Philippines

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Adasen
[tiu] Luzon, northeast Abra Province. 4,000. Ethnic population: 5,720. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Addasen, Addasen Tinguian, Itneg Adasen Dialects: Eastern Addasen, Western Addasen. Comprehension of Isnag [isd] 74%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag

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Agta, Alabat Island
[dul] Luzon, east of Quezon Province. 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 75. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alabat Island Dumagat Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget

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Agta, Casiguran Dumagat
[dgc] Luzon east coast, Aurora Province. 610 (Headland 1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Casiguran Dumagat Dialects: Intelligibility: 83% of Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern Comments: Negrito. Pressure from Filipino homesteaders moving into the area. Traditional lands now used by homesteaders for agriculture.

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Agta, Central Cagayan
[agt] Northeast Luzon. 780 (2000). Ethnic population: 820. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Labin Agta Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic Comments: Negrito. Christian.

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Agta, Dicamay
[duy] Luzon, Isabela Province, near Jones. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dicamay Dumagat Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern

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Agta, Dupaninan
[duo] Northeast Luzon, from below Divilacan bay south to Palaui island north. 1,200 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2007 L. Reid). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dupaningan Agta, Eastern Cagayan Agta Dialects: Barongagunay, Bolos Point, Camonayan, Palaui Island, Peñablanca, Roso (Southeast Cagayan), Santa Ana-Gonzaga, Santa Margarita, Tanglagan, Valley Cove, Yaga. Intelligibility of Yaga dialect 83%. Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta [agt] are 63% intelligible. Lexical similarity: 51% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Tanglagan dialect, 66% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Yaga dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern

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Agta, Isarog
[agk] Luzon, Bicol region, mount Isarog east of Naga city. 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga

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Agta, Mt. Iraya
[atl] Luzon, Bicol region, east of Lake Buhi. 150 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Itbeg Rugnot, Lake Buhi, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East Dialects: 54%–86% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 94% comprehension of Mt. Iriga Agta [agz], Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bikol; 70% with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect, 93% among four dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga Comments: Heavy borrowing from Legaspi dialect of Central Bikol [bcl].

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Agta, Mt. Iriga
[agz] Luzon, Bicol region, east of Iriga city, west of Lake Buhi. 1,500 (1979 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lake Buhi West, Mt. Iriga Negrito, San Ramon Inagta Dialects: 86% intelligibility of Rinconada Bikol [bto], 82% of Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 72% of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Intelligibility of Naga Bikol for Mt. Iriga Agta doubtful. Lexical similarity: 76% with Iriga City Bikol [bto], 66% with Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 66% with Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland

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Agta, Pahanan
[apf] Luzon, Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town, inland to San Mariano. 1,700 (2009 J. Lobel), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Palanan Agta Dialects: Similar to Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Agta, Umiray Dumaget
[due] Luzon, Quezon Province. 3,000 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Umiray Agta, Umirey Dumagat Dialects: Anglat Agta, Polillo Island Agta. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget

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Agta, Villa Viciosa
[dyg] Luzon, Abra Province. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine

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Agutaynen
[agn] Agutaya island, 5 surrounding islands; Roxas, San Vicente, and Brooke’s Point, Palawan municipalities; Mindoro, Taytay, Linapacan, and Manila. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agutayno, Agutaynon Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Cuyonon [cyo], 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Kalamian Comments: Culturally lowland. Christian.

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Alangan
[alj] North central Mindoro. 7,690 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan

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Alta, Northern
[aqn] East Luzon, Aurora Province, Bayanihan, and San Luis; Diteki. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baler Negrito, Ditaylin Alta, Ditaylin Dumagat, Edimala Dialects: Not similar to other languages (1992 L. Reid). Lexical similarity: 34% with Southern Alta [agy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta

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Alta, Southern
[agy] Luzon, Quezon Province coastal areas, east Nueva Ecija, Sierra Madre, and San Miguel town; Bulacan Province, a large community in remote San Miguel. North of the Umiray Dumaget [due] language area. 1,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ita, Kabulowan, Kabuluen, Kabuluwan, Kabuluwen, Pugot Dialects: Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 34% with Northern Alta [aqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta

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Arta
[atz] Luzon, Quirino Province, Aglipay town, Villa Santiago, Villa Gracia, and Nagtipunan town. 15 (Wurm 2000). 12 in Villa Santiago, 1 in Villa Gracia, 3 or 4 in Nagtipunan (1992 L. Reid). Ethnic population: 150. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Not similar to any other language (1992 L. Reid). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Arta Comments: Negrito.

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Ata
[atm] Central Visayas, Negros Oriental province, Mabinay. 2 (Wurm 2000). In 1973, only a few families of speakers were reported. Probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Comments: Different from Ata Manobo [atd] or Atta languages.

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Ati
[atk] Western Visayas, Panay island, small groups in all provinces. 1,500 (1980 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inati Dialects: Barotac Viejo Nagpana, Malay. Barotac Viejo Nagpana is the prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Comments: Negrito.

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Atta, Faire
[azt] Luzon, Cagayan Province, near Faire-Rizal. 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Southern Atta Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Pudtol Atta [atp], 60% with Isnag [isd], 66% with Central Cagayan Agta [agt], 82% with Pamplona Atta [att], 90% with Rizal Atta, 72% with Ibanag [ibg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Comments: Negrito.

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Atta, Pamplona
[att] Luzon, Northwest Cagayan Province. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Cagayan Negrito Dialects: Comprehension of Ibanag North [ibg] 97%, of Itawit [itv] 52%. Lexical similarity: 91% with Ibanag North, 63% with Ilocano [ilo], 69% with Itawit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic

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Atta, Pudtol
[atp] Luzon, Apayao Province, Pudtol, and Abulog river south of Pamplona. 710 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Pamplona Atta [att], 75% with Ibanag [ibg], 63% with Isnag [isd], 81% with Faire Atta [azt], 42% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Comments: Negrito.

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Ayta, Abellen
[abp] Luzon, Tarlac Province, San Jose, Maamot; Station Juliana, Mayantoc, and Capas. 3,000 (2008 SIL), decreasing. 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abenlen, Aburlen Negrito, Ayta Abellen Sambal Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 49% with Sambal [xsb], 38%–44% with Ilocano [ilo], Pangasinan [pag], Filipino [fil], Pampangan [pam]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayta, Ambala
[abc] Luzon, Zambales Province, San Marcelino, Subic city, Olongapa, Castillejos barrios; Luzon, Bataan province, Dinalupinan barrio. 1,660 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambala Agta, Ambala Sambal Dialects: Ambala Ayta speakers’ comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl] is 60%, of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx] is 54%, of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb] is 60%, of Magbukun Ayta [ayt] is 70%. Lexical similarity: 70% with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic Comments: Do not mix with other Ayta groups. Affected by Mount Pinatubo eruption. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayta, Mag-antsi
[sgb] Central Luzon, Mount Pinatubo east side, Botolan Sambal area, near Tarlac-Pampanga border, Capas, Tarlac, Bamban, San Marcelino, Zambales, 2 of Castillejos, Zambales, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, Sapang Bato, and Angeles city barrios. 8,200 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayta, Mag-Anchi, Mag-Anchi Sambal Dialects: 77% intelligibility of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx], 65% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 46% of Pampangan [pam]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% with Filipino [fil], 46% with Pampangan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic Comments: People scattered due to Mount Pinatubo eruption.

