Papua New Guinea

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Abadi
[kbt] Central Province, north of Galley reach. 4,300 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabadi, Kabadi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Toura [don] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Gabadi Comments: Gabadi is the Motu name.

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Abaga
[abg] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district. 5 (1994 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 150 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wagaba Dialects: None known. Abaga borrows heavily from Kamano [kbq] and Benabena [bef]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon

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Abau
[aau] Sandaun Province, Green River district, Sepik and Green rivers. 7,270 (2000 census), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Green River Dialects: Central Abau, Downriver Abau, Downriver border Abau, Upriver Abau. Classification: Sepik, Abau

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Abom
[aob] Western Province, a few older adults in Tewara, Lewada, and Mutam villages. 15 (2002 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 14% with Bitur [mcc], 12% with Baramu [bmz], 11% with Makayam [aup], 9% with Wara [tci], 4% with Idi [idi] and Agob [kit]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio

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Abu
[ado] Madang and East Sepik provinces; between Ramu, Sepik, and Angoram rivers; northwest of Madang. 22 villages. 4,200 (2000 census). 820 Sabu, 3,380 Abu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adjora, Adjoria, Azao Dialects: Abu, Auwa, Sabu. Intelligibility among dialects sufficient to understand each other’s complex and abstract discourse. Most closely related to Banaro [byz]. Sabu in northeast language region. Auwa may be a different language. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass Comments: Christian.

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Adzera
[adz] Morobe Province, Markham valley, Markham district, Leron river to Markham-Ramu divide. 30,000 (2000 census). A few monolinguals, among the youngest and oldest. Ethnic population: 31,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Acira, Atsera, Atzera, Azera Dialects: Amari, Guruf-Ngariawang (Ngariawan), Ngarowapum, Tsumanggorun, Yarus. Related to Sukurum [zsu], Sarasira [zsa], Wampur [waz], and Mari [hob] (all Upper Markham subfamily). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper

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Aeka
[aez] Oro Province, Sohe district, Tamata rural LLG. 3,400 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ajeka Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Orokaiva [okv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Orokaivan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aekyom
[awi] Western Province, Kiunga area. 8,000 (1987 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aiwin, Akium, Awin, West Awin Dialects: East Awin, North Awin, South Awin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Awin-Pare

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Agarabi
[agd] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu district. 27,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agarabe, Bare Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gadsup [gaj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Agi
[aif] Sandaun Province. 960 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Agob
[kit] Western Province, Pahoturi river area, and south coast. 2,440 (2000 census). 1,440 Agob, 540 Ende, 460 Kawam. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabu Dialects: Agob, Ende, Kawam. One end of a chain of related varieties stretching to Idi [idi]. Distinct from, but related to, Idi (Tame). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Pahoturi Comments: 3 government schools.

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Aighon
[aix] West New Britain Province, Gasmata and Mosa rural LLGs, Akolet and Avau inland, between Avio and Amgen rivers, to north side of Whiteman range. 2,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aigon, Bao, Psohoh Dialects: Aighon, Apsokok (Psohoh, Psokhok, Psokok, Sokhok), Bao (Do). In the Kaulong [pss] (Pasismanua) dialect subgroup. Aighon considered a dialect of Kaulong [pss] (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: 83% with Aighon and Bao dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Comments: Different from Bau [bbd] in Madang Province. Christian, traditional religion.

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Aiklep
[mwg] West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Aviklo island near Kandrian, Ais, Asailo, Yumielo, and Analo villages. 3,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agerlep, Eklep, Kaul, Moewehafen Dialects: None known. With Gimi [gip] and Ambul [apo] forms a group of closely related varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe

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Aimele
[ail] Southern Highlands Province, southwest corner, Mount Bosavi area; Western Province, Lake Campbell area. Most moved to Western Province, Wawoi falls area. 140 (2000), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kware Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi

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Ainbai
[aic] Sandaun Province, Vanimo district, south of Bewani station. 2 villages. 100 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Manem [jet], 25% with Pagi [pgi]. Classification: Border, Bewani

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Aiome
[aki] Madang Province, west of Madang town, scattered. 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayom Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ak
[akq] Sandaun Province, Kwieftim village. 75 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Namia [nnm] and Awun [aww]. Classification: Sepik, Yellow River

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Akolet
[akt] West New Britain Province, south coast, and islands around Awio bay. 950 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Comments: 3 primary schools, provincial secondary school, vocational school.

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Akoye
[miw] Gulf Province, Kaberofe district, valleys between Nabo range and Albert mountains, Lohiki river. Most in a Kerema settlement. 800 (1998 SIL), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akoinkake, Akoyi, Angoya, Lohiki, Mai-Hea-Ri, Maihiri, Obi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tainae [ago]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Akukem
[spm] Madang Province, Bogia district, mountains east of lower Ramu river. 650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sepen Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew

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Alamblak
[amp] East Sepik Province, Angoram district. 9 villages on Middle Karawari and Wagupmeri rivers. Another dialect has 4 villages near Kuvanmas lake. 1,530 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Karawari, Kuvenmas. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak Comments: Karawari is distinct from Karawari [tzx] in the Pondo branch. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alekano
[gah] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district, Goroka town area. 25,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gafuku, Gahuku, Gahuku-Gama Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Siane [snp], Tokano [zuh], Dano [aso], Yaweyuha [yby], and Benabena [bef]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena Comments: Christian.

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Ama
[amm] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Waniap creek, south of Sepik river, south of Namia, Ama (Wopolu I), Wopolu II (Nokonufa), Kauvia (Kawiya), and Yonuwai villages; all on hills rising from the swamp. 480 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sawiyanu Dialects: Dialects have converged. Classification: Arai (Left May) Comments: Seminomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Amaimon
[ali] Madang Province. 1,780 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Amaimon

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Amal
[aad] Sandaun Province, on Wagana river, near confluence with Wanibe creek. 830 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alai Classification: Sepik, Iwam

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Amanab
[amn] Sandaun Province, Amanab district. 4,420 (2003 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Amara
[aie] West New Britain Province, northwest coast, Siamatai, Niuniuai, Kaugo, Anepmate, and Waramasalai villages. 230 (2011 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bibling, Longa Dialects: None known. Related to Mouk-Aria [mwh] and Lamogai [lmg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Amara Comments: Autie dialect no longer used. Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Ambakich
[aew] East Sepik Province. 770 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,970 (2003 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aion, Porapora Dialects: Northern Ambakich (Antanau), Southern Ambakich. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass Comments: Christian.

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Ambrak
[aag] Sandaun Province, Nuku district. 290 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Ambul
[apo] West New Britain Province, islands off the south coast between Andru and Johanna rivers, Ayuvet, Melenglo, Asepsep, and Ambonge villages. 1,200 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apalik, Palik Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with neighboring villages; 64% with Aiklep [mwg] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Ambulas
[abt] East Sepik Province, Maprik district. 44,000 (1991 SIL). 27,000 in Wosera, 9,000 in Maprik, 8,000 in Wingei (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abelam, Abulas Dialects: Maprik, Wingei, Wosera-Kamu, Wosera-Mamu. Classification: Sepik, Ndu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Amele
[aey] Madang Province, Madang district, hills up from Astrolabe bay, between Gum and Gogol rivers. 40 hamlets. 5,300 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amale Dialects: Haija, Huar, Jagahala. Related to Gumalu [gmu], Sihan [snr], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum

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Amio-Gelimi
[let] West New Britain Province, east end, south coast. Amio dialect: Kaskas island, Amio village; Gelimi dialect: Atui island, and Poronga village. 2,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amio, Atui, Gelimi, Lesing-Atui, Lesing-Gelimi, Poronga Dialects: Amio, Gelimi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Amol
[alx] Sandaun Province, Nuku district. 270 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alatil, Aru, Eru Dialects: Alang Mol, Arang Mol. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Amto
[amt] Sandaun Province, Amanab Rocky Peak districts, south of Upper Sepik river, toward Left May river headwaters on Samaia river, Amto, Habiyon, and Amu villages. 300 (2006 NTM). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Amto, Siawi. Classification: Amto-Musan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Anam
[pda] Madang Province, Josephstaal area villages. 1,070 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pondoma Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan

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Anamgura
[imi] Madang Province, northwest of Josephstaal. 1,250 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anamuxra, Ikundun, Mindivi Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan

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Andai
[afd] East Sepik Province, Karawari rural district. Mountain villages, Arafundi and Wagupman rivers’ head, Kaiyam, Kupini, Awarem, Namata, Andambit, and Imboin villages. 400 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pundungum, Wangkai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58%–74% with Tapei [afp]. Classification: Arafundi

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Andarum
[aod] Madang Province. 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Kanggape [igm]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu

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Andra-Hus
[anx] Manus Province, Andra and Hus islands. 1,310 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahus, Ha’us Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Anem
[anz] West New Britain Province, northwest coast and inland. 800 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Yele-West New Britain, West New Britain Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Aneme Wake
[aby] Oro Province, Afore district, both sides of Owen Stanley range; Central Province, north from Ianu along Foasi and Domara creeks. 650 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abia, Abie Dialects: Auwaka, Buniabura, Doma, Jari, Mori. Lexical similarity: 65%–73% with Moikodi [mkp] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban

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Angaataha
[agm] Morobe Province, Menyamya district. 2,100 (2003 Bible Translation Association). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angaatiha, Angaatiya, Angataha, Langimar Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Angaatiha Comments: Ethnic autonym: Angaatiya.

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Angal
[age] Southern Highlands Province, Mendi area, north into Mendi valley, west into Lai valley, east bank, west of Mount Giluwe. 18,600 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Angal, Mendi Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Angal Enen
[aoe] Southern Highlands Province, south of Nipa, north of Erave river, east of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai valley. 22,000 (1995 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nembi, South Angal Heneng, South Mendi Dialects: Megi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Angal Heneng
[akh] Southern Highlands Province, south of Margarima and Kandep, north of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai valley. 40,000 (1994 V. Schlatter). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agarar, Augu, Katinja, Wage, West Angal Heneng, West Mendi Dialects: Augu, Nipa, Ota, Waola (Wala). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Angor
[agg] Sandaun Province, Amanab district. 11 villages. 1,270 (1990 census). 840 in Nai, 430 in Samanai. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anggor, Senagi, Watapor Dialects: Nai (Central Angor), Samanai (Southern Angor). Classification: Senagi

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Angoram
[aog] East Sepik Province, lower Sepik river area, Angoram district. 8,220 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olem, Pondo, Tjimundo Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Angoram

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Anjam
[boj] Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay district. 2,020 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bogadjim, Bogajim, Bogati, Bom, Lalok Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ankave
[aak] Gulf Province, Kerema district, valleys of Mbwei and Swanson rivers. 1,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angave Dialects: Ankai, Bu’u, Miyatnu, Sawuve, Wiyagwa, Wunavai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anor
[anj] Madang Province. 980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu

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Anuki
[aui] North coast, Cape Vogel, Milne Bay Province. 890 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabobora Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49%–57% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Anuki

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Ap Ma
[kbx] East Sepik Province, Angoram district. 10,000 (2010 PBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ap Ma Botin, Botin, Kambot, Karaube Dialects: Kambaramba. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Kambot

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Apali
[ena] Madang Province, upper Ramu river area, Aiome district. 980 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Apal, Emerum, Munga Dialects: Aci, Aki. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Emuan

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Arammba
[stk] Western Province, Morehead subprovince, southwest of Suki. 970 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aramba, Serki, Serkisetavi, Upper Morehead Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda

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Arapesh, Abu’
[aah] Sandaun Province, Aitape district, East Aitape Rural LLG, wards 23, 24, 25; East Sepik Province, Maprik district, Mablep Rural LLG, ward 8. 2,560 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ua Dialects: Matapau. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh

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Arapesh, Bumbita
[aon] East Sepik Province, Maprik district, Torricelli mountains, south of Wom. 13 villages. 4,340 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 8,680. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bambita Arapesh, But Arapesh, Weri Dialects: Bonahoi, Timingir, Urita, Weril, Werir. Weril and Werir mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 30% with Bukiyip [ape]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh

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Arawum
[awm] Madang Province. 60 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Siroi [ssd], Pulabu [pup], Migum [klm], and Lemio [lei]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau

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Are
[mwc] Milne Bay Province, Cape Vogel tip. 1,230 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mukawa Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gapapaiwa [pwg]. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Doga [dgg] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are

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Ari
[aac] Western Province, Aramia river area, Ari and Serea villages. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Serea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala

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Aribwatsa
[laz] Morobe Province, lower Wamped river. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lae, Lahe Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu

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Aribwaung
[ylu] Morobe Province, lower Markham valley, Yalu village. 500 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aribwaungg, Jaloc, Yalu Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Musom [msu], Duwet [gve], Nafi [srf], and Wampar [lbq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu Comments: Jaloc is the Yabem [jae] spelling of the village name.

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Arop-Lokep
[apr] Vitiaz Strait, Siassi chain, 4 islands. Arop dialect: Madang Province, Saidor district, Long and Crown islands; Lokep dialect: Morobe Province, Siassi district, Tolokiwa island and northwest tip of Umboi island. 3,020 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arop-Lukep, Lukep, Moromiranga, Siasi, Siassi, Tolokiwa Dialects: Arop (Poono), Lokep (Lokewe, Lukep). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Comments: Different from Arop-Sissano [aps] in Sandaun Province.

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Arop-Sissano
[aps] Sandaun Province, Aitape district, Arop village. 1,150 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arop Dialects: None known. Related to Sissano [sso], Malol [mbk], and Sera [sry]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Comments: 863 people killed in July 1998 tsunami.

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Aruamu
[msy] Madang Province, west of Bogia. 8,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ariawiai, Makarub, Makarup, Mikarew, Mikarew-Ariaw, Mikarup Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew

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Aruek
[aur] Sandaun Province, north of Kombio. 740 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djang Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio

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Aruop
[lsr] Sandaun Province. 6 villages. 700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lauisaranga, Lau’u Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Asaro’o
[mtv] Madang Province, southeast of Saidor: Bagen, Subura, Baru, and Somek; some in Mur; possibly in Kasu. 1,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morafa Dialects: Molet. Related to Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup Comments: Morafa is a clan name. In Mur, the dialect is called Molet.

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Asas
[asd] Madang Province. 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kow Dialects: None known. Related to Sinsauru [snz], Sausi [ssj], Kesawai [xes], and Watiwa [wtf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia

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Askopan
[eiv] South central Bougainville Province mountains. 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Eivo, Eivo 1 Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Rapoisi [kyx]. Classification: North Bougainville, Rotokas

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Atemble
[ate] Madang Province, Ramu river, northwest of Aiome, upstream from Annaberg. 60 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Atemple, Atemple-Apris Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Atan

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Au
[avt] Sandaun Province, Lumi district, Torricelli mountain foothills. 19 villages. 8,000 (2000 census). 1,600 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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’Auhelawa
[kud] Milne Bay Province, Sehuleya district, Normanby island. 1,200 (1998 SIL). 360 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kurada, Nuakata, Ulada, ’Urada Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Auwe
[smf] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, Simog and Watape villages. 410 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simog Classification: Border, Waris

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Avau
[avb] West New Britain Province, south coast and islands around Gasmata. 620 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awau Dialects: Gasmata. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe

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Awa
[awb] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa and Kainantu districts. 2,050 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mobuta Dialects: Ilakia, Northeast Awa, South Awa, Tauna. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Awad Bing
[bcu] Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay area, west of Saidor. 7 villages. 1,450 (2000 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Awad Gey, Biliau, Bing, Samang, Semang, Sengam Dialects: Biliau, Galeg, Suit, Yamai, Yori. Distinct from, but reportedly similar to, Mindiri [mpn] and Wab [wab]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Awar
[aya] Madang Province, Bogia district, Hansa bay coast. 3 villages. 1,090 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Awar, Nubia. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Bosmun-Awar

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Awara
[awx] Morobe Province, Lae district, near the Wantoat [wnc] language area. 1,900 (2011 SIL), increasing. 670 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,950. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Some dialect variation. Wantoat [wnc], Wapu dialect of Wantoat, and Awara are part of a chain of related varieties, with Awara at the western end. Lexical similarity: 60%–70% with Wantoat [wnc] and Wapu dialect of Wantoat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat

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Awiyaana
[auy] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Okapa districts. 15 villages. 11,100 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Auyana Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Awtuw
[kmn] Sandaun Province. 510 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Autu, Kamnum Dialects: None known. Related to Karawa [xrw] and Pouye [bye]. Classification: Sepik, Ram

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Awun
[aww] Sandaun Province, east of Namia, Yakeltim village. 400 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awon Dialects: None known. Related to Namia [nnm] and Ak [akq]. Classification: Sepik, Yellow River

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Ayi
[ayq] Sandaun Province southeast corner, Wan Wan division. 3 villages. 430 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pasi [psq]. Classification: Sepik, Tama Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bagupi
[bpi] Madang Province, headwaters of the Gogol river, west of Mabanob, northwest of Madang town. 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related languages: Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Mosimo [mqv], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Matepi [mqe], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Bahinemo
[bjh] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Hunstein range, south of Sepik river. 4 villages. 550 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahenemo, Gahom, Inaru, Wogu, Yigai Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Baibai
[bbf] Sandaun Province, Amanab district. 340 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Fas Comments: The nearest school is a day’s walk away.

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Baimak
[bmx] Madang Province, west of Madang city. 650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Gal [gap]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Baluan-Pam
[blq] Manus Province, Baluan and Pam islands. 1,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Baluan, Pam. Dialects are similar; Baluan is the larger. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bamu
[bcf] Western Province, Bamu river mouth and upriver. 6,310 (2000 census). 960 Gama. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamu Kiwai Dialects: Gama, Lower Bamu, Nuhiro, Sisiame, Upper Bamu (Middle Bamu). Gama dialect may be a separate language. Closely related to Kiwai; less closely to Waboda [kmx]. Lexical similarity: less than 80% with Gama and Lower Bamu, the most similar other Bamu dialect. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian

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Banaro
[byz] Madang and East Sepik provinces. 2 villages. 2,480 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banar, Banara, Waran Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bannoni
[bcm] Bougainville Province, southwest Bougainville, Empress Augusta Bay coast, between Aruma and Puriata rivers. 1,000 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Banoni, Tsunari Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni

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Barai
[bbb] Inland Oro Province, Afore district, Managalas plateau. Birarie dialect: Umuate, Naokanane, Itokama, and Madokoro villages. 800 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Birarie, Muguani. Lexical similarity: 50% with Ese [mcq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Baramu
[bmz] Western Province, south bank of lower Fly river; Baramura, Tirio, Tirio 2, and Tapila villages. 850 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 33% with Bitur [mcc], 32% with Makayam [aup], 27% with Wara [tci]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio Comments: Different from Bitur [mcc], Makayam [aup], and Wara [tci].

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Bargam
[mlp] Madang Province, Madang district, North Coast road just opposite Karkar island. 3,750 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mugil, Saker Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Mugil Comments: Christian.

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Bariai
[bch] West New Britain Province, east of Cape Gloucester, northwest coast. 1,380 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Kabana” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kove [kvc], 76% with Lusi [khl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Comments: ‘Kabana’ is acceptable to the 3 eastern villages but offensive to most of the population.

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Bariji
[bjc] Oro Province, Bariji river south bank. 460 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aga Bereho Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with Moikodi [mkp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban

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Barikewa
[jbk] Gulf Province, Omati river. 320 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iba Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Ikobi [meb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kaser

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Barok
[bjk] New Ireland, south central, east and west coasts. 15 villages. 2,120 (1985). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kanalu, Kanapit, Kolube, Komalu, Kulubi Dialects: Barok, Usen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak

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Baruga
[bjz] Oro Province, Tufi district, in Musa and Bariji rivers flood plains. Gaina [gcn], Bariji [bjc], and Yareba [yrb] language areas on south border; Ewage-Notu (Okeina dialect) [nou], Ambe Tofo, Korafe-Mokorua, Miniafia-Arifama, Ubir [ubr], and Maisin [mbq] villages and language areas are on east border. Dyke Ackland bay is north. 2,230 (2003 SIL), increasing. 800 Tafota, 990 Bareji, 440 Mado. 200 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bareji, Baruga, Mado, Tafota Baruga. Lexical similarity: 56%–61% with Korafe-Yegha [kpr], Gaina [gcn] and Dogoro [dgx] (Dutton 1971), 43% with Ewage dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Baruga Comments: Work in Port Moresby and other towns but prefer to retire in Baruga territory. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bau
[bbd] Madang Province. 3,150 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Sihan [snr], Gumalu [gmu], Isebe [igo], Amele [aey], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum Comments: Different from Bao dialect of Aighon [aix] in New Britain, an Oceanic language.

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Bauwaki
[bwk] Central Province, Amau river, into Oro Province. 520 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bawaki Dialects: None known. Dutton (1971) says this is a bridge language between the Mailuan and Yareban families. Lexical similarity: 66% with Aneme Wake [aby] (most similar), 39% with Domu [dof]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan

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Beami
[beo] Western Province, east of Nomad, into Southern Highlands Province. 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedamini, Bedamuni, Mougulu Dialects: Komofio, North Beami. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi

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Bebeli
[bek] West New Britain Province, Stettin Bay, Cape Hoskins area. 1,050 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banaule, Beli, Benaule, Kapore, Yangura Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Comments: Different from Beli [bey] in Sandaun Province.

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Beli
[bey] Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. 2,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akuwagel, Makarim, Mukili Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Beli Comments: Different from Bebeli [bek] (Beli) in West New Britain.

