bajau Laut, 13,000, Bajau Ubian, 700 Bajau Banaran, 9,000 Sibutu, 14,500 Bajau Simunul, 61,000 Bajau Kubang (or Bajau Semporna). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Southern Bajau Dialects: Bajau Banaran, Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala’au, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sama (A’a Sama, Sama’, Samah, Samal, Samar), Sibutu (Sama Sibutu, Samah Lumbuh, Samah-Samah, Sibutuq), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Simunul (Sama Simunul), Ubian (Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama

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Sebop
[sib] North Sarawak, 4th division, upper Tinjar river, between Rejang and Baram rivers. 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cebop, Sabup, Sebob, Sibop Dialects: Bah Malei (Ba Mali), Lirong, Long Atun, Long Ekang (Long Ikang), Long Luyang, Long Pokun, Tinjar Sibop. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah Comments: Cebop used on the Indonesian side of the border, Sebop in Sarawak.

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Sebuyau
[snb] Sarawak, Lundu, 1st division, Lupa river mouth, Sebuyau west bank area. 9,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sabuyan, Sabuyau, Sibuian, Sibuyan, Sibuyau Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic

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Sekapan
[skp] Sarawak, Belaga, 7th division. 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sekepan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

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Selangor Sign Language
[kgi] Peninsular, Selangor, elsewhere. 500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: KLSL, Kuala Lumpur Sign Language Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Uses many American signs with mostly English word order.

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Selungai Murut
[slg] Sabah, Pensiangan district, Sapulut river confluence with Pensiangan river south to Indonesia border. 1 village. 600 in Malaysia (2000). Ethnic population: 600–800 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

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Semai
[sea] Peninsular, Northwest Pahang and south Perak states, north Selangor State. Ethnic population: 42,400 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Central Sakai” (pej.), Sengoi, Seng’oi, Senoi Dialects: Betau, Bidor, Bil, Cameron (Cameron Highlands), Gopeng, Jelai, Lipis, Parit, Perak I, Perak II, Tanjung Malim, Tapah (Jalan Pahang), Telom, Ulu Kampar (Kampar). Some dialects not mutually intelligible (2006 T. Phillips). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic Comments: ‘Sakai’, slave. ‘Sengoi’, people, in Semai. West Semai more acculturated to Malay society than east Semai.

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Semaq Beri
[szc] Peninsular, Pahang, Terengganu, and Kelantan states. 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 3,970 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Semaq Bri, Semoq Beri Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

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Sembakung Murut
[sbr] Along Sembakung river, from the mouth upstream into Sabah. Ethnic population: 2,000–3,000 in Sabah (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

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Semelai
[sza] Peninsular, southwest Pahang and northwest Negeri Sembilan states, Tasek Bera shores area, along Bera, Teriang, and Serting rivers; northwest Johore, Muar river. 4,100 (Kruspe 2009). Ethnic population: 6,270 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

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Semnam
[ssm] Peninsular, North central Perak State. 670 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Similar to Lanoh [lnh] and Sabüm [sbo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

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Seru
[szd] Sarawak, Kabong, 2nd division. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

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Serudung Murut
[srk] Sabah, Tawau district along Serudung river; Tawau town area. 1 village. Ethnic population: 350–450 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Serudong, Tawau Murut, Tidung Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

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Sian
[spg] Sarawak, Belaga, 7th division. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sihan Dialects: May be intelligible of Bukitan [bkn], Ukit [umi], and Punan Batu 1 [pnm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

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Tagal Murut
[mvv] Widespread in southwest Sabah, Pensiangan, south Keningau, Tenom, Sipitang, and Nabawa districts. Also in Indonesia. Population total all countries: 2,000. Ethnic population: 13,000–14,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan), Rundum (Arundum), Salalir (Sadalir, Saralir, Sedálir), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Sumambu (Semambu, Semembu, Sumambuq), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Taggal, Tagol, Tagul), Tawan, Tolokoson (Telekoson), Tomani (Tumaniq). Most similar to Paluan [plz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

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Tamil
[tam] Peninsular. 3,780,000 in Malaysia (Salleh 2006). Does not include 8,730 Sri Lankan Tamil. Ethnic population: 1,396,000 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1996, Education Act, No. 550, Articles 2 and 18). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil

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Tatana
[txx] Sabah, Kuala Penyu district. Ethnic population: 5,500 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tatana’, Tatanaq Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

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Tausug
[tsg] Sabah, Sempurna, Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Labuk-Sugut, and Kudat districts. 150,000 in Malaysia (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Joloano, Joloano Sulu, Moro, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Comments: Immigrants from Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. Glossonym: Suluk in Sabah.