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Ayta, Mag-Indi
[blx] Luzon, Pampanga Province, barrios and communities in Florida Blanca and Porac; Zambales Province, San Marcelino. 5,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 40,000 Negritos in Philippines (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 30,000 Ayta (all Ayta in Zambales, Pampanga, Tarlac region). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Indi Ayta, Mag-Indi Sambal Dialects: 46% comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 59% of Pampangan [pam], 32% of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 38% with Filipino [fil], 83% with Mag-Anchi [sgb], 71% with Ayta Abellen [abp], 51% with Kapampangan [pam]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic

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Ayta, Magbukun
[ayt] Luzon, Bataan Province, Mariveles. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bataan Ayta, Bataan Sambal, Mariveles Ayta Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63% with Botolan Sambal [sbl] and Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic Comments: Negrito.

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Ayta, Sorsogon
[ays] Luzon, Sorsogon Province, Prieto Diaz. 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 180. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Comments: Frequent intermarriage with other groups.

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Ayta, Tayabas
[ayy] Luzon, Quezon Province, Tayabas. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Comments: Negrito.

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Balangao
[blw] Luzon, east Mountain Province. 21,300 (2000), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangaw Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bantayanon
[bfx] Central Visayas, Cebu Province, Bantayan and surrounding islands. 71,600 (2007 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central

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Bantoanon
[bno] Romblon Province. 75,000 (2011 Governor’s Office, Romblon Province), decreasing. 500 to 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 75,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Banton, Calatravanhon, Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon. 63% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]; 92% with Inonhan [loc]. Odionganon dialect preferred for literature. Lexical similarity: 83% with Romblomanon [rol] (Zorc 1977). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton Comments: Christian, Buddhist, Muslim.

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Batak
[bya] North-central Palawan island. 200 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,040 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babuyan, Palawan Batak, Tinitianes Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Comments: Negrito. Traditional religion.

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Baybayanon
[bvy] Eastern Viscayas, Leyte island, Baybay town in Pangasugan river area, Guadalupe (Utod), Gabas, Kilim, Patag and Pangasugan villages. 10,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Leyte, Utudnon Dialects: Similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan

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Bikol
[bik] Population total all countries: 3,648,900. Comments: Member languages are: Buhi’non Bikol [ubl], Central Bikol [bcl], Libon Bikol [lbl], Miraya Bikol [rbl], Northern Catanduanes Bikol [cts], Rinconada Bikol [bto], Southern Catanduanes Bikol [bln], West Albay Bikol [fbl]

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Bikol, Buhi’non
[ubl] Luzon, Camarines Sur Province, Buhi town. 73,600 (2009 SIL). No monolinguals. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol Buhi, Boîn?n, Buhi, Buhi’non, Buhi-non Dialects: Similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Central
[bcl] Luzon, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, southern Catanduanes, northern Sorsogon, and Albay provinces. 2,500,000 (1990 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Camarines Norte, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Bikol, Central Bicolano Dialects: Legaspi, Naga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Libon
[lbl] Luzon, Albay Province, Libon town. 68,800 (2009 SIL). No monolinguals. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Libongeño Dialects: Similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Miraya
[rbl] Luzon, Albay Province, Guinobatan, Camalig, Daraga, and Jovellar towns; Sorsogon Province, Donsol town. 300,000 (2009 SIL). No monolinguals. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol, Daraga Dialects: Similar to West Albay Bikol [fbl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Northern Catanduanes
[cts] Luzon, Catanduanes Province, Pandan, Caramonan, Viga, Panganiban, and Bato. 77,500 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Catanduanes Bicolano, Pandan Dialects: 68% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 66% comprehension of Filipino [fil] narrative. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan Comments: Proud of language and culture. People who identify with this language are negotiating multiple identities.

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Bikol, Rinconada
[bto] Luzon, Camarines Sur Province, Rinconada district, Iriga city, Baao, Bato, Balatan, Bula, and Nabua. 234,000 (2000 census), increasing. 2,300 monolinguals. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 320,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicolano, Iriga, Rinconada Bicolano, Rinconada Bikol Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga Comments: Iriga City inhabitants regard Naga [bcl] dialect as true Bicolano; proud of their language and culture. Christian.

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Bikol, Southern Catanduanes
[bln] Luzon, Catanduanes Province, southern municipalities: Virac, San Miguel, San Andres, Gigmoto, Bato, and Baras. 135,000 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Catanduanes Bikolano, Virac Dialects: Samples had 85% comprehension of Central Bikol [bcl] and Filipino [fil] narrative. Intelligibility of Northern Catanduanes [cts] 91%. Prefer Virac dialect for literature. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, West Albay
[fbl] Luzon, Albay Province, Polangui, Oas, Ligao, and Pio Duran towns. 260,000 (2009 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicol, Bikol, Ligaoeño, Oasnun, Oasnün, Polanguinon Dialects: Similar to Miraya Bikol [rbl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Comments: Christian.

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Binukid
[bkd] North Central Mindanao, Agusan del Sur, south Bukidnon and northeast Cotabato provinces. 100,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binokid, Binukid Manobo, Bukidnon Dialects: Similar to Higaonon [mba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North

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Binukidnon, Northern
[kyn] Negros Occidental Province, Kabankalan. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karolanos Dialects: Similar to Southern Binukidnon [mtw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine

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Binukidnon, Southern
[mtw] Negros Oriental Province, Mount Arniyo near Bayawan, upper Tayaban, Bayawan, Tanjag, Santa Catalina, and Siaton municipalities. 7,570 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukidnon, “Magahat” (pej.) Dialects: Similar to Northern Binukidnon [kyn]. Reportedly includes a heavy mixture of Cebuano [ceb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Comments: Tend to live in high elevations.

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Blaan, Koronadal
[bpr] Mindanao, South Cotabato and Sarangani provinces. 150,000 (2007 SIL). 40,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baraan, Bilanes, Biraan, Koronadal Bilaan, Tagalagad Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Blaan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blaan, Sarangani
[bps] Mindanao, south Cotabato, Sarangani, and Davao Del Sur provinces. 90,800 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Balud, Bilaan, Tumanao Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Blaan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bolinao
[smk] Luzon, West Pangasinan Province, Bolinao and Anda municipalities. 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. 1% monolingual. Ethnic population: 104,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bino-Bolinao, Binubolinao, Binubulinao, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal, Bulinaw, Sambal Bolinao Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic Comments: Christian.

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Bontok
[bnc] Population total all countries: 40,700. Comments: Member languages are: Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk]

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Bontok, Central
[lbk] Luzon, Mountain Province, Bontoc municipality, Bontoc ili, Caluttit, Dalican, Guina-ang, Ma-init, Maligcong, Samoki, and Tocucan villages. 19,600 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Bontoc Igorot, Bontoc, Central Dialects: Similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok

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Bontok, Eastern
[ebk] Luzon, east Mountain Province, Barlig municipality, Barlig, Kadaklan, and Lias villages. 6,170 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Bontoc, Finallig, Southern Bontoc Dialects: Similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]; intelligibility of Ilocano [ilo] 53%, of Balangao [blw] 49%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bontok, Northern
[rbk] Luzon, northern Mountain Province, Sadanga municipality, Anabel, Bekigan, Belwang, Betwagan, Demang, Sacasacan, Saclit, and the municipal center, Sadanga Poblacion. 9,700 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Bontoc, Central, Bontoc, Northern Dialects: Similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Comments: Various Sadanga municipality residents do not identify their language as Bontok. They identify with their community dialect, and label it distinctively.