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Benabena
[bef] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district. 45,000 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bena Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bepour
[bie] Northeastern Madang Province, south of lower Kumil river and Sikor. 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Mauwake [mhl] and Moere [mvq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan

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Berinomo
[bit] East Sepik Province, April river, Bitara and Kagiru villages. 350 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bitara Dialects: Bitara, Kagiru (Apowasi). Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo

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Biage
[bdf] Oro Province, Kokoda sub-district, Owen Stanley range foothills and mountains. 1,100 (2009 S. Cott). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric

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Biangai
[big] Morobe Province, Wau district, Bulolo river headwaters. 7 villages. 1,400 (1991 SIL). 700 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ngowiye, Yongolei. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa

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Biem
[bmc] East Sepik Province, Viai, Blupblup, Kadovar, and Bam islands east of Wewak. 2,200 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bam Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam

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Bikaru
[bic] East Sepik Province, April river headwaters. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bugalu, Pikaru Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Bilakura
[bql] Northeastern Madang Province, headwaters of Gilagil river, due east of Kosilanta. 30 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Related languages: Usan [wnu], Yaben [ybm], Yarawata [yrw], Parawen [prw], and Ukuriguma [ukg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan

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Bilbil
[brz] Madang Province, coast just south of Madang town. 1,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bilibil Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern

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Bimin
[bhl] Sandaun Province, Bak-Bimin district; Western Province. 2,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Bim, Nimtep Weng. Reportedly similar to Faiwol [fai]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain Comments: Much intermarriage and cultural exchange with Oksapmin [opm].

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Bina
[bmn] Central Province, north of Baibara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric

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Binahari
[bxz] Central Province, Cloudy Bay hills range inland. 630 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ma, Neme (Nemea). Lexical similarity: 70% with Morawa [mze] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan

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Binandere
[bhg] Oro Province; along Eia, Gira, Mamba, and Kumusi rivers; between Sowara and Iwaia villages on coast; a few in Morobe Province. 7,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ioma Binandere Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50%–54% with Suena [sue] and Zia [zia]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, Binandere Comments: No known dialects. Some mixing of English [eng] and Tok Pisin [tpi]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bine
[bon] Western Province, Daru district, south of Fly river. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Oriomo, Pine Dialects: Boze-Giringarede, Irupi-Drageli, Kunini, Masingle, Sebe, Sogal, Tate. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly

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Binumarien
[bjr] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu district. 360 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binamarir, Binumaria Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora

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Bipi
[biq] Manus Province, west coast, Maso, Matahei, and Salapai villages, Bipi and Sisi islands. 1,200 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sisi-Bipi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Loniu [los]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Bisis
[bnw] East Sepik Province, Hunstein range, Ambunti district, next to the Bahinemo, between Lower Salumei river and Chambri lake. 3 villages. 450 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yambiyambi Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bisorio
[bir] East Sepik Province; Karawari, Wagupmeri, and Korosameri rivers’ headwaters; Bisorio, Iniai, and Gadio villages. 260 (2003 SIL). 50–100 Pikaru. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iniai, Inyai-Gadio-Bisorio Dialects: Pikaru (Bikaru). Lexical similarity: 70% with Nete [net]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga

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Bitur
[mcc] Western Province, south bank and inland of Fly river; Upiara, Bisuaka, Petom, Tewara and Kasimap villages. 860 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bituri, Dudi, Mutum, Paswam Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Makayam [aup], 35% with Wara [tci], 33% with Baramu [bmz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio

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Biwat
[bwm] East Sepik Province, lower and middle Yuat river. 3,040 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Munduguma, Mundugumor Dialects: None known. Related to Kyenele [kql], Changriwa [cga], Mekmek [mvk], and Bun [buv]. Classification: Yuat

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Biyom
[bpm] Madang Province, southeast of Gende. 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sasime Dialects: None known. Related to Isabi [isa], Tauya [tya], and Faita [faj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Biyom-Tauya

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Blafe
[bfh] Western Province, west of Nambo [ncm] language area. Indorodoro village is center. 670 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indorodoro, Tonda Dialects: Mblafe, Ránmo. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda

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Bo
[bpw] Heart of Western Range: Sandaun Province, Bo, Kobaru, Kaumifi, and Nigyama Umarita villages; East Sepik Province near Sandaun Province border, near Right May river. 85 (1998 NTM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Po, Sorimi Dialects: Kaboru, Nikiyama, Umuruta. Classification: Arai (Left May) Comments: Area seldom entered by outsiders. Unconfirmed as a separate language. Traditional religion.

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Bo-Ung
[mux] Western Highlands Province, Hagen district; Tambul and Lower Kaugel districts. 40,900 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboung, Mbo-Ung, Tembalo Dialects: Ku Waru, Mara-Gomu, Miyemu (Miyem), Tembalo (Tembaglo). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel

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Bogaya
[boq] Western Province; south Highlands Province. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bogaia, Pogaya Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya

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Boikin
[bzf] East Sepik Province, Yangoru district. 31,300 (2003 SIL). 9,400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boiken, Nucum, Yangoru, Yengoru Dialects: Central Boikin, East Boikin, Haripmor, Island Boikin, Kunai, Kwusaun, Munji, West Boikin. Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Bola
[bnp] West New Britain Province, northeast coast, Willaumez peninsula, Harua east of Kimbe. 13,700 (2000 census). 2,250 Harua. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bakovi, Bola-Bakovi Dialects: Bola, Harua (Garua, Karua, Mai, Xarua). Harua developed among people resettled on an oil palm plantation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez

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Bongu
[bpu] Madang Province, Astrolabe bay, Rai coast. 850 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim

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Bonkiman
[bop] Madang and Morobe provinces. 180 (1991 SIL). 70 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna

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Borong
[ksr] Morobe Province, Finschhafen district, central Huon peninsula between Kuat and Burum rivers. 5 villages and 5 hamlets, Lae and others. 2,200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kosorong, Naama Dialects: Kosorong, Yangeborong. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Boselewa
[bwf] Milne Bay Province, Fergusson island north shore. 610 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,530. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosalewa, Bosilewa, Mwani’u Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Galeya [gar] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau

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Bosmun
[bqs] Madang Province, Bogia district, west of Ramu river. 5 villages. 1,300 (2004 PBT). 260 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bosman, Bosngun Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Bosmun-Awar

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Bragat
[aof] Sandaun Province. 4 villages. 460 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alauagat, Yauan Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Brem
[buq] Madang Province, including Bunabun village. 1,190 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barem, Bububun, Bunabun, Bunubun Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud Comments: Ethnic autonym: Brem or Barem.

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Breri
[brq] Madang Province, lower Ramu valley, west of Madang town. 1,100 (1986 PBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuanga Dialects: None known. Related to Kominimung [xoi], Igana [igg], and Inapang [mzu]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan

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Buang, Mangga
[mmo] Morobe Province, Mumeng district, mid-upper Snake river area, Lae and Moresby. 1,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaidemui, Manga Buang Dialects: Kwasang, Lagis. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Buang, Mapos
[bzh] Morobe Province, Mumeng district, middle Snake river area. 10 villages. 10,500 (2000). 3,150 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Buang, Mapos Dialects: Buweyeu, Chimbuluk, Mambump, Mapos, Papakene, Wagau, Wins. Lexical similarity: 61% between Mambump dialect and Mangga Buang [mmo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Budibud
[btp] Milne Bay Province, Lachlan islands, east of Woodlark island. 310 (2000). 50 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Muyuw [myw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bugawac
[buk] Morobe Province, Huon gulf coast. Eastern dialect: Ulugidu, Bukawasip; Central-Western dialect: Wideru, Hec, and Cape Arkona villages, Buhalu, Tikeleng; Western dialect: Lae city villages; South Western dialect: Busamang, Asini. 12,000 (2011 W. Eckermann). 4,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bukaua, Bukawa, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac Dialects: Central Bugawac, Central-Eastern Bugawac, Central-Western Bugawac, Eastern Bugawac, South-Western Bugawac, Western Bugawac. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North

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Buhutu
[bxh] East tip of Papua, Milne Bay Province, Sagarai valley, Alotau district. 1,350 (2003 SIL), increasing. 270 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bohutu, Buhulu, Siasiada, Yaleba Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Unubahe [unu] and Oye’oye [oyy]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Suau [swp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Comments: Christian.

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Bukiyip
[ape] East Sepik Province, west Yangoru district, Torricelli mountains. 16,200 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bukiyúp, Mountain Arapesh Dialects: Bukiyip (Mountain Arapesh), Coastal Arapesh. Lexical similarity: 60% with Mufian [aoj]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh

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Bulgebi
[bmp] Madang Province, Astrolabe bay inland on east end of south coast, on lower Nankina river. 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup

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Bulu
[bjl] West New Britain Province, Willaumez peninsula. 910 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez

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Bun
[buv] East Sepik Province. 480 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Changriwa [cga], Mekmek [mvk], Biwat [bwm], and Kyenele [kql]. Classification: Yuat

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Buna
[bvn] East Sepik Province, Angoram district. 750 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kasmin, Masan. Apparently 2 dialects: one in Kasmin, Boig, Waskurin, and Arapang villages and another in Masan, Mangan, and Garien villages. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Bunama
[bdd] Milne Bay Province, south Normanby island, Esa’ala district. 4,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kelelegeia Dialects: Barabara, Bunama, Kasikasi, Kerorogea, Kumalahu, Lomitawa, Meudana, Sawabwala, Sawatupwa, Sipupu, Weyoko. Lexical similarity: 66% with Mwatebu [mwa], 75% with most Dobu [dob] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bungain
[but] East Sepik Province. Yaugiba is 1 village. 3,600 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Burui
[bry] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Sepik plains south of Maprik, Burui village, north of Pagwi. 260 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Bwaidoka
[bwd] Milne Bay Province, south tip of Goodenough island; Bolubolu district, west Fergusson island. 6,500 (2000 SIL). 3,250 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwaidoga Dialects: Bebebele Ii, Belebele I, Bwaidoga, Faiyava, Kalauna, Kilia, Kiliva, Lauwela, Mataitai, Wagifa. Lexical similarity: 72% with Iduna [viv] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Comments: Half of the children are in school.

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Bwanabwana
[tte] Milne Bay Province, Bwanabwana district, Engineer islands, Laseinie islands, Ware island, Kitai island; southeast Basilaki island, some villages. 2,400 (2007 SIL), increasing. 720 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tubetube Dialects: Anagusa, Kitai, Koyagaugau, Kwalaiwa, Naluwaluwali, Ole, Tewatewa, Wale (Ware, Wari). Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Comments: Christian.

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Chambri
[can] East Sepik Province, marsh dwellers east and north of Sepik Hill area, southeast shore and a Chambri lake island. 4 villages. 1,700 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tchambuli, Tshamberi Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Chambri Comments: Income comes from fishing. Traditional religion.

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Changriwa
[cga] East Sepik Province. 690 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related languages: Mekmek [mvk], Kyenele [kql], Biwat [bwm], and Bun [buv]. Classification: Yuat

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Chenapian
[cjn] East Sepik Province, Sepik river west of Wogamusin. 1 village. 180 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chenap, Tsenap, Zenap Classification: Sepik, Wogamusin-Chenapian

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Chini
[afi] Madang Province, Middle Ramu district, 2 villages. 75 (2013 J. Brooks). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akrukay Dialects: Akrukay, Andamang. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan

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Chuave
[cjv] Simbu Province, Chuave district. 23,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tjuave Dialects: Chuave, Elimbari, Gomia, Kebai, Sua. Kebai dialect is distinct but intelligible. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu

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Daantanai’
[lni] Bougainville Province, Kieta district, Crown Prince range east slope, Kreiowo and Tavatava rivers’ headwaters, east-south-east of Koromira Point, Piruneu’ and Warana villages. 600 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lantanai Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi Comments: Language was different from others in Nasioi group but may have converged to be more like Koromira [kqj] or Naasioi [nas].

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Dadibi
[mps] South Simbu Province, Karimui district; Southern Highlands Province east corner. 28 villages. 10,000 (1988 SIL). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daribi, Karimui Dialects: Erave. Villages in Karimui and Negabo areas have minor dialect differences from standard Dadibi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Daga
[dgz] Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district; Central Province, Abau district. 9,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimuga, Nawp Dialects: Lower Daga, Upper Daga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Dambi
[dac] Morobe Province, Mumeng district. 350 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility of Kumalu [ksl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng

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Danaru
[dnr] Madang Province. 260 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Sop [urw], Urigina [urg], and Sumau [six]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka

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Dano
[aso] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district. 30,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asaro, Upper Asaro Dialects: Amaizuho, Bohena, Kongi, Lunube Mado, Upper Asaro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena

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Daonda
[dnd] Sandaun Province, Amanab district near Imonda. 170 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Border, Waris

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Dawawa
[dww] Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district, west and inland from Wedau. 2,500 (1994 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dawana Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Kakabai [kqf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai

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Dedua
[ded] Morobe Province, Sialum district, Masaweng and Tewae rivers’ headwaters, south of Mount Besenona. 19 villages. 6,500 (2000 census), increasing. No monolinguals above age 20. Ethnic population: 8,910. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Dzeigoc, Fanic. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Degenan
[dge] Madang Province. 790 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dingana Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup

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Dera
[kbv] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, Faringi river sides. 690 in Papua New Guinea. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dra, Kamberataro, Kamberatoro, Komberatoro, Mangguar Dialects: Duka-Ekor, Lihen, Mengau, North Kamberataro, South Kamberataro. Classification: Senagi

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Dia
[dia] Sandaun Province. 1,840 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alu, Galu, Metru Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Dibiyaso
[dby] Western Province, Makapa, Pikiwa, and Bamustu villages. 1,950 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bainapi, Dibiasu, Pikiwa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Turumsa [tqm], 15% with Doso [dol]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dima
[jma] Milne Bay Province, east of Moi bay coast almost to Posaposa Harbor; Ruaba river area. 750 (2001 SIL). 115 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dimadima, Jimajima Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Daga [dgz] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dobu
[dob] Milne Bay Province, Esa’ala district, Sanaroa, Dobu, parts of Fergusson and Normanby islands. 500 villages. 10,000 (1998 SIL). 6,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 100,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Lingua franca in D’Entrecasteaux Islands. Alternate Names: Dobuan Dialects: Central Dobu, Galubwa, Loboda (Dawada-Siausi, Roboda), Sanaroa, Ubuia. Lexical similarity: 56% with Molima [mox] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Comments: Many schools.

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Doga
[dgg] Milne Bay Province, Cape Vogel north coast. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 330. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Magabara Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Are [mwc] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are

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Doghoro
[dgx] Oro Province, Tufi district, Musa and Bariji river flood plains, Bendorode and Sebagha villages. 270 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogoro Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Baruga Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dom
[doa] Simbu Province, mainly south of Wahgi river from Kundiawa west of Sinasina [sst] language area. 12,000 (1994 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Era. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu

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Domu
[dof] Central Province, coast east of Cape Rodney and inland. 950 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dom Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Bauwaki [bwk] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan

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Domung
[dev] Tapen, Madang Province, Gabutamon, Maum, Kosit, Wokopop, Bobongat, Aunon, Ayengket, Sibgou, Kian, Dirit, Swantan, and Maramung villages. 2,330 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna

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Doromu-Koki
[kqc] Central Province, Inland Rigo district, south of Mount Obree, west of Mount Brown. 1,500 (2006 SIL). Half in language area and half in Port Moresby. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dorom, Doromu, Koki Dialects: Koki, Kokila, ’Origo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maria [mds] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Manubaran Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Doso
[dol] Western Province, Aramia river and Wawoi falls areas, near the Kamula [xla] language area. 700 (Shaw 1973). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Unclassified

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Duau
[dva] Milne Bay Province, Sawabwala, Normanby islands. 3,550 (1991 SIL). 710 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dawada, Guleguleu (Guragureu), Mwalukwasia, Siausi, Somwadina. Diverse dialects. No central or dominant dialect. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bunama [bdd], 52% with Mwatebu [mwa], Auhelawa [kud], and Bwanabwana [tte]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dumun
[dui] Madang Province, Astrolabe bay south coast, Gowar river mouth, west of Dein, and its lower course. 35 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bai Dialects: None known. Related to Yabong [ybo], Ganglau [ggl], and Saep [spd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon

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Duna
[duc] Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kopiago and Koroba districts; Western Highlands Province. 11,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yuna Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya

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Duwet
[gve] Morobe Province, Busu river area. 400 (2011 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 450. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guwet, Guwot, Waing Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu

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Edolo
[etr] Southern Highlands Province, Tari district; Western Province, Nomad district, southwest of Mount Sisa. 16 villages. 1,670 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Edolo Ado, Etolo, Etoro Dialects: Eastern Edolo, Western Edolo. Lexical similarity: 38% with Beami [beo]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi Comments: Christian.

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Eitiep
[eit] East Sepik Province, southwest of Kombio; Sandaun Province, across Bongos river. 500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kombio [xbi]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio

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Elepi
[ele] East Sepik Province, Samap coast area. 330 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samap Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Elkei
[elk] Sandaun Province. 1,640 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olkoi Dialects: At least 3 dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Elu
[elu] Manus Province, Manus island north coast. 220 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Enga
[enq] Enga Province. Maramuni are nomadic in lower central range. 230,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Sau (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caga, Tchaga, Tsaga Dialects: Kaina, Kandepe, Kapona, Laiagam, Lapalama 1, Lapalama 2, Layapo, Mae (Mai, Wabag), Maramuni (Malamuni), Sari, Sau (Sau Enga, Wapi), Tayato, Yandapo. Mae is standard dialect; all understand it. Layapo is between Mae and Kyaka [kyc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga

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English
[eng] 150,000 in Papua New Guinea (Crystal 2003). L2 users: 3,000,000 in Papua New Guinea (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Erave
[kjy] Southern Highlands Province. 10,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kewa South, Pole, South Kewa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Ere
[twp] Manus Province, south coast, Drabitou, Lohe, Londru, Metawari, Pau, Piterait, Taui-Undrau, Hatwara, and Loi villages. 1,030 (1980 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Londru, Nane Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Ese
[mcq] Oro Province, Popondetta district, southeast of the Omie [aom], east of the Barai [bbb] language areas. 10,000 (2000 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Managalasi” (pej.), “Managulasi” (pej.) Dialects: Afore, Akabafa, Averi, Chimona, Dea, Jimuni, Karira, Mesari, Minjori, Muaturaina, Nami, Numba, Oko, Wakue. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic Comments: Hiri Motu [hmo] use diminishing. Traditional religion.

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Ewage-Notu
[nou] Oro Province, Popondetta district, coast between Bakumbari and Pongani. 12,900 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Ewage” (pej.), “Notu” (pej.) Dialects: Ewage-Notu, Yega (Gona, Okeina, Okena). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Notu Comments: Also spoken by Soverapa people. ‘Ewage’ considered pejorative in Oro Bay, Dongani, and Ako areas. ‘Notu’ considered pejorative in Buna and Gona areas.

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Faita
[faj] Madang Province, upper Ramu river, near Usino. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Biyom [bpm], Isabi [isa], and Tauya [tya]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Faita

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Faiwol
[fai] Western Province, Tabubil district, Fly and Palmer rivers’ headwaters. 4,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Fegolmin, Wokeimin Dialects: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Wopkeimin. Many dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain

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Fanamaket
[bjp] New Ireland Province, Namatanai Rural LLG, Muliama, Warangansau, and Sena villages. 1,080 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maket, Tangga Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Fas
[fqs] Sandaun Province, Amanab and Aitape districts, Fas, Fugumui, Kilifas, Utai, and Wara Mayu villages. 2,500 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bembi Dialects: Eastern Fas, Western Fas. Small dialect differences. Classification: Fas

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Fasu
[faa] Southern Highlands Province, Nipa district, south into Gulf Province and west to Kikori river in Western Province. 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 750 Fasu, 300 Namuni, 150 Some. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Namome Dialects: Kaibu (Kaipu), Namome (Namumi, Namuni), Some. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West Kutubu Comments: Some and Namuni may be separate languages (Wurm and Hattori 1981).

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Fembe
[agl] Western Province, Upper Strickland river. 350 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agala, Sinale Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Odoodee [kkc] and Konai [kxw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland Comments: Bogaia [boq] moved into Fembe [agl] territory, dividing them into 2 geographical areas. Language shift reported towards Konai [kxw], Duna [duc], and Kubo [jko], breaking linguistic identity in 3 directions. Oil company work also impacting language shift.

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Finongan
[fag] Morobe Province. 1,300 (2002 SIL). 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Finungwa, Finungwan Dialects: Mamaa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap Comments: Christian.

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Fiwaga
[fiw] Southern Highlands Province, northeast of Tama. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fimaga, Fiwage Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Kutubu

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Foi
[foi] Southern Highlands Province, east and south of Lake Kutubu and Mubi river. 2,800 (1980 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foe, Mubi River Dialects: Ifigi, Kafa, Kutubu, Mubi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Kutubu

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Foia Foia
[ffi] Western Province, Middle Fly district, Bibisa village. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Foiafoia, Foyafoya Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Minanibai [mcv], 52% with Mubami [tsx], 59% with Hoyahoya [hhy], 54% with Hoia Hoia [hhi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai

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Folopa
[ppo] Gulf Province, Baimuru district, Kerabi valley; Southern Highlands Province. 20 villages. 3,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foraba, Podoba, Podopa, Polopa Dialects: Aurei, Bara (Harahu, Harahui), Boro, Keba-Wopasali, Kewah, Pupitau, Ro (Keai, Worugl), Sesa (Ibukairu, Mamisa, Songu), Siligi, Sopese, Suri, Tebera, Waraga. Reportedly most similar to Dadibi [mps]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan

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Forak
[frq] Madang Province, Saidor district, west and inland from Seure on the coast, Mamgak village. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup

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Fore
[for] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa district. 17,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: North Central Fore, Pamusa (South Fore). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Fore

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Fuyug
[fuy] Central Province, Goilala district, Owen Stanley range. 14,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fuyuge, Fuyughe, Mafulu Dialects: Central Udab, Northeast Fuyug, North-South Udab, West Fuyug. Lexical similarity: 35% with Biangai [big], 33% with Kunimaipa [kup], 29% with Weri [wer], 27% with Tauade [ttd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Fuyug Comments: Christian.