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Temiar
[tea] Peninsular, Perak, Kelantan, and Pahang states. 15,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 24,900 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northern Sakai, Pie, Seroq, Temer Dialects: Grik, Kenderong, Kenering, Lanoh Kobak, Po-Klo (Sakai Bukit of Temongoh), Sakai of Plus Korbu, Sungai Piah, Tanjong Rambutan, Tembe’ (Tembi), Ulu Kinta (Kinta Sakai). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic Comments: Seminomadic.

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Temoq
[tmo] Peninsular, southeast Pahang State, Jeram river. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

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Temuan
[tmw] South half of the Peninsula, Selangor, Pahang, Johor, and Negeri Sembilan states, Kuala Langat and scattered settlements. Ethnic population: 22,700 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Benua, Niap Dialects: Beduanda (Biduanda), Belanda (Belana, Belanas, Belandas, Blanda, Landa), Berembun (Birmun), Mantra (Mentera, Mintra), Temuan, Udai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Also classified as Malacca group of Austro-Asiatic phylum. Beduanda sometimes considered a separate language. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Tidong
[tid] Sabah, Kota Marudu and Kota Belud districts, Kota Kinabalu towns, others. Ethnic population: 20,000 in Sabah (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong Dialects: Sesayap (Sesajap), Tarakan (Terakan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

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Timugon Murut
[tih] Sabah, Tenom district, Padas river from Melalap to Batu; Beaufort district, Bukau and lower Padas rivers. 1,200–1,700 in Beaufort Murut (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,000–8,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Temogun, Tenom Murut, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Timugon, Tumugun Dialects: Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Bukau (Bukow), Dabugus, Kapagalan, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Poros, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Timugon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

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Tobilung
[tgb] Sabah, Kota Marudu and Kota Belud districts; Kota Kinabalu and other towns. Ethnic population: 8,850 (2007 A. Ripau). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tabilong, Tebilung, Tobilang Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan [kzj]; moderate intelligibility with Kimaragang [kqr] and Rungus [drg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

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Tombonuo
[txa] Sabah, Labuk-Sugut, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. 3,000 Lingkabau. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lobu, Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tembenua, Tombonuva, Tombonuwo, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas Dialects: Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic

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Tonga
[tnz] Peninsular, Perlis State, northwest tip north of Kaki. 15 in Malaysia (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mos Tean-ean Dialects: Satun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga Comments: This small group crosses back and forth between the Malaysia and Thailand.

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Tring
[tgq] Sarawak, Lower Tutoh river, Long Terawan village. 550 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Comments: Distinct from Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx].

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Ukit
[umi] Sarawak, 7th division, upper Rajom and Tatau rivers, Baleh. 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Comments: Different from the Punan Ukit dialect of Bukitan [bkn].

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Uma’ Lasan
[xky] Sarawak, Balui, Belaga, Kalua, Kemena rivers. Sungai Asap resettlement camp. Also in Indonesia. 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 2,750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanyay, Kenja, Kindjin, Kinjin, Western Kenya, Western Kenyah Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Baka, Uma’ Lasan. Lexical similarity: 80% with Badeng and Lepu Kulit dialects of Mainstream Kanyah [xkl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan

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Wolio
[wlo] Sabah. Ethnic population: 520 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buton, Butonese, Butung Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru Comments: ‘Buton’ often used generically outside southeast Sulawesi for people from southeast Sulawesi, or is confused with Bajau people as sailors. Sabah varieties may be Cia-Cia [cia], Tukang Besi [bhq], Indonesian Bajau [bdl], or some other.

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Yakan
[yka] Sabah State. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yacan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw

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