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Bontok, Southern
[obk] Luzon, Mountain Province, south of Bontoc municipality, Talubin, Bayyo, and Can-eo towns. 2,760 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Southern Bontoc Dialects: Similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Central Bontok [lbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bontok, Southwestern
[vbk] Luzon, Mountain Province, Bontoc municipality, Alab, Balili, Gonogon and villages in Chico river valley, southwest of municipal capital Bontoc, along Halsema Highway. 2,470 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bontoc Dialects: Similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Comments: Various municipality residents do not identify their language as Bontok. They identify with their community dialect, and label it distinctively: Alab (Ina-ab), Balili (Binalili), Gonogon (Ginonogon); however, they maintain a sense of community with other Southwestern Bontok speakers based on perceived phonological and other linguistic differences from Central Bontok [lbk].

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Buhid
[bku] South Mindoro island. 8,000 (1991 OMF). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangon, Batangan, Bukil Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid

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Butuanon
[btw] Mindanao, Agusan del Norte Province, Butuan city. 34,500 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Kamayo [kyk]; 69% with Surigaonon [sgd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug

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Caluyanun
[clu] Western Visayas, Antique Province, Caluya Islands. 30,000 (1994 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caluyanen, Caluyanhon Dialects: Semirara. 69% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil], 62% of Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West Comments: Christian.

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Capiznon
[cps] Western Visayas, Capiz Province, northeast Panay. 639,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Capisano, Capiseño Dialects: Sample had 91% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil] narrative. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral

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Cebuano
[ceb] Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Biliran, and south Masbate provinces; parts of Mindanao. Also in United States. 15,800,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Includes Cebuano and Binisaya. Population total all countries: 15,810,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Cebu Province, 4 other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f), may not be subject to population threshold). Alternate Names: Binisaya, Bisayan, Sebuano, Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Visayan Dialects: Boholano, Cebu, Leyte, Mindanao Visayan. Boholano sometimes considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan Comments: Christian.

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Chavacano
[cbk] Mindanao, Zamboanga and Basilan provinces, Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil, Malangas, Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawan, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso, Malamawi, and Cotabato city; Cavite, Ternate, and Ermita near Manila. Speakers in 60 of 66 provinces (1970 census). 359,000 (Rubino 2008). 155,000 Zamboangueño (Holm 1989); 27,800 Caviteño; 3,750 Ternateño (1975 census); 5,470 Cotabato Chavacano (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chabacano, Chabakano, Zamboangueño Dialects: Caviteño, Cotabato Chavacano (Cotabateño), Davaweño Zamboangueño (Abakay Spanish, Davao Chavacano, Davaoeño, Davaweño), Ermitaño (Ermiteño), Ternateño (Ternateño Chavacano), Zamboangueño (Chavacano). Classification: Creole, Spanish based Comments: A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure. Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 500 in Philippines. All ethnic Chinese are 53,300 (1990 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 592,000 in Philippines. 99% of Chinese population in the Philippines (1982). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Min Nan Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 9,780 in Philippines (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Cuyonon
[cyo] Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay. 123,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuyo, Cuyono, Cuyunon, Kuyonon, Kuyunon Dialects: Similar to Ratagnon [btn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan

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Davawenyo
[daw] Mindanao, Davao Oriental and Davao del Sur provinces. 147,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davaoeño, Davaweño, Matino Dialects: Synthesis of Filipino [fil], Cebuano [ceb], other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish [spa] words. Not a Spanish creole. Different from Davawenyo dialect of Chavacano [cbk]. 2 dialects: East Coast (90% of speakers), and Davao City area (Whinnom 1956). Lowland Davawenyo have 89% intelligibility of Kamayo [kyk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo

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Dumagat, Remontado
[agv] Luzon, Rizal Province, Santa Inez; Quezon Province, General Nakar, Paimohuan. 2,530 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hatang-Kayey, Remontado Agta, Sinauna, Sinauna Tagalog Dialects: Lexical similarity: 73% with Filipino [fil], 37% with Umiray Dumaget Agta [due]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sinauna Comments: Reportedly highly endangered; possibly no longer in use (2006 SIL). Reportedly high levels of bilingualism (1989 SIL). Previously erroneously identified as a variety of Agta.

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English
[eng] 20,000 in Philippines (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(7)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Filipino
[fil] Widespread. 25,000,000 (2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(6)), not used in all official domains. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog Comments: Primarily based on Tagalog [tgl] with some terminology imported from other regional languages. Christian.

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Ga’dang
[gdg] Luzon, Mountain Province, Paracelis; Ifugao Province, Potia. 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal Dialects: Related to Gaddang [gad], Itawit [itv], Yogad [yog], Ibanag [ibg], and Isnag [isd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gaddang [gad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gaddang
[gad] Luzon, central Isabela Province; Nueva Vizcaya Province, Bagabag, Bayombong, and Solano municipalities. 30,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cagayan Dialects: Less than 80% intelligibility of Ga’dang [gdg]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ga’dang [gdg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic Comments: A lowland group. Ethnonym: Gaddang for those in Nueva Vizcaya; Cagayan, for those in central Isabela. Christian.

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Giangan
[bgi] Mindanao, Davao City; Davao del Sur Province, east slopes of Mount Apo. 55,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Atto, Bagobo, Clata, Eto, Guanga, Gulanga, Jangan Dialects: 69% comprehension of Tagabawa [bgs]; 79% of Obo Manobo [obo]. Lexical similarity: 34% with Tagabawa [bgs], 35% with Obo Manobo [obo], 43% with Blaan [bpr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic Comments: Different from Manobo.

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Hanunoo
[hnn] South Oriental Mindoro Province. 13,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hanonoo Dialects: Binli, Bulalakawnon, Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo

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Higaonon
[mba] North central Mindanao, Misamis Oriental Province, south of Ginoog city. 30,000 (1996 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Higaunon, Misamis Higaonon Manobo Dialects: Related to Binukid [bkd] with 77%–81% intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North

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Hiligaynon
[hil] Western Visayas, Panay, Iloilo and Capiz provinces; Negros Occidental Province. Also in United States. 5,770,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Iloilo, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f), may not be subject to population threshold). Alternate Names: Hiligainon, Illogo, Ilonggo Dialects: Hiligaynon, Kari, Kawayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Comments: Christian.

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I-wak
[iwk] Luzon, Benguet Province, east Itogon, Tojongan, Bakes, Lebeng, Domolpos, Bujasjas, Kayo-ko, and Salaksak (in Kayapa) villages; also in Nueva Ecija, Capintalan, but speak only Kallahan [kak]. 3,260 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iwaak Dialects: Related to Karao [kyj], Ibaloi [ibl], and Kallahan [kak]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy Comments: Less acculturated to outside culture than other mountain groups.