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Gadsup
[gaj] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu district. 22,100 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Gadsup, Oyana (Oiyana). Related to Ontenu [ont]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Gaikundi
[gbf] East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik, east of Pagwi. 1,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gaikunti Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Gaina
[gcn] Oro Province, Iwuji village area, next to Baruga [bjz] language area. 1,410 (Dutton 1971). 1,000 in Bareji, 130 in Gaina. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bareji (Baredji), Gaina. Lexical similarity: 61% with Doghoro [dgx] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Gaena-Korafe

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Gal
[gap] Madang Province, Gogol river. 340 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baimak, Weim Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Galeya
[gar] Milne Bay Province, Fergusson island, Esa’ala district, Gameta, Ulua, Lau’oya, Duduna, Momo’awa and Sebutuya wards. 2,620 (2000 census). 790 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garea Dialects: Basima, Gameta, Garea (Galeya), Sebutuia, Urua, Wadalei. Lexical similarity: 61% with Boselewa [bwf] (most similar), 80% with Garea and Basima dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Comments: Less than half of children are in school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ganglau
[ggl] Madang Province. 470 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Yabong [ybo], Dumun [dui], and Saep [spd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon

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Gants
[gao] Madang Province. 1,880 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaj Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon

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Gapapaiwa
[pwg] Milne Bay Province, Makamaka district, Cape Vogel south coast, inland on Ruaba river. 3,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gapa, Manape, Paiwa Dialects: East Gapa, West Paiwa. Lexical similarity: 73% with Ghayavi [bmk] (Boanaki dialect most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Comments: A number of well-educated people.

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Garus
[gyb] Madang Province, Astrolabe bay. 2,650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ate, Em, Kurupi Dialects: None known. Related to Bagupi [bpi], Matepi [mqe], Mosimo [mqv], Murupi [mqw], Rapting [rpt], Samosa [swm], and Silopi [xsp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Gavak
[dmc] Madang Province, Segar, Dindareng, Basken, Pagin, Dawo, and Malan villages. 3,820 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosiken, Boskien, Dimir Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud Comments: Dimir is the name of a tree.

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Gedaged
[gdd] Madang Province; Sek, Yabob, Karkar, and Bagabag islands, Astrolabe bay, Madang coastal villages area. 6,950 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bel, Graged, Mitebog, Ragetta, Rio, Sek, Siar, Siar-Ragetta, Szeak-Bagili, Tiara Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern

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Gende
[gaf] Madang Province, Bundi district near Bundi. 8,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bundi, Gendeka, Gene Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gende Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ghayavi
[bmk] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Weraura local government area, north coast Goodenough bay, Uga west to Wadobuna east, including Rabaraba. 2,810 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boanai, Boanaki, Boianaki, Boinaki, Galavi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar), 46% with Wedau [wed]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are

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Gimi
[gim] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa district. 22,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Labogai Dialects: East Gimi, West Gimi (Gouno). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Fore Comments: Different from Gimi [gip] in West New Britain Province. Traditional religion.

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Gimi
[gip] West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Johanna river to Anu river. 3,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loko Dialects: Dialect continuum with Aiklep [mwg] and Ambul [apo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Comments: Different from Gimi [gim] in Eastern Highlands Province.

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Ginuman
[gnm] Milne Bay Province, Mount Simpson to Naraka coast. 1,440 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dime Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kanasi (Dombosaina village) [soq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Girawa
[bbr] Madang Province, Ramu district. 4,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagasin, Begasin, Begesin Dialects: None known. Related to Munit [mtc] and Kein [bmh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon

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Gitua
[ggt] Morobe Province, Huon peninsula north coast. 760 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,090. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gitoa, Kelana Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam

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Gizrra
[tof] Western Province, South Fly area, northeast of Torres Strait, Saibai island, Kulalae, Ngomtono, Barnap, Kupere, and Waidoro villages. 1,050 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gizra Dialects: Waidoro, Western Gizra. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gnau
[gnu] Sandaun Province, Namblo census division, northwest of Maimai. 1,330 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Gobasi
[goi] Western Province. 1,100 (1993 ECP). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nomad Dialects: Gobasi (Bibo), Honibo, Oibae (Oiba). Related to Samo [smq] and Kubo [jko]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland

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Gogodala
[ggw] Western Province, Fly River north bank, Aramia river. 301 villages. 22,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gogodara Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ari [aac]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala

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Golin
[gvf] Simbu Province, Gumine district. 51,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gollum, Gumine Dialects: Keri, Kia (Kiari), Marigl, Yuri. Reportedly similar to Dom [doa]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu

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Goodenough, West
[ddi] Milne Bay Province, Goodenough island west coast. 2,180 (2000). 440 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diodio Dialects: Awale, Central Diodio, Giwau, Iauiaula, Miyalabi, Molata, Utalo. Lexical similarity: 66% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga

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Gorakor
[goc] Morobe Province, Mumeng district, including Yanta. 2,740 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Yanta. Part of Mumeng group of related varieties. Some intelligibility with Patep [ptp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng

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Gorovu
[grq] East Sepik Province, Ramu river, Bangapela village. 15 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gorova, Yerani Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass

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Guhu-Samane
[ghs] Morobe Province, Lae district; Oro Province, Kanoma and Sidema villages north. 13,000 (2000 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 13,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bia, Mid-Waria, Muri, Paiawa, Tahari Dialects: Sekare. Lexical similarity: 18% with Suena [sue] and Zia [zia] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Guhu-Samane

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Gumalu
[gmu] Madang Province. 580 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Sihan [snr], Amele [aey], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum

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Gumawana
[gvs] Milne Bay Province, Esa’ala district, Amphlett Islands, about 25 islands north of Fergusson. 7 villages. 470 (2000 census), increasing. 50 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Domdom, Gumasi, Gumasila Dialects: Gumawana, Kotoita, Nubogeta. Lexical similarity: 48% with Galeya [gar], 47% with Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Gumawana Comments: Christian.

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Guntai
[gnt] Western Province, Morehead district. 350 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda

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Guramalum
[grz] New Ireland Province. Status: Unattested. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Guriaso
[grx] Sandaun Province, Amanab district. 160 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Kwomtari, Guriaso

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Gusan
[gsn] Morobe Province. 800 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 850. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Guya
[gka] Madang Province, 20 km west of Seure. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guiarak, Guyarak Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup Comments: Guiarak is a village name.

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Gwahatike
[dah] Madang Province, Saidor district, several villages south of Saidor. 1,570 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dahating, Gwatike Dialects: Gora, Gwahamere, Gwahatike, Gwapti. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gweda
[grw] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Maramatana local council area, Garuwahi village. 26 (2001 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Garuwahi Dialects: Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] users agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 71% with Wa’ema [wag], 69% with Taupota [tpa], 68% with Naura dialect of Haigwai [hgw], 67% with Kapulika dialect of Haigwai, 64% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 63% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Wedau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota

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Hahon
[hah] Northwest Bougainville Province. 1,300 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hanon Dialects: Aravia, Kurur, Ratsua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz

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Haigwai
[hgw] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Huhu local government area, inland from Milne Bay head between Hagita and Waigani estates and mountains west. 1,060 (2000 census). 160 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garaghwaghi, Kapulika, Naura Dialects: Kapulika, Naura. Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] users agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 68% between the Naura dialect and Gweda, 65% between Kapulika dialect and Taupota [tpa], 52% with Wedau [wed], 48% with Maiwala [mum]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota

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Hakö
[hao] Bougainville Province, North Bougainville district, northeast Buka island. 5,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haku Dialects: Lontes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia Comments: Christian.

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Halia
[hla] Bougainville Province, North Bougainville district, Buka island east coast; Selau Peninsula, Cartaret Islands. 20,000 (1994 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Tasi Dialects: Hanahan, Hangan, Selau, Touloun (Tulon, Tulun). Tryon (1990) says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Users have contact with Luangiua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia Comments: Distinct from Tulu dialect of Tulu-Bohuai [rak] in Manus Province. Christian.

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Hamtai
[hmt] Gulf Province, Kukipi district, Tauri river inland east to Ladedamu river; Morobe Province, Lae district, Kodama range into Bulolo-Watut divide, to Mount Grosse and north to Mount Taylor. 45,000 (1998 T. Palmer). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hamday, Kamea, Kapau, “Kukukuku” (pej.), Watut Dialects: Hamtai, Howi, Kaintiba, Pmasa’a, Wenta. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan Comments: ‘Kamea’ is used in Gulf Province.

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Hanga Hundi
[wos] East Sepik Province, Pagwi district. 16 villages. 7,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwasengen, West Wosera Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ambulas [abt]. Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Haruai
[tmd] Madang Province southwest, southwest Mid-Ramu district, west Schrader range, west of the Kobon [kpw] language area. 2,000 (2000 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Harway, Taman, Waibuk, Wiyau, Wiyaw, Wovan Dialects: Central Waibuk (Mambar), North Waibuk (Hamil), South Waibuk (Arama). Word taboo practiced, but does not seem to impede intelligibility among related language varieties. Lexical similarity: 37% with Pinai-Hagahai [pnn], 35% with Kobon [kpw]. Classification: Piawi Comments: Some similarities to Kalam languages due to borrowing (Comrie 1988). More loanwords from Kobon used in the northern area.

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Hermit
[llf] Western Manus Province, Hermit Islands, Luf and Maron islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agomes, Luf, Maron Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Hewa
[ham] Southern Highlands Province, Koroba district; Enga Province, Lagaip district; Sandaun Province, Telefomin district; Lagaip river area, mountains north of Duna [duc] and Ipili [ipi] language areas; south of Lagaip river northward to Central range high peaks (political and physical boundary between Sepik region and the highlands). 2,150 (1986 SIL). 290 in Yoliapi (1982 SIL). 1,600 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sisimin Dialects: Central Lagaip, Lower Lagaip, North Hewa, Upper Lagaip. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Heyo
[auk] Sandaun Province, Nuku district. 2,710 (2000 census). 270 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arima, Arinua, Arinwa, Lolopani, Ruruhip, Wan Wan Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Yahang [rhp]. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper Comments: Yahang [rhp] is also called Ruruhip. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hoia Hoia
[hhi] Western Province, Middle Fly district, Ukusi-Koparamio village. 80 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hoiahoia, Ukusi-Koparamio Hoyahoya Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Minanibai [mcv], 47% with Mubami [tsx], 54% with Foia Foia [ffi], 71% with Hoyahoya [hhy]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai

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Hote
[hot] Morobe Province, Lae district, Francisco diver area. 2,300 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,350. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hotec, Ho’tei, Malê, Malei Dialects: Hote, Misim (Musim, Ombalei). Lexical similarity: 90% between Hote and Misim dialects; 70% with Yamap [ymp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote

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Hoyahoya
[hhy] Western Province, Middle Fly district, Matakaia village. 95 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hoiahoia, Hoya Hoya, Matakaia Hoyahoya Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Minanibai [mcv], 52% with Mubami [tsx], 59% with Foia Foia [ffi], 71% with Hoia Hoia [hhi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai

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Hula
[hul] Central Province, Hood peninsula. 3,240 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vula’a Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara

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Huli
[hui] Southern Highlands Province, Tari area; Enga Province, south fringe. 150,000 (2011 ECP), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Huli-Hulidana, Huri Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Huli Comments: Christian (Protestant), Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Humene
[huf] Central Province, lower Sogeri plateau; adjacent plain between Gaire and Kapakapa villages. Manugoro is principal village. 940 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Humene, Lagume (Lakume, Manukolu). Lexical similarity: 65%–74% with Kwale [ksj] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean

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Hunjara-Kaina Ke
[hkk] Oro Province, Kokoda rural LLG. 8,770 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Hunjara, Kaina Ke. Reportedly similar to Orokaiva [okv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Orokaivan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iamalele
[yml] Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka district, west Fergusson island. 2,800 (1987 SIL). 1,120 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yamalele Dialects: Central Yamalele, Didigavu, Gwabegwabe, Masimasi, Southern Yamalele. Lexical similarity: 64% with Koluwawa [klx] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga

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Iatmul
[ian] East Sepik Province, Ambunti and Angoram districts, Sepik river, Tambunum to Japandai, Kundungay area villages. 8,440 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Big Sepik, Gepma Kwudi, Gepma Kwundi, Ngepma Kwundi Dialects: Nyaura, Palimbei. Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Idi
[idi] Western Province, northwest of Agob [kit], east of Nambo [ncm] language areas. 1,610 (2000 census). 780 Idi, 800 Tame. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diblaeg, Dimisi, Dimsisi, Tame Dialects: Idi, Tame. End of a dialect subgroup stretching to Agob [kit]. Distinct from but reportedly similar to Agob. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Pahoturi Comments: Primary schools.

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Iduna
[viv] Milne Bay Province, Esa’ala district, north coast, Goodenough island. 6,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vivigana, Vivigani Dialects: Belebele, Central Vivigani, Goiala, Idakamenai, Kalauna, Ufaufa, Ufufu, Waibula. Lexical similarity: 72% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Comments: Three-quarters of the children are in school.

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Igana
[igg] Madang Province, west of Josephstaal. 200 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Romkun [rmk], Breri [brq], Kominimung [xoi], Chini [afi], and Inapang [mzu]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan

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Ikobi
[meb] Gulf Province, south of Kibirowi island, upper Omati and Middle Turama rivers’ areas. 1,570 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikobi Kairi, Ikobi-Mena, Kasere, Kopo-Monia, Meni, Wailemi Dialects: Dukemi, Gorau, Pimuru, Upper Kikori Kaser, Upper Turama-Kaser, Utabi. Barikewa [jbk] and Mouwase [jmw] reportedly most similar. Mena dialect may be a separate language (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kaser

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Imbongu
[imo] Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu district. 42,500 (2000 census). 6,380 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Au, Aua, Awa, Ibo Ugu, Imbo Ungo, Imbo Ungu, Imbonggo Dialects: Awa (Au, Aua). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel Comments: Christian.

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Imonda
[imn] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, near Imonda airstrip. 250 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Border, Waris

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Inapang
[mzu] East Sepik Province; Madang Province, Josephstaal subdistrict. 1,830 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Midsivindi Dialects: Inapang, Itutang. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan

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Inoke-Yate
[ino] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa district. 10,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inoke, Jate, Yate Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria

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Ipiko
[ipo] Gulf Province, Pie river beyond Baimuru, Ipiko, and Pahemuba villages. 345 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Epai, Higa, Ipikoi Dialects: Eva, Ibigo. Related to Minanibai [mcv] and Mubami [tsx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Ipiko Comments: Semi-nomadic.

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Ipili
[ipi] Enga Province, Porgera patrol–post area. 26,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 13,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ipili-Paiela, Ipili-Payala Dialects: Paiela, Porgera, Tipinini. Paiela and Pogera have minor lexical differences; Tipinini is reportedly similar to Enga [enq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Isabi
[isa] Madang Province. 280 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maruhia Dialects: None known. Related languages: Biyom [bpm], Tauya [tya], and Faita [faj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Isabi

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Isaka
[ksi] Sandaun Province near coast. 420 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krisa Dialects: None known. Related to Rawo [rwa], Puare [pux], and Warapu [wra]. Classification: Skou, I’saka

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Isebe
[igo] Madang Province, Gum river north bank, west of Madang town. 910 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balahaim Dialects: Isebe, Mirkuk, Urukun. Related to Sihan [snr], Gumalu [gmu], Amele [aey], Bau [bbd], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iteri
[itr] Sandaun Province, Rocky Peak mountains. 480 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Alowiemino, Iyo, Laro, Rocky Peak, Yinibu Classification: Arai (Left May) Comments: Area seldom entered by outsiders. Ethnonym: Rocky Peak people.

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Iwal
[kbm] Morobe Province, Lae district, between Wau and Salamaua. 2,100 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaiwa Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Kaiwa

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Iwam
[iwm] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Sepik river, Mowi and Iyomempwi villages; May river villages and surrounding lakes and tributaries to Premai village. 3,000 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: May River Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Amal [aad] and Sepik Iwam [iws]. Classification: Sepik, Iwam Comments: Traditional religion.

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Iwam, Sepik
[iws] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Sepik river villages, lagoons north and south, Iniok village downstream to Leonard Schultze river. 2,500 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yawenian Classification: Sepik, Iwam

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Iyo
[nca] Madang Province, Finisterre mountains’ south slopes along Nahu and Bure rivers; north slopes along Kipuro and Kasang rivers. 6,900 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bure, Nabu, Naho, Nahu, Ndo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Rawa [rwo]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot

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Jilim
[jil] Madang Province. 650 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Waube [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Uyajitaya [duk], Rerau [rea], and Yangulam [ynl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Juwal
[mwb] East Sepik Province, south southeast of Wewak. 1,440 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambe, Muniwara, Tumara, Tumaru Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Kaiep
[kbw] East Sepik Province, Kep and Taul coast area. 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Samap Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru

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Kairak
[ckr] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula, Malabunga and Ivere villages. 900 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: East New Britain, Baining Comments: 1 primary school.

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Kairiru
[kxa] East Sepik Province, Wewak district, Kairiru, Yuo, and Karesau islands; mainland coastal villages between Cape Karawop and Cape Samein; north and west Mushu island. 3,200 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kaiep [kbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru

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Kakabai
[kqf] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Weraura and Suau LLGs, inland villages, Papua eastern tip. 900 (2003 SIL). 135 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Igora Dialects: North Kakabai, South Kakabai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai Comments: Kakabai serves as marker of group identity.

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Kaki Ae
[tbd] Gulf Province, southeast of Kerema, Auri, Kupiano, Kupla, Lou, Ovorio, and Uriri villages. 630 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,280. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lorabada, Lou, Raepa Tati, Tate, Tati Dialects: None known. Different from Torricelli [tei] (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Lou [loj] in Manus Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Tate

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Kala
[kcl] Morobe Province, Huon Gulf south coast, between Salamaua and Kui, Paiawa river. 10 villages. 2,200 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gela, Kela, Kelana, Laukanu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North

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Kalam
[kmh] Madang Province, Ramu district; Western Highlands Province, Hagen district, Jimi river north side into Kaironk valley. 15,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aforo, Karam Dialects: None known. Related to Gants [gao]and Kobon [kpw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon

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Kalou
[ywa] Sandaun Province, Sepik Iwam area, northwest of Hauna. 1,370 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yawa Classification: Sepik, Tama

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Kaluli
[bco] Southern Highlands Province, into Western Province, Mount Bosavi north and west slopes. 2,500 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bosavi Dialects: Kaluli, Kugenesi, Ologo, Walulu. Dialect differences are not great. Reportedly similar to but different from Kasua [khs]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kamano
[kbq] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Henganofi districts. 63,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamano-Kafe Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria

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Kamasa
[klp] Morobe Province, Katsiong census unit area. 7 (2003 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan

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Kamasau
[kms] East Sepik Province, Wewak district. Segi dialect: Kamasau, Tring, and Wau villages; Hagi dialect: Kenyari; Ghini: Yibab, Wandomi, and Wobu. 960 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wand Tuan Dialects: Ghini, Hagi, Segi. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Kambaira
[kyy] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu district. 140 (Wurm 1971). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Kambaira

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Kamula
[xla] Western Province, Wawoi Falls area, Kamiyami village; Aramia river area, Keseki and Somokopa. 800 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wawoi Dialects: None known. Pare [ppt] is most similar (Reesink 1976). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kamula

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Kanasi
[soq] Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district, from Mount Thomson, both sides main range river valleys. 2,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sona Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Ginuman [gnm] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Kandas
[kqw] New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Watpi, King, and Kait villages. 300 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 690. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: King Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Kandawo
[gam] Western Highlands Province, Hagen district, upper Jimi headwaters, Mount Wilhelm slopes. 4,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Narake Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi

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Kanggape
[igm] Madang Province, west of Tanggu. 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Igom Dialects: None known. Related to Andarum [aod], Tanggu [tgu], and Tanguat [tbs]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu

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Kaniet
[ktk] Manus Province, Anchorite and Kaniet islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western

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Kaningra
[knr] East Sepik Province, Blackwater river south of Kuvanmas lake. 2 villages. 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaningara Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak

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Kaninuwa
[wat] Milne Bay Province, Sivesive village and 1 other; 2 villages north of Goodenough island. 360 (2001). 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 510. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaokao, Wataluma Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Iduna [viv] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Comments: Glossonym: Kaokao, by others on Goodenough Island; Wataluma, in adjacent mission station name.

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Kanite
[kmu] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa district. 8,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Keyagana [kyg] and Inoke-Yate [ino]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria

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Kap
[ykm] Sandaun Province, between Paup and Yakamul coast; Ali, Seleo, and Angel islands. 3,460 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ali Dialects: Ali, Yakamul, Yigel. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau

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Kapin
[tbx] Morobe Province, Mumeng and Bulolo districts, hills southwest of Mumeng, 5 villages; Wau and Lae settlements. 2,350 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katumene, Sambio, Taiak, Tayek Dialects: Garawa (Gawawa), Kapin. May be part of the Mumeng group of related varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kapriman
[dju] East Sepik Province, Blackwater and Korosameri rivers. 6 villages. 1,640 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mugumute, Wasare Dialects: Kapriman, Karambit. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo

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Kara
[leu] New Ireland Province, north New Ireland district. 5,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lemakot, Lemusmus Dialects: East Kara, Lauan-Nonopai, Luburua, Ngavalus-Lossuk, West Kara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik

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Karami
[xar] Gulf Province, Western Province border, northeast of Tao-Suamoto. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai Comments: Extinct since the 1950s (Wurm 2007).

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Karawa
[xrw] Sandaun Province, Lumi district, Pulwa village. 63 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bulawa Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Pouye [bye]. Classification: Sepik, Ram

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Kare
[kmf] Madang Province. 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kare

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Karkar-Yuri
[yuj] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, Papua, Indonesia border area. 1,140 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karkar, Yuri Dialects: Auia-Tarauwi, North Central Yuri, Usari. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern

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Karnai
[bbv] Morobe Province, 4 mainland villages near Wasu, 3 on southwest Umboi island. 920 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Barim” (pej.) Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap

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Karore
[xkx] West New Britain Province, Kandrian district, between Andru and Johanna rivers. 550 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. In a chain of related varieties with Kaulong [pss]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua

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Kasua
[khs] South Highlands Province, east and south of Mount Bosavi; northeast Western Province; northwest Gulf Province. 6 villages. 600 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Grammatical structures reportedly very similar with Fasu [faa] despite being classified in different families. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi

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Kâte
[kmg] Morobe Province, Finschhafen district. 20,000 (2011 M. Muhujupe). L2 users: 80,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Established as a church language by the Lutherans in the early 1900s. Alternate Names: Kai, Kâte Dong Dialects: Magobineng (Bamota), Parec, Wamora (Wamola), Wana, Wemo. Dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Kaulong
[pss] West New Britain Province, Kandrian district, southwest. 4,000 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowlong, Pasismanua Dialects: East Inland Kaulong, Kaulong. Miu [mpo], Aighon [aix], and Senseng [ssz] may be dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua

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Kawacha
[kcb] Morobe Province, east of Ampale, Katsiong census unit area. 12 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 40. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kawatsa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan

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Kayan
[kct] Madang Province, Bogia district, coast east of Ramu river. 1 village. 600 (2004 PBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaian Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Watam

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Keak
[keh] East Sepik Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwaruwikwundi, Sepik Plains, Tshuosh, Tshwosh Dialects: None known. Related to Gaikundi [gbf]. Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Keapara
[khz] Central Province, coast east of Hood peninsula to Lalaura west of Cape Rodney. 3 villages. 19,400 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Keopara, Kerepunu Dialects: Aroma (Aloma, Arona, Galoma), Babaga, Kalo, Kapari, Keapara (Keopara), Lalaura, Maopa, Wanigela. In a chain of related varieties extending to Hula [hul]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara

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Kein
[bmh] Madang Province, Trans-Gogol district. 1,750 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bemal Dialects: Kibam, Sigau, Sog. Related to Girawa [bbr] and Munit [mtc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Kele
[sbc] Manus Province, south coast inland, Buyang, Droia, Kawaliap, Koruniat, and Tingau. 600 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gele’ Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kenati
[gat] Eastern Highlands Province, Wonenara district, Wonenara area. 3 villages. 950 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aziana, Ganati, Kenathi Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Keoru-Ahia
[xeu] Gulf Province, west of Kerema, Purari river mouth east to Bairu river. 5,970 (2000 census). Keoru: 5070, Ahia: 710, Pairi: 190. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahia, Ahiave, Haura, Haura Haela, Horo, Houro, Hovoiroro, Hovoyo, Ke’oru, Keuro, Keuru, Kouri, Lavau, Lower Ahia, O’o Moko, Pairi, Velepa Dialects: Ahia (Aheave), Keoru, Pairi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western

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Kerewo
[kxz] Gulf Province, Omati river west bank, east and inland to Samoa village. 1,090 (2011 SIL). Population represents speakers living in their language area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kerewa, Kerewa-Goari Dialects: Gibario (Goaribari). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian

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Kesawai
[xes] Madang Province. 770 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kesawi, Koromu, Namuya Dialects: None known. Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Sausi [ssj], and Watiwa [wtf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia

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Kewa, East
[kjs] Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu and Kagua districts. 45,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Kewa, West
[kew] Southern Highlands Province, Kagua and Mendi districts. 45,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pasuma Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Keyagana
[kyg] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa and Henganofi districts. 12,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Keiagana, Keigana, Ke’yagana Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria

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Khehek
[tlx] Manus Province, Soparibeu district, Ndrehet (the center), Levei, and Bucho villages. 1,600 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Levei-Drehet, Levei-Ndrehet Dialects: Bucho, Drehet (Chechek, Chehek, Khehek), Levei (Lebei, Lebej). In Levei a dialect closely related to Bucho south dialect is spoken. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Kibiri
[prm] Gulf Province, Kikori district, near Aird Hills, Kikori river tributaries, Tipeowo, Doibo, Paile, Babaguina, Ero, and Wowa villages. 1,180 (2011 SIL). 900 Porome, 280 Kibiri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gibiri, Polome, Porome Dialects: Aird Hills (Kibiri), Porome. Unrelated to other Gulf Province languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian Comments: Different from Rumu [klq], which is also called Kibiri.

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Kilivila
[kij] Milne Bay Province, Trobriand Islands. 20,000 (2000 D. Tryon). 12,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiriwina Dialects: Kitava, Sinaketa, Vakuta. Lexical similarity: 68% with Muyuw [myw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila Comments: Many schools. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kilmeri
[kih] Sandaun Province, Vanimo district near Ossima. 15 villages. 1,970 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,800 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kilmera Dialects: Eastern Kilmeri (Ossima), Western Kilmeri (Isi). Classification: Border, Bewani

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Kinalakna
[kco] Morobe Province. 305 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 330. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western

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Kire
[geb] Madang Province, lower Ramu, Garati village area. 2,420 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gire, Giri, Kire-Puire Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew

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Kis
[kis] East Sepik Province, south southeast of Samap, inland from the coast. 220 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam

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Kiunum
[wei] Western Province, Dewara village. 490 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Were, Weredai Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio

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Kiwai, Northeast
[kiw] Gulf Province. 6,000 (2011 W. Foley). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gibaio, Urama-Kope Dialects: Arigibi (Anigibi), Gibaio, Kope (Era River, Gope), Urama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian Comments: Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat Arigibi dialect as a separate language.

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Kiwai, Southern
[kjd] Western Province, Fly river delta, Fly river north bank. 9,700 (Wurm 1975). 3,800 in Coast, 1,000 in Daru, 4,500 in Island Kiwai, 400 in Doumori. Several sources estimate current population now in excess of 20,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiwai Dialects: Coast Kiwai, Island Kiwai (Bamu Kiwai). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian Comments: All dialect speakers agree the language and cultural center is on Kiwai Island.

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Kobol
[kgu] Madang Province. 720 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koguman Dialects: None known. Related to Pal [abw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Omosan

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Kobon
[kpw] Madang Province, Middle Ramu district; Western Highlands Province, Kaironk river, lower Jimi river area north of Mount Hagen. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon

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Koiali, Mountain
[kpx] Central Province, Port Moresby district, north of Koita, Koiari, Barai, and Efogi villages. 4,000 (2000 census). 2,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mountain Koiari Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50%–57% with Grass Koiari [kbk] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric

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Koiari, Grass
[kbk] Central Province, east of Port Moresby to coast. 1,700 (Wurm 2000). 170 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koiari Dialects: Hogeri, Lahada, Omani. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Koitabu [kqi] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric

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Koitabu
[kqi] Central Province, Port Moresby area. 2,700 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koita Dialects: East Koita, West Koita. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Grass Koiari [kbk] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric

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Koiwat
[kxt] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, between Munguma and Nagam rivers, Koiwat, Kamangaui, Seraba, and Paiambit villages. 800 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Kol
[kol] East New Britain Province, Pomio district, Open bay inland to Waterfall bay coast. Most on island’s south side. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kola, Kole Dialects: Kol (Nakgaktai), Sui. Classification: Language isolate

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Koluwawa
[klx] Milne Bay Province, Fergusson ilsand northwest tip. 900 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kalokalo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Iamalele [yml] (most similar), and then Bwaidoka [bwd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Comments: Use of other languages and bilingualism is mainly due to intermarriage. Husbands or wives from other language groups live at Kalokalo with their Koluwawa spouse. Christian.

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Komba
[kpf] Morobe Province, Kabwum district. Bordered by Selepet [spl] language area northwest and Timbe [tim] west, Saruwaged mountains south, and Cromwell mountains east. 15,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Neng Den Dialects: Border Komba, Central Komba, East Komba, West Central Komba, West Komba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: Christian.

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Kombio
[xbi] East Sepik Province, Dreikikir district, Torricelli mountains. 31 villages. 2,970 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Small groups in West New Britain, Vanimo and Lae areas; a few elsewhere. About 2,400 live in Kombio area. Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Endangen Dialects: East Kombio (Wampurun), North Kombio (Mwi), South Kombio (Yanimoi), West-Central Kombio (Wampukuamp). Mwi dialect is more distinct from the others and users have some difficulty in comprehension between dialects. 7–8 central villages each have unique idiolect versions. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio

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Kominimung
[xoi] Madang Province. 320 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Romkun [rmk], Breri [brq], Igana [igg], Chini [afi], and Inapang [mzu]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan

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Konai
[kxw] Western Province, Upper Strickland river west side. 600 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mirapmin Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Odoodee [kkc] and Fembe [agl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland

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Konomala
[koa] New Ireland Province, southeast coast. 8 villages. 800 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Konomala, Laket. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Kopar
[xop] East Sepik Province. 540 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Murik [mtf]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Nor

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Korafe-Yegha
[kpr] Oro Province, Tufi district, Cape Nelson headlands (fjord system). 3,630 (2003 SIL). A very few old women are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kailikaili, Kaire, Korafe, Korafi, Korape, Kwarafe Dialects: Korafe, Yegha (Mokorua, Yega). Yegha dialect is distinct from Yega dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou]. Gaina [gcn] may also be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 43% with Baruga [bjz], 61% with Ewage dialect of Ewage Notu [nou] (2007 SIL). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Gaena-Korafe

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Korak
[koz] Madang Province. 510 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Kowan

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Koro
[kxr] Manus Province. 400 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to, and possibly intelligible of, Papitalai [pat]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Koromira
[kqj] Bougainville Province, Kieta district, central mountains and southeast coast, between Metong and Luluai rivers. 2,500 (2007 SIL). 2,300 Koromira and 200 Koianu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Koianu, Koromira. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi

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Kosena
[kze] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Okapa districts. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Kovai
[kqb] Morobe Province, Siassi district, Umboi and Rooke islands. 13 villages. 6,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,300. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alngubin, Kobai, Kowai Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Kovai Comments: All but 2 villages situated in an ancient caldera on this volcanic island. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kove
[kvc] West New Britain Province, northwest coast. 24 villages, most on small coastal islands. 6,750 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Comments: Separate from Lusi [khl]. Many highly educated people.

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Kowaki
[xow] Madang Province, south of Kumil river, about 10 km from the coast, south of Sikor and Malala harbor. 25 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran

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Kuanua
[ksd] East New Britain Province, Rabaul District, Gazelle peninsula. 61,000 (1991 SIL). L2 users: 20,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as a church language widely in New Ireland and East New Britain provinces within the United Church. It is not used beyond the church domain in most of the language groups that use it for church. Alternate Names: Blanche Bay, Gunantuna, New Britain Language, Tinata Tuna, Tolai, Tuna Dialects: Kabakada, Kininanggunan, Kokopo, Livuan, Masawa, Matupit, Nodup, Rakunei, Raluana, Rapitok, Rebar, Vanumami, Vunadidir, Watom. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Comments: Ethnonym: Tolai.

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Kube
[kgf] Morobe Province, Dindiu district, east Mongi river headwaters, lower Kua river valley east slopes, Foris river valley. 7,500 (2000 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hube, Mongi Dialects: Kurungtufu, Yoangen (Yoanggeng). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Kubo
[jko] Western Province, Lake Murray district, north half Upper Strickland census district, east of Strickland river, north of the Samo [smq] language area. 1000 Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Related to Samo [smq] and Gobasi [goi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland

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Kumalu
[ksl] Morobe Province, Mumeng district. 2,580 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumara Dialects: None known. In Mumeng group of related varieties. Some intelligibility with Dambi [dac]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng

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Kuman
[kue] Simbu Province, northern third, into Western Highlands Province, Minj subprovince. 115,000 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Major area language used as a trade language for all the other Chimbu languages. Alternate Names: Chimbu, Simbu Dialects: Kuman, Nagane (Genagane, Genogane), Yongomugl. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kumukio
[kuo] Morobe Province. 1,050 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumokio Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western

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Kuni
[kse] Central Province, Kairuku and southwest Goilala districts, toward Port Moresby, south of Mekeo. 2,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Lala [nrz], 47% with Mekeo [mek], 40% with Waima [rro], the most similar varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear

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Kuni-Boazi
[kvg] Western Province, Lake Murray district. 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. L2 users: Few use Kuni-Boazi as L2 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boadji, Boazi, Bwadji, Kuini, Kuni Dialects: Aewa, Ingias, Khoamak, Kuni, Sengeze, Wamak. Related to Zimakani [zik] and Marind [mrz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Boazi Comments: Speakers of different dialects do not share a common language name. Few use Kuni-Boazi as L2.

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Kunimaipa
[kup] Central Province, north Goilala district; Morobe Province, Wau district. 8,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Gajili (Gajila, Gazili, Hazili), Karuama, Kâte (Hate). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kunja
[pep] Western Province, extreme southwest. 290 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Morehead, Peremka, Thundai-Kanza Dialects: Gambadi, Kámá, Kánchá, Semariji. Related to Kanum, Arammba [stk], Rema [bow], Wara [tci], Guntai [gnt], and Blafe [bfh], aided by extensive intermarriage networks and Nambo subfamily languages. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda

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Kuot
[kto] New Ireland Province, northwest coast. 9 villages. 2,400 (2002 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuat, Panaras Classification: Language isolate

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Kurti
[ktm] Manus Province, north central coast. 3,000 (2002 SIL). About 400 outside the language area. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuruti, Kuruti-Pare, Ndrugul Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Comments: Christian.

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Kutong
[skm] Morobe Province, Sakam, Makwa, Tamunat, and Kamdaran villages. 1,300 (2000 census). 200 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dinangat, Sakam Dialects: Akwawin, Iyot, Kamdaran, Sakam. Most divergent Uruwa language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa

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Kwanga
[kwj] East Sepik Province, Maprik district, beyond west boundary; Makru-Klaplei division, Nuku district; Sandaun Province, east of Mehek. 40 villages. 10,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gawanga, Kawanga Dialects: Apos, Bongos (Bongomaise, Bongomamsi, Nambi), Tau (Kubiwat), Wasambu, Yubanakor (Daina). 2 main dialects, 5 subdialects. Classification: Sepik, Nukuma

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Kwoma
[kmo] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Sepik and Sanchi river areas. 12 villages. 3,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Washkuk Dialects: Kwoma (Washkuk), Nukuma. Classification: Sepik, Nukuma

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Kwomtari
[kwo] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, north of Namia. 6 villages. 600 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Central Kwomtari, Eastern Kwomtari, Western Kwomtari. Classification: Kwomtari, Nuclear Kwomtari Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kyaka
[kyc] Enga Province. 15,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baiyer, Enga-Kyaka Dialects: Yaramanda. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga

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Kyenele
[kql] East Sepik Province, Yuat river, Giling village. 1,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulang, Keñele, Kenen Birang, Kenying, Keyele, Kyenying-Barang, Miyak Classification: Yuat

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Label
[lbb] New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Nasko and Tampakar villages. 140 (1979 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Labu
[lbu] Morobe Province, Markham river coast area, Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali. Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hapa, Labo, Labu’ Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Labu Comments: School attenders learn English [eng]. Yabem [jae] was church language, and there were schools in Yabem. Strong economy.

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Laeko-Libuat
[lkl] Sandaun Province, Torricelli mountains, west of Mehek. 720 (2003 SIL). 520 in area; 200 outside. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laeko, Laeko-Limbuat Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Laeko-Libuat

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Lala
[nrz] Central Province, between Kuni and Waima, inland from the coast, south of Yule Island. 3,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ala’ala, Nala, Nara, Pokau Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Toura [don] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear

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Lamogai
[lmg] West New Britain Province, northwest interior, 2 regions on south coast. 3,650 (Johnston 1980). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akiuru, Mulakaino Dialects: Ibanga (Ivanga), Lomogai, Musen, Paret, Pulie-Rauto (Rauto, Roto). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Langam
[lnm] East Sepik Province. 420 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mongol-Langam

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Laua
[luf] Central Province, north and west of Laua. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Labu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan

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Lavatbura-Lamusong
[lbv] New Ireland Province, central. 1,310 (Beaumont 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamasong Dialects: Kontu, Lamusong (Lamasong), Lavatbura, Ugana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak

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Lawunuia
[tgi] Bougainville Province, Piva river. 550 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nagarege, Nagarige, Naghareghe, Piva Dialects: Amun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni

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Leipon
[lek] Manus Province, Lolo Village, Hauwai, Ndrilo, and Pityilu islands. 650 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pitilu, Pityilu Dialects: Pafulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Lele
[lle] Manus Province, Manus island. 1,300 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Elu-Kara, Hai, Lele Hai, Manus, Moanus, Usiai Dialects: Sabon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Lembena
[leq] Northeast Enga Province, into East Sepik Province, Eleme, Yambaitoko, Saut Isataele, Mosope, Itopeno, Pipitesa, Madawesa, and Mokosele villages. 1,760 (2000 census), increasing. 750 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lembena Pii, Nanimba Pii, Uyalipa Pii, Wapi Pii Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga Comments: Christian.

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Lemio
[lei] Madang Province, several coastal villages near Saidor. 270 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau

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Lenkau
[ler] Manus Province, southwest Rambutyo island. 1 village. 250 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands

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Lihir
[lih] New Ireland Province, Lihir and 3 smaller islands. 12,600 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lir Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Likum
[lib] Manus Province, west Manus island. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Lilau
[lll] Madang Province, Bogia district. 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngaimbom Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo

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Loniu
[los] Manus Province, Los Negros island south coast, Lolak and Loniu villages. 460 (1977 P. Lincoln). Ethnic population: 660. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lonio, Ndroku Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bipi [biq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu

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Lote
[uvl] East New Britain Province, Pomio district, southeast coast and inland near Cape Dampier. 5,500 (2004 SIL). 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Uvol Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen Comments: People who marry into Lote group are encouraged to learn it.

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Lou
[loj] Manus Province, Lou island. 1,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Rei. Dialects are very similar. Rei is dominant. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Comments: Different from Torricelli [tei] (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Kaki Ae (Lou) [tbd] in Gulf Province.

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Lungalunga
[vmg] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula, Ataliklikun bay, Lungalunga and Vunamarita villages. 600 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Minigir, Tavue, Vinitiri Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava Comments: Although the language name, Lungalunga, was derived from Tok Pisin [tpi] ‘longlong’ meaning ‘crazy’, there is unanimous agreement within the community that this is the widely recognized language name, even though they prefer the name Tavue, meaning ‘brother’.

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Lusi
[khl] West New Britain Province, northwest coast. 2,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaliai Dialects: Kaliai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai

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Ma
[mjn] Madang Province, southwest of Saidor, Mibu and Tariknan villages, area hamlets. 570 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mawam, Mebu Dialects: Mina. Related to Nankina [nnk] (Jerung). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Ma Manda
[skc] Morobe Province. 1,500 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sauk Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Madak
[mmx] New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland district. 3,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lelet, Mandak Dialects: Danu, Katingan, Lelet, Malom, Mesi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak

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Madi
[grg] Madang Province. 380 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gira Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot

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Magiyi
[gmg] Madang Province, Middle Ramu district, Vguvindi village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan

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Magori
[zgr] Central Province, Table bay east end, Bailebo-Tavenei river lower reaches. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Suau [swp]. Vocabulary heavily influenced by Mailu [mgu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric

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Maia
[sks] Madang Province, Bogia district, mainland south of Manam island. 4,350 (2000 census). 3,720 in main dialect, 630 in southern dialect. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banar, Maya, Pila, Saki, Suaro, Turutap, Yakiba Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran

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Maiadomu
[mzz] Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka district, east Fergusson island. 900 (2000 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maiadom Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with Iamalele [yml], 35% with Boselewa [bwf], 32% with Gameta dialect of Galeya [gar], 20% with Dobu [dob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga

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Maiani
[tnh] Madang Province, Bogia district. 3,040 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banara, Miani South, Tani, Wagimuda Dialects: None known. Different from Mala [ped] (Banara). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran

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Mailu
[mgu] Central Province, south coast, Gadaisu to Baramata, Table bay and Toulon island. 8,500 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Magi Dialects: Asiaoro, Baibara, Borebo, Darava, Derebai, Domara, Geagea, Ilai, Island Mailu. Related to Laua [luf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan Comments: Above average education level.

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Maisin
[mbq] Oro Province, Collingwood bay and Kosirava swamp coast villages. 2,610 (2000 census). 600 in Kosirava dialect. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maisan Dialects: Kosirava, Maisin. No closely related languages. Lexical similarity: 73% among dialects, but little interaction between users. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Maisin

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Maiwa
[mti] Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district, Meneao range area; Moi Biri bay coast, into Oro Province. 1,400 (1998 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Gairen, Gwareta, Maiwa, Manigara, Oren. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mapena [mnm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan Comments: Christian.

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Maiwala
[mum] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Huhu LGA, Milne bay head. 2,450 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Maiwala. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tawala [tbo] at Diwala village (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota

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Makayam
[aup] Western Province, Fly estuary, Sumogi island, Adulu, Lewada, and Suame villages. Giribam dialect: Janor village. 1,300 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adulu, Atura, Aturu, Makaeyam, Tirio Dialects: Giribam. Lexical similarity: 79% with Giribam dialect, 52% with Bitur [mcc], 47% with Wara [tci], 32% with Baramu [bmz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio

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Makolkol
[zmh] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: East New Britain, Baining

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Mala
[ped] Madang Province, Bogia district. 1,390 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alam, Banara, Dagoi, Dagui, Hatzfeldhafen, Malala, Pai, Pay Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran Comments: Distinct from Maiani [tnh] (Banara), and from Pei [ppq] (Pai) in Walio group.