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Ibaloi
[ibl] Luzon, central and south Benguet Province, west Nueva Vizcaya Province. 111,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benguet-Igorot, Ibadoy, Ibaloy, Igodor, Inibaloi, Nabaloi Dialects: Bokod, Daklan, Kabayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy

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Ibanag
[ibg] Luzon, Isabela and Cagayan provinces. 500,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ybanag Dialects: North Ibanag, South Ibanag. Intelligibility with Itawit [itv] 69%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic

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Ibatan
[ivb] North of Luzon, Babuyan Islands, Ibatan tribe ancestral domain. 1,240 (2007 NCIP). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2008 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan Dialects: Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv] 64%; Basco Ivatan [ivv] 31%. Lexical similarity: 72% with Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv], 74% with Basco Ivatan [ivv] (1974–1975 SIL survey). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Ivatan Comments: Since 1978, speakers have increased from 450 to 1,220. On June 1, 2007, the Ibatan were awarded title to their island home of Babuyan Claro with all collective rights to natural resources, including 5 km of ocean around the island. The ancestral domain was established with the help of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines and based on the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 (2007 SIL). Christian.

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Ifugao, Amganad
[ifa] Luzon, central Ifugao Province. 27,100 (2000 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. 168,000 all Ifugao (1990 census). Ethnic population: 25,500 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Amganad, Ifugaw Dialects: Banaue Ifugao, Burnay Ifugao. Intelligibility of Burnay dialect 81%. Lexical similarity: 83% with Burnay dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Batad
[ifb] Luzon, Ifugao Province. 43,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad, Ifugaw Dialects: Ducligan Ifugao. Intelligibility of Ayangan Batad Ifugao: Mayoyao [ifu] 86%–94%. Lexical similarity: 89% with Ducligan dialect, 79% with Mayoyao [ifu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Mayoyao
[ifu] Luzon, Ifugao Province. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ifugaw, Mayaoyaw, Mayoyao Dialects: 86%–94% intelligibility of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Grammatical markers are different. Lexical similarity: 54% with Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Tuwali
[ifk] Luzon, south Ifugao Province. 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Only those below grade-school age are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan Dialects: Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility of Hungduan dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Comments: Kiangan is the place, Tuwali the language. Christian.

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Ilocano
[ilo] Northwest Luzon, La Union and Ilocos provinces; Babuyan islands; Cagayan valley, Mindoro, Mindanao areas. Also in Canada, United States. 6,920,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 7,016,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Luzon Island, other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f), may not be subject to population threshold). Alternate Names: Ilokano, Iloko Dialects: A pidginized form is used in northern Luzon highlands. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Ilocano Comments: Christian.

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Ilongot
[ilk] Luzon, east Nueva Vizcaya and west Quirino provinces. 50,800 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bugkalut, Bukalot, Lingotes Dialects: Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao), Italon, Iyongut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot

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Inabaknon
[abx] North Samar Province, east Visayas region, San Bernardino strait, Capul island, west Samar coast facing the island; Manila. 26,400 (2010 M. Jacobson). 43,000 monolinguals (almost all children). Population increases 300 to 500 yearly. About 500 leave annually to find opportunities elsewhere. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capuleño, Kapul, Sama Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon Comments: Ethnic autonym: Abaknon, Capul is the island and Sama the language family. Heteroglossonym: Capuleño. Christian.

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Inakeanon
[akl] Aklan Province, west Visayas, north Panay. Also in United States. 435,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 458,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aklan, Aklano, Aklanon, Aklanon-Bisayan, Panay Dialects: 66% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan

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Inonhan
[loc] Romblon Province, South Tablas island; Mindoro Oriental and Mindoro Occidental provinces. 85,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loocnon, Looknon, “Unhan” (pej.) Dialects: Alcantaranon, Bulalakaw, Dispoholnon, Looknon. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odionganon [bno] (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon [akl], 86% with Caluyanun [clu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central Comments: Loocnon is a town name.

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Iranun
[ill] Mindanao, Maguindanao, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, Zamboanga del Sur, and Bukidnon provinces. Also in Malaysia. 241,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL). Population total all countries: 256,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ilanon, Ilanum, Illanon, Iranon. 85% intelligibility of Maranao [mrw] of the Philippines. Most closely related to Maranao. Related to, but distinct from, Maguindanaon [mdh]. Different from Lahanan [lhn] of Sarawak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon

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Iraya
[iry] North Mindoro island. 10,000 (1991 OMF). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Abra-De-Ilog, Alag-Bako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, Santa Cruz. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan

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Isinai
[inn] Luzon, Nueva Vizcaya Province, Bambang, Dupax, and Aritao municipalities. 5,520 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Inmeas, Insinai, Isinay, Isnay Dialects: Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai

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Isnag
[isd] Luzon, north Apayao Province. 30,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg, Isneg, Maragat Dialects: Bayag, Calanasan, Dibagat-Kabugao, Karagawan (Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini). Calanasan dialect 94% intelligibility of Dibagat dialect, 88% of Ilocano [ilo]; Talifugu-Ripang 89% of Dibagat, 71% of Ilocano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag

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Itawit
[itv] Luzon, south Cagayan Province. 134,000 (1990 census). 120,000 Itawit, 14,500 Malaweg. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Itawes, Itawis, Tawit Dialects: Itawis, Malaweg (Malaueg). Related to Ibanag languages; 72% intelligibility of South Ibanag [ibg]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Comments: Malaweg may be reclassified as a separate language.

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Itneg, Banao
[bjx] Luzon, east Abra Province. 3,500 (2003 SIL). Unknown number in Malibcong dialect area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banao, Banaw, Itneg, Timggian, Tinguian Dialects: Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg, Malibcong Banao. Lexical similarity: Malibcong Banao 58% with Ilocano [ilo], 81% with Lubuagan Kalinga [knb], 73% with Limos Kalinga [kmk]; Banao Pikek (Daguioman) dialect 62% with Ilocano, 83% with Masadiit and Boliney Itneg [tis], 79% with Masadiit and Sallapadan Itneg [tis], 78% with the Banao dialect of Malibcong, and 73% with Binongan Itneg [itb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: High value placed on education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Itneg, Binongan
[itb] Luzon, Abra Province, Licuan-Baay. 7,500 (2003 SIL). 46,400 in all Itneg varieties (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tingguian, Tinguian Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Ilocano [ilo], 79% with Masadiit Itneg [tis]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Inlaod
[iti] Northern Luzon, Abra Province, a few villages in Penarubia, Lagangilang, Danglas, and Langiden municipalities; southwest of Binongan Itneg [itb] and northwest of Masadiit Itneg [tis] language areas. 9,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tinggian, Tinguian Dialects: Lexical similarity: Inlaod of Langiden 73% with Ilocano [ilo]; Inlaod of Danglas 71% with Ilocano, 75%–77% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75%–76% with Masadiit [tis] of Sallapadan, 74%–75% with Moyadan Itneg [ity]. Inlaod of Langiden and Inlaod of Danglas 86% with each other. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Maeng
[itt] Luzon, south Abra Province, Luba, Tubo, and Villavisciosa municipalities. 18,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luba-Tiempo Itneg, Southern Itneg Dialects: Lexical similarity: Tubo area 60% with Ilocano [ilo], 68% with Northern Kankanaey [kne]; Villavisciosa area 76% with Ilocano, 61% with Northern Kankanaey. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Masadiit
[tis] Luzon, Abra Province, Sallapadan, Bucloc, and Boliney municipalities. 7,500. 45,000 all Itnegs in Abra Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit Sallapadan. Lexical similarity: 62% with Ilocano [ilo], 70% with Guinaang Kalinga [knb], 86% with Binongan Itneg [itb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Moyadan
[ity] Luzon, Abra Province. 12,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tinggian, Tinguian Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Ilocano [ilo], 85% with Masadiit Sallapadan [tis], 80% with Masadiit Boliney [tis], 76% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75% with Inlaod Danglas [iti], 74% with Inlaod Langiden [iti], 73% with Maeng [itt] of Tubo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Comments: Christian.

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Ivatan
[ivv] North of Luzon, Batanes Islands. Many relocated to Mindanao near Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, and Cotabato; Manila, Luzon, and Palawan. 35,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 3,450 Itbayatan (1996 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Basco Ivatan, Itbayaten, Southern Ivatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Ivatan Comments: Christian.

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Kagayanen
[cgc] Palawan Province, Cagayan island between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; south Palawan, Balabac island, Quezon and Rizal areas; north Palawan, Busuanga, Coron municipality; Iloilo Province, Silay, Negros, and Manila. 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 25,000–35,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen Dialects: Calamian Kagayanen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North Comments: A growing number are moving to cities for economic improvement, education. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalagan
[kqe] Mindanao, Davao del Sur and Davao, Compostela Valley, and Davao Oriental provinces, east and west shores of Davao gulf. Isamal dialect: Samal Island; Western dialect: Davao Oriental Province, Lupon along the gulf down to Hagonoy and Guihing near Digos city; Eastern dialect: mainly Davao Oriental Province. 70,000 (2002 census), decreasing. 7,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaagan, Kalagan, Minuslim, Kinalagan Dialects: Eastern Kalagan, Isamal, Western Kalagan. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kagan [kll], 74% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Mandaya [mry]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western Comments: Muslim.

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Kalagan, Kagan
[kll] Mindanao, Davao del Sur Province near Digos city. 6,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaagan, Kagan Kalagan Dialects: 82% intelligibility with Kalagan [kqe] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western

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Kalinga, Butbut
[kyb] Northern Luzon, Kalinga Province, Cordillera Region, Tinglayan and Butbut; Buscalan, Bugnay, Loccong, and Ngibat; Tabuk city, Lucnang, Pakak, Kataw, and Dinongsay; Rizal Province, Annenang, Malapiat, Andaraya, and Bua. 15,000 (2008), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Butbut Dialects: 72% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk]; 44% of Ilocano [ilo]; 70% of Guinaang [knb], 47% of Tanudan [kml], 74% of Bangad (Southern) Kalinga [ksc]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Southern Kalinga, 78% with Guinaang and Tanudan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalinga, Limos
[kmk] Luzon, Kalinga Province, Pinukpuk, Tabuk, and Rizal municipalities. 12,700 (2007 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga Dialects: Intelligibility: Lubuagan Kalinga [knb] 65%, Southern Kalinga [ksc] 66%, Tanudan Kalinga 67% [kml], Ilocano [ilo] 84%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: Lowland teachers and church leaders use other languages which Limos Kalinga speakers find difficult to understand, and it forces the Limos Kalinga speakers to shift to the other languages. Christian.

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Kalinga, Lubuagan
[knb] Northern Luzon, Kalinga Province, Cordillera Region, Lubuagan; Tabuk city; Manila; Baguio city. 30,000 (2008 V. Dumatog), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Ableg-Salegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg), Balbalasang, Guinaang, Lubuagan. Intelligibility of Balbalasang dialect 81%, Sumadel [ksc] 82%, Limos [kmk] 70%, 48% comprehension of Ilocano [ilo] narrative. Lexical similarity: 81% with Balbalasang and Limos. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Mabaka Valley
[kkg] Luzon, southeast Kalinga Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kal-Uwan, Mabaka, Mabaka Itneg Dialects: 79% comprehension of Limos Kalinga [kmk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga

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Kalinga, Majukayang
[kmd] Northern Luzon, south Mountain Province, Cordillera Region, Majukayong. 1,500 (1990 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalinga, Madukayang, Majukayong Dialects: 83% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk] and Balangao [blw], 86% of Tanudan Kalinga [kml]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Tanudan Kalinga [kml], 68% with Limos Kalinga [kmk], 65% with Balangao [blw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalinga, Southern
[ksc] Luzon, Kalinga Province. 13 villages; some in Tabuk. 13,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 58% are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Madlango Kalinga, Tinglayan Kalinga Dialects: Bangad, Mallango, Sumadel, Tinglayan. Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga [knb] 63%, Tanudan Kalinga [kml] 51%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Tanudan
[kml] Luzon, south Kalinga Province, south end of Tanudan valley. 11,200 (1998 SIL), increasing. Less than 10% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lower Tanudan, Lower Tanudan Kalinga, Mangali Kalinga Dialects: Minangali, Pinangol, Tinaloctoc. Intelligibility: 79% of Limos Kalinga [kmk], 66% of Guinaang dialect of Lubuagan Kalinga [knb]. Lexical similarity: 97% with Pinangol dialect, 80% with Madukayang Kalinga [kmd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kallahan, Kayapa
[kak] Luzon, west Nueva Vizcaya, northeast Pangasinan, west Ifugao provinces. 15,000 (1991 UBS), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikalahan, Kalangoya, Kalangoya-Ikalahan, Kalanguya Dialects: Central Kalanguya (Kayapa), Northern Kalanguya (Ambaguio), Southern Kalanguya (Santa Fe). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan Comments: Intermarriage with Ilocanos and other groups. Children in such marriages tend to adapt a somewhat different language which is a combination of their parents’ languages. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kallahan, Keley-i
[ify] Luzon, Ifugao Province, Kiangan municipality, Aritao municipality. 8,000 (2000 SIL). Only children under 5 are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Antipolo Ifugao, Hanalulo, Keley-i, Keley-i Kalanguya, Keleyqiq Ifugao Dialects: Bayninan, Ya-Tuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kallahan, Tinoc
[tne] Luzon, Ifugao Province, Hungduan municipality, Tinoc barrio. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tinoc Kalangoya Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan

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Kamayo
[kyk] Mindanao, Surigao del Sur Province, between Marihatag and Lingig. 363,000 (2000 census). Estimated population for Caraga, Davao Oriental, and Surigao del Sur regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davaweño, Davawenyo, Kadi, Kinadi, Kinamayo Dialects: North Kamayo, South Kamayo. Lexical similarity: 66% with Surigaonon [sgd], 70% with Butuanon [btw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern Comments: Stable diglossia; high bilingualism in Cebuano [ceb]. Christian.