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Malalamai
[mmt] Madang Province, Rai coast east of Saidor; Malalamai, Yara and Bonga villages. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bonga, Garpunei Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Comments: People say Malalamai and Bonga names were given by the Australian administration. Bonga village is called Garingei by residents. Malalamai village residents call their village and language Garpunei. No residents could provide an agreed upon language name, though they agree it is the same language.

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Malas
[mkr] Madang Province near Tokain. 650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud

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Male
[mdc] Madang Province, coast south of Bom. 970 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koliku Dialects: None known. Related to Bongu [bpu] and Anjam [boj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim

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Maleu-Kilenge
[mgl] West New Britain Province, Talasea district west tip. 5,200 (1983 census). 1,560 Kilenge. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idne Dialects: Kilenge (Kaitarolea), Maleu. Lexical similarity: 93% between Maleu and Kilenge dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Kilenge-Maleu Comments: Maleu and Kilenge dialects may be separate languages (Wurm and Hattori 1981) (Ross 1988).

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Mali
[gcc] East New Britain Province, east Gazelle peninsula. 2,200 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaktai Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: East New Britain, Baining Comments: Several primary schools. Distinct within Baining ethnic group.

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Malol
[mbk] Sandaun Province, Malol village area. 3330 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malolo, Malon Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau

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Mamaa
[mhf] Morobe Province, Mama village. North-northwest of Uri [uvh] and west of Finongan [fag] language areas. 200 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Doloman, Mama Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Mamusi
[kdf] East New Britain Province, southeast coast, inland on Melkoi and Torlu rivers. 6,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kakuna Dialects: Kakuna, Mamusi, Melkoi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen Comments: Scattered village schools.

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Manam
[mva] Madang Province, Bogia district, Manam and Boesa islands, Sepa and Wanami on adjacent mainland. 7,950 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Manum Dialects: Wanami. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], and Medebur [mjm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Comments: Distinct from Manem [jet].

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Manambu
[mle] East Sepik Province, Ambunti subprovince, Sepik river area. 3 villages. 2,110 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sepik, Ndu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mandara
[tbf] New Ireland Province, Simberi, Tatau, Tabar, another island. 4,000 (2000 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Madara, Tabar Dialects: Simberi, Tabar, Tatau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik

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Manem
[jet] Sandaun Province, Skotiau. 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Waris [wrs]. Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Different from Manam [mva].

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Mangseng
[mbh] West New Britain north coast, south of Commodore bay to Montagu harbor on south coast of East New Britain Province, to Fulleborn harbor west. 2,500 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mangsing, Masegi, Maseki Dialects: Marapu, Umua. Linguistic isolate, most closely related to Solong [aaw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe

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Mape
[mlh] Morobe Province, Mape river area. 1,700 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Fukac, Mape, Naga, Nigac. Reportedly similar to Kâte [kmg], the lingua franca. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Mapena
[mnm] Milne Bay Province, Mount Gwoira area. 270 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Daga [dgz] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Maramba
[myd] East Sepik Province. 840 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Yuat

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Marangis
[wax] Madang and East Sepik provinces, 3 coastal villages between Ramu and Sepik rivers, near Ramu mouth. 590 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Watam Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Watam

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Mari
[hob] Madang Province, upper Ramu river. 4 villages. 810 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hop Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain Comments: Different from Mari [mbx] of East Sepik Province and Namo (Mari) [mxw] of Western Province.

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Mari
[mbx] East Sepik Province, near Mari lake and on Salumei river. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo Comments: Different from Mari [hob] of Madang Province and Namo (Mari) [mxw] of Western Province.

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Maria
[mds] Central Province, Marshall lagoon to Mount Brown, remote. 1,350 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manubara Dialects: Amota, Didigaru, Gebi, Imila, Maria, Oibu, Uderi. Lexical similarity: 63% with Doromu-Koki [kqc] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Manubaran

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Marik
[dad] Madang Province, Madang district, Gogol river area inland. 10 villages. 3,500 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dami, Ham Dialects: Northern Marik, Southern Marik, Western Marik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Southern

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Maring
[mbw] Western Highlands Province, Hagen district; Madang Province, Bismarck range. 18 villages. 11,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mareng, Yoadabe-Watoare Dialects: Central Maring, Eastern Maring, Kambegl, Karamba, Timbunki, Tsuwenki. Central dialect understood by all other dialect speakers. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi

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Matepi
[mqe] Madang Province. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Mosimo [mqv], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Mato
[met] Morobe Province, Huon peninsula north coast, near Morobe-Madang provincial border, Uruwa river plain west of Wasu, north of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor. 580 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nenaya, Nengaya, Nineia Dialects: Ramuk, Tabares. Lexical similarity: 54% with Ronji [roe], 29% with Sio [xsi] and Pano [mqz], 28% with Karnai [bbv], 23% with Arop-Lokep [apr] and Mutu [tuc], 19% with Gitua [ggt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Matukar
[mjk] Madang Province, north of Madang town, Matukar area. 430 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern

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Mauwake
[mhl] Madang Province, Bogia district. 2,390 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mawake, Ulingan Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mawak
[mjj] Madang Province, south of upper Kumil river, southwest of Sikor and Malala harbour. 25 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran

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Mawan
[mcz] Madang Province, Gogol river area. 470 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Mbore
[gai] Madang Province, Bogia district, Ramu river area and east. 8 villages. 2,090 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borei, Gamai, Gamei, Mborei Dialects: Borewar, Boroi, Botbot. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Borei

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Mbula
[mna] Morobe Province, Siassi district, east Umboi island, 6 villages; Sakar island, 1 village. 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. 450 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kaimanga, Mangaaba, Mangaava, Mangaawa, Mangap, Mangap-Mbula Dialects: Gauru, Mbula (Central Mbula), Northern Mbula, Sakar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mangap-Mbula Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Medebur
[mjm] Madang Province, coast just north of Sikor at Medebur. 510 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 510. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], and Manam [mva]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam

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Mehek
[nux] Sandaun Province, Nuku district, Makru-Klaplei area, Torricelli mountains lower foothills, southeast of Siliput. 9 large villages. 6,300 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Driafleisuma, Indinogosima, Me’ek, Nuku Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Pahi [lgt] (most similar). Classification: Sepik, Tama

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Mekeo
[mek] Central Province, Kaiyuku district, inland, west boundary is Waima, east are Kuni [kse] and Kunimaipa [kup] language areas; into Gulf Province. 19,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mekeo-Kovio Dialects: East Mekeo, Ninikani, North Mekeo, Northwest Mekeo (Kovio), West Mekeo. Dialects mutually unintelligible, except North and West Mekeo, but most Mekeo are reportedly familiar with neighboring dialects. Kovio not contiguous and is peripheral to other dialects. Lexical similarity: 81% between Kovio dialect and West Mekeo and North Mekeo dialects, 79% with East Mekeo, 87% between East and West Mekeo dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Comments: Above average education level.

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Mekmek
[mvk] East Sepik Province. 1,400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Yuat

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Melpa
[med] Western Highlands Province, Hagen district. 130,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hagen, Medlpa Dialects: Tembagla (Temboka). Only slight dialect differences. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Melpa Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mende
[sim] Sandaun Province, Nuku district, Torricelli range hills sloping south toward Sepik river plains. 15 villages east of Mehek. 5,700 (2003 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Seim Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with nearest Kwanga [kwj] village. Classification: Sepik, Nukuma Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mengen
[mee] East New Britain Province, Pomio district, Jacquinot bay and inland. 20 villages. 8,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Poeng Dialects: Bush Mengen (Inland Mengen, Longueinga), North Coast Mengen (Maeng, Maenge, Orford), South Coast Mengen (Poeng). Some linguists separate Poeng (South Coast Mengen and Bush Mengen) and Maeng (North Coast Mengen) into 2 languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen

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Menya
[mcr] Morobe Province, Menyamya district, north Tauri river area and tributaries. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Menyama, Menye Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan

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Meramera
[mxm] West New Britain Province, Bialla district, northwest coast. 2,000 (1995 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Melamela, Ubili Dialects: Lolobao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez Comments: Christian.

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Mesem
[mci] Morobe Province, Lae district, Boana subdistrict, interior north of Lae. 14 villages. 4,000 (1997 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mese, “Momalili” (pej.), “Momolili” (pej.) Dialects: East Mese, Momolili, West-Central Mese, Zezagi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: Community schools at Hobu and Samanzing. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mian
[mpt] Sandaun Province, Telefomin district, north Fak and Aki river valleys, August river headwaters; upper May river, Nenebil, Suganga, Blimo, and Wagarabai. 1,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mianmin Dialects: Mianmin, Upper August River, Usage. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% among dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain Comments: Ethnonym: Mianmin.

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Miani
[pla] Madang Province, Bogia district, inland. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bonaputa-Mopu, Miani North, Tani Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran

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Migabac
[mpp] Morobe Province, Masaweng river area. 5 villages divided among 3 dialects: Hudewa and Waringai; Ago; Butengka and Kapawa. 2,600 (2010 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Migaba’ Dialects: Central Migabac, North Migabac, South Migabac. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Migum
[klm] Madang Province. 470 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Minanibai
[mcv] Gulf Province, Ikobi Kairi and Goaribari census districts, near Omati river mouth, Pepeha and Moka villages. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eme-Eme, Hei, Pepeha Dialects: None known. Related to Mubami [tsx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai

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Minaveha
[mvn] Milne Bay Province, Bolubolu district, southwest Fergusson island near Mapamoiwa station. 2,300 (2007 SIL), increasing. 600 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kukuya, Minavega Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Iamalele [yml] (most similar), Koluwawa [klx], and Bwaidoka [bwd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Comments: Kukuya, a prominent village name, used by others as glossonym. Little arable land, and population increase endangers the future of agriculture. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mindiri
[mpn] Madang Province, Rai Coast area west of Saidor. 1 village. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Awad Bing [bcu] and Wab [wab]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe

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Miniafia Oyan
[aai] Oro Province, Tufi district, Cape Nelson and Collingwood Bay, 4 coastal locations. 20 to 25 villages. 3,470 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arifama-Miniafia, Miniafia-Arifama Dialects: Arifama, Miniafia. Lexical similarity: 39% with Ubir [ubr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are

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Minidien
[wii] Sandaun Province, north of Beli, Laeko-Libuat. 100 (2004 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,190 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Miniden, Wiakei, Wiaki Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Wiaki

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Minigir
[bxf] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula, southeast of Cape Gazelle. 12 villages. 4,180 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bilur, Birar Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic

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Misima-Panaeati
[mpx] Milne Bay Province, Misima district, Misima island, Panaieti, and Calvados chain islands. 32 villages. 18,000 (2002 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Misiman, Misima-Paneati, Panaeati, Panaieti, Panayeti, Paneate, Paneyate Dialects: Nasikwabw (Tokunu), Tewatewa. Lexical similarity: 33% with Nimowa [nmw] and Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Misima

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Miu
[mpo] West New Britain Province, Gimi Rauto district, southwest interior. 395 (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 1,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Myu Dialects: Miu treated as a dialect of Kaulong [pss] by Wurm and Hattori. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Comments: People live in hamlets of 1 or 2 families. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Moere
[mvq] Madang Province, south of: Kumil river, Sikor, and Malala harbour. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan

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Moikodi
[mkp] Oro Province, Owen Stanley Range north slopes, Mount Brown to Komi. 570 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 290 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doriri Dialects: Several dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–73% with Aneme Wake [aby] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban

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Mokerang
[mft] Manus Province, north Los Negros island, Ndrilo island. 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mokareng, Mokoreng Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu

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Molima
[mox] Milne Bay Province, Esa’ala district, west Fergusson island, Salakahadi, Ebadidi, and Ni’ubuo area inland villages; central west coast, Fagululu; central south coast, Molima. 4,010 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ebadidi, Fagululu, Morima, Salakahadi Dialects: Ai’alu, Tola’ai, Tosila’ai. Tola’ai most prominent; Ai’alu mainly spoken in Fagululu; Tosila’ai is from remote mountains and is shifting to Tola’ai. Lexical similarity: 56% with Dobu [dob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Comments: Molima refers to the south coast, but sometimes to the whole area; Ebadidi, Salakahadi, Ni’ubuo and Fagululu refer to local areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Momare
[msz] Morobe Province, north of Masaweng river. 10. Ethnic population: 800. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Momale, Momole, Mumare Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Mondropolon
[npn] Manus Province, north central coast, Manus island. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Mongol
[mgt] East Sepik Province. 340 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Langam [lnm] and Yaul [yla]. Classification: Mongol-Langam

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Monumbo
[mxk] Madang Province, Bogia District. 410 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo

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Morawa
[mze] Central Province, south coast around Cloudy bay. 1,100 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Binahari [bxz] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan

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Moresada
[msx] Madang Province. 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Murisapa, Murusapa-Sarewa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan

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Morigi
[mdb] Gulf Province, lower Turama census division. 700 (Wurm 1975). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dabura, Morigi Island, Turama River Kiwai, Wariadai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: with Kerewo [kxz] and Bamu [bcf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian

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Mosimo
[mqv] Madang Province, about 30 km inland from the east coast, north of Alexishafen, due west of Garu and Yoidik settlements. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Motu
[meu] Central Province, Port Moresby area, coastal villages from Manumanu, Galley Reach, to GabaGaba. 39,000 (2008 A. Taylor). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pure Motu, True Motu Dialects: Eastern Motu, Western Motu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara Comments: Government schools in all villages.

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Motu, Hiri
[hmo] Central Province, Port Moresby area; Oro, Central, Gulf, Milne Bay and Western provinces. Very few L1 speakers (1992 T. Dutton). L2 users: 120,000 (1989 J. Holm). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used long before European contact by participants in the Hiri trade cycle between the Motu people and their neighbors on the south east coast of the island of New Guinea. Since about 1970 the use of Hiri Motu as a lingua franca has been declining in favor of English [eng] and Tok Pisin [tpi]; speakers are mostly older adults and concentrated in Central Province and Gulf Province. Alternate Names: Hiri, Pidgin Motu, Police Motu Dialects: Austronesian Hiri Motu, Papuan Hiri Motu. Linguistically a pidginization of Motu [meu]. Influenced by English [eng], Tok Pisin [tpi], and Polynesian languages. Cannot understand Motu due to phonological and grammatical differences. Lexical similarity: 90% with Motu [meu]. Classification: Pidgin, Motu based Comments: The Papuan dialect was adopted as the standard for official publications.

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Mouk-Aria
[mwh] West New Britain Province, southeast coast to northwest coast, Kandrian district. 630 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aria-Mouk Dialects: Mouk (Mok), Tourai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling

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Mouwase
[jmw] Gulf Province, Omati river. 450 (2011 SIL). Speakers of other languages live at some of the Mouwase villages, especially Omati, and this may have skewed population figures. Speakers are widely scattered in bush villages, hamlets and squatter settlements. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Ikobi [meb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kaser

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Mubami
[tsx] Northeast Western Province, middle and lower Wawoi river; Guavi and Aramia rivers, Parieme, Sogae, Diwami, Kubeai, Waliho, Paueme, and Ugu villages. 1,730 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dausame, Ta, Tao-Suamato, Tao-Suame Dialects: None known. Limited mutual intelligibility of Foia Foia [ffi] and Hoyahoya [hhi]. Lexical similarity: 42% with Minanibai [mcv] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mufian
[aoj] East Sepik Province, Maprik district, Torricelli mountains, west of Maprik. 36 villages. 11,000 (1998 SIL). 6,000 Filifita (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Muhian, Muhiang, Southern Arapesh Dialects: Balif, Filifita (Ilahita), Iwam-Nagalemb, Nagipaem, Supari. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh

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Mulaha
[mfw] Central Province, just southeast of Gaile on the coast. No known L1 speakers. Extinct since the 1950s (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Iaibu, Mulaha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean

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Mum
[kqa] Madang Province. 3,290 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Katiati Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan

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Mungkip
[mpv] Morobe Province, Mungkip and Kasuka villages. 12 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 670 (2006 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Munkip Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Uri [uvh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Munit
[mtc] Madang Province, Trans-Gogol district. 910 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Girawa [bbr] and Kein [bmh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon

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Mur Pano
[tkv] 1,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pano Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63% with Karnai [bbv], 63% with Pano [mqz (Singorokai dialect), 59% with Pano (Malasanga dialect), 58% with Arop-Lokep [apr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Comments: Different from Pano [mqz].

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Muratayak
[asx] Madang Province, Rai Coast district, east of Saidor. 810 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asat, Murataik Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup

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Murik
[mtf] East Sepik Province, Angoram district, coast west of Sepik river mouth. 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nor, Nor-Murik Lakes Dialects: None known. Related to Kopar [xop]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Nor

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Murupi
[mqw] Madang Province. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Musak
[mmq] Madang Province, Ramu river west of Astrolabe bay. 360 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Emuan

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Musar
[mmi] Madang Province, inland, west of Tokain. 680 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aregerek Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran

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Musom
[msu] Morobe Province, Busu river tributary. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 620. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Misatik Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu

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Mussau-Emira
[emi] New Ireland Province, Saint Matthias Islands, Mussau and Emira northwest of Kavieng; Port Moresby, Lae, Goroka, and Madang. 5,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 SIL). Includes 3,500 in the traditional area. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Emira-Mussau, Musao, Musau-Emira, Mussau Dialects: Eastern Mussau, Emira, Southern Mussau, Western Mussau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias Comments: Christian.

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Mutu
[tuc] Morobe Province, south of Umboi island, Siassi islands, Mandok, Malai, Aronai, Tuam, Mutu Malau, and Aramot; Yaga village on Umboi Island. 3,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. Only older adults are monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Saveeng, Sisi, Tuam, Tuam-Mutu, Tuom Dialects: Malai, Oov/Mutu, Tuam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Muyuw
[myw] Milne Bay Province, Losuia district, Woodlark island. 6,000 (1998). 1,000–1,200 Iwa. 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egum, Murua, Murua Dukwayasi, Murua Kaulae, Muruwa, Muyu, Muyua, Muyuwa Dialects: Iwa, Lougaw (Gawa), Nawyem, Wamwan, Yanaba. Iwa dialect is halfway between Muyuw [myw] and Kilivila [kij]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kilivila [kij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila

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Mwatebu
[mwa] Milne Bay Province, Normanby island, north central coast. 1 village. 120 (Wurm 2000). 10 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau

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Naasioi
[nas] Bougainville Province, Kieta district, central mountains and southeast coast. 20,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Kieta, Nasioi Dialects: Kongara, Orami (Guava), Pakia-Sideronsi, Pirung (Naasioi). Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nabak
[naf] Morobe Province, Lae district, Busu river east headwaters. 52 villages, 30 settlements. 16,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Naba, Napa, Wain Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nabi
[mty] Sandaun Province. 3 villages. 620 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Metan, Mitang, Nambieb Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei Comments: Glossonym: Nabi, preferred in 2 villages; Metan, preferred in 1.

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Nafi
[srf] Morobe Province, Busu river. 160 (Holzknecht 1988). Ethnic population: 250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sirak Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu

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Nai
[bio] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, southeast of Angor [agg] language area. 3 large villages. 750 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biaka Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 20% with nearby Kwomtari [kwo] based on 100 basic words; grammar vastly different in major features such as medial verbs and relative clauses. Classification: Kwomtari, Nuclear Kwomtari

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Nakame
[nib] Morobe Province, rugged terrain west and northwest of Boana Saruwaged Range south side. 6 villages. 980 (1980 census). Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nakama Dialects: North Nakame, South Nakame. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Nakanai
[nak] West New Britain Province, Hoskins district, northwest coast. 42 villages. 13,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nakonai Dialects: Bileki (Lakalai, Mamuga, Muku), Losa (Auka, Loso), Maututu, Ubae (Babata), Vere (Tarobi, Vele). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez Comments: Major language of the Nakanai family. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nake
[nbk] Madang Province, northwest of Madang. 170 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ale Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Nakwi
[nax] East Sepik Province, Nakwi-Amasu, Augot, Tiki, and Uwau villages south of Ama [amm] language area. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nimo [niw]. Classification: Arai (Left May) Comments: Village locations change frequently. Acculturation slight. Traditional religion.

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Nali
[nss] Manus Province, southeast Manus island; southwest coast, northwest of Titan. 1,800 (1982 SIL). 200 Okro (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 4,500. In Okro. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yiru Dialects: Okro. Tryon (2001) makes Okro (200) and Nali (1,800) separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Nalik
[nal] New Ireland Province, north central, Kavieng, on the east coast, 14 villages; west coast, 3 villages. Some in urban areas. 5,140 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fesoa, Fessoa, Lugagon Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik

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Nama
[nmx] Western Province, Morehead district, Ngaraita, Mata, and Daraia villages. 1,200 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu

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Namat
[nkm] Western Province, Morehead district, Mibini village south of Morehead. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu

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Nambo
[ncm] Western Province, Morehead district, Arufe, Gubam, Bebdeben, Pongariki and Derideri villages bordering Idi [idi] and Nen [nqn] lanuage areas. 710 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arufe, Nambu, Namna Dialects: Nambo, Namna (Nama). Namna dialect, in Pongariki and Derideri, being replaced by Nambo dialect. Children in Derideri learn only Nambo. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu

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Namia
[nnm] Sandaun Province, Yellow River district, 19 villages; East Sepik Province, Panewai village, Edwaki, Ameni, Wiyari, Lawo, Pabei, Iwane areas. 6,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Edawapi, Lujere, Namie, Nemia, Yellow River Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ak [akq] and Awun [aww]. Lexical similarity: 13% with Abau [aau], 12% with May River Iwam [iwm]. Classification: Sepik, Yellow River

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Namiae
[nvm] Inland Oro Province, Afore district, Managalas plateau, Kuae, Kokoro, Tahama, Sorefuna, and Ubuvara villages. 1,200 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Namiai Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Namo
[mxw] Western Province, Morehead district, south coast and inland, Mari and Tais villages. 380 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dorro, Mari Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu Comments: Different from Mari [mbx] of East Sepik Province and Mari [hob] of Madang Province.

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Nankina
[nnk] Madang Province, Saidor district, upper Nankina river valley. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nanubae
[afk] East Sepik Province, Karawari rural district, Imanmeri, Wambrumas and Yamandim villages. 1,270 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunda, Kapagmai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61%–74% with Tapei [afp]. Classification: Arafundi

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Narak
[nac] Western Highlands Province, Hagen district, middle Jimi river valley near Tabibuga. 6,220 (2000 census). 4,350 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ganja Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maring [mbw], North Wahgi [whg], and Kandawo [gam]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi Comments: Christian.

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Nauna
[ncn] Manus Province, Nauna island. 1 village. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Naune Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands

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Nawaru
[nwr] Oro Province, upper Musa river valley area. 190 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sirio Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Yareba [yrb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban

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Nehan
[nsn] Bougainville Province, Nissan island. 6,500 (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Nihan, Nissan Dialects: Nehan, Pinipel (Pinipin). Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Nehan Comments: Little acculturation. Christian.

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Nek
[nif] Morobe Province, Nawaeb district, Saruwaged range south side, rugged terrain north of Boana. 5 villages. 2,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: East Nek, West Nek. Lexical similarity: 65% with Nuk [noc], less than 60% with Nakame [nib]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap Comments: Christian.

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Nekgini
[nkg] Madang Province, west of Mot river. 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Neko
[nej] Madang Province, coast near Biliau. 640 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yarete Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot Comments: Tok Pisin [tpi] is used with outsiders. Christian, traditional religion.

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Neme
[nex] Western Province, Morehead district, northeast of Morehead, Keru and Mitere villages. 300 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu

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Nen
[nqn] Western Province, Morehead district, Bimadeben village, between Nambo [ncm] and Idi [idi] language areas. 250 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu

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Nend
[anh] Madang Province, Pasinkap village area between Ramu and Sogeram rivers. 2,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angaua, Nent Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Atan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Angaua. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nete
[net] East Sepik and Enga provinces, next to Hewa [ham] language area. 3 villages. 750 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iniai, Malamauda, Malaumanda Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bisorio [bir] of East Sepik. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga

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Ngaing
[nnf] Madang Province, southwest of Saidor, foothills from coast to Finisterre Range. 15 villages. 2,020 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,060. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mailang, Sor Dialects: Central Ngaing, Eastern Ngaing, Western Ngaing. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngala
[nud] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district. 1 village. 180 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kara, Sogap, Swagup Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Ngalum
[szb] Sandaun Province. 8,000 in Papua New Guinea (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Apmisibil, Ngalum, Sibil. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum

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Nii
[nii] Western Highlands Province, Hagen district. 12,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ek Nii Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi

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Niksek
[gbe] East Sepik and Sandaun provinces, upper Niksek and east branch of Leonhard Schultze rivers’ headwaters; Sumwari. 930 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meiyari, Sumwari Dialects: Gabiano (Kabiano), Meiyari (“Paka” (pej.)), Setiali. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio Comments: Limited comprehension of oral or written Tok Pisin [tpi].

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Nimi
[nis] Morobe Province, upper Erap river, south of Saruwaged range. 1,700 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Nimo
[niw] East Sepik Province, Nimo, Wasuai, Didipas, Uburu, Yuwaitri, Fowiom, Uwawi, Wamwiu, Binuto, and Arakau villages. Southeast of Ama [amm] language area. 350 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nimo-Wasawai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nakwi [nax]. Classification: Arai (Left May) Comments: Village locations change frequently. Acculturation slight.

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Nimoa
[nmw] Milne Bay Province, Misima district, island group northwest of Sud-Est. 1,100 (2000 census). 440 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nimowa Dialects: Panatinani, Panawina, Sabari, Western Point. Lexical similarity: 44% with Sudest [tgo] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest Comments: Half the children are in school.

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Ningera
[nby] Sandaun Province, Vanimo district, east of Vanimo, north of Bewani and Ossima. 150 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nagira, Negira, Ninggera Classification: Border, Bewani

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Ninggerum
[nxr] Western Province between Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers, east of Ok Tedi to main road linking Kiunga and Tabubil, and north to the main mountain range. 5,150 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). Population total all countries: 6,150. 2,060 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Ningerum, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Niyium, Obgwo, Tedi, Tidi Dialects: Daupka, Kasuwa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland Comments: About half the population died 1950–1975 from western diseases. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ningil
[niz] Sandaun Province. 950 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Niwer Mil
[hrc] New Ireland Province, Tangga islands. 6,300 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanga, Tangga Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Nobonob
[gaw] Madang Province, Madang district. 5,000 (2005 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Butelkud-Guntabak, Garuh, Nobanob, Nobnob Dialects: Ari (A’i, Ati). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Nomane
[nof] Simbu Province. 6,700 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kiari Dialects: Gomla, Kewo-Meba (Nomane), Kiari, Meine, Siarha (Kiari, Siar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu

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Nomu
[noh] Morobe Province, Huon peninsula north coast. 400 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western

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Notsi
[ncf] New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland district, east coast. 1,840 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nochi Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar

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Nuk
[noc] Morobe Province, Saruwaged range south side, rugged terrain northeast of Boana. 8 villages. 900 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,650. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: North Nuk, South Nuk. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Nukna
[klt] Morobe Province, lower Timbe river valley. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,010. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Komutu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa

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Nukumanu
[nuq] Bougainville Province, Atolls district, Nukumanu atoll. 700 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tasman Dialects: Nukumanu. Tryon (2001) says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) in Papua New Guinea and Ontong Java [ojv] in Solomon Islands. Speakers have contact with Luangiua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean

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Nukuria
[nur] Bougainville Province, Atolls district, north of Bougainville island, Nukuria atoll. 550 (2003 SIL). 170 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fead, Nahoa, Nuguria Dialects: Nukeria. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Comments: Distinct from Takuu [nho] and Nukumanu [nuq] in Papua New Guinea and Sikaiana [sky] and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Christian.

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Numanggang
[nop] Morobe Province, Lae district, north of Nadzab. 10 villages; Lae, Mount Hagen, and Rabaul. 2,300 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,800. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Boana, Kai, Manggang, Ngain, Numangan, Numangang, Sugu Dialects: East Numanggang, West Numanggang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap Comments: Used in village court and believed to have significant influence on proceedings. Tok Pisin [tpi] or other trade language used for insults, at which point an elder will insist that discussion be limited to Numanggang due to its calming and peaceful power. Christian.

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Numbami
[sij] Morobe Province, Lae district. 1 coastal village. 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Siboma, Sipoma Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Numbami

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Nyindrou
[lid] Manus Province, Manus island west coast. 10 villages. 4,200 (1998 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lindau, Lindrou, Nyada, Salien Dialects: Babon. Babon is in 3 southern villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Comments: Christian.

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Odiai
[bhf] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, north of Upper Sepik river, 3 villages. 240 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Busa, Busan, Uriai Classification: Language isolate Comments: No schools. Some intermarriage with Yale.

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Odoodee
[kkc] Western Province, middle Rentoul river south bank past middle Tomu river to Wawoi Falls; Lake Campbell, Hasalibi, Kalamo villages. 490 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kalamo, Nomad, Ododei, Tomu, Tomu River Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Samo [smq] and Konai [kxw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland Comments: ‘Kalamo’ is the name of a clan that lives at Wawoi Falls.

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Ogea
[eri] Madang Province, Astrolabe bay. 2,210 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erima, Nuru Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Oksapmin
[opm] Sandaun Province, Telefomin district, southwest Sepik Hill languages border. 8,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Several dialects. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Oksapmin

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Olo
[ong] Sandaun Province, Lumi district. 55 villages. 13,700 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Orlei Dialects: Payi (North Olo, Pay), Wapi (South Olo, Wape). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei Comments: Different from Wapi [enq] in Enga Province.

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Ömie
[aom] Oro Province, Kokoda, Upper Kumusi, and Afore districts, northwest of Managalasi, Mamama river, and upper Kumusi valley. 800 (1993 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aomie, Upper Managalasi Dialects: Asapa, Gora-Bomahouji, Ihuaje, Juvaje, Zuwadza. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic

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One, Inebu
[oin] Sandaun Province, Lumi district, West Waipei division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Inebu, Kalema, Windiple, and Alkula villages. 1,300 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 1,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Inebu, Onele, Oni Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Northern One [onr], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One Comments: Christian.

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One, Kabore
[onk] Sandaun Province, Lumi district, West Waipei division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Abore, Sapin, Kara, and Wamtip villages, Kabore Station. 300 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Kabore, Onele, Oni Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One Comments: Christian.

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One, Kwamtim
[okk] Sandaun Province, Lumi district, West Waipei division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Kuamtim village. 150 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 150. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Kuamtim, Kwamtim, Oni Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One Comments: Christian.

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One, Molmo
[aun] Sandaun Province, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, west Waipei division, Molmo, Wisoli, Anononti, Laurela, and Pusa villages. 500 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 500 (2000). L2 users: 200. Speakers of other One varieties use Molmo when in Molmo One villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Molmo, Onele, Oni Dialects: Central Aunalei, North Aunalei, South Aunalei. Reportedly similar to One Kabore [onk], One Inebu [oin], One Northern [onr], One Southern [osu], One Kwamtim [okk]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One Comments: Christian.

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One, Northern
[onr] Sandaun Province, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Lumi district, West Waipei division, Romei, Parara, Wolwale, Koiniri, and Karantu villages. 2,000 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One Comments: Christian.

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One, Southern
[osu] Sandaun Province, Lumi district, West Waipei division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Romei, Parara, Wolwale, Koiniri, and Karantu villages. 200 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One Comments: Christian.

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Onjob
[onj] Oro Province, Koreat and Naukwate villages. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Onjab Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Maiwa [mti] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Ono
[ons] Morobe Province, Finschhafen district, northeast Huon peninsula. 10,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Population increase due to Bakesu Revival Church activity. L2 users: 1,000 (Voegelin 1977). Spoken by 1,000 Nomu [noh] and Sialum [slw] (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Amugen, Ziwe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: Christian.

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Onobasulu
[onn] Southern Highlands Province midway between Mount Sisa and Mount Bosavi. 1,000 (2010 SIL). 500 monolinguals. L2 users: 200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Onabasulu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi Comments: Christian.

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Ontenu
[ont] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu district. 3,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ontena Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Opao
[opo] Gulf Province, near Orokolo and Keuru. 1,120 (Brown 1973). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western

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Orokaiva
[okv] Oro Province, Popondetta town area. 200 villages. 35,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ehija, Etija Dialects: Ehija (Ifane, Ihane), Etija (Sohe, Sose), Harava, Kokoda. Reportedly similar to Aeka [aez] and Hunjara-Kaina Ke [hkk]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Orokaivan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Orokolo
[oro] Gulf Province, Purari river mouth east to Bairu river. Kerema is the main town. 13,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bailala, Haira, Kaipi, Kairu-Kaura, Muro, Muru, Vailala, West Elema Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western

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Ouma
[oum] Central Province, south coast around Labu. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic

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Oune
[oue] Southern Bougainville Province, Crown Prince Range, Asiamana river headwaters southeast to Karewong river. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dapera, Eivo 3, Ounge Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Naasioi [nas]. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi

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Owenia
[wsr] Eastern Highlands Province, Obura district. 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Owena, Owenda, Waijara, Waisara Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Owenia

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Owiniga
[owi] East Sepik Province, southeast of Nimo [niw] language area, Yei, Amu, Inagri, Samo villages. 330 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bero, Samo, Taina Classification: Arai (Left May) Comments: Traditional culture. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Oya’oya
[oyy] Milne Bay Province, Samarai-Murua district, Bwanabwana local government area, southeast tip of Papuan mainland facing China strait. 370 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daiomuni, Kuiaro, Loani, Simagahi Dialects: Dialect subgroup. Reportedly similar to Unubahe [unu]. Lexical similarity: 61% with Wagawaga [wgb], 46% with Saliba [sbe], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 48% with Buhutu [bxh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Comments: No schools. Children travel by boat to various offshore islands for school.

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Pagi
[pgi] Sandaun Province, Vanimo district, Bewani subdistrict, east and southeast of Kilmeri [kih] language area. 5 villages. 2,140 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bembi, Pagei Dialects: Eastern Pagi (Imbinis), Western Pagi (Bewani). Related to Kilmeri [kih] and Ningera [nby]. Classification: Border, Bewani

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Pahi
[lgt] Sandaun Province, north into Maimai Namblo division. 840 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lugitama, Riahoma, Wansum Dialects: None known. Related to Pasi [psq], Kalou [ywa], Mehek [nux], and Yessan-Mayo [yss]. Classification: Sepik, Tama

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Pak-Tong
[pkg] Manus Province, Pak and Tong islands. 970 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tong-Pak Dialects: Pak, Tong. 2 nearly identical dialects; Pak is larger. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Pak-Tong

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Pal
[abw] Madang Province. 1,160 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abasakur Dialects: None known. Related to Kobol [kgu]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Omosan

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Pamosu
[hih] Madang Province, north central, Adelbert Range. 1,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hinihon Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran Comments: Christian (Protestant).

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Panim
[pnr] Madang Province west of Madang town. 420 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Gumalu [gmu], Sihan [snr], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], and Amele [aey]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum

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Pano
[mqz] Morobe Province, Huon peninsula north coast, from Lepsius Point tip to Wasu, Singorokai, Bugada, Malasanga and Sigawa villages. 1,180 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malasanga Dialects: Malasanga, Singorokai. Intelligibility: 88% between dialects. Lexical similarity (based on Pano dialect): 76% with Karnai [bbv], 71% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 36% with Ronji [roe], 32% with Malalamai [mmt], 29% with Mato [met], 22% with Gitua [ggt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Comments: Different from Mur Pano (Pano) [tkv]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Papapana
[ppn] Bougainville Province. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Papapana

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Papi
[ppe] Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, Frieda river. 1 village. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Paupe Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Suarmin [seo], most similar. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Papi

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Papitalai
[pat] Manus Province, Naringel and Papitalai, Los Negros island. 520 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: 3 dialects. Reportedly similar to Koro [kxr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Parawen
[prw] Madang Province. 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Para Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan

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Pare
[ppt] Western Province. 2,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akium-Pare, Pa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Awin-Pare

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Pasi
[psq] Sandaun Province, southeast corner, Wan Wan division. 3 villages. 360 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Besi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ayi [ayq]. Classification: Sepik, Tama

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Patep
[ptp] Morobe Province, Mumeng district. 1,700 (2003 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ptep Dialects: Dengalu. In Mumeng, group of related varieties. Some intelligibility of Gorakor [goc] and Zenag [zeg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng

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Patpatar
[gfk] New Ireland Province, south central Namatanai district. 7,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gelik, Patpari Dialects: Hinsaal, Patpatar (Central Patpatar), Sokarek, Sokirik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Pawaia
[pwa] Simbu Province, Karimui district; Gulf Province, Purari river near Oroi; Eastern Highlands Province. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aurama, Pavaia, Sira, Tudahwe, Yasa Dialects: Aurama (Turoha, Uri), Hauruha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pawaian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Paynamar
[pmr] Madang Province. 150 (Z’Graggen 1975). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Paynamar

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Pei
[ppq] Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, Hauna village and Walio river. 50 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Walio [wla]. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze Comments: Different from Mala [ped] (Pai) in Madang Province. Christian.

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Pele-Ata
[ata] West New Britain Province, Nakanai district, inland from Bongula bay in Nakanai mountains. 2,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Peleata, Uase, Uasi, Uasilau, Wasi Dialects: Ata, Pele. Classification: Yele-West New Britain, West New Britain

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Penchal
[pek] Manus Province, Rambutyo island. 550 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands

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Petats
[pex] Bougainville Province, Buka Passage district, Petats, Pororan, and Hitau islands off Buka island west coast. 2,000 (1975 SIL). L2 users: 8,000 (Voegelin 1977). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Majugan Dialects: Hitau-Pororan, Matsungan, Sumoun. Sumoun [pex] may be a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka

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Piame
[pin] East Sepik Province, middle Sepik region, eastern headwaters of Niksek (April) river. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Biami Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio Comments: First contact with outsiders in 1982.

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Pinai-Hagahai
[pnn] Enga, Madang, Western Highlands and East Sepik provinces border area. 600 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aramo, Hagahai, Miamia, Pinai, Pinaye, Wapi Dialects: Luya-Ginam-Mamusi, Pinai. Lexical similarity: 78% among dialects, 33% with Haruai [tmd], 19% with Kobon [kpw], 8% with Enga [enq]. Classification: Piawi Comments: Ethnic autonym: Pinai by Enga Province speakers; Hagahai by those in Madang Province. Ethnonym: Wapi or Miamia, sometimes used by Enga; Aramo by Haruai [tmd] speakers. Medical workers report widespread health problems.

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Piu
[pix] Morobe Province, upper Watut river. 1 village. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kuruko, Lanzog, Sanbiau Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Comments: Distinct from Pyu [pby] in Sandaun Province.

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Ponam
[ncc] Manus Province, Ponam island. 420 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Andra-Hus [anx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East

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Pouye
[bye] Sandaun Province, Lumi, East and West Wapei districts. 7 villages: Yukilau, Komtin, Wulme, Wokien, Kiliauto, Maurom, Bulawa. 960 (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bouye Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Karawa [xrw]. Classification: Sepik, Ram Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Puare
[pux] Sandaun Province, Puari coast area. 35 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bkwala Dialects: None known. Related to Rawo [rwa], Isaka [ksi], and Warapu [wra]. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Puari

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Pulabu
[pup] Madang Province. 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Siroi [ssd], Arawum [awm], Migum [klm], and Lemio [lei]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau

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Purari
[iar] Gulf Province, between Kapaina inlet and Orokolo, Purari river. 7,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Evorra, Iai, Koriki, Maipua, Namau Dialects: Iai (Namau), Purari. Apparently unrelated to other Gulf Province languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Purari

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Pyu
[pby] Sandaun Province, October river, Biake No. 2 village. East of Papua, Indonesia border. 100 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Different from Austronesian Piu [pix] in Morobe Province.

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Qaqet
[byx] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula. 6,350 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baining, Kakat, Makakat, Maqaqet Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: East New Britain, Baining Comments: Several primary schools.

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Ramoaaina
[rai] East New Britain Province, Kokopo district, Duke of York Islands. 10,300 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Duke of York, Ramuaina Dialects: Aalawa (Aalawaa, Alawa, Mioko, South Islands, Ulu), Makada, Molot (Main Island). Makada dialect very different, possibly not intelligible to speakers of other dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ramopa
[kjx] Bougainville Province, northwest Bougainville island, south of Rapoisi. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kereaka, Keriaka Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Rapoisi [kyx]. Classification: North Bougainville, Keriaka Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Rao
[rao] Madang Province, Keram river area, to East Sepik Province border, lower Ramu valley. 6,000 (1992 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Annaberg, Rao Breri Dialects: Li’o, Ndramini’o. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Rapoisi
[kyx] Bougainville Province, Kuna district, northwest Bougainville island. Most villages are inland. 3,500 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konua, Kunua Dialects: None known. Related to Askopan [eiv], Ramopa [kjx], and Rotokas [roo]. Classification: North Bougainville, Konua Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Rapting
[rpt] Madang Province, 30 km north of Madang. 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Murupi [mqw], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Mosimo [mqv], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Rawa
[rwo] Madang Province. Rawa dialect: Upper Ramu district; Karo dialect: Rai Coast district; dialects on opposite sides of Finisterre Range. 11,500 (1998 SIL), increasing. 7,000 Rawa and 4,500 Karo. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erawa, Erewa, Raua Dialects: Karo, Rawa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot Comments: People report Rawa and Karo dialects seem to be drifting apart. Christian (Protestant), traditional religion.

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Rawo
[rwa] Sandaun Province coast, 35 km east of Vanimo, Rawo and Leitre area. 640 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Isaka [ksi], Puare [pux], and Warapu [wra]. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Rawo-Main Serra, Rawo

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Rema
[bow] Western Province, Morehead district, Wereavere village. 12 (2012 J. Thiessen). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bothar Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Blafe [bfh]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda

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Rempi
[rmp] Madang Province, north coast. 1,590 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: A’e, Erempi, Rempin Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Rerau
[rea] Madang Province. 590 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Waube [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Uyajitaya [duk], Jilim [jil], and Yangulam [ynl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Romkun
[rmk] Madang Province. 630 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romkuin Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan

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Ronji
[roe] Madang and Morobe provinces (1 village in each Province), north coast of Huon Peninsula, northwest of Wasu, north-northwest of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor. 450 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gali, Roinji Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Mato [met], 36% with Pano [mqz], 36% with Karnai [bbv], 33% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 33% with Sio [xsi], 28% with Mutu [tuc] 28% with Malalamai [mmt], 24% with Gitua [ggt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Rotokas
[roo] Bougainville Province, Central Bougainville district, central mountains. 28 villages. 4,320 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Dialects: Aita, Atsilima, Pipipaia. Classification: North Bougainville, Rotokas

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Rumu
[klq] Gulf Province, Kikori district, north of Kikori on Kikori, Sirebi, and Tiviri rivers. 1,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dumu, Kai-Iri, Kairi, Kibiri, Rumuwa, Tumu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kairi Comments: A distinct language from Kibiri [prm] (Porome).