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Kankanaey
[kne] Luzon, north Benguet, southwest Mountain, southeast Ilocos Sur, and northeast La Union provinces. 150,000 (1991 SIL). All Kankanai 218,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, Kankanay Dialects: Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan, Kapangan, Mankayan-Buguias. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kankanay, Northern
[xnn] Luzon, west Mountain and southeast Ilocos Sur provinces. 70,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sagada Igorot, Western Bontoc Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay

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Karao
[kyj] Luzon, east Benguet Province, Karao, Ekip, and Bokod areas. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karaw Dialects: Limited comprehension testing showed 85% comprehension of Kayapa Kallahan [kak]; 78% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Ibaloi [ibl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Karaw

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Kasiguranin
[ksn] Luzon, Aurora Province, Casiguran municipality. 10,000 (1975 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Casiguranin Dialects: 82% intelligibility of Paranan [prf]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Filipino [fil], 75% with Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern

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Katabaga
[ktq] Luzon, Quezon Province, Bondoc peninsula. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Comments: Negrito.

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Kinabalian
[cbw] Leyte island, southern Leyte Province, 6 villages in San Juan (Cabalian) town. 14,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisaya’, Cabalian Dialects: Similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan

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Kinaray-a
[krj] Western Panay, Iloilo and Antique provinces; Mindanao; national capital region. 378,000 (1994 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Antiqueño, Ati, Hamtiknon, Hinaray-a, Karay-a, Kiniray-a, Panayano, Sulud Dialects: Anini-y, Guimaras Island (Gimaras), Hamtik, Lambunao, Miag-Ao, Pandan, Pototan. Antique area has 75% comprehension of Filipino [fil]; 90% of Hiligaynon [hil]; Iloilo area, 95% of Hiligaynon; 90% of Antique. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan Comments: Christian.

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Maguindanaon
[mdh] Mindanao, Maguindanao, Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces. 1,100,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Cotabato and 3 other Mindanao provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Magindanaon, Magindanaw, Magindanawn, Maguindanaw Dialects: Biwangan, Ilud, Laya, Sibugay, Tagakawanan. Intelligibility 60% of Maranao [mrw], 96% of Iranun [ill]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Magindanao Comments: Muslim.

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Malaynon
[mlz] Panay, lowland, northwest Aklan Province, Malay municipality. 8,500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 93% with Aklanon [akl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan

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Mamanwa
[mmn] Mindanao, Agusan del Norte and Surigao provinces. 5,150 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mamanwa Negrito, Minamanwa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa

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Mandaya
[mry] Mindanao, Davao Oriental Province, Manay, Caraga, Baganga, and Cateel municipalities; Davao del Norte Province. 250,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davawenyo Dialects: Carraga Mandaya, Cateelenyo, Karaga, Manay Mandayan, Mandaya, Cataelano, Mangaragan Mandaya, Sangab. 77% intelligibility of Mansaka [msk]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Kalagan [kqe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern Comments: Many Mandaya will say they are Davawenyo; “Mandaya” can be a derogatory term, meaning uneducated people from the hills. Christian, traditional religion.

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Manide
[abd] Luzon, Camarines Norte Province, Santa Elena and Labo municipalities. 3,800 (Lobel 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiyan, Camarinas Norte Agta Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Alabat Agta [dul], 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta [agz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget

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Manobo, Agusan
[msm] Mindanao, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, and Surigao del Sur provinces. 60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,000 all Manobo (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agusan Dialects: Adgawan, Omayamnon, Surigao, Umayam. 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon [mbd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Omayamnon dialect and other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East Comments: Ethnic autonym: Manobo. Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Ata
[atd] Mindanao, northwest Davao del Norte Province. 26,700 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ata of Davao, Atao Manobo, Langilan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa Comments: Different from Ata [atm] of Mabinay, Negros Oriental, and Atta languages. A Negrito people.

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Manobo, Cotabato
[mta] Mindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Experanza, Kalamansig, Lebak, Palimbang, Sen. Ninoy Aquino, and south Cotabato Province. 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dulangan Manobo Dialects: Blit, Tasaday. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Manobo, Dibabawon
[mbd] Mindanao, Davao del Norte Province, Manguagan. 10,000 (1978 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Debabaon, Dibabaon, Mandaya Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East

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Manobo, Ilianen
[mbi] Mindanao, northern Cotabato Province. 14,600 (2000). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ilianen Dialects: Arakan, Livunganen, Pulangiyan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West Comments: Unable to enforce traditional land claims. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Manobo, Kinamiging
[mkx] Camiguin Island, north of Mindanao. 26,700 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cinamiguin, Kamigin, Kinamigin, Manobo, Cinamiguin Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North

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Manobo, Matigsalug
[mbt] Mindanao, Davao del Norte and southeast Bukidnon provinces. 50,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matig-Salug Manobo Dialects: Kulamanen. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility of Matigsalug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility of Matigsalug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Obo
[obo] Mindanao, northeast slope of Mount Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato provinces. 60,000 (2007 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Obo Bagobo Dialects: Arakan Manobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Magpet Manobo, Marilog. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matigsalug Manobo [mbt] most similar) and 60% of Tagabawa [bgs]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Tagabawa [bgs] and Ilianen Manobo [mbi], 35% with Cebuano [ceb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan
[mqk] Mindanao, south Surigao del Sur, Lingig, Rajah Cabungsuan. 7,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rajah Kabungsuan Manobo Dialects: Intelligibility of Dibabawon Manobo [mbd] 80%, San Miguel Calatugan Agusan [msm] 81%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 76% with Sagunto dialect of Agusan Manobo [msm] and San Miguel Calatugan dialect of Agusan Manobo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Sarangani
[mbs] Mindanao, Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental provinces. 58,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Governor Generoso Manobo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South

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Manobo, Western Bukidnon
[mbb] Mindanao, south Bukidnon Province. 15,000 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West

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Mansaka
[msk] Mindanao, Davao Oriental Province. 57,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandaya Mansaka Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Mandaya [mry], 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso dialect of Kalagan [kqe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern

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Mapun
[sjm] Muslim Mindinao autonomous region, Tawi-Tawi, Cagayan de Sulu (Mapun) island. Also in Malaysia. 43,000 in Philippines (2011 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 58,000. Ethnic population: 43,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanen, Cagayano, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang, Sama Mapun Dialects: Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 59%, intelligibility of Sama Pangutaran [sml] 61%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw Comments: The center of the ethnic group is on Mapun island (pop. 20,000), also known as Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayan Sulu, and Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. The Mapun people only refer to it as Mapun. Many people from the island go to Sabah, Malaysia to find work. Many have settled there over the past century. There are approximately 15,000 Mapun people in Malaysia. There are approximately 5,000 to 10,000 Mapun people on the island of Palawan in the Philippines. Muslim.

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Maranao
[mrw] Mindanao, Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces. 776,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maranaw, Ranao Dialects: Intelligibility of Iranun [ill] 87%, of Maguindanaon [mdh] 52%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Masbatenyo
[msb] Masbate Province, 3 islands. 350,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 50,000 monolinguals mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Masbate Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Masbateño, Minasbate Dialects: Related to Hiligaynon [hil] and Capiznon [cps]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Capiznon [cps], 76% with Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Comments: Christian.

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Molbog
[pwm] Palawan Province, Palawan, Bataraza, Balabac, Banggi, Ramos, and Balambangam islands. Also in Malaysia. 6,680 in Philippines (1990 census). Ethnic population: 13,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balabak, Molbog Palawan Dialects: Balabac Island, Banggi Island, Southern Palawan. Intelligibility of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] is 27%, of South Palawano is 55%. Lexical similarity: 69% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Comments: Muslim.

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Palawano, Brooke’s Point
[plw] Southeast Palawan Island, south of Abu Abu to Bataraza, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 14,400 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Brooke’s Point Palawan, Palawan, Palawanun, Palaweño Dialects: South Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano). Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 76%; of Southwest Palawano [plv] 68%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central), 85% with Southwest Palawano [plv], 83% with South Palawano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic

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Palawano, Central
[plc] Southwest Palawan Island, north of Quezon to north of Rizal; east Abu Abu area, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 12,000 (1981 UBS). 40,500 all Palawano (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Palawanen, Palaweño, Quezon Palawano Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Southwest Palawano [plv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic

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Palawano, Southwest
[plv] Southwest Palawan Island, north of Rizal to the south tip, east side from Bataraza south, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 12,000 (2005 W. Davis). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 75%, of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] 76%. Lexical similarity: 85% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Central Palawano [plc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic

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Pampangan
[pam] Luzon, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Bataan provinces. Also in United States. 1,900,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 1,905,430. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pampanga and 2 other Luzon provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Kapampangan, Pampango, Pampangueño Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Pampangan

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Pangasinan
[pag] Luzon, Pangasinan Province. Also in United States. 1,160,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 1,162,140. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pangasinan Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran

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Paranan
[prf] Luzon, Isabela Province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town and inland to San Mariano. 15,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Palanan, Palanenyo Dialects: Similar to Pahanan Agta [apf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon Comments: Christian.

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Philippine Sign Language
[psp] 100,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Filipino Sign Language, FSL, Local Sign Language Dialects: Reportedly similar to American Sign Language [ase]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Porohanon
[prh] Central Visayas, Camotes Islands. 23,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camotes Dialects: Barely intelligible with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). More similar to Masbatenyo [msb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral

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Ratagnon
[btn] Occidental Mindoro Province, south tip. 2 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aradigi, Datagnon, Lactan, Latagnun, Latan Dialects: Ratagnon, Santa Teresa. Similar to Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan

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Romblomanon
[rol] Romblon and Sibuyan Islands, northeast of Tablas Island (San Agustin), north of Panay. 94,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Romblon Dialects: Bisaya’, Romblon, Sibuyanon. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Inakeanon [akl], 73% of Hiligaynon [hil], 94% of the Romblon dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon

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Sama, Balangingih
[sse] Western Mindanao, Sulu archipelago northeast of Jolo, Zamboanga coast peninsula and islands and Basilan island. Northern Sama dialect: Luzon, White Beach near Subic bay; Lutangan dialect: Olutangga island. Possibly on Luzon and Palawan. Also in Malaysia. 80,000 in Philippines (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baangingi’, Balanguingui, Bangingi, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sama, Sama Bangingih, Samal Dialects: Balangingi, Daongdung, Kabinga’an, Lutangan (Lutango), Sibuco-Vitali (Sibuku), Sibuguey (Batuan). Most Lutangan understand Bangingih Sama, the prestige dialect. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 71%, 83% of Lutangan, 85% of Sibuco-Vitali. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lutangan, 75% with Sibuco-Vitali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Comments: Balangingi is the prestige dialect of Northern Sama. Muslim.

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Sama, Central
[sml] Muslim Mindinao autonomous region, Sulu andTawi-Tawi provinces, Siasi, Tabawan, Bonggao Sitangkai, Cagayan de Sulu island; Basilan island, Maluso, Malamawi, Bohe’ Lobbong; Zamboanga del Sur Province, Rio Hondo, Batuan Lumbayaw, Taluk Sangay, Sanggali; Zamboanga del Norte Province, Olutangga; Davao City, Isla Verde, and Sasa; Cagayan de Oro; Visayas, Cebu and Tagbilaran; Palawan, Puerto Princesa; Batangas. 90,000 (2000). 30,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 105,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Bajaw” (pej.), Central Sinama, Orang Laut, Sama Dilaut, Samal, Siasi Sama, Sinama Dialects: Sama Deya, Sama Dilaut, Sama Laminusa, Sama Siasi, Sama Tabawan. Intelligibility of Bangingih Sama [sse] 79%. Lexical similarity: 47% with Inabaknon [abx], 62% with Yakan [yka], 76% with Pangutaran Sama [slm], 77% with Balangingi [sse], 72–78% with Southern Sama [ssb], 59% with West Coast Bajau [bdr], 66% with Mapun [sjm], 48–51% with Indonesian Bajau [bdl], 25% with Cebuano [ceb], 45% with Tausug [tsg] (Pallesen 1985). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Sama, Pangutaran
[slm] Western Mindanao, west central Sulu, Pangutaran island, west of Jolo; south Palawan, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. 35,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siyama Dialects: Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 65%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama Comments: Muslim.

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Sama, Southern
[ssb] Muslim Mindanao autonomous region, southern Sulu, Tawi-Tawi Island Province, Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, Sibutu, and other major islands. Also in Malaysia. 200,000 in Philippines (2007 SIL), increasing. 20,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 215,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sama Tawi-Tawi, Southern Sinama Dialects: Balimbing, Bongao, Languyan, Obian, Sama Sibutu, Sapa-Sapa, Sibutu’ (Sibutu), Simunul, Sitangkai, Tandubas. Sibutu intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Simunul dialect 89%. Simunul intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Sibutu dialect 80%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Comments: Simunul is central, prestige dialect. Bongao dialect from political, economic center of Southern Sama. Muslim.

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Sambal
[xsb] Luzon, north Zambales Province, 5 towns; Pangasinan Province, 2 villages; Palawan Island, Quezon, Panitian village. 70,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sambali, “Tina” (pej.), “Tina Sambal” (pej.) Dialects: Iba, Masinloc, Santa Cruz. 70% intelligibility with Botolan [sbl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic Comments: Christian.

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Sambal, Botolan
[sbl] Luzon, Zambales Province, Botolan and Cabangan municipalities. Affected by Mount Pinatubo eruption. 32,900 (2000 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aeta Negrito, Ayta Hambali, Botolan Zambal Dialects: Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan. Among themselves, Ayta Hambali use some words that are similar to Ayta Mag-anchi [sgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic

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Sangil
[snl] Mindanao, Balut and Sarangani islands. 15,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sanggil, Sangiré Dialects: Mindanao, Sarangani. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sangir [sxn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Sangir
[sxn] Mindanao, Balut and Sarangani islands. 55,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sangihé, Sangirese Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern

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Sorsoganon, Northern
[bks] Luzon, Sorsogon Province, Sorsogon city, Casiguran and Juban. 85,000 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bicolano, Sorsogon, Masbate Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan

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Sorsoganon, Southern
[srv] Luzon, south Sorsogon Province. 185,000 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat, Sorsogon, Waray, Southern Sorsogon Dialects: Comprehension of Masbatenyo [msb] 63%–91%; of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga) 71%–82%; of Filipino [fil] 85%–91%. Similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat

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Spanish
[spa] Mainly in Manila; Chavacano-speaking areas. 2,660 in Philippines (1990 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Christian.