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Saep
[spd] Madang Province, Gowar river area, Rai coast, east of Madang. 550 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon

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Safeyoka
[apz] Morobe Province, Kaiapit, Lae-Wamba, and Menyamya districts. 2,390 (1980 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambari, Ampale, Ampeeli-Wojokeso, Ampele Dialects: Aiewomba, Wajakes (Wocokeso). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan Comments: Northwest and southeast areas may be different languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Saliba
[sbe] Milne Bay Province, China strait, Sariba and Rogeia islands, mainland across from Rogeia island. 2,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Young children, elderly. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Loga, Saliba. Distinct from Suau [swp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Comments: Christian.

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Salt-Yui
[sll] Simbu Province, Gumine district. 10 villages. 6,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iui, Salt, Salt-Iui, Yui Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu

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Sam
[snx] Madang Province, inland and south of Bongu, Songum, Buan, and Wongbe villages. 780 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Songum Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim Comments: Songum is a village name, ‘Sam’, language.

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Samberigi
[ssx] Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kutubu district, east of Erave. 3,130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sanaberigi, Sau Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa

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Samo
[smq] Western Province, Lake Murray district, south Upper Strickland census district, east of Strickland river, north of Nomad. 900 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daba, Nomad, Supei Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Samosa
[swm] Madang Province, inland from Aleishafen on Gogal river north tributary headwaters. 90 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Saniyo-Hiyewe
[sny] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, Wogamus river basin foothills. Saniyo dialect: Pukapuki, Sio, Hanasi, Salunapi, and Malapute’e villages; Hiyowe dialect: Maposi village. 1,300 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Hiyowe (Hiowe), Saniyo (Sanio). Reportedly similar to the Meiyari dialect of Niksek [gbe]. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio Comments: Semi-nomadic.

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Saposa
[sps] Bougainville Province, Buka district, island chain south of Buka Island off northwest coast of Bougainville. 1,400 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Saposa (Fa Saposa), Taiof. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz

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Sarasira
[zsa] Morobe Province, upper Markham valley, southeast side of Leron river. 600 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sirasira Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain

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Saruga
[sra] Madang Province, 35 km north of Madang. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Sausi
[ssj] Madang Province, Upper Ramu river, near Koropa. 93 (Wurm 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uya Dialects: None known. Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Kesawai [xes], and Watiwa [wtf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia

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Seimat
[ssg] Western Manus Province, Ninigo and Anchorite islands. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ninigo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western

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Selepet
[spl] Morobe Province, Kabwum district, Pumune and Kiari river valleys. 7,000 (1988 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Selepe Dialects: North Selepet, South Selepet. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sene
[sej] Morobe Province, east end of Huon peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern

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Sengo
[spk] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, west-northwest of Pagwi, Sengo village. 520 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Sengseng
[ssz] West New Britain Province, southwest interior. 1,750 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asengseng Dialects: Senseng treated as a dialect of Kaulong [pss] by Wurm and Hattori. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua

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Sepa
[spe] Madang Province, Manam island south coast, Bogia area. 700 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam

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Sera
[sry] Sandaun Province, Sera area. 1 village. 510 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Serra, Ssia Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau

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Seta
[stf] Sandaun Province. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei

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Setaman
[stm] Sandaun Province. 280 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain

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Seti
[sbi] Sandaun Province. 160 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei

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Sewa Bay
[sew] Milne Bay Province, center of Normanby island, Sewa Bay area. 1,520 (1972 census). 300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duau Pwata Dialects: Bwakera, Central Sewa Bay, Darubia, Maiabare, Miadeba, Sewataitai, Sibonai. Very diverse dialects. Lexical similarity: 45% with Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sialum
[slw] Morobe Province, Huon peninsula, northeast coast. 400 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western

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Siane
[snp] Eastern Highlands Province, Watabung and Unggai census divisions (16,000), Goroka district; Simbu Province, Nambaiyufa census division (11,000). 29,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siani Dialects: Alango, Fowe, Kemanimowe, Keto, Kolepa, Komoigaleka, Komongu, Laiya, Lambau, Olumba, Ona, Wando, Yamofowe, Yandime. Separate literature exists in Komongu and Lambau dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Siane

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Siar-Lak
[sjr] Southern New Ireland Province, Namatanai district. 2,080 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lak, Lamassa, Lambom, Siar Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Siawi
[mmp] Sandaun Province, south of Sepik river, between Amto and Ama. 1 village. 220 (2007 NTM), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Musa, Musan, Musian, Siafli, Siwai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Amto [amt]. Amto [amt] and Siawi 3% lexical similarity with Odiai [bhf]. Both average 7% lexical similarity with Arai (Left May) languages. Classification: Amto-Musan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sibe
[nco] Bougainville Province, Buin district. 6,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000. L2 users: Outsiders who intermarry with Sibe speakers. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Nagovisi, Sibbe, Sibe-Nagovisi Dialects: Laagasi’, Teleipi, Tobe’laaki’, To’mau, Welipe’. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi Comments: Moderate acculturation. Christian.

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Sihan
[snr] Madang Province, 35 km southwest of Madang. 570 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum

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Sileibi
[sbq] Madang Province, 60 km northwest of Madang. 260 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan

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Siliput
[mkc] Sandaun Province, Makru-Klaplei division, Nuku district, north of Mehek, Seleput village. 520 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mai, Maimai, Seleput, Sokorok Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Yahang [rhp]. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper Comments: Different from Selepet [spl].

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Silopi
[xsp] Madang Province, 25 km northwest of Madang. 180 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Simbali
[smg] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula, Avungi and Kavudemki villages. 450 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asimbali Classification: East New Britain, Baining

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Simbari
[smb] Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka district. 3,040 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimbari Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Simeku
[smz] Bougainville Province, Crown Prince Range west of Arawa, Mainoki on west slope and Koopei east. 3,000 (2007 SIL). 2,000 Koopei and 1,000 Mainoki. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Koopei (Kopei, Korpei), Mainoki (Mainoke). Not functionally intelligible with Naasioi [nas]. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi Comments: People culturally conservative.

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Sinagen
[siu] Sandaun Province, 30 km south of Aitape. 330 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galu, Metru Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Sinasina
[sst] Simbu Province. 50,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Guna, Tabare. Reportedly similar to Dom [doa] and Golin [gvf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu

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Sinaugoro
[snc] Central Province, Rigo district, south of Kwikila. 18,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinagoro Dialects: Alepa, Babagarupu, Balawaia, Boku, Buaga, Ikega, Ikolu, Kubuli, Kwaibida, Kwaibo, Omene, Oruone, Saroa, Taboro, Tubulamo, Vora, Wiga. Saroa dialect may be most central for intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Kalo [khz] (most similar), 65%–70% with Hula [hul]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara

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Sinsauru
[snz] Madang Province, near Dumpu. 500 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kow Dialects: Saipa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia

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Sio
[xsi] Morobe Province, Wasu district, mainland near Sio island. 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sigawa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Sio

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Siroi
[ssd] Madang Province, Saidor district, Kumisanger village. 5 villages. 1,310 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Suroi Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau Comments: Christian.

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Sissano
[sso] Sandaun Province, Aitape district, Sissano area. 300 (Wurm 2000). In 1990, 4,780 speakers were reported and language use was vigorous. The 1998 tsunami almost completely annihilated the population. Number of surviving speakers unlikely to exceed a few hundred (Wurm 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinama, Sinano, Sisano Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau

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Siwai
[siw] Bougainville Province, southeast. 6,600. 600 in Baitsi. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Motuna Dialects: Baitsi (Sigisigero). Classification: South Bougainville, Buin

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Solong
[aaw] West New Britain Province, southwest coast. 2,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Arawe, Arove, Pililo Dialects: Arawe. Dialect subgroup. Understood by all along the coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Comments: Glossonym: Solong. Ethnonym: Arove. Christian, traditional religion.

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Solos
[sol] Bougainville Province, central and southwest Buka island. 3,200 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Toros Dialects: Coastal Solos (Hetal, Kahule, Pokai Tung), Mainland Solos, Nora Solos, Peit Solos. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Solos Comments: Christian.

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Som
[smc] Morobe Province, northwest Huon peninsula, on middle Som river, a tributary of the Uruwa river, east of Wantoat [wnc] lanugage area. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dinanget, Somm Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Nukna [klt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa

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Somba-Siawari
[bmu] Morobe Province, Finschhafen district, Central Huon peninsula, south of Cromwell Range, Burum river valley and west slopes of Kuat river. 30 villages. 1,000 in Lae, scattered in Port Moresby. 9,000 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bulum, Burum, Burum-Mindik, Mindik Dialects: Siawari, Somba. Lexical similarity: 92% with dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: ‘Bulum’ is the Kâte [kmg] name for the Burum area. Christian, traditional religion.

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Sonia
[siq] Western and Southern Highlands provinces, west and southwest of Bosavi. 400 (1993 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi

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Sop
[urw] Madang Province, Usino-Bundi district, Usino subdistrict, northeast of Ramu valley. 2,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kari, Usino Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka

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Sori-Harengan
[sbh] Manus Province, Manus island northwest coast; Sori and Harengan islands. 570 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Harengan, Sori. Dialects nearly identical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Sos Kundi
[sdk] East Sepik Province, Angoram, Yangoru Saussia, and Wosera Gawi district villages. Center is Kwaliangua village. 2,850 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agbane, Agbanekundi, Akbana, Soskundi Dialects: Baltu-Kamatogukundi, Kamatogukundi, Kwaroikundi, Nyandakundi, Sotakundi. Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Sowanda
[sow] Sandaun Province, Amanab district. 970 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). Population total all countries: 1,180. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waina, Wanja, Wanya, Wina Dialects: Punda-Umeda (Umada), Waina. May be 2 languages. Classification: Border, Waris

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Suarmin
[seo] Sandaun Province, Telefomin district, Kenu river hamlets; Om river tributary. Near Duranmin airstrip. 140 (2000 S. Wurm). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akiapmin, Duranmin Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Papi [ppe]. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Papi

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Suau
[swp] Milne Bay Province, southeasternmost Papua mainland. 6,800 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 680 monolinguals. L2 users: 14,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication).A lingua franca around the south-eastern tip of Papua New Guinea. Alternate Names: Iou Dialects: Bona Bona, Bonarua, Dahuni, Lausaha (Daui, Fife Bay), Leileiafa, Sinaki (Gadaisu, Gaidasu), Suau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic

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Sudest
[tgo] Milne Bay Province, Yama-Yele district, Tagula island, west of Rossel island, end of Calvados chain. 17 villages or hamlets. 2,000 (1987 SIL), increasing. 400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sud-Est, Tagula, Vanatina, Vanga Dialects: Central Sudest (Araetha, Pamela), Eastern Point, Eastern Sudest (Rambuso, Rehuwo), Rambuso (Rewa), Western Sudest (Dtelha, Griffin Point, Jelewaga). Lexical similarity: 44% with Nimoa [nmw] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest Comments: Most children go to school. Christian.

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Suena
[sue] Morobe Province, Lae district, southeast coast, north of Yekora. 3,600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yarawe, Yarawi, Yema Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, North Binanderean Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Suganga
[sug] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, near Papua, Indonesia border. 350 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Mianmin, Wagarabai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mian [mpt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain

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Suki
[sui] Western Province, Lake Suki. 3,510 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wiram Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Suki

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Sukurum
[zsu] Morobe Province, upper Markham valley, Leron river northwest side. 1,160 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,160. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain

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Sulka
[sua] East New Britain Province, East Pomio district, Wide Bay coast. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: A dialect chain. Classification: Language isolate

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Sumariup
[siv] East Sepik Province, upper Wagupmeri river. 1 village. 80 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Latoma, Sogoba Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo

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Sumau
[six] Madang Province, low mountain ranges between Ramu and Naru rivers. 2,580 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garia, Kari, Sumau-Garia Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects. Related to Sop [urw], Urigina [urg], and Danaru [dnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka

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Sursurunga
[sgz] South central New Ireland Province, Namatanai district. 3,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Surkutus. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Susuami
[ssu] Morobe Province, upper Watut valley outside Bulolo. 10 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan

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Tabo
[knv] Western Province, lower Aramia river, Waya, Saiwase, Galu, and Alagi villages; Bamu river, Alikinapi village; lower Fly river, Kenedibi, Urio, and Wagumi-Sarau villages; Segero Creek, Segero village. 3,000 (2002 SIL). Population split equally between dialects. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waya Dialects: Aramia River, Fly River. Lexical similarity: 60% among dialects, but nearly identical syntax and grammar. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Waia

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Tabriak
[tzx] East Sepik Province, near Chambri, lower Karawari river. 9 villages. 2,080 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karawari Dialects: Distinct from the Karawari dialect of Alamblak [amp]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Karawari

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Tai
[taw] Madang Province, southwest, Dundrom village. 900 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tay Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon

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Taiap
[gpn] East Sepik Province, Gapun village. 75 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gapun Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Taiap is the language, Gapun the village.

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Tainae
[ago] Gulf Province, Ivori-Swanson district, Pio, Famba, and Paiguna are main villages. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ivori Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Akoye [miw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan

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Tairora, North
[tbg] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. 6,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tairora Dialects: Aantantara (Andandara), Arau-Varosia (Arau-Barosia), Arokaara (Arokara), Saiqora (Sai’ora), Tairora. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora

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Tairora, South
[omw] Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. 7,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Omwunra-Toqura Dialects: Aatasaara (Atakara), Haaviqinra-Oraura (Habina-Oraura), Omwunra-Toqura (Obura-To’okena), Vaira-Ntosara (Baira), Veqaura (Meauna), Vinaata-Konkompira (Pinata-Konkombira). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora

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Tairuma
[uar] Gulf Province, Uaripi and villages near Kerema. 4,500 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kerema, Tairuma’a, Uaripi Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Takia
[tbc] Madang Province, Madang district, Karkar island south half, Bagabag island, Megiar and Serang coastal villages. 40000 Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Megiar, Serang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern

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Takuu
[nho] Bougainville Province, Atolls district, northeast of Bougainville, Takuu atoll, Mortlock village. 1,750 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 350 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mortlock, Taku, Tau, Tauu Dialects: None known. Distinct from Nukumanu [nuq] and Nukuria [nur] and Ontong Java [ojv] and Sikaiana [sky] in Solomon Islands, though very closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tami
[tmy] Morobe Province, Tami Islands and mainland villages south of Finschhafen. 2,100 (2010 SIL), increasing. 1,000 in each dialect. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Taemi, Wanam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Tami

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Tanggu
[tgu] Madang Province, Bogia district. 3,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tanggum, Tangu Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu

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Tanguat
[tbs] Madang Province, south of Tanggu [tgu] language area. 740 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu

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Tapei
[afp] East Sepik Province, Karawari rural district, Awim and Imboin villages, Arafundi river area. 290 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61%–74% with Nanubae [afk]. Classification: Arafundi

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Tauade
[ttd] Central Province, Goilala district northeast. 7,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tauata Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Kunimaipa [kup] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa

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Taulil
[tuh] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula, Taulil1, Taulil2 and Kadaulung. 2,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tulil Dialects: Taulil. Classification: East New Britain, Taulil

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Taupota
[tpa] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Maramatana LGA, East Cape, Wamawamana to Garuwahi, includes Taupota village. 1,280 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Probably part of a chain of related varieties with Wa’ema [wag] south and Wedau [wed] west. Lexical similarity: 81% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 69% with central Wedau [wed], 76% with Wa’ema [wag], 56% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Maiwala [mum]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Comments: 2 schools.

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Tauya
[tya] Madang Province, Ramu river valley, 30 km west of Dumpu. 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inafosa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Biyom-Tauya

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Tawala
[tbo] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Awaiama to East Cape, Milne Bay north and south shores, Sideia and Basilaki islands. 20,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tavara, Tawara Dialects: Awayama (Awaiama, Awalama), Bohilai (Basilaki, Bohira’i), Diwinai (Divinai), Huhuna, Kehelala (East Cape, Keherara), Labe (Rabe), Lelehudi, Sideya (Sideia), Yaleba (Ealeba, Gwavili, Gwawili, Wagawaga). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota

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Telefol
[tlf] Sandaun Province, Telefomin district. 5,400 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Teleefool, Telefolmin, Telefomin Dialects: Feramin, Telefol. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain

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Tenis
[tns] New Ireland Province, Tench (Enus) island; also Kavieng. 30 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tench Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias Comments: Christian.

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Teop
[tio] Bougainville Province, Tinputz district, northeast. 5,000 (1991 SIL). L2 users: Some who intermarry with Teop. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Teapu Dialects: Coastal Teop, Kosina Mohina, Manava, Rausara (Rausiara), Taunita. Coastal Teop speakers understand other dialects, and vice versa. Coastal Teop is 84% cognate with Rausara, 73% with Taunita dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz Comments: Christian.

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Terebu
[trb] East Sepik Province, Taul coast southeast of Wewak, Turubu village. 130 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Terepu, Turubu, Turupu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru

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Terei
[buo] Southern Bougainville Province, Buin district. 26,500 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Buin, Kugara, Telei Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Uisai [uis]. Classification: South Bougainville, Buin

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Tiang
[tbj] New Ireland Province, east Djaul island area. 790 (Beaumont 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djaul Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik

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Tifal
[tif] Sandaun Province, Telefomin district. 3,600 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tifalmin Dialects: Asbalmin, Tifal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain Comments: Christian.

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Tigak
[tgc] Northern New Ireland Province, Kavieng district, west Djaul island. 6,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Omo Dialects: Central Tigak, Island Tigak, South Tigak, West Tigak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik

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Timbe
[tim] Morobe Province, Kabwum district, Timbe river valley and tributaries. 11,000 (1991 SIL). 660 monolinguals. Women and older men. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Central Timbe, North Timbe, South Timbe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tinputz
[tpz] Bougainville Province, Teop-Tinputz district. 3,900 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Timputs, Vasui, Vasuii, Wasoi Dialects: Vado, Vado-Vaene’, Vaene’, Vapopeo’, Vapopeo’-Rausaura, Vasui, Vavoehpoa’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz Comments: Moderate acculturation. Ethnic autonym: Vasuii.

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Titan
[ttv] Manus Province, islands: Manus (southeast coast), Tawi, Wal, M’buke, Johnson, Baluan, Tilianu, Bundro, and Rambutyo. 3,850 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manus, M’bunai, Moanus, Tito Dialects: 2 dialects, r speakers on southeast Manus Island, l speakers on outlying islands. Intelligibility between, r and l, dialects 100%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Comments: Part of the trading ring described by Margaret Mead (Mead 1956). Christian, traditional religion.

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Toaripi
[tqo] Gulf Province, Cape Possession to Cape Cupola, Kerema is a main town. 23,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Elema, Melaripi, Motumotu Dialects: Kaipi (Melaripi), Sepoe, Toaripi (Moripi-Iokea, Moveave). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Eastern

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Tobo
[tbv] Morobe Province, upper Kuat river valley, south of Cromwell Range. 2,230 (1980 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western

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Tok Pisin
[tpi] Mainly north half of country, well established in Port Moresby, into other regions. 122,000 (2004 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. L2 users: 4,000,000. Status: 1 (National). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Melanesian English, Neomelanesian, New Guinea Pidgin English, Pidgin, Pisin Dialects: Dialect differences between lowlands, highlands, and islands. Highlands lexicon has more English [eng] influence (Holm, 1989). Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tokano
[zuh] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district. 6,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gamuso, Tokama, Yufiyufa, Zaka, Zuhozuho, Zuhuzuho Dialects: Lower Asaro, Zuhuzuho. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena

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Tomoip
[tqp] East New Britain Province, Wide Bay to Waterfall Bay and interior. 700 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomoive, Tomoyp, Tumie, Tumuip Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tomoip

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Torau
[ttu] Bougainville Province, southeast coast, north of Kieta. 600 (1963 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rorovana Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava Comments: Fairly acculturated.

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Torricelli
[tei] East Sepik Province, Maprik district; Sandaun Province, west of Kombio. 5 villages. 520 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anamagi, Lou Dialects: East Torricelli, West Torricelli. 2 dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio Comments: Different from Lou [loj] in Manus Province or Kaki Ae (Lou) [tbd] in Gulf Province.

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Toura
[don] Central Province, Galley Reach area, 50 km northwest of Port Moresby. 1,800 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doura Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Lala [nrz], 54% with Motu [meu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear

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Tulu-Bohuai
[rak] Manus Province, Bohuai, Peli island, Pelipowai. 1,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bohuai, Bohuai-Tulu, Bowai, Pahavai, Pelipowai, Pohuai Dialects: Bohuai, Keli, Tulu (Tjudun, Tulun). Reportedly similar to Khehek [tlx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West

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Tuma-Irumu
[iou] Morobe Province, Kaiapit district, Wantoat subdistrict. 1,100 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Irumu, Tuma, Upper Irumu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat

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Tumleo
[tmq] Sandaun Province, Tumleo island, Aitape coast area. 790 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau

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Tungag
[lcm] New Ireland Province, Lamet district, New Hanover, Tingwon, and Umbukul islands. 12,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dang, Lavangai, Lavongai, Toangai, Tungak Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Comments: Center of Johnson cargo cult. Christian.

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Turaka
[trh] Milne Bay Province, southwest of Radarada and Ruaba, inland from Goodenough bay. 25 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Turumsa
[tqm] Western Province, Middle Fly district, Makapa village. 5 (2002 SIL), decreasing. Possibly no remaining speakers (2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Dibiyaso [dby], 61% with Doso [dol]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi

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Tuwari
[tww] Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, upper Walio river; near Akiapmin south of Central Range. 360 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze

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Uare
[ksj] Central Province, Rigo Inland district, southeast of Port Moresby, Kemp Welsh and Hunter rivers. 1,300 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwale, Kware Dialects: Garihe (Garia), Uare (Kwale). Lexical similarity: 65%–74% with Humene [huf] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean Comments: Different from Kware [ail] in the Bosavi family, Western Province.