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Subanen, Central
[syb] Mindanao, east Zamboanga Peninsula; Sulu Archipelago. 140,000 (2000), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sindangan Subanun Dialects: Eastern Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan). Intelligibility of Southern Subanen [laa] 71%. Lexical similarity: 79% with Western Subanen [suc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Comments: Value their language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Subanen, Eastern
[sfe] Mindanao, eastern Zamboanga, Don Victoriano Chiongban, western slopes of Mount Malindang. 7,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guinselugnen Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern

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Subanen, Northern
[stb] Mindanao, Zamboanga del Norte Province, Sergio Osmeña and Mutia municipalities; inland from Dipolog and Dapitan cities; Misamis Occidental Province, Northern Subanen: Jose Dalman (Linasan), Katipunan, La Libertad, Manukan (Linay and Pangandaw), Pinan, Polanco, President Manuel Roxas, Rizal (Disoy) Siayan (Dumugok), and Sibutad. 85,400 (2010 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 85,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tuboy Subanon Dialects: Dapitan, Dikayu, Miatan, Piyau, Salog (Salug). 63% intelligibility of Central Subanen [syb], 40% of Southern Subanen [laa]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Central Subanen [syb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Subanen, Southern
[laa] Mindanao, east Zamboanga del Sur, subpeninsulas. 25,000 (1978 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen, Subanun, Lapuyan Dialects: Southern Subanen speakers understand Central Subanen [syb] (85%), but not vice versa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern

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Subanon, Kolibugan
[skn] Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula, south Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur provinces. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Calibugan, Kalibugan, Kolibugan Dialects: Similar to Western Subanon [suc], but limitations on inherent intelligibility between them. Lexical and grammatical differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Comments: Culture and attitudes separate Kolibugan from Western Subanon [suc]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Subanon, Western
[suc] Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula. 125,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Siocon Dialects: Siocon, Western Kolibugan (Western Kalibugan). Lexical similarity: 89% between Siocon and Western Kolibugan dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon Comments: Christian.

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Sulod
[srg] Capiz Province, Tapaz; Iloilo Province, Lambunao; Antique Province, Valderrama, Panay. 14,000 (1980 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukidnon, Mondo Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine

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Surigaonon
[sgd] Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, north Agusan del Norte, north Surigao del Sur provinces. 400,000 (2009 W. Hall). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jaun-Jaun, Waya-Waya Dialects: Similar to Tandaganon [tgn]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 81% with Agusan Manobo [msm], 69% with Butuanon [btw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South

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Tadyawan
[tdy] East central Mindoro. 4,150 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balaban, Pula, Tadianan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan

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Tagabawa
[bgs] Mindanao, Davao city, Mount Apo slopes. 43,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa Manobo Dialects: Comprehension of Tigwa Manobo [mbt] 45%; low comprehension of Cebuano [ceb]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Sarangani Manobo [mbs]; 34% with Giangan [bgi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South Comments: The official name is Tagabawa.

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Tagakaulo
[klg] South Mindanao, Sarangani Province, Davao Del Sur. Many migrating to Davao City and other areas to find work (2007 SIL). 83,000 (2000 census). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kalagan, Tagakaulu, Tagakaolo Dialects: Related to Mandaya, Kalagan, and Kamayo [kyk]. About 85% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tagalog
[tgl] Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro. Also in Canada, Guam, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 21,500,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 24,216,200. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Dialects: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Puray, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog Comments: Used as basis for the development of Filipino [fil]. Christian.

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Tagbanwa
[tbw] Palawan, scattered communities from about 120 km south to 60 km north on both sides of Puerto Princesa island. 10,000 (2002 SIL). 5% monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aborlan Tagbanwa, Apurawnon, Tagbanua Dialects: Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 66%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 77%. Lexical similarity: 65% with Central Palawano [plc], 71% with Batak [bya], 54% with Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tagbanwa, Calamian
[tbk] North Palawan Province, Coron, Busuanga, Culion, and Linapacan municipalities (Calamian and Linapacan Groups), Palawan Island, northeast coast, 3 Tagbanwa communities. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Unggoy” (pej.) Dialects: Baras, Binatuanen, Binuswanganen, Inawanwaanen, Kinalamiananen (Kinaramiananen), Lininipaknen, Tinalaanen. Closely related to Kinalamianen and Binusuanganen; Baras dialect on Palawan Island 94% intelligibility with Calamian Tagbanwa. Lexical similarity: 80% with Calamian and Baras dialects; typologically unusual phenomenon with regard to pronoun ordering and marking. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Kalamian Comments: Christian.

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Tagbanwa, Central
[tgt] North Palawan. 2,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Intelligibility of Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane) 29%, of Calamian Tagbanwa 56%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 61%. Lexical similarity: 56% with Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane), 57% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk], 48% with Cuyonon [cyo], 40% with Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic

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Tandaganon
[tgn] Mindanao, central Surigao del Sur, Tandag, Tago, Bayabas, and Cagwait towns. 100,000 (2009 B. Hall). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naturalis, Tagon-on Dialects: Similar to Surigaonon [sgd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South

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Tausug
[tsg] Jolo, Sulu Archipelago; Palawan island; Basilan island, Zamboanga city and environs. Also in Indonesia, Malaysia. 900,000 in Philippines (2000 SIL), increasing. 250,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,062,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bahasa Sug, Moro Joloano, Sinug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog, Taw Sug Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tawbuid, Eastern
[bnj] Central Mindoro. 7,190 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangon, Barangan, Batangan, Binatangan, Fanawbuid, Suri, Tabuid, Taubuid, Tiron Dialects: Western Tawbuid [twb] is distinct. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid

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Tawbuid, Western
[twb] Central Mindoro; Occidental Mindor, mainly Sablayan and Calintaan municipalities; Oriental Mindoro, Bongabon municipality. 6,810 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid, Western Taubuid Dialects: Eastern Tawbuid [bnj] is distinct. Most similar to Buhid [bku]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tboli
[tbl] Southwest Mindanao, South Cotabato Province. 95,300 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000 to 120,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Tagabili” (pej.), T’boli, Tiboli Dialects: Central Tboli, Southern Tboli, Western Tboli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Tboli Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiruray
[tiy] Mindanao, Upi and Cotabato. 50,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Teduray, Tirurai Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic

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Waray-Waray
[war] North and east Samar-Leyte. 2,560,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Samar, Leyte islands (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Binisaya, Samaran, Samareño, Samarenyo, Samar-Leyte, Waray Dialects: Northern Samar, Samar-Leyte, Waray. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray

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Yakan
[yka] Sulu Archipelago, Basilan, and small surrounding islands; Sakol island; west Mindanao, Zamboanga east coast. Concentrated away from the coast. Also in Malaysia. 106,000 in Philippines (1990 census), increasing. 33% monolinguals. 86,900 in Basilan Province. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Yacan Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw Comments: Land division in families and increasing population pushes young people to seek employment in cities or other countries. Muslim.

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Yogad
[yog] Luzon, Isabela Province, Echague and nearby towns. 16,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to Ibanag [ibg] and Gaddang [gad]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Ilocano [ilo], 66% with Itawit [itv], 63% with Ibanag [ibg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic

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