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Ubir
[ubr] Oro Province, Tufi district, Collingwood Bay coast, Kwagila river. 2,560 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kubiri, Ubiri Dialects: Lexical similarity: 27% with Miniafia dialect of Arifama-Miniafia [aai] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are

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Ufim
[ufi] Morobe Province, upper reaches of Markham river. 550 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot

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Uisai
[uis] Bougainville Province south, Buin district. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Iuno, Kugala, Kukuinu, Reuno. Classification: South Bougainville, Buin

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Ukuriguma
[ukg] Madang Province, 40 km northwest of Madang. 170 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan

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Ulau-Suain
[svb] Sandaun Province, Ulau 1, Ulau 2, Suain coastal area. 2,800 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Suain Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau

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Umanakaina
[gdn] Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district, Goodenough Bay coast, inland between Mount Gwoira and Mount Simpson. 2,400 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gvede, Gweda, Gwede, Gwedena, Umanikaina Dialects: East Umanakaina, Upper Ugu River. At least 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 23% with Ginuman [gnm] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan

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Umbu-Ungu
[ubu] Western Highlands Province. No-Penge dialect: Tambul district; Kala dialect: lower Kaugel district; Andelale dialect: Southern Highlands Province. 34,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gawigl, Gawil, Imbo-Ungu, Kakoli, Kaugel, Kauil, Ubu Ugu, Umbongu, Umbu Ungu Dialects: Andelale, Kala (Mendo-Kala), No-Penge. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel

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Umeda
[upi] Sandaun Province, Amanda district, south of Imonda. 290 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Border, Bewani

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Uneapa
[bbn] West New Britain Province, Talasea district, Unea island off northwest coast. 10,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Bali-Vitu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu Comments: Bali is the outsiders name for the island. Ethnonym: Unea.

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Unserdeutsch
[uln] East New Britain Province, Rabaul. No known L1 speakers (2002 SIL). May be extinct (2002 J. Brownie). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Rabaul Creole German Classification: Creole, German based

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Unubahe
[unu] Milne Bay Province, Gumini village. 7 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 59. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Unoba’i Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Buhutu [bxh] and Oya’oya [oyy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic

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Ura
[uro] East New Britain Province, Gazelle peninsula. 1,900 (1991 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Auramot, Uramät, Uramet, Uramit, Uramot Classification: East New Britain, Baining Comments: ‘Uramät’ refers to the people.

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Urapmin
[urm] Sandaun Province, Telefomin district. 370 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain Comments: Geographically and linguistically between Tifal [tif] and Telefol [tlf].

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Urat
[urt] East Sepik Province, Dreikikir district, southwest of Wom, south of Kombio. 20 villages, several hamlets. 6,280 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 2,480 in Wasep Ngau, 2,060 in Wusyep Yihre, 1,210 in Wasep Yam, and 550 in Wusyep Tep. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Wasep Ngau (North Urat), Wasep Yam (South Urat), Wusyep Tep (East Urat), Wusyep Yihre (Central Urat). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Urat Comments: Christian.

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Uri
[uvh] Morobe Province, Boana district. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erap, Uri Vehees, Urii Dialects: East Urii, West Urii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap

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Urigina
[urg] Madang Province, 50 km downstream on Ramu river from Dumpu. 1,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Origanau, Uriginau Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka Comments: Traditional religion.

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Urim
[uri] East Sepik Province, Maprik subdistrict, into Sandaun Province, Nuku subdistrict, southwest of Kombio. 16 villages. 3,740 (2003 SIL). 40 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kalp, Kurom, Tayon, Wan Dialects: Kukwo (Kalpm), Yangkolen. Yangkolen and Kukwo dialects are 95% lexically similar. Lexical similarity: 8% with Kombio [xbi], 12% with Urat [urt], 2% with Kwanga [kwj], and 15% with Aiku [ymo]. Classification: Torricelli, Urim Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Urimo
[urx] East Sepik Province, 35 km south of Wewak. 800 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yaugiba Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Uruava
[urv] Bougainville Province, southeast coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava

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Usan
[wnu] Madang Province, Madang district, 65 km northwest of Madang. 1,400 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wanuma Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan

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Usarufa
[usa] Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa district. 1,300 (1996 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Usurufa, Uturupa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa

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Utarmbung
[omo] Madang Province. 1,170 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Osum Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Osum

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Utu
[utu] Madang Province, 30 km west of Madang. 580 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Uya
[usu] Madang Province, Trans-Gogol district. 270 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Usu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Uyajitaya
[duk] Madang Province, 30 km south of Madang. 470 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abowe, Amito, Amowe, Duduela, Koki, Uyaji, Xuyadzitaya, Yabatia Dialects: Amowe, Uyajitaya. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Valman
[van] Sandaun Province, east of Aitape. 1,740 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koroko Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Vanimo
[vam] Sandaun Province, Vanimo district. 3 villages. 2,670 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duso, Manimo, Wanimo Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Eastern Skou Comments: Many highly educated.

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Vehes
[val] Morobe Province, near the coast between Salamaua and Lae. 1 village. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Buasi, Vehees Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Mapos Buang [bzh] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang

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Vitu
[wiv] West New Britain Province, Talasea district, Vitu and Mudua islands off northwest coast. 8,800 (1991 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Muduapa, Witu Dialects: 2 or 3 dialects. Mudua Island variety may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu Comments: ‘Vitu’ is island name.

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Wab
[wab] Madang Province, Huon peninsula north coast, next to Saidor, Wab and Saui villages. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Som Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe

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Waboda
[kmx] Western Province, Wabuda island, Fly river mouth north bank, Meipani, Tirere, Maduduo, Sagero, Wapi, Gesoa, Dameratamu, and Kabaturi villages. 2,750 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wabuda Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian

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Wadaginam
[wdg] Madang Province, 30 km southeast of Erima. 950 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaginamb Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Wadaginam

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Wa’ema
[wag] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Huhu local government area, Giligili estates to Turnbull war memorial, Milne Bay area north up to East Cape coastal range. 1,020 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waiema Dialects: None known. Wa’ema seems to be part of a chain of related varieties with Taupota [tpa]. Tawala [tbo] not intelligible to Wa’ema. Lexical similarity: 76% with Taupota [tpa], 69% with Maiwala [mum], 54% with Tawala [tbo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota

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Waffa
[waj] Morobe Province, Kaiapit district, Waffa river headwaters. 5 villages. 1,300 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora Comments: Christian.

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Wagawaga
[wgb] Milne Bay Province, Upper and Lower Dawadawa wards, along Tawala river and east of Wagawaga village, in the middle of Tawala [tbo] language area. 600 (2000 census). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baeaula, Beauli, Ealeba, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Kilikilana Dialects: Gamadoudou. Reportedly similar to Yaleba [ylb]. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oya’oya [oyy], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 55% with Buhutu [bxh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic

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Wagi
[fad] Madang Province, northwest of Madang, Mis, Kamba, Foran, Kauris, and Silibob villages. 3,380 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Foran, Furan, Kamba, Mis-Kemba Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30% with Ari dialect of Nobonob [gaw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Wahgi
[wgi] Western Highlands Province, Minj district; Simbu Province, south of Wahgi river. 39,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mid Wahgi Dialects: Kambia, Kunjip, Kup-Minj (Kumai), Mid-Wahgi, Pukamigl-Andegabu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi

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Wahgi, North
[whg] Western Highlands Province, Minj district; Simbu Province, Wahgi river north side, and both sides of Sepik-Wahgi divide. 47,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Banz-Nondugl. Between 2 to 5 dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi

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Waima
[rro] Central Province, Bereina district, near Kairuku, Hall Sound shores, between Yule island and mainland, northwest of Port Moresby. 15,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Roro Dialects: Paitana, Roro, Waima. Roro and Paitana populations smaller and scattered. Lexical similarity: 45% with Kuni [kse] (most similar), 99% among all 3 dialects. All agree Waima is the main dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Comments: Many schools.

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Walio
[wla] East Sepik Province, Walio (Leonhardt Schultze) river. 230 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 12% with Yawiyo [ybx]. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze

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Wamas
[wmc] Madang Province, 40 km north of Madang. 10 villages. 220 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Wampar
[lbq] Morobe Province, lower Markham and Wamped rivers. 5,150 (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Laewamba, Laewomba, Laiwomba Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Wampar Comments: Different from Wampur [waz] on the Wanton river.

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Wampur
[waz] Morobe Province, Wanton river, Wampur and Mirir villages (Holzknecht 1989); some in Aringon village of Waffa [waj] language group. 530 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 550. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wampul Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Mari [hob]. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain Comments: Different from Wampar [lbq] in lower Markham Valley.

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Wanambre
[wnb] Madang Province, 55 km west of Karkar island. 590 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vanambere Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran

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Wanap
[wnp] Sandaun Province, north of Mehek, northeast of Siliput. 1,070 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayik Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Wantoat
[wnc] Morobe Province, Kaiapit district, Wantoat, Leron, and Bam rivers. 8,200 (McElhanon 1978). 390 Bam (McElhanon 1978) and 490 Yagawak (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Bam, Central Wantoat, Wapu (Leron), Yagawak (Kandomin). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat Comments: Saseng is a village.

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Wára
[tci] Western Province, Morehead district, villages west of Morehead. 700 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ara, Kamindjo, Rouku, Tjokwai, Tokwasa, Upper Morehead, Vara, Wärä, Yumbar Dialects: Anta, Kómnjo, Wára, Wèré. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda Comments: Traditional religion.

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Warapu
[wra] Sandaun Province, near Sera and Sissano coast, northwest peninsula of Sissano Lagoon, around Sumo and Ramu towns. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Piore River

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Waris
[wrs] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, Wasengla area. 2,500 in Papua New Guinea, increasing. Population total all countries: 4,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Walsa Dialects: None known. Intelligible at Imonda but not Amanab. Similar to Imonda [imn] and Amanab [amn]. Classification: Border, Waris Comments: Different from Waritai [wbe] or Wares [wai] of Indonesia. Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Waruna
[wrv] Western Province, Aramia river area, Waruna village. 600 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Ari [aac]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala

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Warwar Feni
[hrw] New Ireland Province, Feni islands. 2,100 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anir, Feni, Tangga Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai

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Wasembo
[gsp] Morobe Province, west of Ufim. 590 (1980 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biapim, Gusap, Yankowan Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Wasembo

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Waskia
[wsk] Madang Province, Madang district, northern half of Karkar island. 20,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vaskia, Woskia Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Korak [koz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Kowan

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Watakataui
[wtk] East Sepik Province, middle Korosameri river branch. 2 villages. 350 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waxe Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo

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Watiwa
[wtf] Madang Province, Bebei and Dumpu villages. 510 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumpu, Watifa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia

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Watut, Middle
[mpl] Morobe Province, Mumeng district, lower Watut valley, Dungutung, Bencheng, Marauna, and Babuaf (Madzim and Singono) villages. 1,700 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maraliinan, Maralinan, Silisili, Watut Dialects: Middle Watut, Waggong. The Waggong dialect is spoken in Dungutung village and is related to North Watut [una]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut

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Watut, North
[una] Morobe Province, Mumeng district, Kaiapit area, Waffa valley, Mafanazo, Uruf, and Onom (Morom) villages. 630 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Onank, Unangg, Unank, Watut Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut

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Watut, South
[mcy] Morobe Province, lower or south Watut river, Wawas, Maralangko, Zinimb, Bulaprik (Gumots), Dangal, and Sanang villages. 890 (Holzknecht 1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dangal (Danggal), Maralango (Maralangko). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut

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Waube
[kop] Madang Province, 20 km east of Erima. 780 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwato, Waupe Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Wedau
[wed] Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district, Weraura local government area, mainland from Kuvira Bay to Dogura along north coast. 2,200 (2000 D. Tryon). 900 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wedaun, Wedawan Dialects: Kwamana, Lavora, Topura, Yapoa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Comments: Christian.

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Weliki
[klh] Morobe Province, lower Timbe river valley. 2 villages. 200 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karangi, Weleki Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa

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Weri
[wer] Morobe Province, Wau district, Biaru, Waria, and Ono rivers’ headwaters. 4,160 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wele, Weli Dialects: Biaru-Waria, Ono, Sim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa

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Wiarumus
[tua] East Sepik Province, Mandi village, southeast of Wewak on coast. 460 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Imandi, Mandi Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg

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Wipi
[gdr] Western Province, east third of area between Fly delta, estuary, and south coast. 3,500 (1999 Shim). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gidra, Jibu, Oriomo Dialects: Abam, Dorogori, Gamaewe, Guiam, Iamega, Kapal, Kuru (uKuru), Peawa, Podari, Rual, Ume, Wipim, Woigo, Wonie, Yuta. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly Comments: ‘Gidra’ a Bine term, bush.

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Wiru
[wiu] Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu district. 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Witu Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Wiru

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Wogamusin
[wog] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, juncture of Niksek (April) and Sepik rivers. 4 villages. 700 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wongamusin Classification: Sepik, Wogamusin-Chenapian

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Wogeo
[woc] East Sepik Province, Vokeo and Koil islands. 1,620 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Uageo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam

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Wom
[wmo] East Sepik Province, Maprik district, east of Wara Sikau; Dreikikir district, west of Maprik, 12 villages. Torricelli mountain foothills. 4,260 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wam Dialects: 2 slightly different dialects. Brief word lists and survey indicate little similarity to Kombio [xbi]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio Comments: Traditional religion.

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Womo
[wmx] Sandaun Province, Onei village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Rawo-Main Serra, Main Serra

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Wutung
[wut] Sandaun Province, Vanimo district, coast bordering Papua, Indonesia, including Sangke village. 900 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Udung Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Eastern Skou

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Wuvulu-Aua
[wuv] Western Manus Province, Aua, Durour, Maty, and Wuvulu islands. 1,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aua-Viwulu, Viwulu-Aua Dialects: Aua, Wuvulu (Wuu). Dialects nearly identical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western

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Yabem
[jae] Morobe Province, Huon peninsula, near Finschhafen coast. 2,080 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jabem, Jabim, Laulabu, Yabim Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North Comments: Christian.

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Yaben
[ybm] Madang Province, 65 km northwest of Madang. 700 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan

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Yabong
[ybo] Madang Province. 1,500 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon

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Yagaria
[ygr] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district. 21,100 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Dagenava, Hira, Hua (Huva), Kamate, Kami-Kulaka, Kotom, Move, Ologuti. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria

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Yagomi
[ygm] Madang Province, Saidor district, coast southeast of Seure, Yagomi village. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup Comments: May be same as Muratayak [asx].

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Yagwoia
[ygw] Morobe Province, Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, and Yeqwangilje; Gulf Province, Gwase; Eastern Highlands Province, Iqwalaqamalje. 10,000 (2005 R. Westerveld). 1,500 Iwalaqamalje, 1,500 Gwase, 7,000 Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kokwaiyakwa, Yeghuye Dialects: Gwase, Hiqwase, Hiqwaye, Iwalaqamalje, Yeqwangilje. Reportedly similar to Chimbari [smb], Hamtai [hmt], Baruya [byr], and Menya [mcr] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan Comments: 5 ethnic groups: Iwalaqamalje, Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Gwase, Heqwangilye. Christian.

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Yahang
[rhp] Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. 1,430 (2003 SIL). 1,120 in area, 66 outside. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ruruhi’ip, Ruruhip, Ya’unk Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Heyo [auk] (Arinua). Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper Comments: Heyo (Arinua) [auk] glossonym: Ruruhip.

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Yakaikeke
[ykk] Milne Bay Province, Alotau district, Weraura local government area, Goodenough Bay between Wedau and Radava, near Manubada at Diruna. 100 (1998 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Iakaikeke Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Wedau [wed] (most similar), 58% with Kwamana dialect of Wedau [wed], 48% with Ghayavi [bmk] (at Radava). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota

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Yale
[nce] Sandaun Province, Amanab district, west of Namia. 6 villages. Kwomtari [kwo] language area is north; Abau [aau] is south; Busa [bhf] is southwest; Biaka [bio] is west; Anggor [agg] and Amanab [amn] are northwest. 600 (1991 SIL). 30 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nagatiman, Nagatman, Yade, Yarë Classification: Language isolate Comments: ‘Nagatman’ is a corrupted name of 1 village, not a language name. There is some intermarriage with the Odiai, Abau, and Kwomtari. Christian.

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Yaleba
[ylb] Milne Bay Province, Huhu LGA, Gamadoudou, Kilakilana, Iwame, Wanabelo, Gwaugulina, Gibara, and Dalidali villages. 1,330 (2005 SIL). Only 25 Sileba dialect speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aisana Dialects: Gamadoudou, Sileba. Reportedly similar to Wagawaga [wgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic

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Yamap
[ymp] Morobe Province, Francisco river area. 1,580 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Hote [hot] and Misim, a dialect of Hote. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote

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Yambes
[ymb] East Sepik Province, Dreikikkir district, northwest of Wom, east and southeast of Kombio. 4 villages. 1,080 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: East Yambes, West Yambes. Language combines features and vocabulary of Kombio [xbi], Urat [urt], and Wom [wmo]; some understanding of all 3. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio Comments: Ethnic autonym: last Kombio.

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Yangulam
[ynl] Madang Province, east of Erima. 400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru

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Yangum Dey
[yde] Sandaun Province, Nuku district. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Yangum Gel
[ygl] Sandaun Province, Nuku district. 45 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Yangum Mon
[ymo] Sandaun Province, Nuku district. 730 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aiku, Malek, Menandon, Minendon Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei

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Yapunda
[yev] Eastern Sandaun Province, south-southeast of Aitape, on upper Om river. 60 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Reiwo Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Yarawata
[yrw] Madang Province. 130 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan

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Yareba
[yrb] Oro Province, Popondetta district. 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Middle Musa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban

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Yau
[yuw] Morobe Province, Kabwum district, Worin, Yawan, Kotet, Mitmit, Mup, and Sindamon villages. 1,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Uruwa Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa Comments: Different from Yau [yyu] and from the Yawu dialect of Yessan-Mayo [yss].

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Yau
[yyu] Sandaun Province, northwest of Lumi. 1 village. 140 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Olo [ong] and Yis [yis]. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei Comments: Different from Yau [yuw] and Yawu dialect of Yessan-Mayo [yss].

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Yaul
[yla] East Sepik Province, 35 km south of Angoram. 1,210 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mongol-Langam

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Yaweyuha
[yby] Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka district, south of Goroka. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yabiyufa, Yawiyuha Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Siane

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Yawiyo
[ybx] Sandaun Province, east of Duranmin. 3 villages. 66 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yabio Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 7% with Papi [ppe]. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze

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Yekora
[ykr] Morobe Province, Morobe government station area. 2 villages. 1,050 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mawae dialect of Zia [zia]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Yekora

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Yele
[yle] Milne Bay Province, Misima district, Rossel island at Calvados chain east end; 500 in Port Moresby and Alotau. 3,750 (1998 Rossel Health Centres). 400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,750 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rossel, Yela, Yelejong, Yeletnye, Yelidnye Dialects: Abaletti, Bou, Daminyu, Jaru, Jinjo, Wulanga. Lexical similarity: 8% with Daga [dgz] (most similar). Classification: Yele-West New Britain, Yele Comments: Christian.

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Yelogu
[ylg] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district. 1 village. 160 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buiamanambu, Kaunga Classification: Sepik, Ndu

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Yerakai
[yra] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district, southeast near government station. 2 villages. 380 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yerekai Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 6% with Middle Sepik languages. Classification: Sepik, Yerakai Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yessan-Mayo
[yss] East Sepik Province, Ambunti district; Sandaun Province, Wan Wan district, south of Mehek. 10 villages. 1,990 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maio-Yesan, Mayo-Yesan, Yasyin, Yesan Dialects: Mayo-Yessan, Yawu (Warasai, Yau, Yaw). Classification: Sepik, Tama Comments: Yawu dialect different from Yau [yyu] or Yau [yuw]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yil
[yll] Sandaun Province, northwest of Au [avt] language area. 16 villages. 2,470 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 23% with Au [avt]. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Yimas
[yee] East Sepik Province, near Chambri, Arafundi and middle Karawari rivers. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Karawari

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Yipma
[byr] Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka district. 6,600 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barua, Baruya Dialects: Baruya, Gulicha, Usirampia (Wuzuraabya), Wantakia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan

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Yis
[yis] Sandaun Province, west of Lumi. 5 villages. 320 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different dialects in each village. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei

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Yoba
[yob] Central Province, north of Magori. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric

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Yoidik
[ydk] Madang Province, 35 km north of Madang on the coast. 770 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman

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Yongkom
[yon] Western Province along Fly and Tedi (Alice) rivers and toward Lake Murray. 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yonggom, Yongom Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with North Muyu [kti], 70% with South Muyu [kts], 30% with Ninggerum [nxr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland

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Yopno
[yut] Both sides of Madang and Morobe provincial border in Finisterre range. 9,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 6,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yupna Dialects: Isan, Kewieng, Nokopo, Wandabong. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yout Wam
[ytw] Madang Province, Finisterre mountains north slope of Rai Coast, Yout village. 270 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna

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Zenag
[zeg] Morobe Province, Mumeng district, northwest of Bulolo. 1,820 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zenang Dialects: Latep. In the Mumeng chain of related varieties. Some intelligibility of Patep [ptp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng

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Zia
[zia] Morobe Province, Lae district near Waria river mouth, at Oro Province border. 4,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Zia (1991 SIL), 940 Mawae dialect. Ethnic population: 4,550. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lower Waria, Tsia, Ziya Dialects: Mawae, Zia. Lexical similarity: 68% with Yekora [ykr] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, North Binanderean

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Zimakani
[zik] Western Province, south end of Lake Murray. 1,500 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baegwa, Bagwa Zimakani, Dea Dialects: Bagwa (Begua, Mbegu), Dea, Zimakani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Boazi

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